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Sample records for eleven country review

  1. Planned, Motivated and Habitual Hygiene Behaviour: An Eleven Country Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Danquah, Lisa O.; Aunger, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Handwashing with soap (HWWS) may be one of the most cost-effective means of preventing infection in developing countries. However, HWWS is rare in these settings. We reviewed the results of formative research studies from 11 countries so as to understand the planned, motivated and habitual factors involved in HWWS. On average, only 17% of child…

  2. Planned, Motivated and Habitual Hygiene Behaviour: An Eleven Country Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Danquah, Lisa O.; Aunger, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Handwashing with soap (HWWS) may be one of the most cost-effective means of preventing infection in developing countries. However, HWWS is rare in these settings. We reviewed the results of formative research studies from 11 countries so as to understand the planned, motivated and habitual factors involved in HWWS. On average, only 17% of child…

  3. Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behaviour: an eleven country review

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Danquah, Lisa O.; Aunger, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Handwashing with soap (HWWS) may be one of the most cost-effective means of preventing infection in developing countries. However, HWWS is rare in these settings. We reviewed the results of formative research studies from 11 countries so as to understand the planned, motivated and habitual factors involved in HWWS. On average, only 17% of child caretakers HWWS after the toilet. Handwash ‘habits’ were generally not inculcated at an early age. Key ‘motivations’ for handwashing were disgust, nurture, comfort and affiliation. Fear of disease generally did not motivate handwashing, except transiently in the case of epidemics such as cholera. ‘Plans’ involving handwashing included to improve family health and to teach children good manners. Environmental barriers were few as soap was available in almost every household, as was water. Because much handwashing is habitual, self-report of the factors determining it is unreliable. Candidate strategies for promoting HWWS include creating social norms, highlighting disgust of dirty hands and teaching children HWWS as good manners. Dividing the factors that determine health-related behaviour into planned, motivated and habitual categories provides a simple, but comprehensive conceptual model. The habitual aspects of many health-relevant behaviours require further study. PMID:19286894

  4. Patterns of mortality in Armenian parish records from eleven countries.

    PubMed

    Armenian, H K; McCarthy, J F; Balabanian, S G

    1989-12-01

    A study of the trends and distributions of mortality in parish records of Armenian churches from 11 countries spanning over 242 years is the basis of this report. In all parishes, the relative proportion of deaths in the older age groups gradually increased over the study period. Following a review of the most important causes of death, an effort was made to identify clusters and outbreaks of specific causes of death. Thus, in the 19th century, five epidemics of cholera were identified in one parish in Kutahya, Turkey (1831, 1848, 1865, 1871, and 1893). A review of the deaths due to the 1918 influenza pandemic revealed a major peak in October-December 1918 in Cairo, and deaths due to the same cause recorded in November-December 1918 in Rangoon, Dacca, and Calcutta. As observed elsewhere in the classic pattern of this pandemic, the largest number of these deaths were in persons who were in their twenties. In September-December 1942, in Thessaloniki, Greece, 31 deaths of all age groups were ascribed to a fever that was described as "toxic." The nature of this epidemic could not be explained. The observation that large numbers of recorded deaths occurred through violence and hunger during the First and Second World Wars as a result of the atrocities to which these communities were exposed sheds further light on historical events in those years.

  5. Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries.

    PubMed

    Potter, Gary R; Barratt, Monica J; Malm, Aili; Bouchard, Martin; Blok, Thomas; Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Decorte, Tom; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Klein, Axel; Lenton, Simon; Perälä, Jussi; Werse, Bernd; Wouters, Marije

    2015-03-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; personal use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets; contacts with the criminal justice system for respondents to an online survey about cannabis cultivation drawn from eleven countries (N=6530). Important similarities and differences between the national samples recruited will be discussed. This paper utilizes data from the online web survey of predominantly 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Here we focus primarily on descriptive statistics to highlight key similarities and differences across the different national samples. Overall there was a great deal of similarity across countries in terms of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets, and; contacts with the criminal justice system. In particular, we can recognise that a clear majority of those small-scale cannabis cultivators who responded to our survey are primarily motivated for reasons other than making money from cannabis supply and have minimal involvement in drug dealing or other criminal activities. These growers generally come from 'normal' rather than 'deviant' backgrounds. Some differences do exist between the samples drawn from different countries suggesting that local factors (political, geographical, cultural, etc.) may have some influence on how small-scale cultivators operate, although differences in recruitment strategies in different countries may also account for some differences observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  7. Measurement equivalence of the CES-D 8 depression-scale among the ageing population in eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Sarah; Vandeviver, Christophe; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2014-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms.

  8. Citizens' Access to Their Digital Health Data in Eleven Countries - A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Christian; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul; Almond, Helen; Parv, Liisa; Gilstad, Heidi; Koch, Sabine; Harðardóttir, Guðrún Auður; Hyppönen, Hannele; Marcilly, Romaric; Sheik, Aziz; Day, Karen; Kushniruk, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Governments around the world are actively promoting citizens electronic access to their health data as one of a number of ways to respond to the challenges of health care delivery in the 21st century. While numerous approaches have been utilized it is evident from cross-country comparisons that there are different conceptualizations of: both the expected and desired roles for citizens in the management of their own health; the benefits that will be delivered by citizen access and how these benefits should be measured and benchmarked over-time. This paper presents comparative analyses of the methods by which citizens are provided with access to their own health data across 11 countries. The paper aims to stimulate debate on electronic citizen access to health data and the challenges of measuring benefit as well as reflection on capacity of different citizens to engage with e-health.

  9. Nursing care for stroke patients: A survey of current practice in eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2017-08-17

    To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability globally. Optimal organisation of interdisciplinary stroke care is expected to ameliorate outcome after stroke. Consequently, universal access to stroke care based on evidence-based guidelines is a priority. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start mobilization after 24 hours when patients are stable and 89% assess patients' ability to swallow. Change of position for immobile patients is followed by 73%, and post-void residual urine volume is measured by 85%. Some aspects needed improvement, for example staff education (70%), education for patients/families/carers (55%), and individual care plans in secondary prevention (62%). The participating European countries comply well with the ESS guidelines, particularly in the acute stroke care, but not all stroke units have reached optimal development in all aspects of stroke care nursing. Our study may provide clinical administrators and nurses in stroke care with information that may contribute to improved compliance with the European Stroke Strategies and evidence-based guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All

  10. New 2011 survey of patients with complex care needs in eleven countries finds that care is often poorly coordinated.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Osborn, Robin; Squires, David; Doty, Michelle; Pierson, Roz; Applebaum, Sandra

    2011-12-01

    Around the world, adults with serious illnesses or chronic conditions account for a disproportionate share of national health care spending. We surveyed patients with complex care needs in eleven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and found that in all of them, care is often poorly coordinated. However, adults seen at primary practices with attributes of a patient-centered medical home--where clinicians are accessible, know patients' medical history, and help coordinate care--gave higher ratings to the care they received and were less likely to experience coordination gaps or report medical errors. Throughout the survey, patients in Switzerland and the United Kingdom reported significantly more positive experiences than did patients in the other countries surveyed. Reported improvements in the United Kingdom tracked with recent reforms there in health care delivery. Patients in the United States reported difficulty paying medical bills and forgoing care because of costs. Our study indicates a need for improvement in all countries through redesigning primary care, developing care teams accountable across sites of care, and managing transitions and medications well. The United States in particular has opportunities to learn from diverse payment innovations and care redesign efforts under way in the other study countries.

  11. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-06-26

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys.

  12. Health care usage among immigrants and native-born elderly populations in eleven European countries: results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Montserrat; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in health care utilization of immigrants 50 years of age and older relative to the native-born populations in eleven European countries are investigated. Negative binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression are used to examine differences between immigrants and native-borns in number of doctor visits, visits to general practitioners, and hospital stays using the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe database. In the pooled European sample and in some individual countries, older immigrants use from 13 to 20% more health services than native-borns after demographic characteristics are controlled. After controlling for the need for health care, differences between immigrants and native-borns in the use of physicians, but not hospitals, are reduced by about half. These are not changed much with the incorporation of indicators of socioeconomic status and extra insurance coverage. Higher country-level relative expenditures on health, paying physicians a fee-for-service, and physician density are associated with higher usage of physician services among immigrants. PMID:21660564

  13. Health care usage among immigrants and native-born elderly populations in eleven European countries: results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Solé-Auró, Aïda; Guillén, Montserrat; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-12-01

    Differences in health care utilization of immigrants 50 years of age and older relative to the native-born populations in eleven European countries are investigated. Negative binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression are used to examine differences between immigrants and native-borns in number of doctor visits, visits to general practitioners, and hospital stays using the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe database. In the pooled European sample and in some individual countries, older immigrants use from 13 to 20% more health services than native-borns after demographic characteristics are controlled. After controlling for the need for health care, differences between immigrants and native-borns in the use of physicians, but not hospitals, are reduced by about half. These are not changed much with the incorporation of indicators of socioeconomic status and extra insurance coverage. Higher country-level relative expenditures on health, paying physicians a fee-for-service, and physician density are associated with higher usage of physician services among immigrants.

  14. Summary of an eleven-country study of socio-legal measures to combat drug abuse and related crime.

    PubMed

    Asuni, T; Bruno, F

    1984-01-01

    In a comparative study of a group of experimental and control subjects in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Japan, Jordan, Italy, Malaysia, Singapore and the United States of America (State of New York), and of the results of independent studies conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a rather close association was found to exist between drug abuse, criminal behaviour and social attitudes to such problems. Both drug abuse and the socio-legal systems varied greatly in the countries involved. No correlation was found between the level of foreseen or actual harshness of the socio-legal system and the level of seriousness of drug abuse and its associated criminality, but there was a significant correlation between knowledge of the law and the efficacy of the socio-legal system. In each country informal control systems, such as the family, church, school, neighbourhood and work environment, were active. Approximately one half of the subjects that were interviewed from countries with the most punitive socio-legal systems perceived informal controls as harsh and punitive while in the other countries such controls were generally perceived as positive. The study encouraged the review, testing and implementation of alternative measures to penal sanctions, particularly with a view to creating a genuine therapeutic approach to correcting the deviant behaviour of drug abusers.

  15. Methodology for the development of normative data for ten Spanish-language neuropsychological tests in eleven Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of neuropsychology, there is a significant lack of normative data for individuals in Latin America. To describe the methodology utilized to obtain the data and create norms for 10 Spanish-language neuropsychological tests administered in 11 Latin-American countries in a sample of 3,977 healthy individuals between the ages 18 and 90. The same data manipulation process was applied to the data collected (regardless of the scale or country) using a regression-based procedure that takes into account sex, age, and educational influences on neuropsychological test scores. Following this procedure, we were able to generate age, education, and sex (if relevant) based norms for each test in each of the 11 countries studied. These norms are presented in the 10 articles that comprise this special issue.

  16. Patterns of clinical mentorship in undergraduate nurse education: A comparative case analysis of eleven EU and non-EU countries.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolska, Beata; McGonagle, Ian; Kane, Roslyn; Jackson, Christine S; Kegl, Barbara; Bergin, Michael; Cabrera, Esther; Cooney-Miner, Dianne; Di Cara, Veronika; Dimoski, Zvonko; Kekus, Divna; Pajnkihar, Majda; Prlić, Nada; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Wells, John; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the number of studies available in the field and policy documents developed both at the national and the international levels, there is no reliable data available regarding the variation of roles occupied by clinical mentors (CMs) across countries. To describe and compare the CM's role; responsibilities; qualifications; employment requirements and experience in undergraduate nurse education as enacted in 11 European Union (EU) and non- EU countries. A case study design. A panel of expert nurse educators from 11 countries within and outside of the EU (Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and the USA). A questionnaire containing both quantitative and qualitative questions was developed and agreed by the panel using a Nominal Group Technique (NGT); four cycles of data collection and analysis were conducted involving key experts in nursing education in each country. In all countries, there are at least two types of clinical mentorship dedicated to undergraduate nursing students: the first is offered by higher education institutions, and the second is offered by health care providers. Variation was noted in terms of profile, responsibilities and professional requirements to act as a CM; however, the CM role is mainly carried out by registered nurses, and in most countries there are no special requirements in terms of education and experience. Those who act as CMs at the bedside continue to manage their usual caseload, thus the role adds to their work burden. Whilst it is imperative to have respect for the different national traditions in undergraduate nurse education, the globalisation of the nursing workforce and greater opportunities for student mobility during the course of their undergraduate education suggests that in areas such as clinical mentorship, jurisdictions, particularly within the EU, should work towards greater system harmonisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of perchlorate in indoor dust from the United States and eleven other countries: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yanjian; Wu, Qian; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Minh, Tu Binh; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-02-01

    Perchlorate is a widespread environmental contaminant and potent thyroid hormone disrupting compound. Despite this, very little is known with regard to the occurrence of this compound in indoor dust and the exposure of humans to perchlorate through dust ingestion. In this study, 366 indoor dust samples were collected from 12 countries, the USA, Colombia, Greece, Romania, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, India, Vietnam, and China, during 2010-2014. Dust samples were extracted by 1% (v/v) methylamine in water. Analyte separation was achieved by an ion exchange (AS-21) column and analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The overall concentrations of perchlorate in dust were in the range of 0.02-104μg/g (geometric mean: 0.41μg/g). The indoor dust samples from China contained the highest concentrations (geometric mean: 5.38μg/g). No remarkable differences in perchlorate concentrations in dust were found among various microenvironments (i.e., car, home, office, and laboratory). The estimated median daily intake (EDI) of perchlorate for toddlers through dust ingestion in the USA, Colombia, Greece, Romania, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, India, Vietnam, and China was 1.89, 0.37, 1.71, 0.74, 4.90, 7.20, 0.60, 0.80, 1.55, 0.70, 2.15, and 21.3ng/kgbodyweight (bw)/day, respectively. Although high concentrations of perchlorate were measured in some dust samples, the contribution of dust to total perchlorate intake was <5% of the total perchlorate intake in humans. This is the first multinational survey on the occurrence of perchlorate in indoor dust. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substantial variation in qPCR measured mean blood telomere lengths in young men from eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Dan T A; Salpea, Klelia D; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Humphries, Steve E

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences found at the ends of chromosomes, shorten with age in proliferating human tissues and are implicated in senescence. Previous studies suggest that shorter telomeres impair immune and cardiovascular function and result in increased mortality. Although few, prior studies have documented ethnic/population differences in human telomere lengths. The nature and cause(s) of these population differences remain poorly understood. Here, we extend the work of Salpea et al. (2008) by reporting variation in mean blood telomere lengths (BTL) from 765 individuals from 14 study centers across 11 European countries. Subjects are male students (ages 18–28), half of whom had fathers with myocardial infarction before 55 and the remainder age-matched controls. Controlling for age and case–control status, telomere lengths averaged 10.20 kilobases (interpolated from qPCR measures) across study centers and ranged from 5.10 kilobases in Naples, Italy to 18.64 kilobases in Ghent, Belgium--a greater than threefold difference across populations. These population level differences in BTLs were neither explained by national level measures of population genetic structure nor by national level ecological analysis of indices of infection/economic status. These findings suggest considerable population variation in BTL in Europe that is not obviously a result of broad measures of population structure or infection/economic exposure measured in early life or in adulthood.Studying telomere dynamics in a wider variety of populations, and with greater attention to life-cycle dynamics, will be important to help elucidate the causes and possible consequences of human population variation in telomere length.

  19. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hong, Yet Hoi; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui

    2015-01-01

    Background Medication error (ME) is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region. Methods The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages) that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages. Results The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional. Discussion The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed. PMID:26340679

  20. Eating out is different from eating at home among individuals who occasionally eat out. A cross-sectional study among middle-aged adults from eleven European countries.

    PubMed

    Naska, Androniki; Katsoulis, Michail; Orfanos, Philippos; Lachat, Carl; Gedrich, Kurt; Rodrigues, Sara S P; Freisling, Heinz; Kolsteren, Patrick; Engeset, Dagrun; Lopes, Carla; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Wendt, Andrea; Knüppel, Sven; Turrini, Aida; Tumino, Rosario; Ocké, Marga C; Sekula, Wlodzimierz; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Key, Tim; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2015-06-28

    Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14,277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.

  1. Spinning-induced Rhabdomyolysis: Eleven Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Ko, Eun-Jung; Cho, HyeJeong; Park, Su Hyung; Lee, Sang Hwan; Cho, Nam-Gil; Lee, So-Young; Jeong, Hye Yun; Yang, Dong Ho

    2015-12-01

    Non-traumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (exRML) occurs in individuals with normal muscles when the energy supplied to the muscle is insufficient. Here, we report 11 cases of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis and review related literature. Spinning is a kind of indoor bicycle sport. The 11 patients who were diagnosed with exRML and admitted to CHA Bundang Medical Center were female and their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years. Two to three days prior to the presentation, the patients had attended a spinning class for the first time. All the patients had been otherwise healthy without any known medical illnesses. They were successfully treated without any complications, except mild non-symptomatic hypocalcemia. However, in the literature, severe complications such as compartment syndrome or acute kidney injury had been reported in relation to exRML including spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis. This spinning exercise needs prior guidelines and specific warnings to prevent exertional rhabdomyolysis.

  2. Spinning-induced Rhabdomyolysis: Eleven Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daejin; Ko, Eun-Jung; Cho, HyeJeong; Park, Su Hyung; Lee, Sang Hwan; Cho, Nam-gil; Lee, So-Young; Jeong, Hye Yun

    2015-01-01

    Non-traumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (exRML) occurs in individuals with normal muscles when the energy supplied to the muscle is insufficient. Here, we report 11 cases of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis and review related literature. Spinning is a kind of indoor bicycle sport. The 11 patients who were diagnosed with exRML and admitted to CHA Bundang Medical Center were female and their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years. Two to three days prior to the presentation, the patients had attended a spinning class for the first time. All the patients had been otherwise healthy without any known medical illnesses. They were successfully treated without any complications, except mild non-symptomatic hypocalcemia. However, in the literature, severe complications such as compartment syndrome or acute kidney injury had been reported in relation to exRML including spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis. This spinning exercise needs prior guidelines and specific warnings to prevent exertional rhabdomyolysis. PMID:26848305

  3. A review of eleven cases of tuberculosis presenting as sternal wound abscess after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tabaja, Hussam; Hajar, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S

    2017-10-01

    Sternal wound infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an uncommon yet highly challenging disease that can be quite insidious with various presentations. We hereby provide a review of 10 cases in current literature and describe an additional case which illustrates the difficulties associated with diagnosis. We used PubMed and Google search engine to search the literature for all published papers reporting on cases of sternal M. tuberculosis infections post open-heart surgeries. A total of 11 cases were presented, including a case of our own. The majority were males and were exposed to endemic areas. The average age was 59.6 ± 15.5 years. Coronary artery bypass surgery accounted for 73% of procedures and the average time to symptoms onset was 12.2 ± 16.6 months. Diabetes was the most reported non-cardiac comorbidity. Presenting symptoms varied and only 5 patients had other organs involved. Blood tests and radiographic studies were neither sensitive nor specific. M. tuberculosis culture on debrided tissues was the most sensitive test but often forgotten initially. Diagnostic delay was seen in almost all cases, often leading to unnecessary courses of antibiotics and aggressive surgical interventions. Finally, all patients responded well to anti-tuberculosis treatment, with reported treatment duration ranging from 9 to 12 months. M. tuberculosis infection of the sternum should be suspected in late-onset sternal wound infections post open-heart surgery especially when the course is chronic and indolent.

  4. Adult-onset Alexander disease: a series of eleven unrelated cases with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Fancellu, Roberto; Mariotti, Caterina; Romano, Silvia; Salmaggi, Andrea; Carella, Francesco; Girotti, Floriano; Gattellaro, Grazietta; Carriero, Maria Rita; Farina, Laura; Ceccherini, Isabella; Savoiardo, Mario

    2008-09-01

    Alexander disease (AD) in its typical form is an infantile lethal leucodystrophy, characterized pathologically by Rosenthal fibre accumulation. Following the identification of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene as the causative gene, cases of adult-onset AD (AOAD) are being described with increasing frequency. AOAD has a different clinical and neuroradiological presentation with respect to early-onset AD, as abnormalities are mainly concentrated in the brainstem-spinal cord junction. We report detailed clinical and genetic data of 11 cases of AOAD, observed over a 4-year period, and a review of the previously reported 25 cases of genetically confirmed AOAD. In our series, onset occurred as late as age 62, and up to 71 in an affected deceased relative. Most cases appeared sporadic, but family history may be misleading. The most frequent symptoms were related to bulbar dysfunction-with dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia (seven patients)-, pyramidal involvement (seven patients) and cerebellar ataxia (seven patients). Four patients had palatal myoclonus. Sleep disorders were also observed (four cases). Bulbar symptoms, however, were infrequent at onset and two symptomatic patients had an almost pure pyramidal involvement. Two subjects were asymptomatic. Misdiagnosis at presentation was frequent and MRI was instrumental in suggesting the correct diagnosis by showing, in all cases, mild to severe atrophy of the medulla oblongata extending caudally to the cervical spinal cord. In ten patients, molecular studies revealed six novel missense mutations and three previously reported changes in GFAP. The last typical patient carried no definitely pathogenic mutation, but a missense variant (p.D157N), supposedly a rare polymorphism. Revision of the literature and the present series indicate that the clinical picture is not specific, but AOAD must be considered in patients of any age with lower brainstem signs. When present, palatal myoclonus is strongly suggestive

  5. Urbanization and health in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Sophie; Kohler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Future population growth will take place predominantly in cities of the developing world. The impact of urbanization on health is discussed controversially. We review recent research on urban-rural and intra-urban health differences in developing countries and investigate whether a health advantage was found for urban areas. We systematically searched the databases JSTOR, PubMed, ScienceDirect and SSRN for studies that compare health status in urban and rural areas. The studies had to examine selected World Health Organization health indicators. Eleven studies of the association between urbanization and the selected health indicators in developing countries met our selection criteria. Urbanization was associated with a lower risk of undernutrition but a higher risk of overweight in children. A lower total fertility rate and lower odds of giving birth were found for urban areas. The association between urbanization and life expectancy was positive but insignificant. Common risk factors for chronic diseases were more prevalent in urban areas. Urban-rural differences in mortality from communicable diseases depended on the disease studied. Several health outcomes were correlated with urbanization in developing countries. Urbanization may improve some health problems developing countries face and worsen others. Therefore, urbanization itself should not be embraced as a solution to health problems but should be accompanied by an informed and reactive health policy. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  6. Understanding the socio-economic and sexual behavioural correlates of male circumcision across eleven voluntary medical male circumcision priority countries in southeastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lau, Fiona K; Jayakumar, Sylvia; Sgaier, Sema K

    2015-08-22

    Male circumcision (MC) has been demonstrated to be effective and cost-effective for HIV/AIDS prevention. Global guidance to adopt this intervention was announced in 2007 for countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence and low MC prevalence. However, scale up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in MC priority countries have been slow. Many of these countries have particular cultural barriers that impede uptake of this effective intervention. This analysis explored correlates of MC status among men and their socio-economic, health and sexual behaviour factors using DHS data (2006-2011) from 11 MC priority countries. Our analysis included univariate unadjusted analyses for individual countries and the region (by combining all countries into one dataset) and a multiple logistic regression model. Individual country results vary widely but alignment was mostly found between unadjusted analyses and multiple logistic regression model. The model found that men who are of the Muslim faith, reside in urban areas, have higher or secondary education attainment, hold professional occupations, and be in the richest wealth quintile are more likely to be circumcised. Circumcision is also positively correlated with lower reports of STIs, safe sexual behaviour, and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge. Since the data collected predate VMMC program launch in these countries, results can only indicate baseline associations. However, characteristics of these existing circumcision practices may be utilized for better population targeting and program management to achieve higher impact with this effective prevention strategy.

  7. Cognitive Effects of ThinkRx Cognitive Rehabilitation Training for Eleven Soldiers with Brain Injury: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Christina; Moore, Amy Lawson; Mitchell, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation training is a promising technique for remediating the cognitive deficits associated with brain injury. Extant research is dominated by computer-based interventions with varied results. Results from clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation are notably lacking in the literature. The current study examined the cognitive outcomes following ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation training program for soldiers recovering from traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury. In a retrospective chart review, we examined cognitive outcomes of 11 cases who had completed an average of 80 h of ThinkRx cognitive rehabilitation training delivered by clinicians and supplemented with digital training exercises. Outcome measures included scores from six cognitive skill batteries on the Woodcock Johnson - III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants achieved gains in all cognitive skills tested and achieved statistically significant changes in long-term memory, processing speed, auditory processing, and fluid reasoning with very large effect sizes. Clinically significant changes in multiple cognitive skills were also noted across cases. Results of the study suggest that ThinkRx clinician-delivered cognitive training supplemented with digital exercises may be a viable method for targeting the cognitive deficits associated with brain injury.

  8. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  9. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  10. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  11. Systematic review: Eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Ishihara, Shunji

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of Asian patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases for original studies, case series, and individual case reports of eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian countries published from January 1980 to January 2015. We found 66 and 80 articles in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, respectively; 24 duplicate articles were removed. After excluding animal studies, articles not written in English, and meeting abstracts, 25 articles containing 217 patients were selected for analysis. Sample size-weighted mean values were determined for all pooled prevalence data and clinical characteristics. The mean age of the adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis was approximately 50 years, and 73% of these patients were male. They frequently presented with allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. Bronchial asthma was the most frequent comorbid allergic disease, occurring in 24% of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Dysphagia was the primary symptom reported; 44% of the patients complained of dysphagia. Although laboratory blood tests are not adequately sensitive for an accurate diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, endoscopic examinations revealed abnormal findings typical of this disease, including longitudinal furrows and concentric rings, in 82% of the cases. One-third of the cases responded to proton pump inhibitor administration. The characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian patients were similar to those reported in Western patients, indicating that this disease displays a similar pathogenesis between Western and Asian patients.

  12. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  13. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  14. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  15. Ergonomics in industrially developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Huck-Soo, Loo; Richardson, Stanley

    2012-12-01

    The two final decades of the 20th century saw a significant increase in ergonomics activity (and resulting publications) in industrially developing countries (IDCs). However, a few ergonomics papers from Singapore, for example, were published in 1969 and 1970. This paper reviews developments in ergonomics in industrially developing countries from 1969 relying heavily on published papers although their quality varies considerably. Some criticism of these papers is offered. Most were concerned with the use of work tools, workstation operations, material handling and working environments especially in tropical climates. The similar problems encountered in a variety of countries are discussed, and the importance of low-cost solutions stressed. This study presents an overview of er gonomics research in IDCs. It concentrates on ASEAN countries whilst recognising the valuable work done in other areas.

  16. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  17. Faunistic review of the cuckoo wasps of Fennoscandia, Denmark and the Baltic countries (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae).

    PubMed

    Paukkunen, Juho; Rosa, Paolo; Soon, Villu; Johansson, Niklas; Ødegaard, Frode

    2014-09-19

    A critical and annotated review of published records of the Chrysididae of the Nordic and Baltic countries and the Russian part of Fennoscandia is presented with some taxonomic and faunistic notes. A total of 73 species are listed from the region. Additionally, 17 species are deleted. Three species are recorded for the first time from Denmark, six species from Estonia, one from Finland, eleven from Latvia, four from Norway, one from Sweden and 15 from Russian Fennoscandia. Elampus foveatus and Chrysis pulcherrima are reported for the first time from the Nordic and Baltic countries. Lectotypes are designated for Hedychrum cupreum Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845, Chrysis succincta var. chrysoprasina Trautmann, 1927, Chrysis succincta var. virideocincta Trautmann, 1927 and Chrysis succincta var. nordstromi Trautmann, 1927. Information and images of the holotypes of Hedychrum metallicum Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysis var. westerlundi Trautmann, 1927 are given. Chrysis integra Dahlbom, 1829 is found to be a new synonym of Hedychridium ardens (Coquebert, 1801) and Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971 a new synonym of Chrysis solida Haupt, 1957. Chrysis terminata Dahlbom, 1854 is reported for the first time as the valid name for C. ignita Form A sensu Linsenmaier, 1959.

  18. Anaesthesia nursing education in the Nordic countries: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yunsuk; Lahtinen, Pia; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyse post-registration anaesthesia nursing education in the Nordic countries. The analysis was based on key determinants fundamental to analysing nursing education: 1) the sys]tem of anaesthesia nursing education, 2) entry requirements, 3) credits, the duration and the title or degree awarded, and 4) the amount of practical training. A scoping review was approached in a systematic manner. The literature was analysed using deductive content analysis. Data was gathered based on key determinants. The data were quantified into frequencies and percentages to compare the similarities and differences of anaesthesia nursing. The Nordic countries have different types of post-registration anaesthesia nursing education from non-degree supplementary programmes to Master's degree programmes. Even though the entry requirements correspond between countries, many more differences than similarities in anaesthesia nursing education were noted. A title granting the right to work as a nurse anaesthetist can be obtained through a variety of educational systems, credit requirements, the duration, and the amount of practical training in post-registration anaesthesia nursing programmes. This aim of the study was to analyse post-registration anaesthesia nursing education from the Nordic perspective. Harmonising the educational system and minimum education requirements in anaesthesia nursing education is recommended in order to facilitate free movement and assure the quality of care from the Nordic perspective. Since each Nordic country has its own native language, it was difficult to gather information from all the Nordic countries. Therefore, creating common educational database published in English can help to bench mark each country's educational system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stroke in Arab countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; Grosset, Donald

    2009-09-15

    Stroke is second only to ischaemic heart disease as a cause of death, and over a third of stroke deaths occur in developing countries. Arab countries constitute populations with a similar lifestyle and diet that may influence stroke risk, type and survival after stroke, as well as other characteristics in comparison to Western and Oriental populations. Therefore, a review of published reports of stroke in Arab countries was undertaken to provide a background for designing future stroke studies in Arab populations. Thirty-one articles related to incidence, prevalence, types, risk factors and outcome of stroke in Arab countries were identified by keyword searching of Medline and Embase, and review of references in all relevant papers. Studies were available for Saudi Arabia (n=16), Qatar (n=4), Libya (n=3), Kuwait (n=2), Jordan (n=1), United Arab Emirates (n=1), Bahrain (n=1), Tunisia (n=1), Iraq (n=1), and Sudan (n=1). The publication dates ranged from 1983-2008. The annual stroke incidence ranged from 27.5 to 63 per 100,000 population and prevalence was between 42 and 68 per 100,000 population. Ischaemic stroke was the commonest subtype in all series. However, one series from Sudan had a 41% rate of intracerebral haemorrhage, which is more similar to East Asian countries. Non-lacunar infarction occurred more frequently than lacunar infarcts in all but two series. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, and cardiac disease were the commonest risk factors. The case-fatality rate at 30 days was between 10 and 17.5%. Therefore, the incidence and prevalence of stroke in Arab countries are lower than the Western world but within the range reported in Chinese populations. Stroke types and risk factors are similar, but an apparently higher rate of lacunar infarction in some settings needs further investigation. There is therefore a significant opportunity for further evaluation of stroke in Arab countries, especially in unstudied areas such as the populous

  20. Chest trauma experience over eleven-year period at al-mouassat university teaching hospital-Damascus: a retrospective review of 888 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Koudmani, Ibrahim; Darwish, Bassam; Al-Kateb, Kamal; Taifour, Yahia

    2012-04-19

    Thoracic trauma is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study, we present our 11-year experience in the management and clinical outcome of 888 chest trauma cases as a result of blunt and penetrating injuries in our university hospital in Damascus, Syria. We reviewed files of 888 consequent cases of chest trauma between January 2000 and January 2011. The mean age of our patients was 31 ± 17 years mostly males with blunt injuries. Patients were evaluated and compared according to age, gender, etiology of trauma, thoracic and extra-thoracic injuries, complications, and mortality. The leading cause of the trauma was violence (41%) followed by traffic accidents (33%). Pneumothorax (51%), Hemothorax (38%), rib fractures (34%), and lung contusion (15%) were the most common types of injury. Associated injuries were documented in 36% of patients (extremities 19%, abdomen 13%, head 8%). A minority of the patients required thoracotomy (5.7%), and tube thoracostomy (56%) was sufficient to manage the majority of cases. Mean hospital LOS was 4.5 ± 4.6 days. The overall mortoality rate was 1.8%, and morbidity (n = 78, 8.7%). New traffic laws (including seat belt enforcement) reduced incidence and severity of chest trauma in Syria. Violence was the most common cause of chest trauma rather than road traffic accidents in this series, this necessitates epidemiologic or multi-institutional studies to know to which degree violence contributes to chest trauma in Syria. The number of fractured ribs can be used as simple indicator of the severity of trauma. And we believe that significant neurotrauma, traffic accidents, hemodynamic status and GCS upon arrival, ICU admission, ventilator use, and complication of therapy are predictors of dismal prognosis.

  1. Biotechnology to improve health in developing countries -- a review.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tara; Kennedy, Robyn; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2004-06-01

    The growing health disparities between the developing and the developed world call for urgent action from the scientific community. Science and technology have in the past played a vital role in improving public health. Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other advances in the life sciences, the contribution of science to improve public health and reduce global health disparities is more pertinent than ever before. Yet the benefits of modern medicine still have not reached millions of people in developing countries. It is crucial to recognize that science and technology can be used very effectively in partnership with public health practices in developing countries and can enhance their efficacy. The fight to improve global health needs, in addition to effective public health measures, requires rapid and efficient diagnostic tools; new vaccines and drugs, efficient delivery methods and novel approaches to therapeutics; and low-cost restoration of water, soil and other natural resources. In 2002, the University of Toronto published a report on the "Top 10 Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries". Here we review these new and emerging biotechnologies and explore how they can be used to support the goals of developing countries in improving health.

  2. [Testicular Cancer Epidemiology in Developing Countries. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rico, Mauricio; López-Ramos, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common cancer in men between 15 and 44 years. It has been reported that the incidence of TC is rising. The aim of this article is to determine the epidemiology of TC in Colombia. A literature review on four databases was performed PubMed, Embase, Lilacs and Scielo. Studies of incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival of TC were taken from different countries. Studies included were published in the last 10 years. 2308 references were reviewed by title and abstract. In search of local references in non-indexed journals 5 references were extracted. In total 139 references for review in full text were selected. The global incidence and prevalence of cancer varies. In the Northern Europe region, the highest incidence is evident, mainly in Denmark, Croatia and Norway. Followed by Western Europe and South America with Chile. In Colombia the general age incidence is 2,2/100.000, finding a zero incidence in departments such as Chocó and Guajira. A rise in the incidence of TC has been seen globally, this trend mainly in developing countries. In Colombia most studies are crossectional studies. By seeing the epidemiological data from some departments and the lack of specialists in those regions, it can be deduced the existence of an underreport of the disease that reveals the need to improve both surveillance systems and information registration, such as policies to achieve early diagnosis of TC.

  3. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    PubMed

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Lightcurve Results for Eleven Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartrelle, Gordon M.

    2012-04-01

    Differential photometry techniques were used to develop lightcurves, rotation periods and amplitudes for eleven main-belt asteroids: 833 Monica, 962 Aslog, 1020 Arcadia, 1082 Pirola, 1097 Vicia, 1122 Lugduna, 1145 Robelmonte, 1253 Frisia, 1256 Normannia, 1525 Savolinna, and 2324 Janice. Ground-based observations from Badlands Observatory (BLO) in Quinn, SD, as well as the University of North Dakota Observatory (UND) in Grand Forks, ND, provided the data for the project. A search of the asteroid lightcurve database (LCDB) did not reveal any previously reported results for seven of the eleven targets in this study.

  5. Factors determining the outcome of management of patients with Burkitt's lymphoma at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria--an eleven year review.

    PubMed

    Fasola, F A; Shokunbi, W A; Falade, A G

    2002-09-01

    In recent times, our experience in the chemotherapy of Burkitt's lymphoma patients in Ibadan, Nigeria has been that of poor outcome, hence this study was undertaken to determine the factors leading to the poor results of chemotherapy of Burkitt s lymphoma in Ibadan. A retrospective analysis of Burkitt s Lymphoma patients seen over eleven year period, between January 1987 to December 1997 at the Paediatrics and Haematology Departments of the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. There were 67 patients, mean age 11+5 years (range 4 to 30 years), 42 males, 25 female giving M:F ratio of 1.7:1. Majority of the patients (76.2%) were stage D, only 4.5% were stages A and of the 67 patients, only 57 (83.6%) had chemotherapy, 40 of whom had COAP, 8 had COMP and 9 patients had either cyclophosphamide or cytosar as monotherapy. Only 22.8% of patients that received chemotherapy went into complete remission. In this study, we observed a declining overall complete remission rate of 22.8% (compared to 47% in 1979) in Burkitt s Lymphoma patients. The presence of large amount of fake drugs in the Nigerian market may imply that some of the cytotoxic drugs used in these patients could have been fake drugs. We suggest that the government should subsidize the therapy of these patients as well as eradicate the presence of fake drugs in the market, thereby increasing the chances of a cure.

  6. A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Ashley N; Croxford, Ruth; Goodman, David C; Bryan, Elisabeth L; Srivastava, Divya; Stukel, Therese A

    2014-01-01

    Major variations in medical practice have been documented internationally. Variations raise questions about the quality, equity, and efficiency of resource allocation and use, and have important implications for health care and health policy. To perform a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on medical practice variations in OECD countries. We searched MEDLINE to find publications on medical practice variations in OECD countries published between 2000 and 2011. We present an overview of the characteristics of published studies as well as the magnitude of variations for select high impact conditions. A total of 836 studies were included. Consistent with the gray literature, there were large variations across regions, hospitals and physician practices for almost every condition and procedure studied. Many studies focused on high-impact conditions, but very few looked at the causes or outcomes of medical practice variations. While there were an overwhelming number of publications on medical practice variations the coverage was broad and not often based on a theoretical construct. Future studies should focus on conditions and procedures that are clinically important, policy relevant, resource intensive, and have high levels of public awareness. Further study of the causes and consequences of variations is important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  8. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  9. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Piette, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines: 1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries; and 2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the United States to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of U.S.-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include: 1) deployment of community health workers (“promotoras”) for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs; 2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions; 3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery; 4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications; and 5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  10. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  11. The Sirens of Eleven Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramond, Pierre

    While most theorists are tied to the mast of four dimensions, some have found it irresistible to speculate about eleven dimensions, the domain of M-theory. We outline a program which starts from the light-cone description of supergravity, and tracks its divergences to suggest the existence of an infinite component theory which in the lightcone relies on the coset F4/SO(9), long known to be linked to the Exceptional Jordan Algebra

  12. [Skin necrosis: report of eleven cases].

    PubMed

    Molgó, Montserrat N; Arriagada, Camila E; Salomone, Claudia B; Vera, Cristián K; Giesen, Laura F; Solar, Antonieta G; González, Sergio B

    2014-01-01

    Skin necrosis must be considered as a syndrome, because it is a clinical manifestation of different diseases. An early diagnosis is very important to choose the appropriate treatment. Therefore, its causes should be suspected and confirmed quickly. We report eleven patients with skin necrosis seen at our Department, caused by different etiologies: Warfarin-induced skin necrosis, loxoscelism, diabetic microangiopathy, ecthyma gangrenosum, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotizing vasculitis, paraneoplastic extensive necrotizing vasculitis, livedoid vasculopathy, necrotizing fasciitis, necrosis secondary to the use of vasoactive drugs and necrosis secondary to the use of cocaine. We also report the results of our literature review on the subject.

  13. MRI-imaging and clinical findings of eleven children with tick-borne encephalitis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, C; Winkler, P; Koch, J; Zeches-Kansy, C; Schöttler-Glas, A; Wolf, G; Niller, H H; Staudt, M; Kluger, G; Rostasy, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is increasing in many countries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the course of TBE is not regularly performed in children. The aim of our study was evaluating MRI-findings of children and adolescents with TBE. Retrospective evaluation of the charts and MRIs of patients who had been treated for TBE in the four participating hospitals in the last twenty years. 11 patients (5 male; age at TBE 3 weeks-15 9/12 years; mean 104.9 months) were included. MRI (within the first week after admission) revealed symmetric or asymmetric T2-hyperintensities in both thalami in 7/11 patients with additional bilateral lesions in putamen and/or caudate nucleus in 3 patients, and additional cortical lesions in 2 patients. Our youngest patient presented with T2-hyperintensities affecting the whole left cerebral hemisphere including white and grey matter and both cerebellar hemispheres. One patient had a minimal reversible T2-hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (RHSCC). 3/11 patients had a normal MRI. 4/11 patients showed complete neurological recovery (2/4 with a normal MRI, RHSCC patient). 6/11 children survived with significant sequelae: hemiparesis (n = 4); cognitive deficits (n = 4); pharmacoresistant epilepsy (n = 2). One patient died of a malignant brain edema. A spectrum of MRI findings can be found in children with TBE, often showing involvement of the subcortical deep grey matter structures. In children presenting with a meningoencephalitis and bilateral thalamic involvement TBE should be included in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Wiegers, Therese A; Manniën, Judith; Francke, Anneke L; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2013-03-27

    Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women's Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen's healthcare utilization model. Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women's utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors.Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women's native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

  15. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at

  16. Rheumatology Workforce Planning in Western Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Christian; Lackner, Angelika; Buttgereit, Frank; Matteson, Eric L; Narath, Markus; Sprenger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To compare health care planning models forecasting rheumatology workforce requirements in western countries. A systematic literature review was conducted through medical databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library) and the grey literature. All articles reporting a rheumatology workforce model were included. The search yielded 6,508 articles, and 14 publications (on 12 studies) were included. Workforce models were available for the US (n = 3), Canada (n = 3), the US plus Canada (n = 1), Germany (n = 2), Spain (n = 1), and the UK (n = 2). The number of rheumatologists required to serve a population of 100,000 people was calculated, with a range of 0.7 (UK, calculated for 1988) to 3.5 (Spain, calculated for 2021). Most models used a needs-based approach (n = 6); 3 studies each applied a supply- or demand-based method. The following variables were considered by ≥1 model: disease prevalence, patients' referral to rheumatologists, clinical visits/patient/year, population development, factors influencing performance of rheumatologists, patient flow/care sharing, and medical technologies/infrastructure development. Heterogeneity in methods used, the period or calendar years for which the estimates were projected, and heterogeneity of variables evaluated led to disparate estimates, with results ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 rheumatologists per 100,000 population. An international initiative is needed to agree upon a common approach for a reliable estimation of manpower requirements in rheumatology. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Saudi Arabia and Gulf Countries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Here we aimed to examine the main epidemiological aspects and diagnostic challenges associated with NTM in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and compare these findings to the international arena findings. Data revealed that countries of the GCC are largely dominated by rapidly growing mycobacteria species such as M. fortuitum (29%) and M. abscessus (17%) with high rate of definitive respiratory diseases. On the other hand, most of the developed countries are dominated by slowly growing mycobacteria such as MAC, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. More efforts are needed, however, to gain insights into NTM issues in countries of the GCC. PMID:28348502

  18. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  19. Barriers to the Uptake of Eye Care Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Khadija Nowaira; Al-Sharqi, Omar Zayan; Abdullah, Muhammad Tanweer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research identifies effective and ineffective interventions for reducing barriers to the uptake of eye care services in developing countries. Design: Systematic literature review. Setting: Only research studies done in developing countries were included. Method: The review is restricted to English-language articles published…

  20. Hantavirus in Indian Country: The First Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Hantavirus, caused due to close contact with mice in a dwelling, first emerged in the spring of 1993 on the Navajo Reservation and although it is by no means an Indian disease, there are four times as many cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among non-Indians. Inadequate rural housing, especially common in western Indian Country,…

  1. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Finland. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This country note analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Finland. Section 2 describes the political, economic, and social context in which adult learning fits. Sections 3-6 follow these four themes impinging on adult participation in learning: inadequate incentives and motivations; complex pathways between learning…

  2. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Norway: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Norway's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: splitting educational/vocational guidance from personal…

  3. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  4. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Denmark: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Denmark's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. The review team met with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analyzed data from a national questionnaire, and reviewed pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: coordinating mechanisms; the role of Denmark's National…

  5. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Min; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  6. Improving mental health among people living with HIV: a review of intervention trials in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Dennis, Alexis C.; Watt, Melissa. H.; Choi, Karmel W.; Yemeke, Tatenda T.; Joska, John A.

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) experience greater psychological distress than the general population. Evidence from high-incomes countries suggests that psychological interventions for PLWH can improve mental health symptoms, quality of life, and HIV care engagement. However, little is known about the effectiveness of mental health interventions for PLWH in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the large majority of PLWH reside. This systematized review aims to synthesize findings from mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs to inform the delivery of mental health services in these settings. A systematic search strategy was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed published papers of intervention trials addressing negative psychological states or disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) among PLWH in LMIC settings. Search results were assessed against pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from papers meeting criteria were extracted for synthesis. Twenty-six papers, published between 2000 and 2014, describing 22 unique interventions were identified. Trials were implemented in sub-Saharan Africa (n=13), Asia (n=7), and the Middle East (n=2), and addressed mental health using a variety of approaches, including cognitive-behavioral (n=18), family-level (n=2), and pharmacological (n=2) treatments. Four randomized controlled trials reported significant intervention effects in mental health outcomes, and eleven preliminary studies demonstrated promising findings. Among the limited mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs, few demonstrated efficacy. Mental health interventions for PLWH in LMICs must be further developed and adapted for resource-limited settings to improve effectiveness. PMID:26435843

  7. Review of environmental-health impacts in developing-country cities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.; Stephens, C.; Harpham, T.; Cairncross, S.

    1992-01-01

    The World Bank is currently assessing the relative health impacts of physical environmental problems in urban areas of developing countries in order better to guide its urban policy and investment decisions. As a contribution, this report reviews and summarizes available literature on health in the urban areas of developing countries. It discusses associations between health and problems of the material environment. The objectives of the report are: to produce a classification of environmental variables relevant to urban health in developing countries; to propose an analytical framework for relating environmental variables to health; to review intra-urban differentials in mortality, morbidity and causes of death in developing countries, with particular reference to vulnerable groups; to review literature that attempts to link causally urban environmental conditions to health in developing countries; and to propose future related research. (Copyright (c) 1992 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK.)

  8. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Mistry, S K; Puthussery, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. A systematically conducted narrative review. A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in

  9. Ethics review in a developing country: a survey of South African social scientists' experiences.

    PubMed

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    We report the findings of a preliminary study of social science researchers' experiences of ethics review from a developing country perspective. Social science researchers' experiences of ethics review were coded as negative (42.6%), positive (21.3%), or mixed (36.2%). Ethics review was primarily experienced as negative for pragmatic reasons such as slow turnaround time, inadequate review and problems with the centralization of review. Our finding that South African researchers experience the same problems and frustrations with RECs as developed country researchers affirms that South Africa's problems with ethics review are not due to it being a less developed system, but to general review practices as they arise naturally in institutions. Developing countries thus have a unique opportunity to learn from the reported dissatisfactions and mistakes of developed countries, to avoid procedures that have hindered ethics review of much social science research in developed countries, and to fashion their own review procedures in ways that are more appropriate to key ethical issues arising in social science research and local conditions and resources.

  10. Privatization of veterinary services in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Chander, M

    2003-06-01

    Increasing fiscal constraints on the government, a lackadaisical performance by public sector animal health and breeding services and pressure from donor partners have prompted the governments of various developing countries to rethink the role of the public sector in the provision of veterinary services. Various countries have started to implement, or have already implemented, privatization of some veterinary services. The results are mixed. It is established that private provision alone is not optimal, and a blend of private and public sector veterinary services is required to utilize the virtues of both. The privatization process has also begun in India. Certain state governments in India are pursuing a cost recovery approach and are encouraging private practitioners to cope with the financial constraints and to deliver broad and effective animal health and breeding services. This paper considers the global aspects of the privatization of veterinary services as well as the scenario in India, so as to gain an insight into the very complex and debatable issue of privatization of veterinary services.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  12. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3)...

  13. "The Country and the City" by Raymond Williams. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry D.; Howley, Craig B.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews essays by Raymond Williams, which explain how, within the context of a 150-year literary history, rural stereotypes have been constructed and imbedded within a collective consciousness by a form of cultural colonization. Suggests that Williams' insights can help rural education researchers think outside the conventional wisdom that…

  14. "The Country and the City" by Raymond Williams. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry D.; Howley, Craig B.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews essays by Raymond Williams, which explain how, within the context of a 150-year literary history, rural stereotypes have been constructed and imbedded within a collective consciousness by a form of cultural colonization. Suggests that Williams' insights can help rural education researchers think outside the conventional wisdom that…

  15. Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Canada. Country Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document analyzes main issues concerning adult learning and policy responses in Canada. Section 1 introduces a background report (available separately), discussions with stakeholders, and site visits. Section 2 addresses the general context of adult education (AE). Sections 3-6 cover four themes that structure the Thematic Review of Adult…

  16. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Netherlands: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The Netherlands' career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: markets and the role of…

  17. Measures of patient safety in developing and emerging countries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K B; Duevel, M A; Lee, P W; Wu, A W; Bates, D W; Runciman, W B; Baker, G R; Larizgoitia, I; Weeks, W B

    2010-02-01

    The World Alliance for Patient Safety was formed to accelerate worldwide research progress towards measurably improving patient safety. Although rates of adverse events have been studied in industrialised countries, little is known about the rates of adverse events in developing and emerging countries. To review the literature on patient safety issues in developing and emerging countries, to identify patient safety measures presently used in these countries and to propose a method of measurably improving patient safety measurement in these countries. Using the Medline database for 1998 to 2007, we identified and reviewed 23 English-language articles that examined patient safety measurement in developing and emerging countries. Results Our review included 12 studies that prospectively measured patient safety and 11 studies that retrospectively measured safety. Two studies used measures of structure and the remaining used process measures, outcome measures or both. Whereas a few studies used surveys or direct observation, most studies used chart audits to measure patient safety. Most studies addressed safety at a single facility. Investigation of patient safety in developing and emerging countries has been infrequent and limited in scope. Establishing fundamental safe patient practices, integrating those processes into routine health services delivery and developing patients' expectations that such processes be present are necessary prerequisites to measuring and monitoring progress towards safe patient care in emerging and developing countries.

  18. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    PubMed

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  19. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lydia A.; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted…

  20. Are there any superstrings in eleven dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T.

    1988-02-01

    Covariant actions are proposed for classical superstrings immersed in eleven space-time dimensions by construction of simple Chern-Simons terms. Local world-sheet variables are used which are space-time vectors, Majorana spinors, and antisymmetric tensors.

  1. Complicated sinusitis in a developing country, a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Kurt Denton; Naidoo, Shamlan Krishna

    2013-07-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the incidence rate, mode of presentation, treatment and outcome measures associated with complicated sinusitis in our developing world setting. Additionally we had hope to identify possible patterns or predisposing factors that may assist us in decreasing the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this serious disease. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients treated for complicated sinusitis at 3 referral hospitals in Durban South Africa between January 2006 and September 2009. A total of 220 patients were identified including 138 patients with orbital complications only and 82 with intracranial complications with or without orbital manifestations. We report on the demographics, mode of presentation, microbiology, impact on resources, management and mortality of the study group. The incidence rate was found to be 5.83 per million, the most common risk factors associated with intracranial complications, a persistent headache beyond 1 week and referral from a rural rather than urban area (OR 3.24). We found a high mortality rate of 20.7% in those patients with intracranial complications of their sinusitis. Complicated sinusitis is still far too common in the developing world with young adolescent males most at risk. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in detecting orbital as well as intracranial extension of disease and appropriate referral for investigation and management swift and aggressive in preventing extensive morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How is intensive care reimbursed? A review of eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reimbursement schemes in intensive care are more complex than in other areas of healthcare, due to special procedures and high care needs. Knowledge regarding the principles of functioning in other countries can lead to increased understanding and awareness of potential for improvement. This can be achieved through mutual exchange of solutions found in other countries. In this review, experts from eight European countries explain their respective intensive care unit reimbursement schemes. Important conclusions include the apparent differences in the countries’ reimbursement schemes-despite all of them originating from a DRG system-, the high degree of complexity found, and the difficulties faced in several countries when collecting the data for this collaborative work. This review has been designed to assist the intensivist clinician and researcher in understanding neighbouring countries’ approaches and in putting research into the context of a European perspective. In addition, steering committees and decision makers might find this a valuable source to compare different reimbursement schemes. PMID:24216146

  3. A Copmarative Review of Electronic Prescription Systems: Lessons Learned from Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Garavand, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This review study aimed to compare the electronic prescription systems in five selected countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden, England, and the United States). Compared developed countries were selected by the identified selection process from the countries that have electronic prescription systems. Required data were collected by searching the valid databases, most widely used search engines, and visiting websites related to the national electronic prescription system of each country and also sending E-mails to the related organizations using specifically designed data collection forms. The findings showed that the electronic prescription system was used at the national, state, local, and area levels in the studied countries and covered the whole prescription process or part of it. There were capabilities of creating electronic prescription, decision support, electronically transmitting prescriptions from prescriber systems to the pharmacies, retrieving the electronic prescription at the pharmacy, electronic refilling prescriptions in all studied countries. The patient, prescriber, and dispenser were main human actors, as well as the prescribing and dispensing providers were main system actors of the Electronic Prescription Service. The selected countries have accurate, regular, and systematic plans to use electronic prescription system, and health ministry of these countries was responsible for coordinating and leading the electronic health. It is suggested to use experiences and programs of the leading countries to design and develop the electronic prescription systems. PMID:28331859

  4. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  5. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fesenfeld, Michaela; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2013-08-20

    The World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income countries and many middle income countries lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited.

  6. Perspectives of physicians practicing in low and middle income countries towards generic medicines: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-09-01

    This review was conducted to document published literature related to physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of generic medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and to compare the findings with high-income countries. A systematic search of articles published in peer-reviewed journals from January 2001 to February 2013 was performed. The search comprised nine electronic databases. The search strategy involved using Boolean operators for combinations of the following terms: generic medicines, generic medications, generic drugs, generic, generic substitution, generic prescribing, international non-proprietary, prescribers, doctors, general practitioners, physicians, and specialists. Sixteen articles were included in this review. The majority (n=11) were from high income countries and five from LMICs. The main difference between high income countries and LMICs is that physicians from high income countries generally have positive views whereas those from LMICs tend to have mixed views regarding generic medicines. Few similarities were identified among different country income groups namely low level of physicians' knowledge of the basis of bioequivalence testing, cost of generic medicines as an encouraging factor for generic medicine prescribing, physicians' concerns towards safety and quality of generic medicines and effect of pharmaceutical sales representative on generic medicine prescribing. The present literature review revealed that physicians from LMICs tend to have mixed views regarding generic medicines. This may be due to differences in the health care system and pharmaceutical funding system, medicine policies, the level of educational interventions, and drug information sources in countries of different income levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth

    2015-04-26

    Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for

  8. The impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in high-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Manish; Greenaway, Christina; Noori, Teymur; Munoz, Jose; Zenner, Dominik

    2016-03-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity and mortality in high-income countries with foreign-born individuals bearing a disproportionate burden of the overall TB case burden in these countries. In this review of tuberculosis and migration we discuss the impact of migration on the epidemiology of TB in low burden countries, describe the various screening strategies to address this issue, review the yield and cost-effectiveness of these programs and describe the gaps in knowledge as well as possible future solutions.The reasons for the TB burden in the migrant population are likely to be the reactivation of remotely-acquired latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) following migration from low/intermediate-income high TB burden settings to high-income, low TB burden countries.TB control in high-income countries has historically focused on the early identification and treatment of active TB with accompanying contact-tracing. In the face of the TB case-load in migrant populations, however, there is ongoing discussion about how best to identify TB in migrant populations. In general, countries have generally focused on two methods: identification of active TB (either at/post-arrival or increasingly pre-arrival in countries of origin) and secondly, conditionally supported by WHO guidance, through identifying LTBI in migrants from high TB burden countries. Although health-economic analyses have shown that TB control in high income settings would benefit from providing targeted LTBI screening and treatment to certain migrants from high TB burden countries, implementation issues and barriers such as sub-optimal treatment completion will need to be addressed to ensure program efficacy.

  9. Childhood disability and socio-economic circumstances in low and middle income countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of children with disability live in low and middle income (LAMI) countries. Although a number of important reviews of childhood disability in LAMI countries have been published, these have not, to our knowledge, addressed the association between childhood disability and the home socio-economic circumstances (SEC). The objective of this study is to establish the current state of knowledge on the SECs of children with disability and their households in LAMI countries through a systematic review and quality assessment of existing research. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE; EMBASE; PUBMED; Web of Knowledge; PsycInfo; ASSIA; Virtual Health Library; POPLINE; Google scholar) were searched using terms specific to childhood disability and SECs in LAMI countries. Publications from organisations including the World Bank, UNICEF, International Monetary Fund were searched for. Primary studies and reviews from 1990 onwards were included. Studies were assessed for inclusion, categorisation and quality by 2 researchers. Results 24 primary studies and 13 reviews were identified. Evidence from the available literature on the association between childhood disability and SECs was inconsistent and inconclusive. Potential mechanisms by which poverty and low household SEC may be both a cause and consequence of disability are outlined in the reviews and the qualitative studies. The association of poor SECs with learning disability and behaviour problems was the most consistent finding and these studies had low/medium risk of bias. Where overall disability was the outcome of interest, findings were divergent and many studies had a high/medium risk of bias. Qualitative studies were methodologically weak. Conclusions This review indicates that, despite socially and biologically plausible mechanisms underlying the association of low household SEC with childhood disability in LAMI countries, the empirical evidence from quantitative studies is inconsistent and

  10. Childhood disability and socio-economic circumstances in low and middle income countries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Simkiss, Douglas E; Blackburn, Clare M; Mukoro, Felix O; Read, Janet M; Spencer, Nicholas J

    2011-12-21

    The majority of children with disability live in low and middle income (LAMI) countries. Although a number of important reviews of childhood disability in LAMI countries have been published, these have not, to our knowledge, addressed the association between childhood disability and the home socio-economic circumstances (SEC). The objective of this study is to establish the current state of knowledge on the SECs of children with disability and their households in LAMI countries through a systematic review and quality assessment of existing research. Electronic databases (MEDLINE; EMBASE; PUBMED; Web of Knowledge; PsycInfo; ASSIA; Virtual Health Library; POPLINE; Google scholar) were searched using terms specific to childhood disability and SECs in LAMI countries. Publications from organisations including the World Bank, UNICEF, International Monetary Fund were searched for. Primary studies and reviews from 1990 onwards were included. Studies were assessed for inclusion, categorisation and quality by 2 researchers. 24 primary studies and 13 reviews were identified. Evidence from the available literature on the association between childhood disability and SECs was inconsistent and inconclusive. Potential mechanisms by which poverty and low household SEC may be both a cause and consequence of disability are outlined in the reviews and the qualitative studies. The association of poor SECs with learning disability and behaviour problems was the most consistent finding and these studies had low/medium risk of bias. Where overall disability was the outcome of interest, findings were divergent and many studies had a high/medium risk of bias. Qualitative studies were methodologically weak. This review indicates that, despite socially and biologically plausible mechanisms underlying the association of low household SEC with childhood disability in LAMI countries, the empirical evidence from quantitative studies is inconsistent and contradictory. There is evidence for a

  11. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in prisons located in former Soviet countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review was performed to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in prisons located in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union. Methods A systematic search of published studies reporting MDR TB occurrence in prisons located in former Soviet countries was conducted by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index Nursing and Allied Health Literature for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria. Results Seventeen studies were identified for systematic review. Studies were conducted in six different countries. Overall, prevalence of MDR TB among prisoners varied greatly between studies. Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR TB in prisons of Post-Soviet states with percentages as high as 16 times more than the worldwide prevalence estimated by the WHO in 2014. Conclusion All studies suggested a high prevalence of MDR TB in prison populations in Post-Soviet states. PMID:28334036

  12. A comprehensive review of the epidemiology and disease burden of Influenza B in 9 European countries.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, Monica; Buijssen, Marleen; Geets, Régine; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije

    2016-04-02

    This review was undertaken to consolidate information on the epidemiology and burden of influenza B, as well as the circulation patterns of influenza B lineage in 9 European countries. Following a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature sources, we found that published data on influenza B epidemiology and burden are scarce. Surveillance data show frequent co-circulation of both influenza B lineages during influenza seasons, but little is known about its impact, especially in adults and the clinical burden of influenza B remains unknown. Mismatch between the circulating influenza B lineage and vaccine recommendations has been seen in at least one influenza season in every country. Such observations could impact the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs using trivalent vaccines, which contain only one influenza B lineage (B/Yamagata or B/Victoria) and highlight the need for local studies to better understand the epidemiology and burden of influenza B in these countries.

  13. International Quality Review and Distance Learning: Lessons from Five Countries. CHEA Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin; Woodfield, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on the quality review of distance learning in a sample of five countries. The report was commissioned by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation's (CHEA's) International Commission in order to understand better the nature of existing regulatory arrangements in the context of growth in electronically supported learning and…

  14. Access to Education in Bangladesh: Country Analytic Review of Primary and Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor; Ahmed, Kazi Saleh; Khan, Nurul Islam; Ahmed, Romij

    2007-01-01

    This country analytical review examines the key issues in access to and participation in primary and secondary education in Bangladesh, with a special focus on areas and dimensions of exclusion. Against a background of overall progress, particularly in closing the gender gap in primary and secondary enrollment, the research applies a conceptual…

  15. Wellbeing Research in Developing Countries: Reviewing the Role of Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura; Crivello, Gina; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the contribution of qualitative methods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…

  16. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  17. Quality Review in Distance Learning: Policy and Practice in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin; Woodfield, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to knowledge sharing in the field of distance learning. It presents and discusses the findings of a study on the quality review of distance learning in a sample of five countries. The study was commissioned by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation's (CHEA) International Commission in order to understand better…

  18. Quality Review in Distance Learning: Policy and Practice in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin; Woodfield, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to knowledge sharing in the field of distance learning. It presents and discusses the findings of a study on the quality review of distance learning in a sample of five countries. The study was commissioned by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation's (CHEA) International Commission in order to understand better…

  19. Wellbeing Research in Developing Countries: Reviewing the Role of Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura; Crivello, Gina; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the contribution of qualitative methods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…

  20. A cross country review of the validation and/or adjustment of census data.

    PubMed

    Newell, Rebecca; Smallwood, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews existing procedures employed by various countries in the evaluation of, and/or adjustment, either of census data, or of population estimates based upon census data. The work was carried out to ensure all potential demographic techniques are considered by the ONS for the post census evaluation process of the 2011 Census.

  1. Health state valuation in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A; Johnson, Newell W; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Cost-utility analysis is widely used in high-income countries to inform decisions on efficient health care resource allocation. Cost-utility analysis uses the quality-adjusted life-year as the outcome measure of health. High-income countries have undertaken health state valuation (HSV) studies to determine country-specific utility weights to facilitate valuation of health-related quality of life. Despite an evident need, however, the extent of HSVs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is unclear. The literature was searched systematically by using four databases and additional Web searches to identify HSV studies carried out in LMICs. The Preferred Reporting System for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) strategy was followed to ensure systematic selection of the articles. The review identified 17 HSV studies from LMICs. Twelve studies were undertaken in upper middle-income countries, while lower middle- and low-income countries contributed three and two studies, respectively. There were 7 generic HSV and 10 disease-specific HSV studies. The seven generic HSVs included five EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire, one six-dimensional health state short form (derived from short-form 36 health survey), and one Assessment of Quality of Life valuations. Time trade-off was the predominant valuation method used across all studies. This review found that health state valuations from LMICs are uncommon and utility weights are generally unavailable for these countries to carry out health economic evaluation. More HSV studies need to be undertaken in LMICs to facilitate efficient resource allocation in their respective health systems. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  3. Status of patient safety culture in Arab countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Almashrafi, Ahmed; Banarsee, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the status of patient safety culture in Arab countries based on the findings of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC). Design Systematic review. Methods We performed electronic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest and PsychINFO, Google Scholar and PubMed databases, with manual searches of bibliographies of included articles and key journals. We included studies that were conducted in the Arab countries that were focused on patient safety culture. 2 reviewers independently verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria and critically assessed the quality of the studies. Results 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. The review identified that non-punitive response to error is seen as a serious issue which needs to be improved. Healthcare professionals in the Arab countries tend to think that a ‘culture of blame’ still exists that prevents them from reporting incidents. We found an overall similarity between the reported composite score for dimension of teamwork within units in all of the reviewed studies. Teamwork within units was found to be better than teamwork across hospital units. All of the reviewed studies reported that organisational learning and continuous improvement was satisfactory as the average score of this dimension for all studies was 73.2%. Moreover, the review found that communication openness seems to be a concerning issue for healthcare professionals in the Arab countries. Conclusions There is a need to promote patient safety culture as a strategy for improving the patient safety in the Arab world. Improving patient safety culture should include all stakeholders, like policymakers, healthcare providers and those responsible for medical education. This review was limited only to English language publications. The varied settings in which the HSPSC was used may have influenced the areas of strengths and weaknesses as healthcare workers' perception of safety culture may differ. PMID

  4. Umbilical cord-care practices in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Patricia S; Brown, Siobhan C

    2017-02-20

    Neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of deaths for infants in their first month of life. The newly cut umbilical cord can be a pathway for bacteria that can cause newborn sepsis and death. Optimal umbilical cord care practices for newborns and during the first week of life, especially in settings with poor hygiene, has the potential to avoid these preventable neonatal deaths. The purpose of this review of cord care practices is to assist in the development of behavior-change strategies to support introduction of novel cord-care regimens, particularly 7.1% chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care. We searched domestic and international databases for articles that were published in English between January 1, 2000, and August 24, 2016. We found 321 articles and reviewed 65 full-text articles using standardized inclusion criteria. The primary criteria for inclusion was a description of substances applied to the umbilical cord stump in the days following birth. We included 46 articles in this review of umbilical cord-care practices. Articles included data from 15 low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa (8 countries), Asia (5 countries), North Africa (1 country), and Latin America and the Caribbean (1 country). Findings from this review suggest that documentation of cord-care practices is not consistent throughout low- and middle-income countries, yet existing literature depicts a firm tradition of umbilical cord care in every culture. Cord-care practices vary by country and by regions or cultural groups within a country and employ a wide range of substances. The desire to promote healing and hasten cord separation are the underlying beliefs related to application of substances to the umbilical cord. The frequency of application of the substance (either the number of days or the number of times per day the substance was applied), and source and cost of products used is not well-characterized. This desire to actively care for the umbilical

  5. Role of mobile phone technology in health education in Asian and African countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Madhusmita; Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to explore the role of mobile phone technologies in delivering health education programs in Asian and African countries. The search engine used was Pubmed during 2008-2011. Randomised controlled trials or controlled studies that improved health outcomes through delivery of health educational interventions using cell phone or text messaging were included in the review. Results showed studies from six Asian and African countries including Philippines, China, Kenya, South Korea, Taiwan and India. Mobile phone technology has shown to improve health outcomes for chronic disease conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Additional conditions include obesity and cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidance. Other studies have shown improvement in self management of breast cancer and post-hospitalisation HIV and pharmaceutical care. Overall results of the present review showed that mobile phone technologies can be a possible solution to improve healthcare outcome.

  6. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan.

  7. Soft drink consumption in Pacific Island countries and territories: a review of trade data.

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Mcdonald, A M; McKenzie, J; Tukuitonga, C

    2014-03-01

    Pacific Islands Countries and Territories (PICTs) have some of the highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the world. Research has demonstrated a strong link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and subsequent risk of overweight, obesity, dental caries and type II diabetes. To address the impact of SSBs on noncommunicable diseases, it is crucial to understand the level of SSB consumption in PICTs. The volume of soft drinks imported and exported was requested from PICTs to estimate the litres of soft drink consumption per head of population. Analysis was confined to PICTs who did not produce their own soft drinks because production data was limited. The Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) category 22.02 was used which includes both diet and sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The trade data estimates were then compared with school survey data to explore how the data sources corresponded given the strengths and weaknesses of each. Soft drink import volumes were a feasible way of estimating total soft drink consumption in PICTs and look at trends over time. Seven out of eleven non-producing PICTs contacted were able to provide volume of soft drinks imported. In 2011, estimates of soft drink consumption per person were 84L in Palau, 47L in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), 41L in Niue, 31L in Tonga, 22L in Federates States of Micronesia, 8L in Tuvalu and 1L in Kiribati. Trade data is a feasible way of monitoring soft drink consumption and may be useful to evaluate the impact of changes in government policy on importation of soft drinks. Data quality could be maximised by including export data, adjusting for visitor numbers and cross-checking exports from corresponding countries. To monitor SSB consumption, a wider range of categories could be included such as categories for sugar-sweetened juice and sweetened-milk drinks.

  8. Quality of Spine Surgery Research from the Arab Countries: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Msaddi, Abdul Karim; Assaker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of spine surgery publications in the Arab countries and compare it with standard international literature in spine surgery and to determine the stand of the Arab nations academic production with that of the global one. Methods. An online search using “PubMed” and “Google Scholar” was carried out, using search terms related to spine surgery such as “Spine surgery,” “Scoliosis,” “Herniated disc.” Each article was reviewed and graded by two reviewers using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence scale. Results. We have identified 434 articles that met the inclusion criteria; 56% were level IV studies. The most common study design was case reports (42%). The number of Arab countries with publications in spine surgery was 18 countries. The country with the highest rate of publications was Egypt (26%). The quantity of the published studies increased from 151 in (2000–2008) to 283 in (2009–2015). There is statistical significance between high and low LOE articles (p = 0.0007). Conclusion. We have observed that LOE has not changed significantly over the period of 15 years and that much of the publications are of a low LOE (levels III and IV). We, herein, emphasize the need for spine surgeons in the Arab countries to conduct studies of higher LOE. PMID:28316989

  9. Quality of Spine Surgery Research from the Arab Countries: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baeesa, Saleh S; Maghrabi, Yazid; Msaddi, Abdul Karim; Assaker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of spine surgery publications in the Arab countries and compare it with standard international literature in spine surgery and to determine the stand of the Arab nations academic production with that of the global one. Methods. An online search using "PubMed" and "Google Scholar" was carried out, using search terms related to spine surgery such as "Spine surgery," "Scoliosis," "Herniated disc." Each article was reviewed and graded by two reviewers using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence scale. Results. We have identified 434 articles that met the inclusion criteria; 56% were level IV studies. The most common study design was case reports (42%). The number of Arab countries with publications in spine surgery was 18 countries. The country with the highest rate of publications was Egypt (26%). The quantity of the published studies increased from 151 in (2000-2008) to 283 in (2009-2015). There is statistical significance between high and low LOE articles (p = 0.0007). Conclusion. We have observed that LOE has not changed significantly over the period of 15 years and that much of the publications are of a low LOE (levels III and IV). We, herein, emphasize the need for spine surgeons in the Arab countries to conduct studies of higher LOE.

  10. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  11. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  12. The relationship between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, Olaide Ruth; Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Salome H

    2014-01-01

    Scientific reports have shown that iron deficiency is positively associated with adiposity. With the high prevalence of iron deficiency and obesity in developing countries and women being particularly affected, this review was carried out with the aim of elucidating the link between iron status and adiposity in women from developing countries and to examine factors influencing this relationship. An extensive literature search was conducted using several search engines. A systematic approach with prespecified inclusion criteria was used in selecting relevant literature. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for review. The relationship between iron status indices and adiposity in women in developing countries varied widely. While some studies observed negative relationships, some reported positive relationships, and others no significant relationships. Furthermore, other factors such as infection, alcohol consumption, type of diet, and genes were shown to affect the relationship between iron status and adiposity in women in developing countries. In conclusion, the possibility of iron status playing a role in adiposity in women from developing countries is likely, and it may be influenced by several other factors as described in the results. Thus, it is recommended that a special research effort should be directed toward this area.

  13. mHealth Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Kathryn; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether mHealth interventions were effective in low- and middle-income countries in order to create a baseline for the evidence to support mHealth in developing countries. Studies were identified by searching Medline on 02 October 2014 for articles published in the English language between January 2000 and September 2014. Inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English, 2) completion of an mHealth intervention in a low or middle-income country, 3) measurement of patient outcomes, and 4) participants 18 years of age or older. 7,920 titles were reviewed and 7 were determined eligible based on inclusion criteria. Interventions included a cluster randomized trial, mixed methods study, retrospective comparison of an opt-in text message program, a two-arm proof of concept, single arm trial, a randomized trial, and a single subject design. Five out of seven of the studies showed significant difference between the control and intervention. Currently there is little evidence on mHealth interventions in developing countries, and existing studies are very diverse; however initial studies show changes in clinical outcomes, adherence, and health communication, including improved communication with providers, decrease in travel time, ability to receive expert advice, changes in clinical outcomes, and new forms of cost-effective education. While this initial review is promising, more evidence is needed to support and direct system-level resource investment. PMID:27157176

  14. mHealth Interventions in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Kathryn; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether mHealth interventions were effective in low- and middle-income countries in order to create a baseline for the evidence to support mHealth in developing countries. Studies were identified by searching Medline on 02 October 2014 for articles published in the English language between January 2000 and September 2014. Inclusion criteria were: 1) written in English, 2) completion of an mHealth intervention in a low or middle-income country, 3) measurement of patient outcomes, and 4) participants 18 years of age or older. 7,920 titles were reviewed and 7 were determined eligible based on inclusion criteria. Interventions included a cluster randomized trial, mixed methods study, retrospective comparison of an opt-in text message program, a two-arm proof of concept, single arm trial, a randomized trial, and a single subject design. Five out of seven of the studies showed significant difference between the control and intervention. Currently there is little evidence on mHealth interventions in developing countries, and existing studies are very diverse; however initial studies show changes in clinical outcomes, adherence, and health communication, including improved communication with providers, decrease in travel time, ability to receive expert advice, changes in clinical outcomes, and new forms of cost-effective education. While this initial review is promising, more evidence is needed to support and direct system-level resource investment.

  15. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation - as measured with a standardized acculturation scale - and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Results The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Conclusion Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The ‘Healthy Migrant Effect’ may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and

  16. Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Delavari, Maryam; Sønderlund, Anders Larrabee; Swinburn, Boyd; Mellor, David; Renzaho, Andre

    2013-05-10

    There is evidence to suggest that immigrant populations from low or medium-income countries to high income countries show a significant change in obesogenic behaviors in the host society, and that these changes are associated with acculturation. However, the results of studies vary depending on how acculturation is measured. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between acculturation--as measured with a standardized acculturation scale--and overweight/obesity among adult migrants from low/middle countries to high income countries. A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken using six EBSCOhost databases and following the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination's Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. The initial search identified 1135 potentially relevant publications, of which only nine studies met the selection criteria. All of the studies were from the US with migrant populations from eight different countries. Six studies employed bi-directional acculturation scales and three used uni-directional scales. Six studies indicated positive general associations between higher acculturation and body mass index (BMI), and three studies reported that higher acculturation was associated with lower BMI, as mainly among women. Despite the small number of studies, a number of potential explanatory hypotheses were developed for these emerging patterns. The 'Healthy Migrant Effect' may diminish with greater acculturation as the host culture potentially promotes more unhealthy weight gain than heritage cultures. This appears particularly so for men and a rapid form of nutrition transition represents a likely contributor. The inconsistent results observed for women may be due to the interplay of cultural influences on body image, food choices and physical activity. That is, the Western ideal of a slim female body and higher values placed on physical activity and fitness may counteract the obesogenic food

  17. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  18. Context-specific food-based approach for ensuring nutrition security in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris

    2017-09-13

    Sustainable food strategies for meeting nutrient needs in developing countries are not well established. The available evidence shows that more than one-third of the world's population is facing under-nutrition, of which the most affected individuals are children and mothers from poor countries. In most developing countries, losses resulting from malnutrition are between 3 and 16% of the gross domestic product. This burden is far larger than the donor-driven and government programmes can tackle alone. As such, an innovative approach, which is independent and not donor-based, is needed to reduce the burden of malnutrition in low-income countries. In this review, we describe a context specific food-based approach for addressing malnutrition in developing countries. The approach deploys the hybrid public-private delivery model that enables cost sharing and efficiency gains in resource-poor countries. The model influences players to consider consumers' perspectives, which often are neglected and truly engage them as key stakeholders.

  19. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    PubMed

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  20. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  1. Interventions to Prevent Child Marriage Among Young People in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of the Published and Gray Literature.

    PubMed

    Kalamar, Amanda M; Lee-Rife, Susan; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-09-01

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before the age of 18 years, is a human rights violation that can have lasting adverse educational and economic impacts. The objective of this review was to identify high-quality interventions and evaluations to decease child marriage in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus, Popline, and the Cochrane Databases were searched without language limitations for articles published through November 2015. Gray literature was searched by hand. Reference tracing was used, as well as the unpacking of systematic reviews. Retained articles were those that were evaluated as having high-quality interventions and evaluations using standardized scoring. Eleven high-quality interventions and evaluations were abstracted. Six found positive results in decreasing the proportion married or increasing age at marriage, one had both positive and negative findings, and four had no statistical impact on the proportion married or age at marriage. There is wide range of high-quality, impactful interventions included in this review which can inform researchers, donors, and policy makers about where to make strategic investments to eradicate marriage, a current target of the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the cultural factors that promote child marriage, the diversity of interventions can allow decision makers to tailor interventions to the cultural context of the target population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Depression and Type 2 Diabetes in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A.; Shidhaye, Rahul; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-01-01

    Eighty percent of people with type 2 diabetes reside in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Yet much of the research around depression among people with diabetes has been conducted in high-income countries (HICs). In this systematic review we searched Ovid Medline, PubMed, and PsychINFO for studies that assessed depression among people with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Our focus on quantitative studies provided a prevalence of co-morbid depression among those with diabetes. We reviewed 48 studies from 1,091 references. We found that this research has been conducted primarily in middle-income countries, including India (n=8), Mexico (n=8), Brazil (n=5), and China (n=5). There was variation in prevalence of co-morbid depression across studies, but these differences did not reveal regional differences and seemed to result from study sample (e.g., urban vs rural and clinical vs population-based samples). Fifteen depression inventories were administered across the studies. We concluded that despite substantial diabetes burden in LMICs, few studies have reviewed co-morbid depression and diabetes. Our review suggests depression among people with diabetes in LMICs may be higher than in HICs. Evidence from these 48 studies underscores the need for comprehensive mental health care that can be integrated into diabetes care within LMIC health systems. PMID:24485858

  3. Refugee experiences of general practice in countries of resettlement: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, I-Hao; Drillich, Ann; Schattner, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers often struggle to use general practice services in resettlement countries. To describe and analyse the literature on the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers using general practice services in countries of resettlement. Literature review using systematic search and narrative data extraction and synthesis methodologies. International, peer-reviewed literature published in English language between 1990 and 2013. Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms: refugee, asylum seeker, experience, perception, doctor, physician, and general practitioner. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed and were critically appraised. Narrative themes describing the refugee or asylum seeker's personal experiences of general practice services were identified, coded, and analysed. From 8722 papers, 85 were fully reviewed and 23 included. These represented the experiences of approximately 864 individuals using general practice services across 11 countries. Common narrative themes that emerged were: difficulties accessing general practice services, language barriers, poor doctor-patient relationships, and problems with the cultural acceptability of medical care. The difficulties refugees and asylum seekers experience accessing and using general practice services could be addressed by providing practical support for patients to register, make appointments, and attend services, and through using interpreters. Clinicians should look beyond refugee stereotypes to focus on the needs and expectations of the individual. They should provide clear explanations about unfamiliar clinical processes and treatments while offering timely management. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  4. Refugee experiences of general practice in countries of resettlement: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, I-Hao; Drillich, Ann; Schattner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Refugees and asylum seekers often struggle to use general practice services in resettlement countries. Aim To describe and analyse the literature on the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers using general practice services in countries of resettlement. Design and setting Literature review using systematic search and narrative data extraction and synthesis methodologies. International, peer-reviewed literature published in English language between 1990 and 2013. Method Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms: refugee, asylum seeker, experience, perception, doctor, physician, and general practitioner. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed and were critically appraised. Narrative themes describing the refugee or asylum seeker’s personal experiences of general practice services were identified, coded, and analysed. Results From 8722 papers, 85 were fully reviewed and 23 included. These represented the experiences of approximately 864 individuals using general practice services across 11 countries. Common narrative themes that emerged were: difficulties accessing general practice services, language barriers, poor doctor–patient relationships, and problems with the cultural acceptability of medical care. Conclusion The difficulties refugees and asylum seekers experience accessing and using general practice services could be addressed by providing practical support for patients to register, make appointments, and attend services, and through using interpreters. Clinicians should look beyond refugee stereotypes to focus on the needs and expectations of the individual. They should provide clear explanations about unfamiliar clinical processes and treatments while offering timely management. PMID:25733438

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among People Living with HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sivaraj; Ponnampalvanar, Sasheela; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search. Articles were restricted to English language studies reporting on the prevalence of MS among PLWH in developing countries. Eighteen articles were included in the review. The studies were divided into Africa, South America, and Asia regions. The most frequent criterion used in the review was the National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Program III 2001 definition. The prevalence of MS among PLWH ranged from 8.4% to 47% across the developing regions and comparable to the overall prevalence across the developed regions (7.8-52.2%). The mean prevalence was 30.5%, 21.5%, and 21.4% in Africa, Asia, and South America, respectively. The most frequent component observed was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (50.1%). This systematic review provides an essential overview on the distribution of MS in the HIV population across the developing regions. As these prevalences were comparably high in the developed regions, this review highlights the need for more robust research in developing countries.

  6. [Health economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccines in the developing countries: systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaobin; Mao, Fanzhen; Zhou, Zi; Zhao, Qinjian; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma has brought huge burden on patients, especially in developing countries. Preventive vaccines could effectively reduce the incidence of cervical carcinoma. The high prices were one of the most difficult problem in introducing the vaccine in developing countries, so the cost-effectiveness and health financing of the vaccines should be carefully studied before incorporated into the national immunization program. Thus, researchers used mathematical models to predict the effects of HPV vaccines and to study the cost- effectiveness. In order to understand the current situation on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in the developing countries, a systematic searching of literature from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, CNKI and Wangfang Data was performed, this study aims to conduct a systematic review from aspects of project source, first author, research areas, research perspectives, prevention strategies, vaccine characteristics, cost-effectiveness.

  7. Governance arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cristian A; Lewin, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Ciapponi, Agustín; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Wiysonge, Charles S; Bastías, Gabriel; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Okwundu, Charles I; Peñaloza, Blanca; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-12

    Governance arrangements include changes in rules or processes that determine authority and accountability for health policies, organisations, commercial products and health professionals, as well as the involvement of stakeholders in decision-making. Changes in governance arrangements can affect health and related goals in numerous ways, generally through changes in authority, accountability, openness, participation and coherence. A broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers, their technical support staff and other stakeholders to identify strategies for addressing problems and improving the governance of their health systems. To provide an overview of the available evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of governance arrangements for health systems in low-income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on governance arrangements and informing refinements of the framework for governance arrangements outlined in the overview. We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ Evidence up to 17 December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well-conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of governance arrangements on patient outcomes (health and health behaviours), the quality or utilisation of healthcare services, resource use (health expenditures, healthcare provider costs, out-of-pocket payments, cost-effectiveness), healthcare provider outcomes (such as sick leave), or social outcomes (such as poverty, employment) and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations that were important enough to compromise the reliability of the findings of the review. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared

  8. The impact of mobile health interventions on chronic disease outcomes in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beratarrechea, Andrea; Lee, Allison G; Willner, Jonathan M; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient-provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries.

  9. The Impact of Mobile Health Interventions on Chronic Disease Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allison G.; Willner, Jonathan M.; Jahangir, Eiman; Ciapponi, Agustín; Rubinstein, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Rates of chronic diseases will continue to rise in developing countries unless effective and cost-effective interventions are implemented. This review aims to discuss the impact of mobile health (m-health) on chronic disease outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Materials and Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed using CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases and gray literature. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to address chronic diseases in adults in low- or middle-income countries. Outcomes measured included morbidity, mortality, hospitalization rates, behavioral or lifestyle changes, process of care improvements, clinical outcomes, costs, patient–provider satisfaction, compliance, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: From the 1,709 abstracts retrieved, 163 articles were selected for full text review, including 9 randomized controlled trials with 4,604 participants. Most of the studies addressed more than one outcome. Of the articles selected, six studied clinical outcomes, six studied processes of care, three examined healthcare costs, and two examined HRQoL. M-health positively impacted on chronic disease outcomes, improving attendance rates, clinical outcomes, and HRQoL, and was cost-effective. Conclusions: M-health is emerging as a promising tool to address access, coverage, and equity gaps in developing countries and low-resource settings. The results for m-health interventions showed a positive impact on chronic diseases in LMIC. However, a limiting factor of this review was the relatively small number of studies and patients enrolled, highlighting the need for more rigorous research in this area in developing countries. PMID:24205809

  10. Brain Gains: a literature review of medical missions to low and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare professionals’ participation in short-term medical missions to low and middle income countries (LMIC) to provide healthcare has become common over the past 50 years yet little is known about the quantity and quality of these missions. The aim of this study was to review medical mission publications over 25 years to better understand missions and their potential impact on health systems in LMICs. Methods A literature review was conducted by searching Medline for articles published from 1985–2009 about medical missions to LMICs, revealing 2512 publications. Exclusion criteria such as receiving country and mission length were applied, leaving 230 relevant articles. A data extraction sheet was used to collect information, including sending/receiving countries and funding source. Results The majority of articles were descriptive and lacked contextual or theoretical analysis. Most missions were short-term (1 day – 1 month). The most common sending countries were the U.S. and Canada. The top destination country was Honduras, while regionally Africa received the highest number of missions. Health care professionals typically responded to presenting health needs, ranging from primary care to surgical relief. Cleft lip/palate surgeries were the next most common type of care provided. Conclusions Based on the articles reviewed, there is significant scope for improvement in mission planning, monitoring and evaluation as well as global and/or national policies regarding foreign medical missions. To promote optimum performance by mission staff, training in such areas as cross-cultural communication and contextual realities of mission sites should be provided. With the large number of missions conducted worldwide, efforts to ensure efficacy, harmonisation with existing government programming and transparency are needed. PMID:22643123

  11. Medication errors in the Middle East countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alsulami, Zayed; Conroy, Sharon; Choonara, Imti

    2013-04-01

    Medication errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Little is known about medication errors in Middle Eastern countries. The objectives of this systematic review were to review studies of the incidence and types of medication errors in Middle Eastern countries and to identify the main contributory factors involved. A systematic review of the literature related to medication errors in Middle Eastern countries was conducted in October 2011 using the following databases: Embase, Medline, Pubmed, the British Nursing Index and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. The search strategy included all ages and languages. Inclusion criteria were that the studies assessed or discussed the incidence of medication errors and contributory factors to medication errors during the medication treatment process in adults or in children. Forty-five studies from 10 of the 15 Middle Eastern countries met the inclusion criteria. Nine (20 %) studies focused on medication errors in paediatric patients. Twenty-one focused on prescribing errors, 11 measured administration errors, 12 were interventional studies and one assessed transcribing errors. Dispensing and documentation errors were inadequately evaluated. Error rates varied from 7.1 % to 90.5 % for prescribing and from 9.4 % to 80 % for administration. The most common types of prescribing errors reported were incorrect dose (with an incidence rate from 0.15 % to 34.8 % of prescriptions), wrong frequency and wrong strength. Computerised physician rder entry and clinical pharmacist input were the main interventions evaluated. Poor knowledge of medicines was identified as a contributory factor for errors by both doctors (prescribers) and nurses (when administering drugs). Most studies did not assess the clinical severity of the medication errors. Studies related to medication errors in the Middle Eastern countries were relatively few in number and of poor quality

  12. Patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Reema; Cohen, Adrienne Wai Seung; Walton, Merrilyn

    2015-08-01

    To establish current knowledge of patient safety and quality of care in developing countries in Southeast Asia, current interventions and the knowledge gaps. Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search seven electronic databases in addition to manual searching of relevant journals. Titles and abstracts of publications between 1990 and 2014 were screened by two reviewers and checked by a third. Full text articles were screened against the eligibility criteria. Data on design, methods and key findings were extracted and synthesized. Four inter-related safety and quality concerns were evident from 33 publications: (i) the risk of patient infection in healthcare delivery, (ii) medications errors/use, (iii) the quality and provision of maternal and perinatal care and (iv) the quality of healthcare provision overall. Large-scale prevalence studies are needed to identify the full range of safety and quality problems in developing countries in Southeast Asia. Sharing lessons learnt from extensive quality and safety work conducted in industrialized nations may contribute to significant improvements. Yet the applicability of interventions utilized in developed countries to the political and social context in this region must be considered. Strategies to facilitate the collection of robust safety and quality data in the context of limited resources and the local context in each country are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Methods: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Results: Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population’s, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing—in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care—as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Conclusions: Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective. PMID:23002238

  14. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.

  15. A systematic review of radiotherapy capacity in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Grover, Surbhi; Xu, Melody J; Yeager, Alyssa; Rosman, Lori; Groen, Reinou S; Chackungal, Smita; Rodin, Danielle; Mangaali, Margaret; Nurkic, Sommer; Fernandes, Annemarie; Lin, Lilie L; Thomas, Gillian; Tergas, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    The cancer burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe country and region-specific patterns of radiotherapy (RT) facilities in LMIC. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search strategy was developed to include articles on radiation capacity in LMIC from the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and the Latin American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information. Searches included all literature up to April 2013. A total of 49 articles were included in the review. Studies reviewed were divided into one of four regions: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and South America. The African continent has the least amount of resources for RT. Furthermore, a wide disparity exists, as 60% of all machines on the continent are concentrated in Egypt and South Africa while 29 countries in Africa are still lacking any RT resource. A significant heterogeneity also exists across Southeast Asia despite a threefold increase in megavoltage teletherapy machines from 1976 to 1999, which corresponds with a rise in economic status. In LMIC of the Americas, only Uruguay met the International Atomic Energy Agency recommendations of 4 MV/million population, whereas Bolivia and Venezuela had the most radiation oncologists (>1 per 1000 new cancer cases). The main concern with the review of RT resources in Eastern Europe was the lack of data. There is a dearth of publications on RT therapy infrastructure in LMIC. However, based on limited published data, availability of RT resources reflects the countries' economic status. The challenges to delivering radiation in the discussed regions are multidimensional and include lack of physical resources, lack of human personnel, and lack of data. Furthermore, access to existing RT and affordability of care remains a large problem.

  16. Suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Iemmi, Valentina; Bantjes, Jason; Coast, Ernestina; Channer, Kerrie; Leone, Tiziana; McDaid, David; Palfreyman, Alexis; Stephens, Bevan; Lund, Crick

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is the 15th leading cause of death worldwide, with over 75% of suicides occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Nonetheless, evidence on the association between suicide and poverty in low-income and middle-income countries is scarce. We did a systematic review to understand the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries. We included studies testing the association between suicidal ideations and behaviours and economic poverty in low-income and middle-income countries using bivariate or multivariate analysis and published in English between January, 2004, and April, 2014. We identified 37 studies meeting these inclusion criteria. In 18 studies reporting the association between completed suicide and poverty, 31 associations were explored. The majority reported a positive association. Of the 20 studies reporting on the relationship between non-fatal suicidal ideations and behaviours and poverty, 36 associations were explored. Again, almost all studies reported a positive association. However, when considering each poverty dimension separately, we found substantial variations. These findings show a consistent trend at the individual level indicating that poverty, particularly in the form of worse economic status, diminished wealth, and unemployment is associated with suicidal ideations and behaviours. At the country level, there are insufficient data to draw clear conclusions. Available data show a potential benefit in addressing economic poverty within suicide prevention strategies, with particular attention to both chronic poverty and acute economic events.

  17. Transnationals' experience of dying in their adopted country: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bray, Yvonne; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Gott, Merryn

    2015-01-01

    Social and emotional challenges of migration and integration include managing memories and perceptions of country of birth, leaving loved relatives behind, and the challenges of maintaining traditions, such as cultural food and practices. For many migrants, the strong connection with their birth country is never completely severed, which may become pertinent at particular events and stages in life with inherent emotional impact. This may be particularly the case for end-of-life experience. We undertook a systematic review of published evidence of research to identify the lived experience of migrants dying in a country different from their country of birth. The search terms [transnationals OR migran* OR immigran*] AND [emotions OR belonging OR acculturation OR national identity] AND [dying OR end-of-life OR contemplation of dying] AND [palliative care OR terminal care] were used on the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, EBSCO, Geobase, PsychINFO, and Scopus to the end date of January 2014. No date limit was imposed. All research methodologies were included. The search was restricted to human subjects and English language. Seven qualitative studies met the criteria. Thematic analysis of these studies identified three main themes: sense of dual identity, importance of traditions from their country of origin, and dying preferences. Findings have implications for the provision of palliative end-of-life care for dying transnationals, particularly in relation to providing support for migrants who are dying to resolve social and emotional issues.

  18. How do public health policies tackle alcohol-related harm: a review of 12 developed countries.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrence; Wallace, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    To identify how current public health policies of 12 developed countries assess alcohol-related problems, the goals and targets that are set and the strategic directives proposed. Policy documents on alcohol and on general public heath were obtained through repeated searches of government websites. Documents were reviewed by two independent observers. All the countries studied state that alcohol causes substantial harm to individual health and family well-being, increases crime and social disruption, and results in economic loss through lost productivity. All are concerned about consumption of alcohol by young adults and by heavy and problem drinkers. Few aim to reduce total consumption. Only five of the countries set specific targets for changes in drinking behaviour. Countries vary in their commitment to intervene, particularly on taxation, drink-driving, the drinking environment and for high-risk groups. Australia and New Zealand stand out as having coordinated intervention programmes in most areas. Policies differ markedly in their organization, the goals and targets that are set, the strategic approaches proposed and areas identified for intervention. Most countries could improve their policies by following the recommendations in the World Heath Organization's European Alcohol Action Plan.

  19. Assisted reproduction: a comparative review of IVF policies in two pro-natalist countries.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Ekaterina; Simonstein, Frida

    2010-06-01

    Policies on reproduction have become an increasingly important tool for governments seeking to meet the so-called demographic 'challenge' created by the combination of low fertility and lengthening life expectancies. However, the tension between the state and the market in health care is present in all countries around the world due to the scare resources available and the understandable importance of the health issues. The field of assisted reproduction, as part of the health care system, is affected by this tension with both-the state's and the market's involvements-carrying important implications. Bulgaria and Israel share the same size of population, are markedly paternalistic and both have strong pro-natalist cultures by which large families are expected. For a range of reasons the two countries contrast sharply, however, in terms of their capacity to intervene in the health system, and also in terms of the political will to act on matters of reproduction. This paper examines how assisted reproduction, as reflected by present policies in both countries, influences women's welfare and considers whose interests the practices of assisted reproduction in these countries actually serve. By reviewing some of the present data on women's status in Bulgaria and Israel and assessing both states' policies and involvement in assisted reproduction this paper helps to identify some of the intended and unintended consequences of assisted reproduction policies in different countries.

  20. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Mari; Tucker, Janet; Hannaford, Phil; da Silva, Miguel Oliveira; Astin, Margaret; Wyness, Laura; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Jahn, Albrecht; Karro, Helle; Olsen, Jørn; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-12-01

    As part of the REPROSTAT2 project, this systematic review aimed to identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in 25 European Union countries. The search strategy included electronic bibliographic databases (1995 to May 2005), bibliographies of selected articles and requests to all country representatives of the research team for relevant reports and publications. Primary outcome measure was conception. Inclusion criteria were quantitative studies of individual-level factors associated with teenage (13-19 years) pregnancy in EU countries. Of 4444 studies identified and screened, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies took place in UK and Nordic countries. The well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and low educational level and aspiration appear consistently associated with teenage pregnancy. However, evidence that access to services in itself is a protective factor remains inconsistent. Although further associations with diverse risk-taking behaviours and lifestyle, sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour are reported, the independent effects of these factors too remain unclear. Included studies varied widely in terms of methods and definitions used. This heterogeneity within the studies leaves two outstanding issues. First, we cannot synthesize or generalize key findings as to how all these factors interact with one another and which factors are the most significant. Second, it is not possible to examine potential variation between countries. Future research ensuring comparability and generalizability of results related to teenage sexual health outcomes will help gain insight into the international variation in observed pregnancy rates and better inform interventions.

  1. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Mina; Wheeler, Jeremy; Danesh, John

    About 13 million people are classified as refugees worldwide, and many more former refugees have been granted citizenship in their new countries. However, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, or psychotic illnesses in these individuals is not known. We did a systematic review of surveys about these disorders in general refugee populations in western countries. We searched for psychiatric surveys that were based on interviews of unselected refugee populations and that included current diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, psychotic illnesses, or generalised anxiety disorder. We did computer-assisted searches, scanned reference lists, searched journals, and corresponded with authors to determine prevalence rates of these mental disorders and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity, such as diagnostic criteria, sampling methods, and other characteristics. 20 eligible surveys provided results for 6743 adult refugees from seven countries, with substantial variation in assessment and sampling methods. In the larger studies, 9% (99% CI 8-10%) were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 5% (4-6%) with major depression, with evidence of much psychiatric comorbidity. Five surveys of 260 refugee children from three countries yielded a prevalence of 11% (7-17%) for post-traumatic stress disorder. Larger and more rigorous surveys reported lower prevalence rates than did studies with less optimum designs, but heterogeneity persisted even in findings from the larger studies. Refugees resettled in western countries could be about ten times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder than age-matched general populations in those countries. Worldwide, tens of thousands of refugees and former refugees resettled in western countries probably have post-traumatic stress disorder.

  2. Screening for autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lydia A; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    This review contributes to the growing body of global autism spectrum disorder literature by examining the use of screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries with respect to study design and methodology, instrument adaptation and performance, and collaboration with community stakeholders in research. A systematic review was conducted to understand the use of autism spectrum disorder screening instruments in low- and middle-income countries from studies published between 1992 and 2015. This review found that 18 different autism spectrum disorder screeners have been used in low- and middle-income settings with wide ranges of sensitivities and specificities. The significant variation in study design, screening methodology, and population characteristics limits the ability of this review to make robust recommendations about optimal screening tool selection. Clinical-based screening for autism spectrum disorder was the most widely reported method. However, community-based screening was shown to be an effective method for identifying autism spectrum disorder in communities with limited clinical resources. Only a few studies included in this review reported cultural adaptation of screening tools and collaboration with local stakeholders. Establishing guidelines for the reporting of cultural adaptation and community collaboration procedures as well as screening instrument psychometrics and screening methodology will enable the field to develop best practices for autism spectrum disorder screening in low-resource settings.

  3. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Bibha; Teijlingen, Edwin R van; Porter, Maureen; Simkhada, Padam

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to identify and analyse the main factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries. Antenatal care is a key strategy for reducing maternal mortality, but millions of women in developing countries do not receive it. A range of electronic databases was searched for studies conducted in developing countries and published between 1990 and 2006. English-language publications were searched using relevant keywords, and reference lists were hand-searched. A systematic review was carried out and both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Twenty-eight papers were included in the review. Studies most commonly identified the following factors affecting antenatal care uptake: maternal education, husband's education, marital status, availability, cost, household income, women's employment, media exposure and having a history of obstetric complications. Cultural beliefs and ideas about pregnancy also had an influence on antenatal care use. Parity had a statistically significant negative effect on adequate attendance. Whilst women of higher parity tend to use antenatal care less, there is interaction with women's age and religion. Only one study examined the effect of the quality of antenatal services on utilization. None identified an association between the utilization of such services and satisfaction with them. More qualitative research is required to explore the effect of women's satisfaction, autonomy and gender role in the decision-making process. Adequate utilization of antenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing health centres; women's overall (social, political and economic) status needs to be considered.

  4. Informal employment in high-income countries for a health inequalities research: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Julià, Mireia; Tarafa, Gemma; O'Campo, Patricia; Muntaner, Carles; Jódar, Pere; Benach, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Informal employment (IE) is one of the least studied employment conditions in public health research, mainly due to the difficulty of its conceptualization and its measurement, producing a lack of a unique concept and a common method of measurement. The aim of this review is to identify literature on IE in order to improve its definition and methods of measurement, with special attention given to high-income countries, to be able to study the possible impact on health inequalities within and between countries. A scoping review of definitions and methods of measurement of IE was conducted reviewing relevant databases and grey literature and analyzing selected articles. We found a wide spectrum of terms for describing IE as well as definitions and methods of measurement. We provide a definition of IE to be used in health inequalities research in high-income countries. Direct methods such as surveys can capture more information about workers and firms in order to estimate IE. These results can be used in further investigations about the impacts of this IE on health inequalities. Public health research must improve monitoring and analysis of IE in order to know the impacts of this employment condition on health inequalities.

  5. Clostridium difficile infection in low- and middle-human development index countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Joseph D; Cai, Lawrence Z; Mbanje, Chenesa; Rinderknecht, Tanya N; Wren, Sherry M

    2017-10-01

    To describe the impact and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in low- and middle-human development index (LMHDI) countries. Prospectively registered, systematic literature review of existing literature in the PubMed, Ovid and Web of Science databases describing the epidemiology and management of C. difficile in LMHDI countries. Risk factors were compared between studies when available. Of the 218 abstracts identified after applying search criteria, 25 studies were reviewed in detail. The weighted pooled infection rate among symptomatic non-immunosuppressed inpatients was 15.8% (95% CI 12.1-19.5%) and was 10.1% (95% CI 3.0-17.2%) among symptomatic outpatients. Subgroup analysis of immunosuppressed patient populations revealed pooled infection rates similar to non-immunosuppressed patient populations. Risk factor analysis was infrequently performed. While the percentages of patients with CDI in LMHDI countries among the reviewed studies are lower than expected, there remains a paucity of epidemiologic data evaluating burden of C. difficile infection in these settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-11

    One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. To provide an overview of the evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on financial arrangements, and informing refinements in the framework for financial arrangements presented in the overview. We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ-Evidence up to 17 December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language, or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well-conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of financial arrangements on patient outcomes (health and health behaviours), the quality or utilisation of healthcare services, resource use, healthcare provider outcomes (such as sick leave), or social outcomes (such as poverty, employment, or financial burden of patients, e.g. out-of-pocket payment, catastrophic disease expenditure) and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations important enough to compromise the reliability of the findings. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data, and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared SUPPORT Summaries for eligible reviews, including key messages, 'Summary of findings' tables (using GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence), and assessments of the relevance of findings to low-income countries. We identified 7272 reviews and included 15 in this

  7. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Legal in some European countries and US states, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia remain under debate in these and other countries. The aim of the study was to examine numbers, characteristics, and trends over time for assisted dying in regions where these practices are legal: Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. This was a systematic review of journal articles and official reports. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies, from inception to end of 2012. We searched the websites of the health authorities of all eligible countries and states for reports on physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia and included publications that reported on cases of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia. We extracted information on the total number of assisted deaths, its proportion in relation to all deaths, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals assisted to die. A total of 1043 publications were identified; 25 articles and reports were retained, including series of reported cases, physician surveys, and reviews of death certificates. The percentage of physician-assisted deaths among all deaths ranged from 0.1%-0.2% in the US states and Luxembourg to 1.8%-2.9% in the Netherlands. Percentages of cases reported to the authorities increased in most countries over time. The typical person who died with assistance was a well-educated male cancer patient, aged 60-85 years. Despite some common characteristics between countries, we found wide variation in the extent and specific characteristics of those who died an assisted death.

  8. Interprofessional Education for Whom? — Challenges and Lessons Learned from Its Implementation in Developed Countries and Their Application to Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Hinthong, Woranich; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. Methods We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. Results A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. Conclusion This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these challenges and barriers in

  9. Interprofessional education for whom? --challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Hinthong, Woranich; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these challenges and barriers in advance, those who implement IPE programs

  10. A Systematic Review of Mobile Health Technology Use in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Manal; Gashgari, Horeya; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, patients are now more informed about their healthcare options as a result of their use of mobile health (mHealth) technologies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the opportunities and challenges in using mHealth technologies for developing countries. In April 2015, Google Scholar and PubMed were searched to identify articles discussing the types, advantages and disadvantages, effectiveness, evaluation of mHealth technologies, and examples of mHealth implementation in developing countries. A total number of 3,803 articles were retrieved from both databases. Articles reporting the benefits and risks, effectiveness, and evaluation of mHealth were included. Articles that were written in English and from developing countries were also included. We excluded papers that were published before 2005, not written in English, and that were technical in nature. After screening the articles using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were selected for inclusion in the study. Of the 27 papers included in the review, eight described opportunities and challenges relating to mHealth, four focused on smoking cessation, three focused on weight loss, and four papers focused on chronic diseases. We also identified four articles discussing mHealth evaluation and four discussing the use of mHealth as a health promotion tool. We conclude that mHealth can improve healthcare delivery for developing countries. Some of the advantages of mHealth include: patient education, health promotion, disease self-management, decrease in healthcare costs, and remote monitoring of patients. However, there are several limitations in using mHealth technologies for developing countries, which include: interoperability, lack of evaluation standards, and lack of a technology infrastructure.

  11. Eleven theses of general systems theory (GST)

    SciTech Connect

    Waelchli, F.

    1992-12-31

    This paper chronicles an effort to distill and order (for purposes of discussion and elaboration) frequently mentioned and significant ideas encountered in the literature of General Systems theory (GST). The product is a set of eleven theses, representing the author`s selection and collation of seminal and recurrent GST themes. The author argues that attention to theory could aid the effort to develop practical applications of systems thinking. (Remember that a thesis is a statement or assertion, offered originally without proof, as the basis for an argument, discussion, or empirical test). 10 refs.

  12. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  13. Mapping ergonomics application to improve SMEs working condition in industrially developing countries: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini

    2014-01-01

    In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.

  14. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adult indigenous populations in high-income countries: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Woods, Cindy E; Usher, Kim; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is recognised as a common but under-diagnosed health issue. Currently, there is very little published data relating to the burden and impact of obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations. The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence, impact, risk factors and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in indigenous populations in high-income countries. An integrative review was conducted on 25 English language studies and reports that investigated obstructive sleep apnoea among indigenous populations in high-income countries. Studies that did not focus on indigenous populations in the results or discussion were excluded. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases and reference lists of eligible studies. Publication dates range from 1998 to 2012. Synthesis of studies indicates the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is higher and severity is greater in indigenous populations compared with non-indigenous populations. Comparable risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea were identified in indigenous and non-indigenous populations, with only three studies identifying ethnicity as an independent risk factor. Indigenous populations in high-income countries are subject to an overall greater prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea that is also more severe. A higher prevalence of obesity, alcohol and tobacco use and comorbid medical conditions associated with low socioeconomic status rather than indigenous status per se appears to explain this disparity.

  15. Implementation strategies for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, Tomas; Opiyo, Newton; Lewin, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Ciapponi, Agustín; Wiysonge, Charles S; Herrera, Cristian A; Rada, Gabriel; Peñaloza, Blanca; Dudley, Lilian; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-12

    A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness. To provide an overview of the available evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of implementation strategies for health systems in low-income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on alternative implementation strategies and informing refinements of the framework for implementation strategies presented in the overview. We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ-Evidence up to December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well-conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of implementation strategies on professional practice and patient outcomes and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations important enough to compromise the reliability of the review findings. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared SUPPORT Summaries for eligible reviews, including key messages, 'Summary of findings' tables (using GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence) and assessments of the relevance of findings to low-income countries. We identified 7272 systematic reviews and included 39 of them in this overview. An additional four

  16. Genetically modified and organic crops in developing countries: a review of options for food security.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Ho, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since two decades ago, when the first GM crops were introduced, there have increasingly been hot debates on the applications of gene manipulation. Currently, the development of GM crop varieties has raised a wide range of new legal, ethical and economic questions in agriculture. There is a growing body of literature reflecting the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM crops which aims to criticize their value for farming systems. While organic crops are promoted as environmentally-friendly products in developed countries, they have provoked great controversy in developing countries facing food security and a low agricultural productivity. Discussion has been especially vigorous when organic farming was introduced as an alternative method. There are in fact, a few tradeoffs in developing countries. On the one hand, farmers are encouraged to accept and implement GM crops because of their higher productivity, while on the other hand, organic farming is encouraged because of socio-economic and environmental considerations. A crucial question facing such countries is therefore, whether GM crops can co-exist with organic farming. This paper aims to review the main considerations and tradeoffs.

  17. Safety and benefits of antenatal oral iron supplementation in low-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Martin N; Prentice, Andrew M; Verhoef, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends universal iron supplementation of 30-60 mg/day in pregnancy but coverage is low in most countries. Its efficacy is uncertain, however, and there has been a vigorous debate in the last decade about its safety, particularly in areas with a high burden of malaria and other infectious diseases. We reviewed the evidence on the safety and efficacy of antenatal iron supplementation in low-income countries. We found no evidence that daily supplementation at a dose of 60 mg leads to increased maternal Plasmodium infection risk. On the other hand, recent meta-analyses found that antenatal iron supplementation provides benefits for maternal health (severe anaemia at postpartum, blood transfusion). For neonates, there was a reduced prematurity risk, and only a small or no effect on birth weight. A recent trial showed, however, that benefits of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal and neonatal health vary by maternal iron status, with substantial benefits in iron-deficient women. The benefits of universal iron supplementation are likely to vary with the prevalence of iron deficiency. As a consequence, the balance between benefits and risks is probably more favourable in low-income countries than in high-income countries despite the higher exposure to infectious pathogens. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Review of national AIDS councils in Africa: findings from five countries.

    PubMed

    Hongoro, C; Mturi, A J; Kembo, J

    2008-12-01

    National AIDS councils (NACs) were established in many African countries to co-ordinate the multi-sectoral response to HIV/ AIDS. Their main mandate is to provide strategic leadership and co-ordinate activities geared to fight against HIV/AIDS. This study sought to understand the extent to which NACs have achieved their goals and the challenges they face. Best practices were identified and shared among countries involved, so as to enhance their efforts. This review is crucial given that the fight against HIV/AIDS is far from being won. Data for this study were collected from five countries: Ghana, Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Lesotho. A qualitative study approach was employed by conducting individual in-depth interviews with senior staff members of NACs. We also collected important NAC documents that are used in achieving their mandates. The NAC documentation seemed to be in order in all countries visited, and there was a good understanding of the NACs' mandate and their functioning. There were numerous constraints and challenges that need to be addressed in order to make NACs perform their activities better. NACs need to operate independently of the usual government bureaucracy. Additional work is still needed by governments in making NACs responsible for the multi-sectoral response in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Timothy D; Jolly, Pauline E; Stiles, Jonathan K; Jolly, Curtis M; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2004-11-01

    Aflatoxins are well recognized as a cause of liver cancer, but they have additional important toxic effects. In farm and laboratory animals, chronic exposure to aflatoxins compromises immunity and interferes with protein metabolism and multiple micronutrients that are critical to health. These effects have not been widely studied in humans, but the available information indicates that at least some of the effects observed in animals also occur in humans. The prevalence and level of human exposure to aflatoxins on a global scale have been reviewed, and the resulting conclusion was that approximately 4.5 billion persons living in developing countries are chronically exposed to largely uncontrolled amounts of the toxin. A limited amount of information shows that, at least in those locations where it has been studied, the existing aflatoxin exposure results in changes in nutrition and immunity. The aflatoxin exposure and the toxic affects of aflatoxins on immunity and nutrition combine to negatively affect health factors (including HIV infection) that account for >40% of the burden of disease in developing countries where a short lifespan is prevalent. Food systems and economics render developed-country approaches to the management of aflatoxins impractical in developing-country settings, but the strategy of using food additives to protect farm animals from the toxin may also provide effective and economical new approaches to protecting human populations.

  20. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  1. Country Review of Energy-Efficiency Financial Incentives in the Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2011-07-13

    A large variety of energy-efficiency policy measures exist. Some are mandatory, some are informative, and some use financial incentives to promote diffusion of efficient equipment. From country to country, financial incentives vary considerably in scope and form, the type of framework used to implement them, and the actors that administer them. They range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-points rewarding customers for buying highly efficient appliances (Japan). All have the primary objective of transforming the current market to accelerate the diffusion of efficient technologies by addressing up-front cost barriers faced by consumers; in most instances, efficient technologies require a greater initial investment than conventional technologies. In this paper, we review the different market transformation measures involving the use of financial incentives in the countries belonging to the Major Economies Forum. We characterize the main types of measures, discuss their mechanisms, and provide information on program impacts to the extent that ex-ante or ex-post evaluations have been conducted. Finally, we identify best practices in financial incentive programs and opportunities for coordination between Major Economies Forum countries as envisioned under the Super Efficient Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Michelle L; Hure, Alexis J; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2013-02-01

    Micronutrient status during pregnancy influences maternal and fetal health, birth outcomes, and the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Research reporting dietary intake during pregnancy in nationally representative population samples, however, is limited. This review summarizes the micronutrient intakes of pregnant women from developed countries and compares them with relevant national recommendations. A systematic search without date limits was conducted. All studies reporting the micronutrient intakes of pregnant women were considered, irrespective of design. Two authors independently identified studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality. Nutritional adequacy was summarized, with confounding factors considered. Meta-analysis data are reported for developed countries collectively, by geographical region, and by dietary methodology. Pregnant women in developed countries are at risk of suboptimal micronutrient intakes. Folate, iron, and vitamin D intakes were consistently below nutrient recommendations in each geographical region, and calcium intakes in Japan were below the Japanese recommendations and the average intake levels in other developed countries. Research examining the implications of potential nutrient insufficiency on maternal and offspring health outcomes is needed along with improvements in the quality of dietary intake reporting. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Systematic review of the birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Grosse, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of congenital hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Information on congenital CMV infection in developing countries appears to be lacking. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies from developing countries with population-based samples of at least 300 infants that used laboratory methods established as reliable for the diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results Most studies were excluded due to biased samples or inadequate diagnostic methods; consequently the search identified just 11 studies that were from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The number of newborns tested ranged from 317 to 12 195. Maternal CMV seroprevalence ranged from 84% to 100%. CMV birth prevalence varied from 0.6% to 6.1%. CMV-associated impairments were not documented in most studies. Conclusions Birth prevalence ranges were higher than for Europe and North America, as expected based on the higher maternal CMV seroprevalence. With very limited data available on sequelae, the disease burden of congenital CMV in developing countries remains largely unknown at this time. PMID:24631522

  4. Systematic review of the birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Grosse, Scott D

    2014-05-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of congenital hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Information on congenital CMV infection in developing countries appears to be lacking. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies from developing countries with population-based samples of at least 300 infants that used laboratory methods established as reliable for the diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Most studies were excluded due to biased samples or inadequate diagnostic methods; consequently the search identified just 11 studies that were from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The number of newborns tested ranged from 317 to 12 195. Maternal CMV seroprevalence ranged from 84% to 100%. CMV birth prevalence varied from 0.6% to 6.1%. CMV-associated impairments were not documented in most studies. Birth prevalence ranges were higher than for Europe and North America, as expected based on the higher maternal CMV seroprevalence. With very limited data available on sequelae, the disease burden of congenital CMV in developing countries remains largely unknown at this time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Review: Sustainability of crossbreeding in developing countries; definitely not like crossing a meadow….

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R; Boettcher, P; Scherf, B; Hoffmann, I

    2016-02-01

    Crossbreeding, considering either terminal or rotational crossing, synthetic breed creation or breed replacement, is often promoted as an efficient strategy to increase farmers' income through the improvement of productivity of local livestock in developing countries. Sustainability of crossbreeding is however frequently challenged by constraints such as poor adaptation to the local environment or lack of logistic support. In this review, we investigate factors that may influence the long-term success or the failure of crossbreeding programs, based on the scientific literature and country reports submitted for The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Crossbreeding activities vary widely across species and countries. Its sustainability is dependent on different prerequisites such as continual access to adequate breeding stock (especially after the end of externally funded crossbreeding projects), the opportunity of improved livestock to express their genetic potential (e.g. through providing proper inputs) and integration within a reliable market chain. As formal crossbreeding programs are often associated with adoption of other technologies, they can be a catalyst for innovation and development for smallholders. Given the increasing global demand for animal products, as well as the potential environmental consequences of climate change, there is a need for practical research to improve the implementation of long-term crossbreeding programs in developing countries.

  6. Addressing risk factors, screening, and preventative treatment for diabetic retinopathy in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Stephanie; Ramulu, Pradeep; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-05-01

    The number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has increased with the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus worldwide, especially in developing countries. In recent years, the successful implementation of public health programs in developed countries has been thought to contribute to decreases in blindness from DR. Developing countries, however, have not seen the same improvements, and their public health interventions still face significant challenges. In this review we describe the current state of public health approaches including risk factor control, screening and treatment techniques for DR in developing countries, and suggest recommendations. While the awareness of DR is variable, specific knowledge about DR is low, such that many patients have already experienced vision loss by the time they are screened. Attempts to improve rates of screening, in particular through non-mydriatic cameras and tele-screening, are ongoing and promising, although challenges include collaboration with healthcare systems and technology failures. Laser treatment is the most readily available, with anti-VEGF therapy and vitreo-retinal surgery increasingly sought after and provided. Recommendations include the use of 'targeted mydriasis' for fundus imaging to address high rates of ungradable images, increased communication with diabetes management services to improve patient retention and mobilization of access to DR treatments.

  7. Preventing gender-based violence victimization in adolescent girls in lower-income countries: Systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S

    2017-09-11

    This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to

  8. Dietary transition and obesity in selected Arabicspeaking countries: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, B H; Bernstein, J; Neary, A C

    2017-01-23

    Escalating obesity rates have become a significant public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and have been associated with shifts towards a westernized diet. This integrative review aimed to examine the current dietary trends and transitions and their association with obesity in Arabic-speaking countries of the MENA region. Relevant databases were searched for studies in MENA countries between 1998 and 2014 that investigated obesity trends and changes in dietary patterns at the regional level in all age groups. A total of 39 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the articles noted that obesity was increasingly prevalent and that there was a significant dietary shift away from traditional dietary patterns; 51% reported a shift towards a westernized diet and half found that the western diet was correlated with increased obesity. Culturally relevant dietary health education and health promotion strategies are warranted to address both the dietary shifts towards the westernized diet and the increasing obesity.

  9. Treatment strategies for chronic osteomyelitis in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Geurts, J; Hohnen, A; Vranken, T; Moh, P

    2017-09-01

    To identify a standard treatment regime or highly successful procedure for chronic osteomyelitis in low- and middle-income countries. Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. The initial search resulted in 102 studies of which nine met the inclusion criteria and were analysed qualitatively. The included studies involved 1173 patients from Africa and Asia. All patients were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis. Surgical and antibiotic treatment regimens differed substantially. No better judgement than moderate risk of selection bias could be made due to the study designs. The evidence is not sufficiently robust to identify the most effective treatment, or to even allow a recommendation of the best suitable treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in low-income countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Variability in melanoma post-treatment surveillance practices by country and physician specialty: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Kate D; Ross, Merrick I; Xing, Yan; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Royal, Richard E; Lucci, Anthony; Lee, Jeffrey E; Cormier, Janice N

    2012-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines for the surveillance of patients with melanoma following surgical treatment. We carried out a systematic review to identify by country and physician specialty the current stage-specific surveillance practices for patients with melanoma. Three major medical indices, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library database, and Scopus, were reviewed to identify articles published from January 1970 to October 2011 that included detailed information about the surveillance of patients with melanoma after the initial surgical treatment. Data on surveillance intervals and recommended evaluation were extracted and categorized by country and, when reported, physician specialty. One hundred and four articles from 10 countries and four physician specialties (dermatology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, and general practice) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 43 providing specific patient-level data. The articles showed a wide variation with respect to the surveillance intervals and recommended evaluations. The variation was greatest for patients with stage I disease, for whom the follow-up frequency ranged from one to six visits per year during years 1 and 2 after treatment. All four physician specialties agreed that for years 1-3, the follow-up frequency should be four times per year for all patients. For years 4 and 5, surgical oncologists recommended two follow-up visits per year, whereas general practitioners, dermatologists, and medical oncologists recommended four visits per year. Recommended imaging and laboratory evaluations were most intense in the UK and most minimalist in the Netherlands. Although general practitioners did not recommend routine laboratory or imaging tests for surveillance, all other specialties utilized both in their surveillance practice. Self skin-examination was recommended for surveillance in all countries and by all practitioner specialties. There are significant intercountry and interspecialty variations in

  11. A comparative review of nurse turnover rates and costs across countries.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Christine M; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline; Buchan, James; Dimitrelis, Sofia

    2014-12-01

    To compare nurse turnover rates and costs from four studies in four countries (US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) that have used the same costing methodology; the original Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Measuring and comparing the costs and rates of turnover is difficult because of differences in definitions and methodologies. Comparative review. Searches were carried out within CINAHL, Business Source Complete and Medline for studies that used the original Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology and reported on both costs and rates of nurse turnover, published from 2014 and prior. A comparative review of turnover data was conducted using four studies that employed the original Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology. Costing data items were converted to percentages, while total turnover costs were converted to US 2014 dollars and adjusted according to inflation rates, to permit cross-country comparisons. Despite using the same methodology, Australia reported significantly higher turnover costs ($48,790) due to higher termination (~50% of indirect costs) and temporary replacement costs (~90% of direct costs). Costs were almost 50% lower in the US ($20,561), Canada ($26,652) and New Zealand ($23,711). Turnover rates also varied significantly across countries with the highest rate reported in New Zealand (44·3%) followed by the US (26·8%), Canada (19·9%) and Australia (15·1%). A significant proportion of turnover costs are attributed to temporary replacement, highlighting the importance of nurse retention. The authors suggest a minimum dataset is also required to eliminate potential variability across countries, states, hospitals and departments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Frailty Screening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, William K; Richardson, Jenny; McGuire, Jackie; Dewhurst, Felicity; Elder, Vasanthi; Weeks, Julie; Walker, Richard W; Dotchin, Catherine L

    2016-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of frailty screening tools used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Systematic review. LMICs, as defined by the World Bank on June 30, 2014. Elderly adults (as defined by the authors) living in LMICs. Studies were included if the population under consideration lived in a LMIC, the study involved an assessment of frailty, the study population was elderly adults, and the full text of the study was available in English. The Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases were searched up to June 30, 2014. Seventy studies with data from 22 LMICs were included in the review. Brazil, Mexico, and China provided data for 60 of the 70 studies (85.7%), and 15 countries contributed data to only one study. Thirty-six studies used the Fried criteria to assess frailty, 20 used a Frailty Index, and eight used the Edmonton Frailty Scale; none of the assessment tools used had been fully validated for use in a LMIC. There has been a rapid increase in the number of published studies of frailty in LMICs over the last 5 years. Further validation of the assessment tools used to identify frail elderly people in LMICs is needed if they are to be efficient in identifying those most in need of health care in such settings. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Influenza vaccines in low and middle income countries: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ott, Jördis J; Klein Breteler, Janna; Tam, John S; Hutubessy, Raymond C W; Jit, Mark; de Boer, Michiel R

    2013-07-01

    Economic evaluations on influenza vaccination from low resource settings are scarce and have not been evaluated using a systematic approach. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review on the value for money of influenza vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for economic evaluations published in any language between 1960 and 2011. Main outcome measures were costs per influenza outcome averted, costs per quality-adjusted life years gained or disability-adjusted life years averted, costs per benefit in monetary units or cost-benefit ratios. Nine economic evaluations on seasonal influenza vaccine met the inclusion criteria. These were model- or randomized-controlled-trial (RCT)-based economic evaluations from middle-income countries. Influenza vaccination provided value for money for elderly, infants, adults and children with high-risk conditions. Vaccination was cost-effective and cost-saving for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and in elderly above 65 y from model-based evaluations, but conclusions from RCTs on elderly varied. Economic evaluations from middle income regions differed in population studied, outcomes and definitions used. Most findings are in line with evidence from high-income countries highlighting that influenza vaccine is likely to provide value for money. However, serious methodological limitations do not allow drawing conclusions on cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination in middle income countries. Evidence on cost-effectiveness from low-income countries is lacking altogether, and more information is needed from full economic evaluations that are conducted in a standardized manner.

  14. Immunisation coverage in rural–urban migrant children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awoh, Abiyemi Benita; Plugge, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of children who die from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) live in low-income and-middle-income countries (LMICs). With the rapid urbanisation and rural–urban migration ongoing in LMICs, available research suggests that migration status might be a determinant of immunisation coverage in LMICs, with rural–urban migrant (RUM) children being less likely to be immunised. Objectives To examine and synthesise the data on immunisation coverage in RUM children in LMICs and to compare coverage in these children with non-migrant children. Methods A multiple database search of published and unpublished literature on immunisation coverage for the routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines in RUM children aged 5 years and below was conducted. Following a staged exclusion process, studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and data extracted for meta-analysis. Results Eleven studies from three countries (China, India and Nigeria) were included in the review. There was substantial statistical heterogeneity between the studies, thus no summary estimate was reported for the meta-analysis. Data synthesis from the studies showed that the proportion of fully immunised RUM children was lower than the WHO bench-mark of 90% at the national level. RUMs were also less likely to be fully immunised than the urban-non-migrants and general population. For the individual EPI vaccines, all but two studies showed lower immunisation coverage in RUMs compared with the general population using national coverage estimates. Conclusions This review indicates that there is an association between rural–urban migration and immunisation coverage in LMICs with RUMs being less likely to be fully immunised than the urban non-migrants and the general population. Specific efforts to improve immunisation coverage in this subpopulation of urban residents will not only reduce morbidity and mortality from VPDs in migrants but will also reduce

  15. Collaborative care for depression in European countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sighinolfi, Cecilia; Nespeca, Claudia; Menchetti, Marco; Levantesi, Paolo; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Berardi, Domenico

    2014-10-01

    This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effectiveness of collaborative care compared to Primary Care Physician's (PCP's) usual care in the treatment of depression, focusing on European countries. A systematic review of English and non-English articles, from inception to March 2014, was performed using database PubMed, British Nursing Index and Archive, Ovid Medline (R), PsychINFO, Books@Ovid, PsycARTICLES Full Text, EMBASE Classic+Embase, DARE (Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effectiveness) and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Search term included depression, collaborative care, physician family and allied health professional. RCTs comparing collaborative care to usual care for depression in primary care were included. Titles and abstracts were independently examined by two reviewers, who extracted from the included trials information on participants' characteristics, type of intervention, features of collaborative care and type of outcome measure. The 17 papers included, regarding 15 RCTs, involved 3240 participants. Primary analyses showed that collaborative care models were associated with greater improvement in depression outcomes in the short term, within 3 months (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.19, 95% CI=-0.33; -0.05; p=0.006), medium term, between 4 and 11 months (SMD -0.24, 95% CI=-0.39; -0.09; p=0.001) and medium-long term, from 12 months and over (SMD -0.21, 95% CI=-0.37; -0.04; p=0.01), compared to usual care. The present review, specifically focusing on European countries, shows that collaborative care is more effective than treatment as usual in improving depression outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Community participation in research from resource-constrained countries: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Brear, Michelle; Hammarberg, Karin; Fisher, Jane

    2017-03-18

    Participatory health research (PHR) involves equitable community participation in all aspects of the research process. It is a potentially beneficial approach to research in resource-constrained countries. Measuring participation in specific activities and aspects is necessary for understanding the community and research-related benefits of PHR. The aims of this scoping review were to: develop a measure of lay-community participation in aspects and activities of PHR in resource-constrained countries; and use the measure to assess the nature and extent of reported participation. Directed content analysis was used to identify aspects and activities reported in peer-reviewed articles identified through a systematic search, develop the Comprehensive Community Participation in Research Framework (CCPRF) and use it to measure participation. Total and aspect participation scores, which considered both the nature and extent of participation, were calculated for articles reporting extensive participation. Eighty-five articles detailing 66 studies were included. Nine aspects and 49 activities of research were included in the CCPRF. Community participation was reported in a median of 5/9 (range 1-9) aspects and 8/49 (range 1-35) activities. The review provided diverse examples, and enabled development of a more comprehensive measure, of participation. It highlighted limited lay-community participation is reported in research labelled participatory from resource-constrained countries. As participation in all aspects of PHR is rarely achieved, strategic planning of more limited participation is imperative. More detailed and systematic planning, assessment and reporting of participation, guided by a comprehensive measure like the CCPRF, is required to develop evidence regarding the benefits of participation in various research activities.

  17. Methods for conducting systematic reviews of risk factors in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Yulia; Eisner, Manuel; Mikton, Christopher; Gardner, Frances; Liu, Jianghong; Murray, Joseph

    2016-03-15

    Rates of youth violence are disproportionately high in many low- and middle-income countries [LMICs] but existing reviews of risk factors focus almost exclusively on high-income countries. Different search strategies, including non-English language searches, might be required to identify relevant evidence in LMICs. This paper discusses methodological issues in systematic reviews aiming to include evidence from LMICs, using the example of a recent review of risk factors for child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs. We searched the main international databases, such as PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE in English, as well as 12 regional databases in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian. In addition, we used internet search engines and Google Scholar, and contacted over 200 researchers and organizations to identify potentially eligible studies in LMICs. The majority of relevant studies were identified in the mainstream databases, but additional studies were also found through regional databases, such as CNKI, Wangfang, LILACS and SciELO. Overall, 85% of eligible studies were in English, and 15% were reported in Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian or French. Among eligible studies in languages other than English, two-thirds were identified only by regional databases and one-third was also indexed in the main international databases. There are many studies on child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs which have not been included in prior reviews. Most research on these subjects in LMICs has been produced in the last two-three decades and mostly in middle-income countries, such as China, Brazil, Turkey, South Africa and Russia. Based on our findings, it appears that many studies of child conduct problems and youth violence in LMICs are reported in English, Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese, but few such studies are published in French, Arabic or Russian. If non-English language searches and screening had not been conducted in

  18. Economic impact of HIV/AIDS: a systematic review in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2014-12-01

    The HIV/AIDS disease represent a priority for all health authorities in all countries and it also represents serious added socioeconomic problems for societies over the world. The aim of this paper is to analize the economic impact associated to the HIV/AIDS in an European context. We conducted a systematic literature review for five different countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom) and searched five databases. Three types of analyses were undertaken: descriptive statistics; quantitative analysis to calculate mean costs; and comparison across countries. 26 papers were included in this study containing seventy-six cost estimates. Most of the studies analyzed the health care cost of treatment of HIV/AIDS. Only 50% of the cost estimates provided mean lymphocyte count describing the patients' disease stage. Approximately thirty percent of cost estimates did not indicate the developmental stage of the illness in the patients included. There is a high degree of variability in the estimated annual cost per patient of the treatments across countries. There is also a great disparity in total healh care costs for patients with lymphocyte counts between 200CD4+/mm3 and 500 CD4/mm3, although the reason of variation is unclear. In spite of the potential economic impact in terms of productivity losses and cost of formal and informal care, few studies have set out to estimate the non-medical costs of HIV/AIDS in the countries selected. Another important result is that, despite the low HIV/AIDS prevalence, its economic burden is very relevant in terms of the total health care costs in this five countries. This study also shows that there are relatively few studies of HIV costs in European countries compared to other diseases. Finally, we conclude that the methodology used in many of the studies carried out leaves ample room for improvement and that there is a need for these studies to reflect the economic impact of HIV/AIDS beyond health care including other

  19. A systematic review of the use of telehealth in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Hammad; Khoja, Shariq

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the literature on telehealth in Asia. The Medline database was searched, together with three specialist journals, for peer-reviewed articles published in the ten years to June 2007 which were related to any telehealth application involving one or more Asian country. Out of the 1504 abstracts retrieved, 109 articles were selected by two independent reviewers for the final review. The number of published articles on telehealth in Asia increased during the review period. The largest number of studies were conducted in Japan (37%). Most telehealth applications were based on the store-and-forward modality (43%), with 35% using videoconferencing and 15% using a hybrid approach. Most of the studies were descriptive (75%) and only eight included a control group against which telehealth was compared. The most common means of telecommunication was ISDN lines, which were employed in 32% of the studies. Some 40% of the studies mentioned improved quality of health care; about 20% mentioned improved access to health care. Although most studies mentioned cost, only 13 of them assessed resource utilization and cost. The overall findings gave a generally optimistic picture of telehealth in Asia. However, there is a lack of good quality studies.

  20. Removing user fees for health services in low-income countries: a multi-country review framework for assessing the process of policy change.

    PubMed

    Hercot, David; Meessen, Bruno; Ridde, Valery; Gilson, Lucy

    2011-11-01

    Several authors have stressed the fact that many policy reforms fail because of poor formulation or implementation. On the other hand, the health financing literature provides little guidance to policy makers in low-income countries on how to implement a health care financing reform in ways that enhance its chance of achieving policy objectives, even less so for a user fee removal reform. This paper presents the framework used for a multi-country review of the policy process of removing user fees in six sub-Saharan African countries. The review aimed at developing operational guidance for health managers involved in user fee removal reform. Drawing broadly on Walt and Gilson's 'health policy analysis triangle' (context-actor-process-content), we focused particularly on understanding the process of planning and implementing the reform led by central-level policy actors. Our core analytic strategy was the verification of a list of 'good practice hypotheses' that might be expected in a health financing policy reform against experience. This framework offers an approach for how to analyse health financing policy reform processes in low-income countries. It allows for an explicit and transparent review of multiple experiences against a set of clear hypotheses. This approach might be a step in the direction of research that supports better formulation and implementation of policies in resource-poor settings.

  1. Luminescent aryl-group eleven metal complexes.

    PubMed

    López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena

    2017-02-14

    Among the coinage metal complexes displaying luminescent properties, those bearing C-donor aryl ligands have an increasing part in the chemistry of these metals. These types of ligands confer a high kinetic and thermodynamic stability on the complexes, but they can also be involved in the photoluminescent behaviour of the complexes. The development of new aryl-containing complexes of group eleven metals, the study of their photoluminescent properties and their related properties and applications are discussed in this perspective. Among these, luminescent gold(i) and gold(iii) compounds are being intensively used for the development of new properties with potential applications such as, for instance, electroluminescence, triboluminescence, mechanochromism, aggregated induced emissions, quenching, luminescent liquid crystals, low molecular weight gelators and photocatalysts, among others.

  2. GAS eleven node thermal model (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Eleven Node Thermal Model (GEM) of the Get Away Special (GAS) container was originally developed based on the results of thermal tests of the GAS container. The model was then used in the thermal analysis and design of several NASA/GSFC GAS experiments, including the Flight Verification Payload, the Ultraviolet Experiment, and the Capillary Pumped Loop. The model description details the five cu ft container both with and without an insulated end cap. Mass specific heat values are also given so that transient analyses can be performed. A sample problem for each configuration is included as well so that GEM users can verify their computations. The model can be run on most personal computers with a thermal analyzer solution routine.

  3. Strong nutrition governance is a key to addressing nutrition transition in low and middle-income countries: review of countries' nutrition policies.

    PubMed

    Sunguya, Bruno F; Ong, Ken I C; Dhakal, Sumi; Mlunde, Linda B; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-06-27

    Nutrition transition necessitates low and middle-income countries (LAMICs) to scale up their efforts in addressing the burdens of undernutrition and overweight/obesity. Magnitudes of undernutrition and overweight are high in LAMICs, but no study has reviewed the existence of nutrition policies to address it. No evidence is also available on the effect of nutrition policies and governance on the undernutrition and overweight/obesity patterns in such countries. We conducted a policy review to examine the presence and associations of nutrition policies and governance with the children's nutrition statuses in LAMICs. We reviewed nutrition policies, nutrition governance, and the trends of nutrition status from LAMICs. We retrieved data on the policies from the global database on the implementation of nutrition actions (GINA). We also retrieved data on the trends of nutrition status and nutrition governance from the nutrition landscape information system (NLiS), and on LAMICs from the World Bank database. We then analyzed the data both descriptively and by using a mixed effects model with random-intercept by country. Of the 139 LAMICs reviewed, only 39.6% had policies to address both undernutrition and overweight/obesity. A higher proportion of low-income countries (LICs) had policies to address undernutrition compared to that of middle-income countries (MICs) (86.1% vs. 63.1%, p = 0.002), and a low proportion of both had policy to address overweight. Having a nutrition policy that addresses undernutrition was not associated with better nutrition status outcomes. Strong nutrition governance in LAMICS was associated with low magnitudes of stunting (beta = -4.958, p = 0.015); wasting (beta = -5.418, p = 0.003); and underweight (beta = -6.452, p = 0.001). Despite high magnitudes of undernutrition and overweight/obesity in LAMICs, only about one third of them had nutrition policies to address such nutrition transition. Having strong nutrition governance may help to bring

  4. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high income countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K. L.; Leon, J. S.; Rebolledo, P. A.; Scallan, E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Though low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering 4 pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens. PMID:25600652

  5. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Newman, K L; Leon, J S; Rebolledo, P A; Scallan, E

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens.

  6. Asylum seekers, violence and health: a systematic review of research in high-income host countries.

    PubMed

    Kalt, Anne; Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-03-01

    We performed a systematic review of literature on violence and related health concerns among asylum seekers in high-income host countries. We extracted data from 23 peer-reviewed studies. Prevalence of torture, variably defined, was above 30% across all studies. Torture history in clinic populations correlated with hunger and posttraumatic stress disorder, although in small, nonrepresentative samples. One study observed that previous exposure to interpersonal violence interacted with longer immigration detention periods, resulting in higher depression scores. Limited evidence suggests that asylum seekers frequently experience violence and health problems, but large-scale studies are needed to inform policies and services for this vulnerable group often at the center of political debate.

  7. Asylum Seekers, Violence and Health: A Systematic Review of Research in High-Income Host Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of literature on violence and related health concerns among asylum seekers in high-income host countries. We extracted data from 23 peer-reviewed studies. Prevalence of torture, variably defined, was above 30% across all studies. Torture history in clinic populations correlated with hunger and posttraumatic stress disorder, although in small, nonrepresentative samples. One study observed that previous exposure to interpersonal violence interacted with longer immigration detention periods, resulting in higher depression scores. Limited evidence suggests that asylum seekers frequently experience violence and health problems, but large-scale studies are needed to inform policies and services for this vulnerable group often at the center of political debate. PMID:23327250

  8. Patients’ management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies

    PubMed Central

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients’ decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process. PMID:27354775

  9. A systematic review of responsive feeding and child obesity in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2011-03-01

    Child overweight/obesity continues to be a serious public health problem in high-income countries. The current review had 3 goals: 1) to summarize the associations between responsive feeding and child weight status in high-income countries; 2) to describe existing responsive feeding measures; and 3) to generate suggestions for future research. Articles were obtained from PubMed and PsycInfo using specified search criteria. The majority (24/31) of articles reported significant associations between nonresponsive feeding and child weight-for-height Z-score, BMI Z-score, overweight/obesity, or adiposity. Most studies identified were conducted exclusively in the United States (n = 22), were cross-sectional (n = 25), and used self-report feeding questionnaires (n = 28). A recent trend exists toward conducting research among younger children (i.e. infants and toddlers) and low-income and/or minority populations. Although current evidence suggests that nonresponsive feeding is associated with child BMI or overweight/obesity, more research is needed to understand causality, the reliability and validity between and within existing feeding measures, and to test the efficacy of responsive feeding interventions in the prevention and treatment of child overweight/obesity in high-income countries.

  10. [National health research systems in Latin America: a 14-country review].

    PubMed

    Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Kennedy, Andrew; Martinelli, Elena; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    This article discusses the main features of the national health research systems (NHRS) of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, based on documents prepared by their country experts who participated in the First Latin American Conference on Research and Innovation for Health held in April 2008, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The review also includes sources cited in the reports, published scientific papers, and expert opinion, as well as regional secondary sources. Six countries reported having formal entities for health research governance and management: Brazil and Costa Rica's entities are led by their ministries of health; while Argentina, Cuba, Ecuador, and Venezuela have entities shared by their ministries of health and ministries of science and technology. Brazil and Ecuador each reported having a comprehensive national policy devoted specifically to health science, technology, and innovation. Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela reported having established health research priorities. In conclusion, encouraging progress has been made, despite the structural and functional heterogeneity of the study countries' NHRS and their disparate levels of development. Instituting good NHRS governance/management is of utmost importance to how efficiently ministries of health, other government players, and society-at-large can tackle health research.

  11. Child contact management in high tuberculosis burden countries: A mixed-methods systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Du Plessis, Lienki; Du Preez, Karen; Carr, Catherine; Mandalakas, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996–2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (<15 years) exposed to TB in the household from programmatic settings in high burden countries (HBCs), b) interventions: CCM strategies implemented within the CCM cascade, c) comparisons: CCM strategies studied and compared in HBCs, and d) outcomes: monitoring and evaluation of CCM outcomes reported in the literature for each CCM cascade step. We included any quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study design except for randomized-controlled trials, editorials or commentaries. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed. Child contact losses varied greatly for screening, isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, and completion. CCM challenges included: infrastructure, knowledge, attitudes, stigma, access, competing priorities, and treatment. CCM recommendations included: health system strengthening, health education, and improved preventive therapy. Identified predictors included: index case and clinic characteristics, perceptions of barriers and risk, costs, and treatment characteristics. CCM lacks standardization resulting in common challenges and losses throughout the CCM cascade. Prioritization of a CCM-friendly healthcare environment with improved CCM processes and tools; health education; and

  12. Disaster management in low- and middle-income countries: scoping review of the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew Chee Keng; Booth, Andrew; Challen, Kirsty; Gardois, Paolo; Goodacre, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Globally, there has been an increase in the prevalence and scale of disasters with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) tending to be more affected. Consequently, disaster risk reduction has been advocated as a global priority. However, the evidence base for disaster management in these settings is unclear. This study is a scoping review of the evidence base for disaster management in LMIC. Potentially relevant articles between 1990 and 2011 were searched for, assessed for relevance and subsequently categorised using a thematic coding framework based on the US Integrated Emergency Management System model. Out of 1545 articles identified, only 178 were from LMIC settings. Most were of less robust design such as event reports and commentaries, and 66% pertained to natural disasters. There was a paucity of articles on disaster mitigation or recovery, and more were written on disaster response and preparedness issues. Considerably more articles were published from high-income country settings that may reflect a publication bias. Current grey literature on disaster management tends not to be peer reviewed, is not well organised and not easy to access. The paucity of peer-reviewed publications compromises evidence review initiatives that seek to provide an evidence-base for disaster management in LMIC. As such, there is an urgent need for greater research and publication of findings on disaster management issues from these settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. "Profits before people"? A systematic review of the health and safety impacts of privatising public utilities and industries in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val; Drever, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Debates on government privatisation policies have often focused on the alleged effects of privatisation on health and safety. A systematic review (through Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis) of the effects of privatising industries and utilities on the health (including injuries) of employees and the public was conducted. The data sources were electronic databases (medical, social science and economic), bibliographies and expert contacts. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were sought, dating from 1945, from any Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development member country (in any language) that evaluated the health outcomes of such interventions. Eleven highly heterogeneous studies that evaluated the health impacts of privatisation of building, water, paper, cement, bus, rail, mining, electric and gas companies were identified. The most robust study found increases in the measures of stress-related ill health among employees after a privatisation intervention involving company downsizing. No robust evidence was found to link privatisation with increased injury rates for employees or customers. In conclusion, public debates on the health and safety implications of privatisation have a poor empirical base, which policy makers and researchers need to address. Some evidence suggests that adverse health outcomes could result from redundancies associated with privatisation.

  14. A review of measles supplementary immunization activities and the implications for Pacific Island countries and territories.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John; Soakai, Taniela Sunia; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad

    2017-02-01

    Standard measles control strategies include achieving high levels of measles vaccine coverage using routine delivery systems, supplemented by mass immunization campaigns as needed to close population immunity gaps. Areas covered: This review looks at how supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) have contributed to measles control globally, and asks whether such a strategy has a place in Pacific Islands today. Expert commentary: Very high coverage with two doses of measles vaccine seems to be the optimal strategy for controlling measles. By 2015, all but two Pacific Islands had introduced a second dose in the routine schedule; however, a number of countries have not yet reached high coverage with their second dose. The literature and the country reviews reported here suggest that a high coverage SIA combined with one dose of measles vaccine given in the routine system will also do the job. The arguments for and against the use of SIAs are complex, but it is clear that to be effective, SIAs need to be well designed to meet specific needs, must be carried out effectively and safely with very high coverage, and should, when possible, carry with them other public health interventions to make them even more cost-effective.

  15. Climate change and health in the Eastern Mediterranean countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdo, Nour; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmed; Bakir, Hamed; Alemam, Rola

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the existing knowledge of the impact of climate change on health from previous research in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) and identify knowledge and research gaps. Different databases were searched for relevant studies published in the region between 2000 and 2014. The review was limited to studies reporting the impacts of climate change on health or studying associations between meteorological parameters and well-defined human health outcomes. This systematic review of 78 studies identified many knowledge and research gaps. Research linking climate change and health is scarce in the most vulnerable countries of the region. There is limited information regarding how changes in temperature, precipitation and other weather variables might affect the geographic range and incidence of mortality and morbidity from various diseases. Available research has many limitations and shortcomings that arise from inappropriate study designs, poor assessment of exposure and outcomes, questionable sources of data, lack of standardized methods, poor adjustment of confounders, limited geographical area studies, small sample sizes, poor statistical modeling and not testing for possible interactions between exposures. Research and information on the effect of climate change on health are limited. Longitudinal studies over extended periods of time that investigate the link between climate change and health are needed. There is a need for studies to be expanded to include more countries in the region and to include other environmental, social and economic factors that might affect the spread of the disease.

  16. Peer-reviewed public health journals from Arabic-speaking countries: An updated snapshot.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Bernstein, Joshua; Bowser, Jacquelyn E

    2016-10-14

    There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions. We identified twenty-five public health journals for review. Five journals were interrupted or discontinued. Only three journals had a consistent, uninterrupted active publication history of greater than 20 years. Most journals were not in the regional native language. Introduction of regional public health-dedicated journals with in-print and electronic availability and also to be published in region-native languages may require interdisciplinary partnerships. Region-wide public health journals such as the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal could serve as an ideal model for the establishment of additional local and regional public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries.

  17. Peer-reviewed public health journals from Arabic-speaking countries: An updated snapshot.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Basil H; Bernstein, Joshua; Bowser, Jacquelyn E

    2017-02-01

    There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions. We identified twenty-five public health journals for review. Five journals were interrupted or discontinued. Only three journals had a consistent, uninterrupted active publication history of greater than 20 years. Most journals were not in the regional native language. Introduction of regional public health-dedicated journals with in-print and electronic availability and also to be published in region-native languages may require interdisciplinary partnerships. Region-wide public health journals such as the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal could serve as an ideal model for the establishment of additional local and regional public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries.

  18. Primary care strategies to improve childhood immunisation uptake in developed countries: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nia; Woodward, Helen; Majeed, Azeem; Saxena, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of strategies to optimize immunisation uptake within preschool children in developed countries. Design Systematic review. Setting Developed countries Participants Preschool children who were due, or overdue, one or more of their routine primary immunisations. Main outcome measures Increase in the proportion of the target population up to date with standard recommended universal vaccinations. Results Forty-six studies were included for analysis, published between 1980 and 2009. Twenty-six studies were randomized controlled trials, 11 were before and after trials, and nine were controlled intervention trials. Parental reminders showed a statistically significant increase in immunisation rates in 34% of included intervention arms. These effects were reported with both generic and specific reminders and with all methods of reminders and recall. Strategies aimed at immunisation providers were also shown to improve immunisation rates with a median change in immunisation rates of 7% when reminders were used, 8% when educational programmes were used and 19% when feedback programmes were used. Conclusion General practitioners are uniquely positioned to influence parental decisions on childhood immunisation. A variety of strategies studied in primary care settings have been shown to improve immunisation rates, including parental and healthcare provider reminders. PMID:22046500

  19. Economic efficiency of countries' clinical review processes and competitiveness on the market of human experimentation.

    PubMed

    Ippoliti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Clinical research is a specific phase of pharmaceutical industry's production process in which companies test candidate drugs on patients to collect clinical evidence about safety and effectiveness. Information is essential to obtain manufacturing authorization from the national drug agency and, in this way, make profits on the market. Considering this activity, however, the public stakeholder has to face a conflict of interests. On the one side, there is society's necessity to make advances in medicine and, of course, to promote pharmaceutical companies' investments in this specific phase (new generation). On the other side, there is the duty to protect patients involved in these experimental treatments (old generation). To abide by this moral duty, a protection system was developed through the years, based on two legal institutions: informed consent and institutional review board. How should an efficient protection system that would take human experimentation into account be shaped? Would it be possible for the national protection system of patients' rights to affect the choice of whether to develop a clinical trial in a given country or not? Looking at Europe and considering a protection system that is shaped around institutional review boards, this article is an empirical work that tries to give answers to these open questions. It shows how a protection system that can minimize the time necessary to start a trial can positively affect pharmaceutical clinical research, that is, the choice of pharmaceutical companies to start innovative medical treatments in a given country.

  20. Behaviour change techniques and contraceptive use in low and middle income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Mwelwa; King, R; Newell, J N

    2015-10-30

    We aimed to identify effective behaviour change techniques to increase modern contraceptive use in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Literature was identified in Global Health, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Popline, as well as peer reviewed journals. Articles were included if they were written in English, had an outcome evaluation of contraceptive use, modern contraceptive use, contraceptive initiation/uptake, contraceptive adherence or continuation of contraception, were a systematic review or randomised controlled trial, and were conducted in a low or middle income country. We assessed the behaviour change techniques used in each intervention and included a new category of male partner involvement. We identified six studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The most effective interventions were those that involve male partner involvement in the decision to initiate contraceptive use. The findings also suggest that providing access to contraceptives in the community promotes their use. The interventions that had positive effects on contraceptive use used a combination of behaviour change techniques. Performance techniques were not used in any of the interventions. The use of social support techniques, which are meant to improve wider social acceptability, did not appear except in two of the interventions. Our findings suggest that when information and contraceptives are provided, contraceptive use improves. Recommendations include reporting of behaviour change studies to include more details of the intervention and techniques employed. There is also a need for further research to understand which techniques are especially effective.

  1. An international review of tobacco smoking among dental students in 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted as a systematic review of all modern literature describing the prevalence of tobacco smoking among dental students. An electronic keyword search of appropriate terms was initially undertaken to identify relevant material, after which the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to locate additional publications. A total of 27 studies from 19 countries were identified. The earliest manuscripts appeared in 1970, with the most recent being published in 2006. From a global perspective, our review suggests that tobacco smoking is relatively uncommon among contemporary dental students in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. This is not surprising however, as it has previously been noted that dentists generally smoke at one of the lowest rates among all health professionals, and much lower than that of the communities in which they live. Somewhat discouragingly, we did find that smoking remains quite common among dental students in countries such as Greece, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. Given the fact that some of the student body continue to smoke tobacco, it is clear that more aggressive tobacco-specific measures should become a mandatory component of global dental education in future years.

  2. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  3. Behavioural interventions for HIV positive prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Medley, Amy M; Sweat, Michael D; O'Reilly, Kevin R

    2010-08-01

    To assess the evidence for a differential effect of positive prevention interventions among individuals infected and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countries, and to assess the effectiveness of interventions targeted specifically at people living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of papers on positive prevention behavioural interventions in developing countries published between January 1990 and December 2006. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random effects models. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis, behavioural interventions had a stronger impact on condom use among HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals (odds ratio, OR: 3.61; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.61-4.99) than among HIV-negative individuals (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 0.77-2.26). Interventions specifically targeting HIV+ individuals also showed a positive effect on condom use (OR: 7.84; 95% CI: 2.82-21.79), which was particularly strong among HIV-serodiscordant couples (OR: 67.38; 95% CI: 36.17-125.52). Interventions included in this review were limited both in scope (most were HIV counselling and testing interventions) and in target populations (most were conducted among heterosexual adults or HIV-serodiscordant couples). Current evidence suggests that interventions targeting people living with HIV in developing countries increase condom use, especially among HIV-serodiscordant couples. Comprehensive positive prevention interventions targeting diverse populations and covering a range of intervention modalities are needed to keep HIV+ individuals physically and mentally healthy, prevent transmission of HIV infection and increase the agency and involvement of people living with HIV.

  4. Review of epidemiology and management of atrial fibrillation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu N; Hilmer, Sarah N; Cumming, Robert G

    2013-09-10

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest sustained cardiac arrhythmia. In developing countries, AF is a growing public health problem with the epidemiologic transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. However, relatively little is known about AF in the developing world. The aim of this review is to examine in developing countries the prevalence, associated medical conditions and management of AF. A literature search was conducted via MEDLINE and EMBASE (1990-2012). Seventy studies were included in the review. The prevalence of AF in the general population ranged from 0.03% to 1.25%, while the prevalence of AF in hospital-based studies varied from 0.7% to 55.7%. Prevalence of AF in Africa was lower than in other regions. The most common conditions associated with AF were hypertension (10.3%-71.9%) and valvular heart disease (5.6%-66.3%). The prevalence of stroke in patients with AF ranged from 6.7% to 27%. The utilization of anticoagulants was highly variable (2.7%-72.7%). Approximately half of the patients with AF using warfarin had therapeutic International Normalized Ratios (INR). There was a high prevalence of use of rate control therapies (55.3%-87.3%). The limited studies available suggest that in the developing world there is a significant prevalence of AF, which is predominantly associated with hypertension and valvular heart disease, and carries a risk of stroke. Highly variable use of anticoagulants may be related to different health care and socioeconomic settings. More studies are needed to improve understanding of the epidemiology and management of AF in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved reporting quality are necessary to generate

  6. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions from the published literatures and assess their implication for policy and future research. Study design A systematic review was performed in several electronic databases i.e Medline (Pubmed), Embase, Popline, The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), EBSCOHost, and The Cochrane Library. Articles reporting full economic evaluations of strategies to improve family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, published between 1995 until 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Data was synthesized and analyzed using a narrative approach and the reporting quality of the included studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. Results From 920 references screened, 9 studies were eligible for inclusion. Six references assessed cost effectiveness of improving family planning interventions in one or more L-MICs, while the rest assessed costs and consequences of integrating family planning and HIV services, concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Assembled evidence suggested that improving family planning interventions is cost effective in a variety of L-MICs as measured against accepted international cost effectiveness benchmarks. In areas with high HIV prevalence, integrating family planning and HIV services can be efficient and cost effective; however the evidence is only supported by a very limited number of studies. The major drivers of cost effectiveness were cost of increasing coverage, effectiveness of the interventions and country-specific factors. Conclusion Improving family planning interventions in low and middle income countries appears to be cost-effective. Additional economic evaluation studies with improved

  7. What Is the Role of Informal Healthcare Providers in Developing Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ingram, Matthew; Lofthouse, Heather Kinlaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Informal health care providers (IPs) comprise a significant component of health systems in developing nations. Yet little is known about the most basic characteristics of performance, cost, quality, utilization, and size of this sector. To address this gap we conducted a comprehensive literature review on the informal health care sector in developing countries. We searched for studies published since 2000 through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and relevant grey literature from The New York Academy of Medicine, The World Bank, The Center for Global Development, USAID, SHOPS (formerly PSP-One), The World Health Organization, DFID, Human Resources for Health Global Resource Center. In total, 334 articles were retrieved, and 122 met inclusion criteria and chosen for data abstraction. Results indicate that IPs make up a significant portion of the healthcare sector globally, with almost half of studies (48%) from Sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization estimates from 24 studies in the literature of IP for healthcare services ranged from 9% to 90% of all healthcare interactions, depending on the country, the disease in question, and methods of measurement. IPs operate in a variety of health areas, although baseline information on quality is notably incomplete and poor quality of care is generally assumed. There was a wide variation in how quality of care is measured. The review found that IPs reported inadequate drug provision, poor adherence to clinical national guidelines, and that there were gaps in knowledge and provider practice; however, studies also found that the formal sector also reported poor provider practices. Reasons for using IPs included convenience, affordability, and social and cultural effects. Recommendations from the literature amount to a call for more engagement with the IP sector. IPs are a large component of nearly all developing country health systems. Research and policies of engagement are needed. PMID:23405101

  8. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  9. Kerosene: a review of household uses and their hazards in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nicholas L; Smith, Kirk R; Gauthier, Alison; Bates, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Kerosene has been an important household fuel since the mid-19th century. In developed countries its use has greatly declined because of electrification. However, in developing countries, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. This review focuses on household kerosene uses, mainly in developing countries, their associated emissions, and their hazards. Kerosene is often advocated as a cleaner alternative to solid fuels, biomass and coal, for cooking, and kerosene lamps are frequently used when electricity is unavailable. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still use fuels, particularly kerosene, for lighting. However, there are few studies, study designs and quality are varied, and results are inconsistent. Well-documented kerosene hazards are poisonings, fires, and explosions. Less investigated are exposures to and risks from kerosene's combustion products. Some kerosene-using devices emit substantial amounts of fine particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO(x)), and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). Studies of kerosene used for cooking or lighting provide some evidence that emissions may impair lung function and increase infectious illness (including tuberculosis), asthma, and cancer risks. However, there are few study designs, quality is varied, and results are inconsistent. Considering the widespread use in the developing world of kerosene, the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic investigations, the potential for harm, and the implications for national energy policies, researchers are strongly encouraged to consider collecting data on household kerosene uses in studies of health in developing countries. Given the potential risks of kerosene, policymakers may consider alternatives to kerosene subsidies, such as shifting support to cleaner technologies for lighting and cooking.

  10. KEROSENE: A REVIEW OF HOUSEHOLD USES AND THEIR HAZARDS IN LOW- AND MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Smith, Kirk R.; Gauthier, Alison; Bates, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene has been an important household fuel since the mid-19th century. In developed countries its use has greatly declined because of electrification. However, in developing countries, kerosene use for cooking and lighting remains widespread. This review focuses on household kerosene uses, mainly in developing countries, their associated emissions, and their hazards. Kerosene is often advocated as a cleaner alternative to solid fuels, biomass and coal, for cooking, and kerosene lamps are frequently used when electricity is unavailable. Globally, an estimated 500 million households still use fuels, particularly kerosene, for lighting. However, there are few studies, study designs and quality are varied, and results are inconsistent. Well-documented kerosene hazards are poisonings, fires, and explosions. Less investigated are exposures to and risks from kerosene’s combustion products. Some kerosene-using devices emit substantial amounts of fine particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Studies of kerosene used for cooking or lighting provide some evidence that emissions may impair lung function and increase infectious illness (including tuberculosis), asthma, and cancer risks. However, there are few study designs, quality is varied, and results are inconsistent. Considering the widespread use in the developing world of kerosene, the scarcity of adequate epidemiologic investigations, the potential for harm, and the implications for national energy policies, researchers are strongly encouraged to consider collecting data on household kerosene uses in studies of health in developing countries. Given the potential risks of kerosene, policymakers may consider alternatives to kerosene subsidies, such as shifting support to cleaner technologies for lighting and cooking. PMID:22934567

  11. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  12. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  13. Solid waste management in European countries: a review of systems analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana; Martinho, Graça; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2011-04-01

    In the past few decades, solid waste management systems in Europe have involved complex and multi-faceted trade-offs among a plethora of technological alternatives, economic instruments, and regulatory frameworks. These changes resulted in various environmental, economic, social, and regulatory impacts in waste management practices which not only complicate regional policy analysis, but also reshape the paradigm of global sustainable development. Systems analysis, a discipline that harmonizes these integrated solid waste management strategies, has been uniquely providing interdisciplinary support for decision making in this area. Systems engineering models and system assessment tools, both of which enrich the analytical framework of waste management, were designed specifically to handle particular types of problems. Though how to smooth out the barriers toward achieving appropriate systems synthesis and integration of these models and tools to aid in the solid waste management schemes prevalent in European countries still remains somewhat uncertain. This paper conducts a thorough literature review of models and tools illuminating possible overlapped boundaries in waste management practices in European countries and encompassing the pros and cons of waste management practices in each member state of the European Union. Whereas the Southern European Union (EU) countries need to develop further measures to implement more integrated solid waste management and reach EU directives, the Central EU countries need models and tools with which to rationalize their technological choices and management strategies. Nevertheless, considering systems analysis models and tools in a synergistic way would certainly provide opportunities to develop better solid waste management strategies leading to conformity with current standards and foster future perspectives for both the waste management industry and government agencies in European Union. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-06-08

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.

  15. Wastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Andualem; Leta, Seyoum; Njau, Karoli Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low.

  16. Delivery arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Lewin, Simon; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Rada, Gabriel; Wiysonge, Charles S; Bastías, Gabriel; Dudley, Lilian; Flottorp, Signe; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Glenton, Claire; Okwundu, Charles I; Peñaloza, Blanca; Suleman, Fatima; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-13

    Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services. To provide an overview of the available evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of delivery arrangements for health systems in low-income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on delivery arrangements and informing refinements of the framework for delivery arrangements outlined in the review. We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ-Evidence up to 17 December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well-conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of delivery arrangements on patient outcomes (health and health behaviours), the quality or utilisation of healthcare services, resource use, healthcare provider outcomes (such as sick leave), or social outcomes (such as poverty or employment) and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations important enough to compromise the reliability of the findings. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data, and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared SUPPORT Summaries for eligible reviews, including key messages, 'Summary of findings' tables (using GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence), and assessments of the relevance of

  17. The efficiency of health care production in OECD countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-country comparisons.

    PubMed

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria

    2016-03-01

    There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lund, Crick; Breen, Alison; Flisher, Alan J; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Corrigall, Joanne; Joska, John A; Swartz, Leslie; Patel, Vikram

    2010-08-01

    In spite of high levels of poverty in low and middle income countries (LMIC), and the high burden posed by common mental disorders (CMD), it is only in the last two decades that research has emerged that empirically addresses the relationship between poverty and CMD in these countries. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature in LMIC, with the aim of examining this relationship. Of 115 studies that were reviewed, most reported positive associations between a range of poverty indicators and CMD. In community-based studies, 73% and 79% of studies reported positive associations between a variety of poverty measures and CMD, 19% and 15% reported null associations and 8% and 6% reported negative associations, using bivariate and multivariate analyses respectively. However, closer examination of specific poverty dimensions revealed a complex picture, in which there was substantial variation between these dimensions. While variables such as education, food insecurity, housing, social class, socio-economic status and financial stress exhibit a relatively consistent and strong association with CMD, others such as income, employment and particularly consumption are more equivocal. There are several measurement and population factors that may explain variation in the strength of the relationship between poverty and CMD. By presenting a systematic review of the literature, this paper attempts to shift the debate from questions about whether poverty is associated with CMD in LMIC, to questions about which particular dimensions of poverty carry the strongest (or weakest) association. The relatively consistent association between CMD and a variety of poverty dimensions in LMIC serves to strengthen the case for the inclusion of mental health on the agenda of development agencies and in international targets such as the millenium development goals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between socioeconomic status and gastrointestinal infections in developed countries: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanith C; Adams, Natalie; Taylor-Robinson, David C; Barr, Benjamin; Hawker, Jeremy; O'Brien, Sarah; Violato, Mara; Whitehead, Margaret

    2016-01-21

    The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health is well documented in the existing literature. Nonetheless, evidence on the relationship between SES and gastrointestinal (GI) infections is limited, and the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood with published studies pointing to conflicting results. This review aims to identify studies that investigate the relationship between SES and GI infections in developed countries, in order to assess the direction of the association and explore possible explanations for any differences in the risk, incidence or prevalence of GI infections across socioeconomic groups. Three systematic methods will be used to identify relevant literature: electronic database, reference list and grey literature searching. The databases MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection will be searched using a broad range of search terms. Screening of the results will be performed by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reference lists of included studies will be searched, and Google will be used to identify grey literature. Observational studies reporting quantitative results on the prevalence or incidence of any symptomatic GI infections by SES, in a representative population sample from a member country of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), will be included. Data will be extracted using a standardised form. Study quality will be assessed using the Liverpool University Quality Assessment Tools (LQAT). A narrative synthesis will be performed including tabulation of studies for comparison. This systematic review will consolidate the existing knowledge on the relationship between SES and GI infections. The results will help to identify gaps in the literature and will therefore provide an evidence base for future empirical studies to deepen the understanding of the relationship, including effective study design and appropriate data

  20. Violent conflict and opiate use in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jack, Helen; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2014-03-01

    Violent conflicts disproportionately affect populations in low and middle-income countries, and exposure to conflict is a known risk factor for mental disorders and substance use, including use of illicit opiates. Opiate use can be particularly problematic in resource-limited settings because few treatment options are available and dependence can impede economic development. In this systematic review, we explore the relationship between violent conflict and opiate use in conflict-affected populations in low and middle-income countries. We searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, PILOTS, and select grey literature databases using a defined list of key terms related to conflict and opiate use, screened the results for relevant and methodologically rigorous studies, and conducted a forward search of the bibliographies of selected results to identify additional studies. We screened 707 articles, selecting 6 articles for inclusion: 4 quantitative studies and 2 qualitative studies that examined populations in 9 different countries. All study participants were adults (aged 15-65) living in or displaced from a conflict-affected country. Data sources included death records, hospital records, and interviews with refugees, internally displaced persons, and others affected by conflict. Overall, we found a positive, but ambiguous, association between violent conflict and opiate use, with five of six studies suggesting that opiate use increases with violent conflict. Five key factors mediate the conceptual relationship between opiate use and violent conflict: (1) pre-conflict opiate presence, (2) mental disorders, (3) lack of economic opportunity, (4) changes in social norms or structure, and (5) changes in drug availability. The strength and direction of the association between opiate use and violent conflict and the proposed mediating factors may differ between contexts, necessitating country and population-specific research and interventions. Prevalence of opiate use prior to the

  1. Country development and manuscript selection bias: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Shakiba, Behnam; Mortaz-Hejri, Soroush

    2006-08-01

    Manuscript selection bias is the selective publication of manuscripts based on study characteristics other than quality indicators. One reason may be a perceived editorial bias against the researches from less-developed world. We aimed to compare the methodological quality and statistical appeal of trials from countries with different development status and to determine their association with the journal impact factors and language of publication. Based on the World Bank income criteria countries were divided into four groups. All records of clinical trials conducted in each income group during 1993 and 2003 were included if they contained abstract and study sample size. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was searched and 50 articles selected from each income group using a systematic random sampling method in years 1993 and 2003 separately. Data were extracted by two reviewers on the language of publication, use of randomization, blinding, intention to treat analysis, study sample size and statistical significance. Disagreement was dealt with by consensus. Journal impact factors were obtained from the institute for scientific information. Four hundred records were explored. Country income had an inverse linear association with the presence of randomization (chi2 for trend = 5.6, p = 0.02) and a direct association with the use of blinding (chi2 for trend = 6.9, p = 0.008); although in low income countries the probability of blinding was increased from 36% in 1993 to 46% in 2003. In 1993 the results of 68% of high income trials and 64.7% of other groups were statistically significant; but in 2003 they were 66% and 82% respectively. Study sample size and income were the only significant predictors of journal impact factor. The impact of country development on manuscript selection bias is considerable and may be increasing over time. It seems that one reason may be more stringent implementation of the guidelines for improving the reporting quality of trials on

  2. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  3. Discovery of eleven new ZZ Ceti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Mullally, F.; Winget, D. E.; Koester, D.; Voss, B.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Napiwotzki, R.; Reimers, D.

    2006-04-01

    We report the discovery of eleven new ZZ Cetis using telescopes at OPD (Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA) in Brazil, the 4.1 m SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald observatory. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and SPY (ESO SN Ia progenitor survey), based on their Teff obtained from optical spectra fitting. This selection criterion yields the highest success rate of detecting new ZZ Cetis, above 90% in the Teff range from 12 000 to 11 000 K. We also report on a DA not observed to vary, with a Teff placing the star close to the blue edge of the instability strip. Among our new pulsators, one is slightly cooler than this star for which pulsations were not detected. Our observations are an important constraint on the location of the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Partially based on observations at Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA, the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope, a collaboration between CNPq-Brazil, NOAO, UNC and MSU, and McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  4. Antiretroviral Therapy and Pregnancy Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Ashu, Eta Ebasi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite significant efforts to understand adverse pregnancy outcome in women receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), ART-related adverse birth outcomes are still poorly understood. We systematically review ART-related adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women; we also review the covariates associated with adverse birth outcomes in the aforementioned group. Methods: The main source for our systematic review was electronic bibliographic databases. Databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and AIDSLINE were searched. Furthermore, search engines such as Google and Google Scholar were specifically searched for gray literature. Methodological quality of available literature was assessed using the Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale & M. Hewitt guideline. We examined a total of 1,124 papers and reviewed the studies using the PICOT criteria which stands for Patient (population), Intervention (or “Exposure”), Comparison, Outcome and Type of study. Finally, 32 methodologically fit studies were retained and included in our review. Results: Frequently observed adverse birth outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), Preterm Birth (PB), Small for Gestational Age (SGA), while still birth and congenital anomalies were infrequent. Type of regimen such as Protease Inhibitor (PI) based regimens and timing of initiation of ART are some of the factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Covariates principally included malnutrition and other co-morbidities such as malaria and HIV. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: There is growing evidence in published literature suggesting that ART might be causing adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in developing countries. There is a need to consider regimen types for HIV-infected pregnant women. There is need to design large cohort studies. PMID:27621984

  5. A comprehensive review of the literature on epilepsy in selected countries in emerging markets.

    PubMed

    Angalakuditi, Mallik; Angalakuditi, Nupur

    2011-01-01

    To perform a systematic literature review of studies in peer reviewed journals on the epidemiology, economics, and treatment patterns of epilepsy in selected countries in emerging markets. A literature search was performed using relevant search terms to identify articles published from 1999 to 2000 on the epidemiology, economics, and treatment patterns of epilepsy. Studies were identified through electronic Embase(®), Cochrane(©), MEDLINE(®), and PubMed(®) databases. Manual review of bibliographies allowed for the detection of additional articles. Our search yielded 65 articles. These articles contained information relevant to epidemiology (n = 16), treatment guidelines (n = 4), treatment patterns (n = 33), unmet needs (n = 4), and economics (n = 8). From a patient perspective, patients with less than or equal to two adverse events (AEs) while taking anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) had significantly lower annual costs than those having greater than or equal to three AEs, as did patients with fewer seizures. The overall mean annual cost for epilepsy per patient ranged from US$773 in China to US$2646 in Mexico. Prevalence data varied widely and were found for countries including Arab League Members, China, India, and Taiwan. In Turkey, active prevalence rates ranged from 0.08/1000 to 8.5/1000, and in Arab countries, active prevalence ranged from 0.9/1000 in Sudan to 6.5/1000 in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen different AEDs were used in the identified studies. The most common AEDs utilized were phenobarbital (21.7%), valproate (17.5%), and tiagabine (16.4%). In all studies, the use of AEDs resulted in an increase of patients who became seizure free and a reduction in seizure frequency and severity. Few studies have examined the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in emerging markets and study limitations tend to underestimate these rates at all times. More cost-effectiveness, cost-minimization, and cost-benefit analyses must be performed to enhance the data on the economics

  6. Socioeconomic differences in childhood vaccination in developed countries: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Bocquier, Aurélie; Ward, Jeremy; Raude, Jocelyn; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Verger, Pierre

    2017-09-21

    The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and its relation to individual socioeconomic status (SES) must be better understood. Areas covered: This review focused on developed countries with programs addressing major financial barriers to vaccination access. We systematically reviewed differences by SES in uptake of publicly funded childhood vaccines and in cognitive determinants (beliefs, attitudes) of parental decisions about vaccinating their children. Using the PRISMA statement to guide this review, we searched three electronic databases from January 2000 through April 2016. We retained 43 articles; 34 analyzed SES differences in childhood vaccine uptake, 7 examined differences in its cognitive determinants, and 2 both outcomes. Expert commentary: Results suggest that barriers to vaccination access persist among low-SES children in several settings. Vaccination programs could be improved to provide all mandatory and recommended vaccines 100% free of charge, in both public organizations and private practices, and to reimburse vaccine administration. Multicomponent interventions adapted to the context could also be effective in reducing these inequalities. For specific vaccines (notably for measles, mumps, and rubella), in UK and Germany, uptake was lowest among the most affluent. Interventions carefully tailored to respond to specific concerns of vaccine-hesitant parents, without reinforcing hesitancy, are needed.

  7. Community-based health insurance in low-income countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Björn

    2004-09-01

    Health policy makers are faced with competing alternatives, and for systems of health care financing. The choice of financing method should mobilize resources for health care and provide financial protection. This review systematically assesses the evidence of the extent to which community-based health insurance is a viable option for low-income countries in mobilizing resources and providing financial protection. The review contributes to the literature on health financing by extending and qualifying existing knowledge. Overall, the evidence base is limited in scope and questionable in quality. There is strong evidence that community-based health insurance provides some financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket spending. There is evidence of moderate strength that such schemes improve cost-recovery. There is weak or no evidence that schemes have an effect on the quality of care or the efficiency with which care is produced. In absolute terms, the effects are small and schemes serve only a limited section of the population. The main policy implication of the review is that these types of community financing arrangements are, at best, complementary to other more effective systems of health financing. To improve reliability and validity of the evidence base, analysts should agree on a more coherent set of outcome indicators and a more consistent assessment of these indicators. Policy makers need to be better informed as to both the costs and the benefits of implementing various financing options. The current evidence base on community-based health insurance is mute on this point.

  8. Experiences of midwives and nurses in policy development in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine; Vukic, Adele; Aston, Megan; Boadu, Nana Yaa; Helwig, Melissa; Macdonald, Danielle; Sikora, Lindsey; Wright, Erica; Babatunde, Seye; George, Awoala Nelson

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the qualitative evidence on the experiences of midwives' and nurses' involvement in policy development in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This qualitative review seeks to address the following question:What are midwives' and nurses' experiences of being involved in policy development in LMICs?

  9. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. Methods We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. Result 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. Conclusions The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources. PMID:27362356

  10. Past and Ongoing Tsetse and Animal Trypanosomiasis Control Operations in Five African Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hannah R.; Selby, Richard; Guitian, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Control operations targeting Animal African Trypanosomiasis and its primary vector, the tsetse, were covering approximately 128,000 km2 of Africa in 2001, which is a mere 1.3% of the tsetse infested area. Although extensive trypanosomiasis and tsetse (T&T) control operations have been running since the beginning of the 20th century, Animal African Trypanosomiasis is still a major constraint of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic review of the existing literature describing T&T control programmes conducted in a selection of five African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zambia, between 1980 and 2015. Sixty-eight documents were eventually selected from those identified by the database search. This was supplemented with information gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve key informants recruited in the study countries and selected based on their experience and knowledge of T&T control. The combined information from these two sources was used to describe the inputs, processes and outcomes from 23 major T&T control programmes implemented in the study countries. Although there were some data gaps, involvement of the target communities and sustainability of the control activities were identified as the two main issues faced by these programmes. Further, there was a lack of evaluation of these control programmes, as well as a lack of a standardised methodology to conduct such evaluations. Conclusions/Significance Past experiences demonstrated that coordinated and sustained control activities require careful planning, and evidence of successes, failures and setbacks from past control programmes represent a mine of information. As there is a lack of evaluation of these programmes, these data have not been fully exploited for the design, analyses and justification of future control programmes. PMID:28027299

  11. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Shattuck, Mischa; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Wyness, Laura; Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2008-01-01

    Background A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Methods Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. Results Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. Conclusion While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly. PMID:19055827

  12. Systematic Review of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Dror, David Mark

    2016-01-01

    Access to healthcare is mostly contingent on out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) by health seekers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This would require many LMICs to raise enough funds to achieve universal health insurance coverage. But, are individuals or households willing to pay for health insurance, and how much? What factors positively affect WTP for health insurance? We wanted to examine the evidence for this, through a review of the literature. We systematically searched databases up to February 2016 and included studies of individual or household WTP for health insurance. Two authors appraised the identified studies. We estimated the WTP as a percentage of GDP per capita, and adjusted net national income per capita of each country. We used meta-analysis to calculate WTP means and confidence intervals, and vote-counting to identify the variables that more often affected WTP. 16 studies (21 articles) from ten countries met the inclusion criteria. The mean WTP of individuals was 1.18% of GDP per capita and 1.39% of adjusted net national income per capita. The corresponding figures for households were 1.82% and 2.16%, respectively. Increases in family size, education level and income were consistently correlated with higher WTP for insurance, and increases in age were correlated with reduced WTP. The WTP for healthcare insurance among rural households in LMICs was just below 2% of the GPD per capita. The findings demonstrate that in moving towards universal health coverage in LMICs, governments should not rely on households' premiums as a major financing source and should increase their fiscal capacity for an equitable health care system using other sources.

  13. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Willis-Shattuck, Mischa; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Wyness, Laura; Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2008-12-04

    A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly.

  14. Water, sanitation and hygiene in developing countries: interventions and diarrhoea--a review.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, L; Colford, J M

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a search to identify all English language papers (published between 1 January 1985 and 26 June 2003) with evidence on the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in developing countries, in which diarrhoea morbidity in non-outbreak conditions was reported. A total of 39 studies were identified as relevant after an initial review of over 2000 titles. Data were extracted and, where possible, combined using meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the effectiveness of specific interventions, including water supply and water treatment. Most of the interventions (including multiple interventions, hygiene and water quality) were found to significantly reduce the levels of diarrhoeal illness, with the greatest impact being seen for hygiene and household treatment interventions (after removal of studies classed as poor quality). Sanitation interventions could not be assessed as only a single study suitable for meta-analysis was identified.

  15. Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Nordic Countries: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kloppen, Kathrine; Haugland, Siren; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mæhle, Magne; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-01-01

    This review examined child sexual abuse in the Nordic countries focusing on prevalence rates and victims' age and relationship to the perpetrator. The results show a prevalence of child sexual abuse (broadly defined) between 3-23% for boys and 11-36% for girls. The prevalence rates for contact abuse were 1-12% for boys and 6-30% for girls, while 0.3-6.8% of the boys and 1.1-13.5% of the girls reported penetrating abuse. The findings suggest an increased risk of abuse from early adolescence. In adolescence, peers may constitute the largest group of perpetrators. The results highlight the need for preventive efforts also targeting peer abuse. Future research should include cross-national and repeated studies using comparable methodology.

  16. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    PubMed

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Community Hospitals in Selected High Income Countries: A Scoping Review of Approaches and Models

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Jennie; Miani, Celine; King, Sarah; Pitchforth, Emma; Ling, Tom; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Nolte, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no single definition of a community hospital in the UK, despite its long history. We sought to understand the nature and scope of service provision in community hospitals, within the UK and other high-income countries. Methods: We undertook a scoping review of literature on community hospitals published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted on features of the hospital model and the services provided, with results presented as a narrative synthesis. Results: 75 studies were included from ten countries. Community hospitals provide a wide range of services, with wide diversity of provision appearing to reflect local needs. Community hospitals are staffed by a mixture of general practitioners (GPs), nurses, allied health professionals and healthcare assistants. We found many examples of collaborative working arrangements between community hospitals and other health care organisations, including colocation of services, shared workforce with primary care and close collaboration with acute specialists. Conclusions: Community hospitals are able to provide a diverse range of services, responding to geographical and health system contexts. Their collaborative nature may be particularly important in the design of future models of care delivery, where emphasis is placed on integration of care with a key focus on patient-centred care. PMID:28316553

  18. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in various countries: A review.

    PubMed

    Elmahdi, Sara; DaSilva, Ligia V; Parveen, Salina

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood associated infections and mortality in the United States. The main syndromes caused by these pathogens are gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. This article reviewed the antibiotic resistance profile of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the United States and other countries including Italy, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Australia. The awareness of antimicrobial resistance of these two pathogens is not as well documented as other foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio spp. are usually susceptible to most antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. However, many studies reported that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed multiple-antibiotic resistance due to misuse of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture production. In addition, both environmental and clinical isolates showed similar antibiotic resistance profiles. Most frequently observed antibiotic resistance profiles involved ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline regardless of the countries. The presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in seafood and aquatic environments is a major concern in fish and shellfish farming and human health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, and control in Arab countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tailakh, Ayman; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Mentes, Janet C; Pike, Nancy A; Phillips, Linda R; Morisky, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    One billion of the world's population has hypertension, resulting in four million deaths per year. Data on the prevalence of hypertension in the Arab world are very limited. This review summarizes existing knowledge regarding prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Arab countries. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched for publications on HTN among Arab people from 1980 to January 2011. Only 13 studies were identified in the literature from 10 Arab countries. The overall estimated prevalence of hypertension was 29.5% (n = 45 379), which indicates a higher prevalence of hypertension among Arabs compared to people from the USA (28%) and sub-Saharan African (27.6%). Awareness of hypertension was reported for 46% of the studies and varied from 18% (Jordan) to 79.8% (Syria). The control rate varied from 56% (Tunisia) to 92% (Egypt and Syria). The prevalence of hypertension was found to increase with age, occurring more frequently in Arab women. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Conflict in Neighboring Countries, a Great Risk for Malaria Elimination in Southwestern Iran: Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    MOLAEE ZADEH, Maryam; SHAHANDEH, Khandan; BIGDELI, Shahla; BASSERI, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the conflict such as war is one of the determinants of the flow of migrants and refuges with consequence of introducing infectious disease to other countries. This paper investigates the relationship between malaria incidence and forced immigration due to war from neighboring countries in Dezful district, southwestern Iran. All available data and accessible archived documentary records on malaria cases in the period 1988–2011 in Dezful Health Centers were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health authority of Dezful district was conducted to assess the trend of malaria incidence and prevalence in the last two decades. Malaria transmission dynamics was described using surveillance indicators viz, Annual Parasite Incidence (API), Slide Positivity Rate (SPR), Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER) and based on personal information of patients. Two peaks of malaria incidence occurred during past two decades. The first one arisen by Iran-Iraq war due to residential instability in Dezful while the API reached to 8 per 1000. The second peak happened after to civil war of Afghanistan began which caused large immigrates moved into the study area. During the second peak, API reached 1.7 per 1000 at maximum and the majority of patients were immigrants. This study describes the linkage between incidence and prevalence of malaria and immigration due to civil conflict. Therefore, malaria screening of immigrants and early warning programme are effective to prevent outbreak of disease in a potential risk area such Dezful. PMID:26171354

  1. Type 2 diabetes self-management education programs in high and low mortality developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dube, Loveness; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Housiaux, Marie; Dhoore, William; Rendall-Mkosi, Kirstie

    2015-02-01

    Although self-management education is a key factor in the care for diabetes patients, its implementation in developing countries is not well documented. This systematic review considers the published literature on diabetes self-management education in high and low mortality developing countries. The aim is to provide a state of the art of current practices and assess program outcomes, cultural sensitivity, and accessibility to low literate patients. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and PsycArticles databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles on type 2 diabetes published in English between 2009 and 2013. The World Bank and WHO burden of disease criteria were applied to distinguish between developing countries with high and low mortality. Information was extracted using a validated checklist. Three reviews and 23 primary studies were identified, 18 of which were from low mortality developing countries. Studies from high mortality countries were mostly quasi-experimental, those from low mortality countries experimental. Interventions were generally effective on behavior change and patients' glycemic control in the short term (≤9 months). While 57% of the studies mentioned cultural tailoring of interventions, only 17% reported on training of providers, and 39% were designed to be accessible for people with low literacy. The limited studies available suggest that diabetes self-management education programs in developing countries are effective in the short term but must be tailored to conform to the cultural aspects of the target population. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Choi, Cecilia; Tai, Hina; Lee, Grace; Sommer, Marni

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls aged 15-19 bear a disproportionate burden of negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Research from several high-income countries suggests that early age at menarche is an important determinant of sexual and reproductive health. We conducted this systematic review to better understand whether and how early menarche is associated with various negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries and the implications of such associations. We systematically searched eight health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed literature on menarche and sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for inclusion, overall quality and risk of bias, and performed data extraction on all included studies. Twenty-four articles met all inclusion criteria-nine of moderate quality and fifteen with several methodological weaknesses. Our review of the minimal existing literature showed that early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy and some sexually transmitted infections in low- and middle-income countries, similar to what has been observed in high-income countries. Early menarche is also associated with early marriage-an association that may have particularly important implications for countries with high child marriage rates. Early age at menarche may be an important factor affecting the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to confirm the existence of the identified associations across different settings and to better understand the process through which early menarche and other markers of early pubertal development may contribute to the increased vulnerability of girls to negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Given the association of early

  3. The Cost of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in 5 European Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Pol, R; Martínez-Sesmero, J M; Ventura-Cerdá, J M; Elías, I; Caloto, M T; Casado, M Á

    2016-09-01

    While the introduction of biologics has improved the quality of life of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, it may have increased the economic burden of these diseases. To perform a systematic review of studies on the costs associated with managing and treating psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in 5 European countries: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We undertook a systematic review of the literature (up to May 2015) using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The methodological quality of the studies identified was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. We considered both direct costs (medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs, adjusted for country-specific inflation and converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity exchange rates for 2015 ($US PPP). The search retrieved 775 studies; 68.3% analyzed psoriasis and 31.7% analyzed psoriatic arthritis. The total annual cost per patient ranged from US $2,077 to US $13,132 PPP for psoriasis and from US $10,924 to US $17,050 PPP for psoriatic arthritis. Direct costs were the largest component of total expenditure in both diseases. The severity of these diseases was associated with higher costs. The introduction of biologics led to a 3-fold to 5-fold increase in direct costs, and consequently to an increase in total costs. We have analyzed the economic burden of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and shown that costs increase with the treatment and management of more severe disease and the use of biologics. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Catchments of general practice in different countries--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Allan, Donald P

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on catchment areas of private general practices in different developed countries because healthcare reform, including primary health care, has featured prominently as an important political issue in a number of developed countries. The debates around health reform have had a significant health geographic focus. Conceptually, GP catchments describe the distribution, composition and profile of patients who access a general practitioner or a general practice (i.e. a site or facility comprising one or more general practitioners). Therefore, GP catchments provide important information into the geographic variation of access rates, utilisation of services and health outcomes by all of the population or different population groups in a defined area or aggregated area.This review highlights a wide range of diversity in the literature as to how GP catchments can be described, the indicators and measures used to frame the scale of catchments. Patient access to general practice health care services should be considered from a range of locational concepts, and not necessarily constrained by their place of residence. An analysis of catchment patterns of general practitioners should be considered as dynamic and multi-perspective. Geographic information systems provide opportunities to contribute valuable methodologies to study these relationships. However, researchers acknowledge that a conceptual framework for the analysis of GP catchments requires access to real world data. Recent studies have shown promising developments in the use of real world data, especially from studies in the UK. Understanding the catchment profiles of individual GP surgeries is important if governments are serious about patient choice being a key part of proposed primary health reforms. Future health planning should incorporate models of GP catchments as planning tools, at the micro level as well as the macro level, to assist policies on the

  5. Evidence based review of type 2 diabetes prevention and management in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Afable, Aimee; Karingula, Nidhi Shree

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the newest approaches to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention and control in the developing world context. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published studies of diabetes prevention and control programs in low and middle-income countries, as defined by the World Bank. We searched PubMed using Medical Subject Headings terms. Studies needed to satisfy four criteria: (1) Must be experimental; (2) Must include patients with T2DM or focusing on prevention of T2DM; (3) Must have a lifestyle intervention component; (4) Must be written in English; and (5) Must have measurable outcomes related to diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 66 studies from 20 developing countries were gathered with publication dates through September 2014. India contributed the largest number of trials (11/66). Of the total 66 studies reviewed, all but 3 studies reported evidence of favorable outcomes in the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes. The overwhelming majority of studies reported on diabetes management (56/66), and among these more than half were structured lifestyle education programs. The evidence suggests that lifestyle education led by allied health professionals (nurses, pharmacists) were as effective as those led by physicians or a team of clinicians. The remaining diabetes management interventions focused on diet or exercise, but the evidence to recommend one approach over another was weak. CONCLUSION: Large experimental diabetes prevention/control studies of dietary and exercise interventions are lacking particularly those that consider quality rather than quantity of carbohydrates and alternative exercise. PMID:27226816

  6. Economic analyses of breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To support the development of global strategies against breast cancer, this study reviews available economic evidence on breast cancer control in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A systematic article search was conducted through electronic scientific databases, and studies were included only if they concerned breast cancer, used original data, and originated from LMICs. Independent assessment of inclusion criteria yielded 24 studies that evaluated different kinds of screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions in various age and risk groups. Studies were synthesized and appraised through the use of a checklist, designed for evaluating economic analyses. Results The majority of these studies were of poor quality, particularly in examining costs. Studies demonstrated the economic attractiveness of breast cancer screening strategies, and of novel treatment and diagnostic interventions. Conclusions This review shows that the evidence base to guide strategies for breast cancer control in LMICs is limited and of poor quality. The limited evidence base suggests that screening strategies may be economically attractive in LMICs – yet there is very little evidence to provide specific recommendations on screening by mammography versus clinical breast examination, the frequency of screening, or the target population. These results demonstrate the need for more economic analyses that are of better quality, cover a comprehensive set of interventions and result in clear policy recommendations. PMID:23566447

  7. Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Stephanie; Kleve, Suzanne; McKechnie, Rebecca; Palermo, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is a salient health issue comprised of four dimensions - food access, availability, utilization and stability over time. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify all multi-item tools that measure food insecurity and explore which of the dimensions they assess. Five databases were searched (CENTRAL, CINAHL plus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, TRIP) for studies published in English since 1999. Inclusion criteria included human studies using multi-item tools to measure food security and studies conducted in developed countries. Manuscripts describing the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module, that measures 'food access', were excluded due to wide acceptance of the validity and reliability of this instrument. Two authors extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Data were summarized against the dimensions of food insecurity. A systematic review of the literature. The majority of tools were developed in the USA and had been used in different age groups and cultures. Eight multi-item tools were identified. All of the tools assessed the 'food access' dimension and two partially assessed the dimensions 'food utilization' and 'stability over time', respectively. 'Food availability' was not assessed by existing tools. Current tools available for measuring food insecurity are subjective, limited in scope, with a majority assessing only one dimension of food insecurity (access). To more accurately assess the true burden of food insecurity, tools should be adapted or developed to assess all four dimensions of food insecurity.

  8. Barriers to obstetric fistula treatment in low-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Zoë; Bellows, Ben; Bach, Rachel; Warren, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    To identify the barriers faced by women living with obstetric fistula in low-income countries that prevent them from seeking care, reaching medical centres and receiving appropriate care. Bibliographic databases, grey literature, journals, and network and organisation websites were searched in English and French from June to July 2014 and again from August to November 2016 using key search terms and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for discussion of barriers to fistula treatment. Experts provided recommendations for additional sources. Of 5829 articles screened, 139 were included in the review. Nine groups of barriers to treatment were identified: psychosocial, cultural, awareness, social, financial, transportation, facility shortages, quality of care and political leadership. Interventions to address barriers primarily focused on awareness, facility shortages, transportation, financial and social barriers. At present, outcome data, though promising, are sparse and the success of interventions in providing long-term alleviation of barriers is unclear. Results from the review indicate that there are many barriers to fistula treatment, which operate at the individual, community and national levels. The successful treatment of obstetric fistula may thus require targeting several barriers, including depression, stigma and shame, lack of community-based referral mechanisms, financial cost of the procedure, transportation difficulties, gender power imbalances, the availability of facilities that offer fistula repair, community reintegration and the competing priorities of political leadership. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A infection in a low endemicity country: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ba'; Duval, Bernard; De Serres, Gaston; Gilca, Vladimir; Tricco, Andrea C; Ochnio, Jan; Scheifele, David W

    2005-01-01

    Background In Canada – a low endemicity country, vaccines for hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recommended to individuals at increased risk for infection or its complications. Applying these recommendations is difficult because the epidemiology of HAV infection is poorly defined, complex, and changing. This systematic review aimed to 1) estimate age-specific prevalence of HAV antibody in Canada and 2) evaluate infection-associated risk factors. Methods MEDLINE (1966–2005) and EMBASE (1980–2005) were searched to identify relevant studies for the systematic review. Archives for the Canada Diseases Weekly Report (1975–1991) and Canada Communicable Disease Report (1992–2005) were searched for relevant public health reports. Data were abstracted for study and participants' characteristics, age-specific prevalence, and risk factors. Results A total of 36 reports describing 34 unique studies were included. The seroprevalence in Canadian-born children was approximately 1% in ages 8–13, 1–6% in 20–24, 10% in 25–29, 17% in 30–39, and increased subsequently. In age groups below 20 and 20–29, age-specific seroprevalence generally remained constant for studies conducted across geographic areas and over time. Compared to Canadian-born individuals, subjects born outside Canada were approximately 6 times more likely to be seropositive (relative risk: 5.7 [95% CI 3.6, 9.0]). Travel to high risk areas in individuals aged 20–39 was associated with a significant increase in anti-HAV seropositivity (RR 2.8 [1.4, 5.5]). Compared to heterosexuals, men having sex with men were only at a marginally higher risk (adjusted odds ratio 2.4 [0.9, 6.1]). High risk for seropositivity was also observed for Canadian First Nations and Inuit populations. Conclusion Results from the current systematic review show that in this low endemicity country, disease acquisition occurs in adulthood rather than childhood. The burden of disease is high; approximately 1 in 10 Canadians

  10. Psychosocial interventions for addiction-affected families in Low and Middle Income Countries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rane, Anil; Church, Sydney; Bhatia, Urvita; Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Nadkarni, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    To review the literature on psychosocial interventions for addiction affected family members in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). A systematic review with a detailed search strategy focussing on psychosocial interventions directed towards people affected by addiction without any gender, year or language specifications was conducted. Identified titles and abstracts were screened; where needed full papers retrieved, and then independently reviewed. Data was extracted based on the aims of the study, to describe the modalities, acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the interventions. Four papers met our selection criteria. They were published between 2003 and 2014; the total sample size was 137 participants, and two studies were from Mexico and one each from Vietnam and Malaysia. The predominantly female participants comprised of parents, spouses and siblings. The common components of all the interventions included providing information regarding addiction, teaching coping skills, and providing support. Though preliminary these small studies suggests a positive effect on affected family members (AFM). There was lowering of psychological and physical distress, along with a better understanding of addictive behaviour. The interventions led to better coping; with improvements in self-esteem and assertive behaviour. The interventions, mostly delivered in group settings, were largely acceptable. The limited evidence does suggest positive benefits to AFMs. The scope of research needs to be extended to other addictions, and family members other than spouse and female relatives. Indigenous and locally adapted interventions are needed to address this issue keeping in mind the limited resources of LMIC. This is a field indeed in its infancy and this under recognised and under-served group needs urgent attention of researchers and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. mHealth Interventions in Low-Income Countries to Address Maternal Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Colaci, Daniela; Chaudhri, Simran; Vasan, Ashwin

    The wide availability and relative simplicity of mobile phones make them a promising instrument for delivering a variety of health-related interventions. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been tested in a variety of health delivery areas, but research has been restricted to pilot and small studies with limited generalizability. The aim of this review was to explore the current evidence on the use of mHealth for maternal health interventions in low- and low middle-income countries. Peer-reviewed papers were identified from Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library via a combination of search terms. Quantitative or mixed-methods papers published in the English language between January 2000 and July 2015 were included. Three hundred and seventy papers were found in the literature search. We assessed the full text of 57 studies, and included 19 in the review. Study designs included were 5 randomized controlled trials, 9 before and after comparisons, 1 study with endline assessment only, 3 postintervention assessments, and 1 cohort study. Quality assessment elucidated 9 low-quality, 5 moderate, and 5 high studies. Five studies supported the use of mobile phones for data collection, 3 for appointment reminders, and 4 for both appointment reminders and health promotion. Six studies supported the use of mHealth for provider-to-provider communication and 1 for clinical management. Studies demonstrated promise for the use of mHealth in maternal health; however, much of the evidence came from low- and moderate-quality studies. Pilot and small programs require more rigorous testing before allocating resources to scaling up this technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Recognition of and Care Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illness in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Williams, Thomas Christie; Kirolos, Amir; Mitchell, Sarah; Ratcliffe, Louise Alison; Kohli-Lynch, Maya Kate; Bischoff, Esther Jill Laura; Cameron, Sophie; Campbell, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria are among the leading causes of death in children. These deaths are largely preventable if appropriate care is sought early. This review aimed to determine the percentage of caregivers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a child less than 5 years who were able to recognise illness in their child and subsequently sought care from different types of healthcare providers. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that reported recognition of, and/or care seeking for episodes of diarrhoea, pneumonia or malaria in LMICs. The review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001654). Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies reported data on caregiver recognition of disease and seventy-seven studies on care seeking. The median sensitivity of recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia was low (36.0%, 37.4%, and 45.8%, respectively). A median of 73.0% of caregivers sought care outside the home. Care seeking from community health workers (median: 5.4% for diarrhoea, 4.2% for pneumonia, and 1.3% for malaria) and the use of oral rehydration therapy (median: 34%) was low. Conclusions Given the importance of this topic to child survival programmes there are few published studies. Recognition of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia by caregivers is generally poor and represents a key factor to address in attempts to improve health care utilisation. In addition, considering that oral rehydration therapy has been widely recommended for over forty years, its use remains disappointingly low. Similarly, the reported levels of care seeking from community health workers in the included studies are low even though global action plans to address these illnesses promote community case management. Giving greater priority to research on care seeking could provide crucial evidence to inform child mortality programmes. PMID:24718483

  13. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  14. Inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in Arab countries: A review of the research literature from 1990 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Jamal M; Hadidi, Muna S; Alkhateeb, Amal J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a literature review was conducted to analyze studies published from 1990 to 2014 in English-written literature on inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in Arab countries. This study sought to review and analyze research conducted on Inclusive Education (IE) in Arab countries. The following electronic databases were used in searching the relevant literature: ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, PsychINFO, EBSCOhost Databases, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database, ERIC, and Google Scholar. After the publications to be included in this study were retrieved, each study was reviewed and analyzed. Each study was examined for details such as authors, title of research, publication year, country, purpose, methods, and key findings. The results showed that a total of 42 empirical studies related to inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in Arab countries have been published. More than two-thirds of these studies came from United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. The majority of the studies were published in the last 6 years. The main parameters in these studies were: attitudes toward inclusion, barriers to inclusion, and evaluating inclusion. The results of the current study revealed that relatively little IE research has been conducted in Arab countries. More research is warranted to test the generalizability of the results of the current study. Further research is also needed to analyze IE practices and demonstrate strategies for the effective implementation of IE in these countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  16. Influence of mHealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Gagliardi, Laina

    2013-10-16

    Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women's empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women's interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study's characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple's health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women's decision-making, social status, and access to health resources. However

  17. A review of parenting programs in developing countries: opportunities and challenges for preventing emotional and behavioral difficulties in children.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R

    2012-06-01

    Many children in developing countries are at risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, which are likely to be elevated due to the effects of poverty. Parenting programs have shown to be effective preventative strategies in high-income countries, but to date the research on their effectiveness in lower-income countries is limited. International organizations such as the World Health Organization have called for the implementation of programs to prevent behavioral difficulties through the development of stable relationships between children and their parents. The aim of the present paper was to review the literature on parenting programs in developing countries in order to identify challenges, opportunities and directions for further research. First, reports of international organizations were reviewed in order to gain a preliminary overview of the field. In a second stage, a non-systematic review was carried out. Databases were searched in order to identify empirical evaluations of parenting programs in low-income countries. Finally, a systematic review was carried out to specifically identify evaluations of programs targeting emotional or behavioral outcomes. Only one study had a strong methodology among those designed to prevent emotional and behavioral outcomes. Opportunities for further program development and research are identified.

  18. Emergency care in 59 low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abujaber, Samer; Makar, Maggie; Stoll, Samantha; Kayden, Stephanie R; Wallis, Lee A; Reynolds, Teri A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a systematic review of emergency care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods We searched PubMed, CINAHL and World Health Organization (WHO) databases for reports describing facility-based emergency care and obtained unpublished data from a network of clinicians and researchers. We screened articles for inclusion based on their titles and abstracts in English or French. We extracted data on patient outcomes and demographics as well as facility and provider characteristics. Analyses were restricted to reports published from 1990 onwards. Findings We identified 195 reports concerning 192 facilities in 59 countries. Most were academically-affiliated hospitals in urban areas. The median mortality within emergency departments was 1.8% (interquartile range, IQR: 0.2–5.1%). Mortality was relatively high in paediatric facilities (median: 4.8%; IQR: 2.3–8.4%) and in sub-Saharan Africa (median: 3.4%; IQR: 0.5–6.3%). The median number of patients was 30 000 per year (IQR: 10 296–60 000), most of whom were young (median age: 35 years; IQR: 6.9–41.0) and male (median: 55.7%; IQR: 50.0–59.2%). Most facilities were staffed either by physicians-in-training or by physicians whose level of training was unspecified. Very few of these providers had specialist training in emergency care. Conclusion Available data on emergency care in LMICs indicate high patient loads and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where a substantial proportion of all deaths may occur in emergency departments. The combination of high volume and the urgency of treatment make emergency care an important area of focus for interventions aimed at reducing mortality in these settings. PMID:26478615

  19. Etiology of Severe Febrile Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Namrata; Murdoch, David R.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With apparent declines in malaria worldwide during the last decade and more widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers in low-resource areas face a growing proportion of febrile patients without malaria. We sought to describe current knowledge and identify information gaps of the etiology severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in low-and-middle income countries 1980–2013 that prospectively assessed consecutive febrile patients admitted to hospital using rigorous laboratory-based case definitions. We found 45 eligible studies describing 54,578 patients; 9,771 (17.9%) had a positive result for ≥1 pathogen meeting diagnostic criteria. There were no eligible studies identified from Southern and Middle Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania, Latin American and Caribbean regions, and the European region. The median (range) number of diagnostic tests meeting our confirmed laboratory case definitions was 2 (1 to 11) per study. Of diagnostic tests, 5,052 (10.3%) of 49,143 had confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection; 709 (3.8%) of 18,142 had bacterial zoonosis; 3,488 (28.5%) of 12,245 had malaria; and 1,804 (17.4%) of 10,389 had a viral infection. Conclusions We demonstrate a wide range of pathogens associated with severe febrile illness and highlight the substantial information gaps regarding the geographic distribution and role of common pathogens. High quality severe febrile illness etiology research that is comprehensive with respect to pathogens and geographically representative is needed. PMID:26126200

  20. Smoking in Pregnancy Among Indigenous Women in High-Income Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Gould, Gillian S; Patten, Christi; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Jayasinghe, Harshani

    2017-05-01

    Pregnant women in socioeconomically disadvantaged circumstances, such as Indigenous women, have a high prevalence of smoking. Tobacco smoking is the most significant reversible risk factor for the health of Indigenous pregnant women and their babies. As researchers working in this specialized area, we conducted a narrative review of the literature on smoking among Indigenous pregnant women in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. We summarize prevalence and factors influencing tobacco use, interventions, and evidence gaps for tobacco control and smoking cessation. Recommendations are made for future interventions, policy changes, and much-needed research. Common themes emerging across the four countries reveal opportunities for cross-cultural collaborative studies and trials. These include the social-normative use of tobacco as barriers to quitting in pregnancy and the need for evaluations of interventions at the family and community level. Socioeconomic disparities underscore the importance of enhancing the implementation and reach of strategies to prevent and reduce prenatal tobacco smoking among Indigenous women. Elders and community health care providers as role models for nontobacco use could be explored. Qualitative work is needed to understand the barriers and opportunities, such as cultural strengths supporting quitting tobacco to develop more effective approaches. Although a high-priority group, there remains a dearth of research on Indigenous women's smoking in pregnancy. Studies have assessed knowledge and attitudes to smoking in pregnancy, and small feasibility studies and a few empirical trials have been conducted. Recommendations for promising culturally appropriate cessation interventions have been made. Larger trials are warranted. Strategies to support quitting among pregnant Indigenous women need to be multifactorial and take account of the social determinants of smoking including historical antecedents, community norms, cultural

  1. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2016-10-13

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as 'quality assessment tool', 'quality assessment method', 'quality measurement', 'LMIC', 'developing country', 'family planning' and 'reproductive health' were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  2. Factors Affecting Burn Contracture Outcome in Developing Countries: A Review of 2506 Patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lauren P; Huang, Alice; Corlew, Daniel Scott; Aeron, Kush; Aeron, Yogi; Rai, Shankar Man; Jovic, Goran; Agag, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Burn contractures hinder joint mobility, resulting in functional impairment and reduced quality of life. This is of greater significance in developing countries where there are fewer resources for assistance with such impairments. Contracture release reduces deformity, but multiple factors affect the extent of postsurgical improvements and outcomes. Elucidating these factors may enable surgeons to better care for burn patients. This study assesses factors that impact burn contracture resolution in developing nations. A retrospective review of 2506 burn contractures was performed using information extracted from a large nongovernment organization (ReSurge International) database from Nepal, India, and Zambia. Data points included age, type of burn, time elapsed between injury and release, and extent of final release achieved based on preoperative and postoperative images of hand (n = 1960), elbow (n = 371), and knee (n = 176) contractures. Hand improvement was scored based on digit/wrist involvement (severity of dysfunction) and joint extension capability (functionality); elbow and knee improvement were calculated using preoperative and postoperative joint angles. Multivariate analysis was performed. Hands burned by hot liquid had greater functionality after surgery than open-fire burns (P < 0.01). Improvement in severity of dysfunction and functionality were inversely correlated to age (P < 0.01) and time until surgery (P < 0.01). Elbow improvement decreased as age increased (P < 0.01). Postoperative increase of knee extension decreased for each year elapsed between injury and surgery (P < 0.01). Burn type, age when burned, and timing of surgery were significant factors affecting hand outcomes, whereas age affected elbow outcomes, and time elapsed until surgery affected knee results. An algorithm was formulated to enable physicians in developing countries with limited resources to triage patients and optimize patient outcomes.

  3. Research on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries: a literature review, 1986-2008.

    PubMed

    Torp, Steffen; Eklund, Leena; Thorpenberg, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Workplace health promotion may include approaches focusing on behavioral change among employees and approaches with a holistic system-oriented thinking aiming at changing the physical, social and organizational factors of a setting. This literature review aimed to identify studies on workplace health promotion in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), to describe when, where and how the studies were performed and to further analyze the use of settings approaches and empowerment processes. Using scientific literature databases, we found 1809 hits when searching for Nordic studies published from 1986 to 2008 with the search term health promotion. Of these, 116 studies were related to workplace health promotion and 33 included interventions. We used content analysis to analyze the abstracts of all articles and the full articles of the intervention studies. Most studies were performed in Sweden and Finland. The focus was mainly on behavioral change rather than on holistic health promotion as defined by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This was especially obvious for the intervention studies. In addition to the intervention studies using non-settings approaches with top-down driven behavioral change, we identified studies with participatory settings approaches aimed at changing the setting. We categorized relatively few studies as having a non-participatory settings approach. The studies aiming specifically at improving employees' empowerment were evenly distributed between the categories market-oriented persuasion of empowerment, therapeutic empowerment and empowerment as a liberal management strategy. More studies on workplace health promotion using empowering and participatory settings approaches are needed in the Nordic countries, and a more theory-based approach towards this research field is needed.

  4. Family planning and contraception in Islamic countries: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Mazhar, Arslan

    2013-04-01

    The population of the world reached seven billion in 2012. Pakistan's population stands at more than 180 million, is growing rapidly, and has the highest unmet need for family planning (FP) in isolated rural areas. The low usage of contraception in the rural areas of Pakistan correlates with the level of isolation, poverty, illiteracy, and to a large extent, religious misinterpretations/misconceptions. Almost 25% of couples who desired FP services were not receiving them for a variety of reasons of which religion could be one, especially in the rural remote areas where the media is still not reaching and influencing mind-sets. In this scenario, the role of social marketing in bringing about attitudinal and behavioural change among users in underserved areas and gatekeepers and opinion makers in society must not be neglected. The work in promoting FP, contraception and birth spacing requires authentic evidence from similar sociocultural contexts and this endeavour of compiling case studies from various Islamic countries on their FP initiatives is a good step. Governments around the world, including many in the Islamic world, support FP programmes to enable individuals and couples to choose the number and timing of their children. This paper is a review of secondary data accessed through PubMed and Google Scholar. It provides an overview of Islamic countries' policies on, and support for FP and modern contraception. For this purpose, literature from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Turkey was included. There are significant internal social and economic reasons to focus on FP in the Muslim world. Thus, arguments by religious scholars who see FP as an external western conspiracy aimed at curtailing the growth and strength of the Islamic world appear to be uninformed of both the socio-political and demographic realities in many Muslim countries, as well as the historical permissibility of

  5. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control.

    PubMed

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries' national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions.

  6. Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Health in High-Income Oecd Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Karanikolos, Marina; Heino, Pia; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence documents how economic crises impact aspects of health across countries and over time. We performed a systematic narrative review of the health effects of the latest economic crisis based on studies of high-income countries. Papers published between January 2009 and July 2015 were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. Ultimately, 122 studies were selected and their findings summarized. The review finds that the 2008 financial crisis had negative effects on mental health, including suicide, and to a varying extent on some non-communicable and communicable diseases and access to care. Although unhealthy behaviors such as hazardous drinking and tobacco use appeared to decline during the crisis, there have been increases in some groups, typically those already at greatest risk. The health impact was greatest in countries that suffered the largest economic impact of the crisis or prolonged austerity. The Great Recessions in high-income countries have had mixed impacts on health. They tend to be worse when economic impacts are more severe, prolonged austerity measures are implemented, and there are pre-existing problems of substance use among vulnerable groups. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Quality Improvement for Cardiovascular Disease Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward S.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Kamano, Jemima H.; Kudesia, Preeti; Rajan, Vikram; Engelgau, Michael; Moran, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of global cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden falls on people living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In order to reduce preventable CVD mortality and morbidity, LMIC health systems and health care providers need to improve the delivery and quality of CVD care. Objectives As part of the Disease Control Priorities Three (DCP3) Study efforts addressing quality improvement, we reviewed and summarized currently available evidence on interventions to improve quality of clinic-based CVD prevention and management in LMICs. Methods We conducted a narrative review of published comparative clinical trials that evaluated efficacy or effectiveness of clinic-based CVD prevention and management quality improvement interventions in LMICs. Conditions selected a priori included hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, stroke, rheumatic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies were categorized as occurring at the system or patient/provider level and as treating the acute or chronic phase of CVD. Results From 847 articles identified in the electronic search, 49 met full inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Selected studies were performed in 19 different LMICs. There were 10 studies of system level quality improvement interventions, 38 studies of patient/provider interventions, and one study that fit both criteria. At the patient/provider level, regardless of the specific intervention, intensified, team-based care generally led to improved medication adherence and hypertension control. At the system level, studies provided evidence that introduction of universal health insurance coverage improved hypertension and diabetes control. Studies of system and patient/provider level acute coronary syndrome quality improvement interventions yielded inconclusive results. The duration of most studies was less than 12 months. Conclusions The

  8. Review: Lead exposure in battery manufacturing and recycling in developing countries and among children in nearby communities.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Pokhrel, Amod K

    2011-09-01

    The battery industry is the largest consumer of lead, using an estimated 80% of the global lead production. The industry is also rapidly expanding in emerging market countries. A review of published literature on exposures from lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling plants in developing countries was conducted. The review included studies from 37 countries published from 1993 to 2010 and excluded facilities in developed countries, such as the United States and those in Western Europe, except for providing comparisons to reported findings. The average worker blood lead level (BLL) in developing countries was 47 μg/dL in battery manufacturing plants and 64 μg/dL in recycling facilities. Airborne lead concentrations reported in battery plants in developing countries averaged 367 μg/m3, which is 7-fold greater than the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's 50 μg/m3 permissible exposure limit. The geometric mean BLL of children residing near battery plants in developing countries was 19 μg/dL, which is about 13-fold greater than the levels observed among children in the United States. The blood lead and airborne lead exposure concentrations for battery workers were substantially higher in developing countries than in the United States. This disparity may worsen due to rapid growth in lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling operations worldwide. Given the lack of regulatory and enforcement capacity in most developing countries, third-party certification programs may be the only viable option to improve conditions.

  9. Comparison of trauma care systems in Asian countries: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Jin; Oh, Moon Young; Kim, Na Rae; Jung, Yoo Joong; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do

    2017-08-07

    The study aims to compare the trauma care systems in Asian countries. Asian countries were categorised into three groups; 'lower middle-income country', 'upper middle-income country' and 'high-income country'. The Medline/PubMed database was searched for articles published from January 2005 to December 2014 using relevant key words. Articles were excluded if they examined a specific injury mechanism, referred to a specific age group, and/or did not have full text available. We extracted information and variables on pre-hospital and hospital care factors, and regionalised system factors and compared them across countries. A total of 46 articles were identified from 13 countries, including Pakistan, India, Vietnam and Indonesia from lower middle-income countries; the Islamic Republic of Iran, Thailand, China, Malaysia from upper middle-income countries; and Saudi Arabia, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore from high-income countries. Trauma patients were transported via various methods. In six of the 13 countries, less than 20% of trauma patients were transported by ambulance. Pre-hospital trauma teams primarily comprised emergency medical technicians and paramedics, except in Thailand and China, where they included mainly physicians. In Iran, Pakistan and Vietnam, the proportion of patients who died before reaching hospital exceeded 50%. In only three of the 13 countries was it reported that trauma surgeons were available. In only five of the 13 countries was there a nationwide trauma registry. Trauma care systems were poorly developed and unorganised in most of the selected 13 Asian countries, with the exception of a few highly developed countries. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Methamphetamine use and treatment in Iran: A systematic review from the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    PubMed

    Alam-mehrjerdi, Zahra; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Methamphetamine use is a new health concern in Iran, the most populated Persian Gulf country. However, there is no well-documented literature. The current study objectives were to systematically review all published English and Persian studies of the prevalence of methamphetamine use, the general physical and psychiatric-related harms and the availability of methamphetamine treatment and harm reduction services for adult users in Iran. A comprehensive search of the international peer-reviewed and gray literature was undertaken. Multiple electronic and scientific English and Persian databases were systematically searched from January 2002 to September 2014. Additionally, English and Persian gray literature on methamphetamine use was sought using online gray literature databases, library databases and general online searches over the same period of time. Nineteen thousand and two hundred and eight studies, reports and conference papers were identified but only 42 studies were relevant to the study objectives. They were mainly published in 2010-2014. The search results confirmed the seizures of methamphetamine (six studies), the prevalence of methamphetamine use among the general population (three studies), drug users (four studies), women (nine studies) and opiate users in opiate treatment programs (five studies). In addition, methamphetamine use had resulted in blood-borne viral infections (one study), psychosis and intoxication (ten studies). Different reasons had facilitated methamphetamine use. However, the Matrix Model, community therapy and harm reduction services (four studies) had been provided for methamphetamine users in some cities. The current situation of methamphetamine use necessitates more research on the epidemiology and health-related implications. These studies should help in identifying priorities for designing and implementing prevention and educational programs. More active models of engagement with Persian methamphetamine users and the

  11. Layperson trauma training in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Callese, Tyler E; Richards, Christopher T; Shaw, Pamela; Schuetz, Steven J; Issa, Nabil; Paladino, Lorenzo; Swaroop, Mamta

    2014-07-01

    Prehospital trauma systems are rudimentary in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and require laypersons to stabilize and transport injured patients. The World Health Organization recommends educating layperson first responders as an essential step in the development of Emergency Medical Services systems in LMICs. This systematic review examines trauma educational initiatives for layperson first responders in resource-poor settings. Layperson first-responder training and education program publications were identified using PubMed MEDLINE and Scopus databases. Articles addressing physicians, professional Emergency Medical Services training, or epidemiologic descriptions were excluded. Publications were assessed by independent reviewers, and those included underwent thematic analysis. Thirteen publications met inclusion criteria. Four themes emerged regarding the development of layperson first-responder training programs: (1) An initial needs assessment of a region's existing trauma system of care and laypersons' baseline emergency care knowledge focuses subsequent educational interventions; (2) effective programs adapt to and leverage existing resources; (3) training methods should anticipate participants with low levels of education and literacy; and (4) postimplementation evaluation allows for curriculum improvement. Technology, such as online and remote learning platforms, can be used to operationalize each theme. Successful training programs for layperson first responders in LMICs identify and maximize existing resources are adaptable to learners with little formal education and are responsive to postimplementation evaluation. Educational platforms that leverage technology to deliver content may facilitate first-responder trauma education in underresourced areas. Themes identified can inform the development of trauma systems of care to decrease mortality and physiological severity scores in trauma patients in LMICs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Immunisation coverage in rural-urban migrant children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Awoh, Abiyemi Benita; Plugge, Emma

    2016-03-01

    The majority of children who die from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) live in low-income and-middle-income countries (LMICs). With the rapid urbanisation and rural-urban migration ongoing in LMICs, available research suggests that migration status might be a determinant of immunisation coverage in LMICs, with rural-urban migrant (RUM) children being less likely to be immunised. To examine and synthesise the data on immunisation coverage in RUM children in LMICs and to compare coverage in these children with non-migrant children. A multiple database search of published and unpublished literature on immunisation coverage for the routine Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines in RUM children aged 5 years and below was conducted. Following a staged exclusion process, studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and data extracted for meta-analysis. Eleven studies from three countries (China, India and Nigeria) were included in the review. There was substantial statistical heterogeneity between the studies, thus no summary estimate was reported for the meta-analysis. Data synthesis from the studies showed that the proportion of fully immunised RUM children was lower than the WHO bench-mark of 90% at the national level. RUMs were also less likely to be fully immunised than the urban-non-migrants and general population. For the individual EPI vaccines, all but two studies showed lower immunisation coverage in RUMs compared with the general population using national coverage estimates. This review indicates that there is an association between rural-urban migration and immunisation coverage in LMICs with RUMs being less likely to be fully immunised than the urban non-migrants and the general population. Specific efforts to improve immunisation coverage in this subpopulation of urban residents will not only reduce morbidity and mortality from VPDs in migrants but will also reduce health inequity and the risk of infectious disease

  13. Systematic Review of Abstinence-Plus HIV Prevention Programs in High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen; Operario, Don; Montgomery, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Abstinence-plus (comprehensive) interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. Methods and Findings Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10), community facilities (24), both schools and community facilities (2), health care facilities (2), and family homes (1). Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819). No trial found adverse program effects on any behavioural outcome

  14. Training initiatives for essential obstetric care in developing countries: a 'state of the art' review.

    PubMed

    Penny, S; Murray, S F

    2000-12-01

    Increased international awareness of the need to provide accessible essential or emergency obstetric and newborn care in developing countries has resulted in the recognition of new training needs and in a number of new initiatives to meet those needs. This paper reviews experience in this area so far. The first section deals with some of the different educational approaches and teaching methods that have now been employed, ranging from the traditional untheorized 'chalk and talk', to competency-based training, to theories of adult learning, problem solving and transferable skills. The second section describes a range of different types of indicators and data sources (learner assessments, user and community assessments, trainer assessments and institutional data) that have been used in the assessment of the effectiveness of such training. The final section of the paper draws together some of the lessons. It considers evaluation design issues such as the inclusion of medium and long term evaluation, the importance of methods that allow for the detection of iatrogenic effects of training, and the roles of community randomized trials and 'before, during and after' studies. Issues identified for the future include comparative work, how to keep training affordable, and where training ought to lie on the continuum between straightforward technical skills acquisition and the more complex learning processes required for demanding professional work.

  15. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water.

  16. Behaviour change communication targeting four health behaviours in developing countries: a review of change techniques.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances

    2012-08-01

    Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies.

  17. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-04-25

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  18. Health Informatics in Developing Countries: Going beyond Pilot Practices to Sustainable Implementations: A Review of the Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Almerares, Alfredo; Mayan, John Charles; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Information technology is an essential tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care, and to reduce healthcare costs. There is a scarcity of large sustainable implementations in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to review the challenges faced by developing countries to achieve sustainable implementations in health informatics and possible ways to address them. Methods In this non-systematic review of the literature, articles were searched using the keywords medical informatics, developing countries, implementation, and challenges in PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE. The authors, after reading the literature, reached a consensus to classify the challenges into six broad categories. Results The authors describe the problems faced by developing countries arising from the lack of adequate infrastructure and the ways these can be bypassed; the fundamental need to develop nationwide e-Health agendas to achieve sustainable implementations; ways to overcome public uncertainty with respect to privacy and security; the difficulties shared with developed countries in achieving interoperability; the need for a trained workforce in health informatics and existing initiatives for its development; and strategies to achieve regional integration. Conclusions Central to the success of any implementation in health informatics is knowledge of the challenges to be faced. This is even more important in developing countries, where uncertainty and instability are common. The authors hope this article will assist policy makers, healthcare managers, and project leaders to successfully plan their implementations and make them sustainable, avoiding unexpected barriers and making better use of their resources. PMID:24627813

  19. Prevalence of and factors associated with burnout among health care professionals in Arab countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elbarazi, I; Loney, T; Yousef, S; Elias, A

    2017-07-17

    Burnout among healthcare professionals is one of the key challenges affecting health care practice and quality of care. This systematic review aims to (1) estimate the prevalence of burnout among health care professionals (HCP) in Arab countries; and (2) explore individual and work-related factors associated with burnout in this population. Multiple electronic databases were searched for studies published in English or Arabic from January 1980 to November 2014 assessing burnout (using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) amongst health care professionals (HCP) in Arab countries. Nineteen studies (N = 4108; 49.3% females) conducted on HCP in Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Yemen were included in this review. There was a wide range of prevalence estimates for the three MBI subscales, high Emotional Exhaustion (20.0-81.0%), high Depersonalization (9.2-80.0%), and low Personal Accomplishment (13.3-85.8%). Gender, nationality, service duration, working hours, and shift patterns were all significantly associated with burnout. Within the constraints of the study and the range of quality papers available, our review revealed moderate-to-high estimates of self-reported burnout among HCP in Arab countries that are similar to prevalence estimates in non-Arabic speaking westernized developed countries. In order to develop culturally appropriate interventions, further research using longitudinal designs is needed to confirm the risk factors for burnout in specific HCP settings and specialties in Arab countries.

  20. Systematic review of feasibility and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Petersen, Inge; Asher, Laura; Mall, Sumaya; Egbe, Catherine O; Lund, Crick

    2015-02-12

    In low and middle income countries there is evidence to suggest effectiveness of community-based psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia. Many psychosocial interventions have however been conceptualized in high income countries and assessing their feasibility and acceptability in low and middle income countries is pertinent and the objective of this review. Six databases were searched using search terms (i) "Schizophrenia"; (ii) "Low and middle income or developing countries" and (iii) "Psychosocial interventions". Abstracts identified were extracted to an EndNote Database. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts according to defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full papers were accessed of studies meeting these criteria, or for which more information was needed to include or exclude them. Data were extracted from included studies using a predesigned data extraction form. Qualitative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data was conducted. 14 037 abstracts were identified through searches. 196 full articles were reviewed with 17 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Little data emerged on feasibility. Barriers to feasibility were noted including low education levels of participants, unavailability of caregivers, and logistical issues such as difficulty in follow up of participants. Evidence of acceptability was noted in high participation rates and levels of satisfaction with interventions. While there is preliminary evidence to suggest acceptability of community-based psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries, evidence for overall feasibility is currently lacking. Well-designed intervention studies incorporating specific measures of acceptability and feasibility are needed.

  1. A review of countries' pharmacist-patient communication legal requirements on prescription medications and alignment with practice: Comparison of Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Svensberg, Karin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Björnsdottir, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacist-patient communication around prescription medications can optimize treatment outcomes. Society's expectations of pharmacist-patient communication around medications can be expressed in legislation, economic incentives, and authority control. In this study, the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden provide the legislative examples and can be used as a platform to discuss how society's expectations, professional visions, and practice are aligning. The overall aim of this study was to describe society's expectations of pharmacist-patient communication around medications as expressed by the state in Nordic legislation, economic incentives and authority control. Additionally, this study describes how the states govern Nordic pharmacists in different pharmacy systems. A legal review was performed using online legislative databases. Regulating authorities were contacted to gather supplementary information. Thereafter, a qualitative document analysis was conducted. The Nordic countries regulate staff-patient communication by using broad laws. The legislation's main focus during dispensing is information on the use of medications, but also generic substitution and pricing. Pharmacies should have internal routines for this in place. Pharmacists' obligation to keep a journal on advice given during dispensing is ambiguously regulated. The economic incentives for communication on prescription medication during dispensing are included in the general pharmacy mark-up. Today's authority control focuses on the pharmacy management and appears to primarily evaluate structure indicators of communication, for example, if there is a routine method of counseling available. Various countries throughout the world differ in their requirements for pharmacy staff to communicate on the use of medicines during dispensing. The Nordic countries all require such communication, which aligns with professional visions. Regardless of the pharmacy system, the

  2. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Robertshaw, Luke; Dhesi, Surindar; Jones, Laura L

    2017-08-04

    To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies that explore challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries. Systematic review and qualitative thematic synthesis. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. Search terms were combined for qualitative research, primary healthcare professionals, refugees and asylum seekers, and were supplemented by searches of reference lists and citations. Study selection was conducted by two researchers using prespecified selection criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was conducted by the first author. A thematic synthesis was undertaken to develop descriptive themes and analytical constructs. Twenty-six articles reporting on 21 studies and involving 357 participants were included. Eleven descriptive themes were interpreted, embedded within three analytical constructs: healthcare encounter (trusting relationship, communication, cultural understanding, health and social conditions, time); healthcare system (training and guidance, professional support, connecting with other services, organisation, resources and capacity); asylum and resettlement. Challenges and facilitators were described within these themes. A range of challenges and facilitators have been identified for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers that are experienced in the dimensions of the healthcare encounter, the healthcare system and wider asylum and resettlement situation. Comprehensive understanding of these challenges and facilitators is important to shape policy, improve the quality of services and provide more equitable health services for this vulnerable group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  3. The management of adult psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Hanlon, Charlotte; Bhatia, Urvita; Fuhr, Daniela; Ragoni, Celina; de Azevedo Perocco, Sérgio Luiz; Fortes, Sandra; Shidhaye, Rahul; Kinyanda, Eugene; Rangaswamy, Thara; Patel, Vikram

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this Review is to identify effective interventions and treatment guidelines to manage common types of psychiatric emergencies in non-specialist settings in low-income and middle-income countries. Mental health specialist services in low-income and middle-income countries are scarce. We did a systematic review of interventions for psychiatric emergencies and a literature search for low-income and middle-income-specific treatment guidelines for psychiatric emergencies. A dearth of high-quality guidelines and contextualised primary evidence for management of psychiatric emergencies in low-income and middle-income countries exists. Filling these gaps in present guidelines needs to be an urgent research priority in view of the adverse health and social consequences of such presentations and the present drive to scale up mental health care.

  4. Evaluation of the applicability of SWAT in the Nile Basin countries: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P. M.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-04-01

    A plethora of hydrological modeling codes are nowadays available and many applications of these tools have been reported in peer reviewed journal papers. The hypothesis that the model is appropriate for the case study and the purpose of the study is however very often not questioned. We aim here at critically reviewing the use of a widely used hydrological simulation tool, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT in this region for a variety of problems, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, the performance, the physical representation of the model parameters, and the representativeness of the hydrological model balance. Here we evaluate the applications of within the Nile basin. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained several losses that might not be justified. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For that reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related output such as leaf area index, biomass or crop yields. A proper simulation of the land cover is important for obtaining correct evapotranspiration and erosion computations. It is also found that a comparison of SWAT applications on the same or similar case study but by

  5. Reproductive health research of women migrants to Western countries: A systematic review for refining the clinical lens.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; Redden, Kara L

    2016-04-01

    Influxes of migrant women of childbearing age to Western receiving countries have made their reproductive health a priority in those countries. Yet, providing optimal care to these women may be hampered by an inadequate volume or quality of research to inform practice. We reviewed reports of studies recently published to assess the extent to which current research is able to inform reproductive health care practices for migrant women (i.e., those born in countries other than the receiving country)--in so doing, we sought to offer a view of the landscape from which clinicians may interpret relevant publications. Additionally, we sought to identify topics for which clinicians may choose to advocate for additional research to be performed.

  6. 76 FR 81555 - 2012 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2012 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade... United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for written submissions from the public and announcement of public hearing. SUMMARY: Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974 (Trade Act) (19 U.S.C. 2242...

  7. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974: Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for written submissions from the public. SUMMARY...

  8. 77 FR 77178 - 2013 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Review: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade... United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for written submissions from the public and announcement of public hearing. SUMMARY: Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974 (Trade Act) (19 U.S.C. 2242...

  9. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Mass Communication Programs to Change HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane T.; O'Reilly, Kevin; Denison, Julie; Anhang, Rebecca; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This review systematically examined the effectiveness of 24 mass media interventions on changing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The intervention studies were published from 1990 through 2004, reported data from developing countries and compared outcomes using (i) pre- and post-intervention data, (ii)…

  10. Reliability and validity of emergency department triage tools in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Alexander; Hansoti, Bhakti; Rothman, Richard; de Ramirez, Sarah S; Lobner, Katie; Wallis, Lee

    2017-03-03

    Despite the universal acknowledgment that triage is necessary to prioritize emergency care, there is no review that provides an overview of triage tools evaluated and utilized in resource-poor settings, such as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We seek to quantify and evaluate studies evaluating triage tools in LMICs. We performed a systematic review of the literature between 2000 and 2015 to identify studies that evaluated the reliability and validity of triage tools for adult emergency care in LMICs. Studies were then evaluated for the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE criteria. Eighteen studies were included in the review, evaluating six triage tools. Three of the 18 studies were in low-income countries and none were in rural hospitals. Two of the six tools had evaluations of reliability. Each tool positively predicted clinical outcomes, although the variety in resource environments limited ability to compare the predictive nature of any one tool. The South African Triage Scale had the highest quality of evidence. In comparison with high-income countries, the review showed fewer studies evaluating reliability and presented a higher number of studies with small sample sizes that decreased the overall quality of evidence. The quality of evidence supporting any single triage tool's validity and reliability in LMICs is moderate at best. Research on triage tool applicability in low-resource environments must be targeted to the actual clinical environment where the tool will be utilized, and must include low-income countries and rural, primary care settings.

  11. Using Instructional Hardware for Primary Education in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature. Education Development Discussion Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzalone, Stephen

    Research on the utilization of educational media, or electronic classroom instructional aids, in primary schools in developing countries is reviewed in this paper. Five kinds of hardware--radio, television, computers, videodiscs, and hand-held electronic devices--are compared according to cost and learning effectiveness. A model of learning…

  12. The Economics of Developing Countries Component of GCE "A" Level Economics--A Review of Examination Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith

    1984-01-01

    A review of the summer examination papers in 'A' level economics set by the eight boards of England and Wales during the period 1979-1983 show that, with two notable exceptions, the boards have not devoted much space to questions relating to the economics of developing countries. (Author/RM)

  13. 75 FR 54939 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Changing the Date of the Country Practices Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Changing the Date of the Country... the 2009 Annual Review under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program. This notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: Tameka Cooper, GSP Program, Office of the United States Trade Representative, 1724...

  14. Solid waste management in Asian countries: a review of solid waste minimisation (3'r) towards low carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. E.; Sion, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    The amount of solid-waste generated in Asian countries has increased tremendously, mainly due to the improvement in living standards, rapid developments in technology, growth in economy and population in the cities. Solid waste management is a global issue and major challenge facing Asian countries and neglecting its management may have negative consequences on the environment. Waste composition data proves the developed countries to have generated more recyclable materials while developing countries produce more organic and less recyclable waste such as paper, plastic and aluminium. In this regard, increase in number of landfills and disposal sites, will have an impact on GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and pollutants to air and water. Alternative methods should therefore be taken to reduce the volume of waste. Most Asian countries have adopted the 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) concept in order to reduce solid waste and their governments have implemented laws and regulations in order to support this. Implementation of 3R is the major contributor to the solid waste minimization and it can improve the quality of environmental sustainability and reduction of carbon dioxide emission in to the atmosphere. Based on our review, most of the countries practicing the 3R concept in tandem with laws and regulations perform better than those that just practice the 3R concept without any laws and regulations. The paper suggests that every country must focus on the laws and regulations relating to solid waste minimization so that it could be easily implemented as outlined.

  15. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Khitdee, Chiraporn; Thaichinda, Chompoonut; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Jumriangrit, Pensom; Topothai, Thitikorn; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Putthasri, Weerasak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS has been one of the world’s most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low-and middle-income countries. Methods A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in Asia and Latin America. Barriers of access to HIV/AIDS services comprised inadequate management of guidelines and referral systems, discriminatory attitudes, language differences, unstable legal status, and financial hardship. Though health systems management varied across countries, international partners consistently played a critical role in providing support for HIV/AIDS services to uninsured migrants and refugees. Conclusion It was evident that HIV/AIDS health care problems for migrants were a major concern in many developing nations. However, there was little evidence suggesting if the current

  16. Critical review of SWAT applications in the upper Nile basin countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P.; Yalew, S.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-09-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an integrated river basin model that is widely applied within the Nile basin. Up to date, more than 20 peer-reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT for a variety of problems in the upper Nile basin countries, such as erosion modelling, land use and climate change impact modelling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are focused on locations in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. The popularity of SWAT is attributed to the fact that the tool is freely available and that it is readily applicable through the development of geographic information system (GIS) based interfaces and its easy linkage to sensitivity, calibration and uncertainty analysis tools. The online and free availability of basic GIS data that are required for SWAT made its applicability more straightforward even in data-scarce areas. However, the easy use of SWAT may not always lead to appropriate models which is also a consequence of the quality of the available free databases in these regions. In this paper, we aim at critically reviewing the use of SWAT in the context of the modelling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile basin countries. To evaluate the models that are described in journal papers, a number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, model performances, physical representation of the model parameters, and the correctness of the hydrological model balance. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained losses that might not be justified. Several papers also reported the use of unrealistic parameter values. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For this reason, most of the reported SWAT models have to be evaluated critically. An important gap is the lack of

  17. Critical review of the application of SWAT in the upper Nile Basin countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P.; Yalew, S.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-03-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrological simulation tool that is widely applied within the Nile basin. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT for a variety of problems in the upper Nile basin countries, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. The popularity of SWAT is attributed to the fact that the tool is freely available and that it is readily applicable through the development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based interfaces and its easy linkage to sensitivity, calibration and uncertainty analysis tools. The online and free availability of basic GIS data that are required for SWAT made its applicability more straight forward even in data scarce areas. However, the easy use of SWAT may not always lead to knowledgeable models. In this paper, we aim at critically reviewing the use of SWAT in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, model performances, physical representation of the model parameters, and the correctness of the hydrological model balance. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained losses that might not be justified. Several papers also reported unrealistic parameter values. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For this reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related

  18. The impact of voluntary food fortification on micronutrient intakes and status in European countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Áine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-11-01

    This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of voluntary fortification as an option to address the occurrence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in population subgroups in Europe. Although legislation is harmonised across the European Union, fortification practices and patterns of consumption of fortified foods vary considerably between countries. While the proportion of children consuming fortified foods is greater than adults, the proportion of dietary energy obtained from fortified foods is generally low (<10% in Ireland, where fortified foods are widely consumed). There are a few systematic studies on the overall nutritional impact of voluntary fortification, but there are several studies on the impact of fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The available evidence indicates that voluntary fortification can reduce the risk of sub-optimal intakes of a range of micronutrients at a population level and can also improve status for selected micronutrients (e.g. folate, vitamin D and riboflavin) in children and adults. Although concerns have been raised regarding the potential of food fortification to lead to unacceptably high micronutrient intakes, particularly for those consuming higher amounts of fortified foods, data from national surveys on total micronutrient intakes (including fortified foods) in Europe show that small proportions of the population, particularly children, may exceed the upper intake level (UL) for some micronutrients. The risk of adverse effects occurring in these individuals exceeding the UL by modest amounts is low. In conclusion, voluntary fortification practices have been shown to improve intake and status of key micronutrients in European Union population groups and do not contribute appreciably to risk of adverse effects.

  19. Factors influencing European GPs' engagement in smoking cessation: a multi-country literature review.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Holme, Ingrid; Cohen, David; Tait, Gayle

    2009-09-01

    Smoking cessation advice by GPs is an effective and cost-effective intervention, but is not implemented as widely as it could be. This wide-ranging Europe-wide literature review, part of the European Union (EU) PESCE (General Practitioners and the Economics of Smoking Cessation in Europe) project, explored the extent of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation and the factors that influence their engagement. Two searches were conducted, one for grey literature, across all European countries, and one for academic studies. Data from eligible studies published from 1990 onwards were synthesised and reported under four categories of influencing factors: GP characteristics, patient characteristics, structural factors, and cessation-specific knowledge and skills. The literature showed that most GPs in Europe question the smoking status of all new patients but fewer routinely ask this of regular patients, or advise smokers to quit. The proportion offering intensive interventions or prescribing treatments is lower still. Factors influencing GPs' engagement in smoking cessation include GPs' own smoking status and their attitudes towards giving smoking cessation advice; whether patients present with smoking-related symptoms, are pregnant, or heavy smokers; time, training, and reimbursement are important structural factors; and some GPs lack knowledge and skills regarding the use of specific cessation methods and treatments, or have limited awareness of specialist cessation services. No single factor or category of factors explains the variations in GPs' engagement in smoking cessation. Strategies to improve the frequency and quality of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation need to address the multifaceted influences on GPs' practice and to reflect the widely differing contexts across Europe.

  20. Review of quality assessment tools for family planning programmes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sprockett, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and tracking the quality of healthcare is a critical part of improving service delivery, clinic efficiency and health outcomes. However, no standardized or widely accepted tool exists to assess the quality of clinic-based family planning services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this literature review was to identify widely used public domain quality assessment tools with existing or potential application in clinic-based family planning programmes. Using PubMed, PopLine, Google Scholar and Google, key terms such as ‘quality assessment tool’, ‘quality assessment method’, ‘quality measurement’, ‘LMIC’, ‘developing country’, ‘family planning’ and ‘reproductive health’ were searched for articles, identifying 20 relevant tools. Tools were assessed to determine the type of quality components assessed, divided into structure and process components, level of application (national or facility), health service domain that can be assessed by the tool, cost and current use of the tool. Tools were also assessed for shortcomings based on application in a low- and middle-income clinic-based family planning programme, including personnel required, re-assessment frequency, assessment of structure, process and outcome quality, comparability of data over time and across facilities and ability to benchmark clinic results to a national benchmark. No tools met all criteria, indicating a critical gap in quality assessment for low- and middle-income family planning programmes. To achieve Universal Health Coverage, agreed on in the Sustainable Development Goals and to improve system-wide healthcare quality, we must develop and widely adopt a standardized quality assessment tool.

  1. A review of odour impact criteria in selected countries around the world.

    PubMed

    Brancher, Marlon; Griffiths, K David; Franco, Davide; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to environmental odour can result in annoyance, health effects and depreciation of property values. Therefore, many jurisdictions classify odour as an atmospheric pollutant and regulate emissions and/or impacts from odour generating activities at a national, state or municipal level. In this work, a critical review of odour regulations in selected jurisdictions of 28 countries is presented. Individual approaches were identified as: comparing ambient air odour concentration and individual chemicals statistics against impact criteria (maximum impact standard); using fixed and variable separation distances (separation distance standard); maximum emission rate for mixtures of odorants and individual chemical species (maximum emission standard); number of complaints received or annoyance level determined via community surveys (maximum annoyance standard); and requiring use of best available technologies (BAT) to minimize odour emissions (technology standard). The comparison of model-predicted odour concentration statistics against odour impact criteria (OIC) is identified as one of the most common tools used by regulators to evaluate the risk of odour impacts in planning stage assessments and is also used to inform assessment of odour impacts of existing facilities. Special emphasis is given to summarizing OIC (concentration percentile and threshold) and the manner in which they are applied. The way short term odour peak to model time-step mean (peak-to-mean) effects is also captured. Furthermore, the fundamentals of odorant properties, dimensions of nuisance odour, odour sampling and analysis methods and dispersion modelling guidance are provided. Common elements of mature and effective odour regulation frameworks are identified and an integrated multi-tool strategy is recommended.

  2. Measuring antibiotic consumption in low-income countries: a systematic review and integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Padget, Michael; Guillemot, Didier; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue. Risk factors specific to low-income countries (LICs), including non-prescribed antibiotic use, place them at risk for the emergence of resistance and make them important targets for reducing the burden of resistance worldwide. Responding to this threat in LICs means first having access to appropriate antibiotic consumption data. A PubMed search was conducted for studies examining antibiotic consumption in the community in LICs. For the articles included in the analysis, the methodologies used, type of data gathered and methodological appropriateness in responding to specific LIC data needs were noted. Of the 487 articles identified by the search strategy, 27 were retained for final analysis. Four main investigative methods were identified, including pharmacy/hospital document reviews, the simulated client method, observed prescribing encounters/patient exit interviews and community surveys. Observed encounters and exit interviews are well adapted to answering a number of important questions surrounding antibiotic consumption but may include bias and miss some sources of non-prescribed antibiotics. Community surveys are the only approach able to fully account for non-prescribed antibiotics and should be used as the first step in an integrative approach towards antibiotic consumption measurement and monitoring in LICs. Antibiotic consumption data needed for programmes to control use must take into account the LIC context. An integrated and adaptive approach beginning with community surveys responds to the various data needs and difficulties of LIC contexts and may help facilitate the investigation and optimisation of antibiotic consumption in these settings.

  3. Factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations in children in developed countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkadoulia, Effie

    2008-06-01

    The suboptimal compliance to vaccinations continues to be a major public health problem. We conducted a systematic review (PubMed and Cochrane databases) to evaluate factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations, focusing on children and adolescents in developed countries. We categorized studies according to whether they used an analytical statistical approach. We identified 553 potentially relevant articles and evaluated in detail 39 with original data. Factors influencing compliance to vaccinations related to parental-childhood characteristics and healthcare structure-professionals characteristics. Specifically, among the various parental-childhood characteristics studied, non-white race, low socioeconomic status, paying for immunization, lack of health insurance, low parental education, older age of the child, younger maternal age, large family size, late birth order, lack of knowledge about disease and vaccination, negative beliefs/attitudes towards immunization, fear of side-effects/risks/contraindications, not remembering vaccination schedules and appointments, sick child delays, and delayed well child visits were statistically significantly associated with suboptimal compliance. Among healthcare structure-professional characteristics were studied. Skepticism/doubts regarding provided medical information, inadequate support from healthcare providers, lack of available health structures, and problems concerning transportation and accessibility to immunization clinics were statistically significantly associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccination. By recognizing and understanding factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations we can better approach the risk populations and target our efforts at stressing and reinforcing the vital importance of immunizations. Methods to enhance compliance to vaccinations may include reminder calls/mail notification of parents, initiation of health education programs for parents and health

  4. Validated Screening Tools for Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Grace; De Silva, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of screening tools are available to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but few have been specifically developed for populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Cross-cultural application of a screening tool requires that its validity be assessed against a gold standard diagnostic interview. Validation studies of brief CMD screening tools have been conducted in several LMIC, but until now there has been no review of screening tools for all CMDs across all LMIC populations. Methods A systematic review with broad inclusion criteria was conducted, producing a comprehensive summary of brief CMD screening tools validated for use in LMIC populations. For each validation, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated as an easily comparable measure of screening tool validity. Average DOR results weighted by sample size were calculated for each screening tool, enabling us to make broad recommendations about best performing screening tools. Results 153 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Because many studies validated two or more screening tools, this corresponded to 273 separate validations against gold standard diagnostic criteria. We found that the validity of every screening tool tested in multiple settings and populations varied between studies, highlighting the importance of local validation. Many of the best performing tools were purposely developed for a specific population; however, as these tools have only been validated in one study, it is not possible to draw broader conclusions about their applicability in other contexts. Conclusions Of the tools that have been validated in multiple settings, the authors broadly recommend using the SRQ-20 to screen for general CMDs, the GHQ-12 for CMDs in populations with physical illness, the HADS-D for depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 for depressive disorders in populations with good literacy levels, the EPDS for perinatal depressive disorders, and the HADS-A for anxiety disorders

  5. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  6. The social determinants of infant mortality and birth outcomes in Western developed nations: a cross-country systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-06-05

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  7. A tale of two countries: International comparison of online doctor reviews between China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haijing; Zhang, Kunpeng; Wang, Weiguang; Gao, Gordon

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, patients have posted millions of online reviews for their doctors. The rich textual information in the online reviews holds the potential to generate insights into how patients' experience with their doctors differ across nations and how should we use them to improve our health service. We apply customized text mining techniques to compare online doctor reviews from China and the United States, in order to measure the systematic differences in patient reviews between the two countries, and assess the potential insights that can be derived from this large volume of online text data. We compare the textual reviews of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) doctors from the two most popular online doctor rating websites in the U.S. and China, respectively: RateMDs.com and Haodf.com. We apply a customized text mining technique, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling to identify the major topics in positive and negative reviews of those two countries. We then compare their similarities and differences. Among the positive reviews, both Chinese and American patients talked about medical treatment, bedside manner, and appreciation/recommendation, but Chinese patients commented more about medical treatment while American patients focused more on recommendation. Also, reviews about bedside manner from Chinese patients were more related to doctors while on the American side, they were more about staff. This reflects the difference between the two countries' health systems. Further, among the negative reviews, both countries' patients talked about medical treatment, bedside manner, and logistics. However, Chinese patients focus more on the registration process, while American patients are more related to the staff, wait time, and insurance, which further shows the differences between the two nations' health systems. Online doctor reviews contain valuable information that can generate insights on the similarities and differences of patient experience across

  8. Background of Individual Education Plans (IEPs) Policy in Some Countries: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkahtani, Mohammed Ali; Kheirallah, Sahar Abdelfattah

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a cogent outline of the current policies that six separate countries have on Individual Education Plans (IEPs), identifying the key features in each system. The chosen countries are Australia (Queen Island), Canada (British Columbia), New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Saudi Arabia. The…

  9. A systematic literature review of pediculosis due to head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: what country specific research on head lice is needed?

    PubMed

    Speare, Rick; Harrington, Humpress; Canyon, Deon; Massey, Peter D

    2014-06-24

    Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually. PRISMA methodology was used. Exclusion criteria were: i) not on topic; ii) publications on pediculosis not relevant to the country of the particular search; iii) in grey literature. Of 24 publications identified, only 5 were included. Four related to treatment and one to epidemiology. None contained information relevant to informing national guidelines. Current local evidence on head lice in the PICTs is minimal and totally inadequate to guide any recommendations for treatment or control. We recommend that local research is required to generate evidence on: i) epidemiology; ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers and community members; iii) efficacy of local commercially available pharmaceutical treatments and local customary treatments; iv) acceptability, accessibility and affordability of available treatment strategies; and iv) appropriate control strategies for families, groups and institutions. We also recommend that operational research be done by local researchers based in the PICTs, supported by experienced head lice researchers, using a two way research capacity building model.

  10. A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: an update.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Sabherwal, Simran

    2013-11-01

    To conduct a literature review of studies that examined risk and protective factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries. A literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, JSTOR, and the Interagency Youth Working Group. Review criteria included publications that: were conducted in a low- or middle-income country; had a sample size of at least 100 young people aged 10-24 years, and used multivariate analysis. All studies that were identified were also conducted between 1990 and 2010, a 20-year time frame. The literature search and initial review yielded a total of 244 studies that met the criteria and analyzed risk and protective factors related to the following outcomes: sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, condom use, contraceptive use, pregnancy and early childbearing, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual coercion. Most studies that were conducted on adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries were largely focused in Sub-Saharan African contexts, and primarily examined factors related to sexual initiation and condom use. Most factors that examined an adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcome were also focused on the individual level, although an increasing number of studies within the past 10 years have focused on family-level factors. Few studies examined factors at the community or neighborhood level, which, to date, has largely been ignored in developing country contexts. The review not only summarizes what is currently known in terms of risk and protective factors that relate to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries, but also highlights the gaps. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A critical review of interventions for clubfoot in low and middle-income countries: effectiveness and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rosalind M; Kembhavi, Gayatri

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate treatment provision for clubfoot in many low and middle-income countries results in a high prevalence of neglected clubfoot, a condition causing severe impairment. This study critically reviewed evidence on surgical, conservative and mixed (Ponseti) treatment interventions for clubfoot in low and middle-income countries. Intervention effectiveness was analysed by comparing outcomes within International Classification of Functioning groupings. Contextual factors were qualitatively analysed for effect on intervention outcomes. The Ponseti method appeared to be more effective than conservative techniques but was not directly comparable with surgical techniques. Contextual factors were reported to influence outcomes; service providers using the Ponseti technique had made most intentional steps to overcome contextual barriers.

  12. A systematic review of economic evaluations of interventions to tackle cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-and middle-income countries are facing both a mounting burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as severe resource constraints that keep them from emulating some of the extensive strategies pursued in high-income countries. There is thus an urgency to identify and implement those interventions that help reap the biggest reductions of the CVD burden, given low resource levels. What are the interventions to combat CVDs that represent good "value for money" in low-and middle-income countries? This study reviews the evidence-base on economic evaluations of interventions located in those countries. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of journal articles published until 2009, based on a comprehensive key-word based search in generic and specialized electronic databases, accompanied by manual searches of expert databases. The search strategy consisted of freetext and MeSH terms related to economic evaluation and cardiovascular disease. Two independent reviewers verified fulfillment of inclusion criteria and extracted study characteristics. Results Thirty-three studies met the selection criteria. We find a growing research interest, in particular in most recent years, if from a very low baseline. Most interventions fall under the category primary prevention, as opposed to case management or secondary prevention. Across the spectrum of interventions, pharmaceutical strategies have been the predominant focus, and, taken at face value, these show significant positive economic evidence, specifically when compared to the counterfactual of no interventions. Only a few studies consider non-clinical interventions, at population level. Almost half of the studies have modelled the intervention effectiveness based on existing risk-factor information and effectiveness evidence from high-income countries. Conclusion The cost-effectiveness evidence on CVD interventions in developing countries is growing, but remains scarce, and is biased towards

  13. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and professional literature describing the extent to and the ways in which nurse prescribing has been realised or is being introduced in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries; secondly, to identify possible mechanisms underlying the introduction and organisation of nurse prescribing on the basis of Abbott's theory on the division of professional labor. Methods A comprehensive search of six literature databases and seven websites was performed without any limitation as to date of publication, language or country. Additionally, experts in the field of nurse prescribing were consulted. A three stage inclusion process, consisting of initial sifting, more detailed selection and checking full-text publications, was performed independently by pairs of reviewers. Data were synthesized using narrative and tabular methods. Results One hundred and twenty-four publications met the inclusion criteria. So far, seven Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented nurse prescribing of medicines, viz., Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The Netherlands and Spain are in the process of introducing nurse prescribing. A diversity of external and internal forces has led to the introduction of nurse prescribing internationally. The legal, educational and organizational conditions under which nurses prescribe medicines vary considerably between countries; from situations where nurses prescribe independently to situations in which prescribing by nurses is only allowed under strict conditions and supervision of physicians. Conclusions Differences between countries are reflected in the jurisdictional settlements between the nursing and medical professions

  14. What is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul

    2010-11-03

    Medical tourism involves patients intentionally leaving their home country to access non-emergency health care services abroad. Growth in the popularity of this practice has resulted in a significant amount of attention being given to it from researchers, policy-makers, and the media. Yet, there has been little effort to systematically synthesize what is known about the effects of this phenomenon. This article presents the findings of a scoping review examining what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. Drawing on academic articles, grey literature, and media sources extracted from18 databases, we follow a widely used scoping review protocol to synthesize what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. The review design has three main stages: (1) identifying the question and relevant literature; (2) selecting the literature; and (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the data. The large majority of the 203 sources accepted into the review offer a perspective of medical tourism from the Global North, focusing on the flow of patients from high income nations to lower and middle income countries. This greatly shapes any discussion of the effects of medical tourism on destination and departure countries. Five interrelated themes that characterize existing discussion of the effects of this practice were extracted from the reviewed sources. These themes frame medical tourism as a: (1) user of public resources; (2) solution to health system problems; (3) revenue generating industry; (4) standard of care; and (5) source of inequity. It is observed that what is currently known about the effects of medical tourism is minimal, unreliable, geographically restricted and mostly based on speculation. Given its positive and negative effects on the health care systems of departure and destination countries, medical tourism is a highly significant and contested phenomenon. This is especially

  15. What is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries? A scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medical tourism involves patients intentionally leaving their home country to access non-emergency health care services abroad. Growth in the popularity of this practice has resulted in a significant amount of attention being given to it from researchers, policy-makers, and the media. Yet, there has been little effort to systematically synthesize what is known about the effects of this phenomenon. This article presents the findings of a scoping review examining what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. Methods Drawing on academic articles, grey literature, and media sources extracted from18 databases, we follow a widely used scoping review protocol to synthesize what is known about the effects of medical tourism in destination and departure countries. The review design has three main stages: (1) identifying the question and relevant literature; (2) selecting the literature; and (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the data. Results The large majority of the 203 sources accepted into the review offer a perspective of medical tourism from the Global North, focusing on the flow of patients from high income nations to lower and middle income countries. This greatly shapes any discussion of the effects of medical tourism on destination and departure countries. Five interrelated themes that characterize existing discussion of the effects of this practice were extracted from the reviewed sources. These themes frame medical tourism as a: (1) user of public resources; (2) solution to health system problems; (3) revenue generating industry; (4) standard of care; and (5) source of inequity. It is observed that what is currently known about the effects of medical tourism is minimal, unreliable, geographically restricted and mostly based on speculation. Conclusions Given its positive and negative effects on the health care systems of departure and destination countries, medical tourism is a highly significant and

  16. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Review of household solid waste charges for developing countries--A focus on quantity-based charge methods.

    PubMed

    Welivita, Indunee; Wattage, Premachandra; Gunawardena, Prasanthi

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste management has become a major issue in almost all municipalities especially in developing countries across the world. As more waste needs to be collected and disposed of in urban areas, the increased cost cannot be covered by the available funds in developing countries. Managing the Household Solid Waste (HSW) sector is very important as it is the main contributor of the waste that needs to be collected in residential areas. The reduction of the amount of HSW to be disposed of can be achieved by households themselves practising the "4R" activities: reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering. As a policy instrument, the Waste Management Charge (WMC) for HSW has shown much success in encouraging such activities all over the world. Given the already difficult context in which developing countries operate, it is important to careful consider what kind of charging system is implemented. Using available literature, this paper reviews the applicability of available charging methods, from a flat rate method, through to volume-based (bags, cans or tag/sticker) and weight-based charging methods. These charging methods were evaluated on the basis of overall cost, technology need possible other issues. By considering the conditions in developing countries, a 'pre-paid bag based charging method' could be suggested as the most suitable charging method for a WMC in Sri Lanka or other developing countries. The potential applicability of this method was also examined in the context of social, economic and political characteristics. Whilst the use of economic instruments, including WMC, was widely discussed in the literature, the selection of a charging method in the context of developing countries is rarely discussed. Having said that, this paper gives an insight to the policy makers in developing countries upon using pre-paid bag based charging method for HSW sector. It also provides recommendations regarding possible issues in implementing for developing countries

  19. Adverse-Drug-Reaction-Related Hospitalisations in Developed and Developing Countries: A Review of Prevalence and Contributing Factors.

    PubMed

    Angamo, Mulugeta Tarekegn; Chalmers, Leanne; Curtain, Colin M; Bereznicki, Luke R E

    2016-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one of the leading causes of hospital admissions and morbidity in developed countries and represent a substantial burden on healthcare delivery systems. However, there is little data available from low- and middle-income countries. This review compares the prevalence and characteristics of ADR-related hospitalisations in adults in developed and developing countries, including the mortality, severity and preventability associated with these events, commonly implicated drugs and contributing factors. A literature search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest and Google Scholar to find articles published in English from 2000 to 2015. Relevant observational studies were included. The median (with interquartile range [IQR]) prevalence of ADR-related hospitalisation in developed and developing countries was 6.3 % (3.3-11.0) and 5.5 % (1.1-16.9), respectively. The median proportions of preventable ADRs in developed and developing countries were 71.7 % (62.3-80.0) and 59.6 % (51.5-79.6), respectively. Similarly, the median proportions of ADRs resulting in mortality in developed and developing countries were 1.7 % (0.7-4.8) and 1.8 % (0.8-8.0), respectively. Commonly implicated drugs in both settings were antithrombotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs. Older age, female gender, number of medications, renal impairment and heart failure were reported to be associated with an increased risk for ADR-related hospitalisation in both settings while HIV/AIDS was implicated in developing countries only. The majority of ADRs were preventable in both settings, highlighting the importance of improving medication use, particularly in vulnerable patient groups such as the elderly, patients with multiple comorbidities and, in developing countries, patients with HIV/AIDS.

  20. [Legislation on abortion in the countries of the world (a review of the literature)].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V K; Baranova, E V

    1980-01-01

    This is a survey of abortion legislation in the countries of the world. There are 30-55 million abortions performed in the world every year. The USSR legalized abortion in 1920, for medical and social indications. In 1936 it was forbidden and in 1955 again permitted. In 1956 the East European countries made abortion easier, but Bulgaria in 1966 and Rumania in 1967 introduced limitations. On the whole, the second half of the twentieth century has seen a liberalization of abortion law everywhere, permitting it for the physical or mental health of the woman. The law is especially liberal in the US and Scandinavian countries, where abortion is permitted at the simple request of the woman. This liberalization is rooted in the desire to avoid the harm done to the woman's health by illegal abortions, also to reduce the birthrate (Tunisia, Singapore). The Catholic countries of Europe today have the strictest abortion laws (Ireland, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Luxemburg, Malta, Monaco, Portugal) and also the South American countries. In some of these countries the sale of contraceptives is prohibited. Prohibition of abortion, however, does not stop it, only leads to an increase in illegal abortions. In some of these countries the number of illegal abortions is greater than the number of legal ones in countries with liberal laws. Bolivia, for instance, expends 60% of its whole public health budget for maternity and childbirth and taking care of women suffering the effects of an illegal abortion. This is the principal cause of death for women of childbearing ago in many countries. Techniques of menstrual regulation, however, are not considered abortion, which may be a possible way around these laws.

  1. The feature of papers and citation analysis of eleven journals in tropical medicine indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yang

    2005-11-01

    To determine the features of papers, authors, and citation of eleven journals in tropical medicine indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded, the database of the Institute for Scientific Information, we analyzed original articles, editorials, reviews, corrections, letters, biographies, and news published in these journals. The results show that these journals covered 107 countries or regions on six continents. The average number of reference was 23.05, with 87.89% of the references from periodicals. The Price Index was 31.43% and the self-citing rate was 7.02%. The references in the first 20 journals ranked by the amount of citation accounted for 36.71% of the total citations. Brazil, United States, India, and England are more advanced in tropical medicine research. The conclusion is that these journals covered most research done in these countries or regions. Most researches were done by cooperation of the researchers, but many of the publications used outdated articles and should include newer information.

  2. Digital technology for health sector governance in low and middle income countries: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Holeman, Isaac; Cookson, Tara Patricia; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost-effective health care in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, "good governance" interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care. Multi-stage scoping review: Research questions and scope were refined through a landscape scan of relevant implementation activities and by analyzing related concepts in the literature. Relevant studies were identified through iterative Internet searches (Google, Google Scholar), a systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, Web of Science), social media crowdsourcing (targeted LinkedIn and Twitter appeals) and reading reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. Parallel expert interviews helped to verify concepts and emerging findings and identified additional studies for inclusion. Results were charted, analyzed thematically and summarized. We identified 34 articles from a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including 17 published research articles and 17 grey literature reports. Analysis of these articles revealed 15 distinct ways of using ICTs for good governance activities in LMIC health care. These use cases clustered into four conceptual categories: 1) gathering and verifying information on services to improve transparency and auditability 2) aggregating and visualizing data to aid communication and decision making 3) mobilizing citizens in reporting poor practices to improve accountability and quality and 4) automating and auditing processes to prevent fraud. Despite a considerable amount of implementation activity, we identified little formal evaluative research

  3. Digital technology for health sector governance in low and middle income countries: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Holeman, Isaac; Cookson, Tara Patricia; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost–effective health care in many low– and middle–income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, “good governance” interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care. Methods Multi–stage scoping review: Research questions and scope were refined through a landscape scan of relevant implementation activities and by analyzing related concepts in the literature. Relevant studies were identified through iterative Internet searches (Google, Google Scholar), a systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, Web of Science), social media crowdsourcing (targeted LinkedIn and Twitter appeals) and reading reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. Parallel expert interviews helped to verify concepts and emerging findings and identified additional studies for inclusion. Results were charted, analyzed thematically and summarized. Results We identified 34 articles from a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including 17 published research articles and 17 grey literature reports. Analysis of these articles revealed 15 distinct ways of using ICTs for good governance activities in LMIC health care. These use cases clustered into four conceptual categories: 1) gathering and verifying information on services to improve transparency and auditability 2) aggregating and visualizing data to aid communication and decision making 3) mobilizing citizens in reporting poor practices to improve accountability and quality and 4) automating and auditing processes to prevent fraud. Despite a considerable amount of implementation activity, we identified

  4. PEPFAR Transitions to Country Ownership: Review of Past Donor Transitions and Application of Lessons Learned to the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Vogus, Abigail; Graff, Kylie

    2015-06-17

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has shifted from an emergency response to a sustainable, country-owned response. The process of transition to country ownership is already underway in the Eastern Caribbean; the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) has advised the region that PEPFAR funding is being redirected away from the Eastern Caribbean toward Caribbean countries with high disease burden to strengthen services for key populations. This article seeks to highlight and apply lessons learned from other donor transitions to support a successful transition of HIV programs in the Eastern Caribbean. Based on a rapid review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature on donor transitions to country ownership in family planning, HIV, and other areas, we identified 48 resources that addressed key steps in the transition process and determinants of readiness for transition. Analysis of the existing literature revealed 6 steps that could help ensure successful transition, including developing a clear roadmap articulated through high-level diplomacy; investing in extensive stakeholder engagement; and supporting monitoring and evaluation during and after the transition to adjust course as needed. Nine specific areas to assess a country's readiness for transition include: leadership and management capacity, political and economic factors, the policy environment, identification of alternative funding sources, integration of HIV programs into the wider health system, the institutionalization of processes, the strength of procurement and supply chain management, identification of staffing and training needs, and engagement of civil society and the private sector. In the Caribbean, key areas requiring strengthening to ensure countries in the region can maintain the gains made under PEPFAR include further engaging civil society and the private sector, building the capacity of NGOs to take on essential program functions, and maintaining donor

  5. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region.

    PubMed

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response)--17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region.

  6. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change.

    PubMed

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Urassa, David P; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-04-17

    The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52%-65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71%-75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single magic bullet intervention exists for

  7. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single

  8. The impact of conditional cash transfers on child health in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The review aimed to assess the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) in improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Seven electronic databases were searched for papers: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsychINFO, BIOSIS Previews, Academic Search Complete, and CSA Sociological Abstracts. The included studies comprised of randomised controlled trials and controlled before-and-after studies evaluating the impact of CCTs on child health. Due to the substantial heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted on the extracted data. Sixteen studies predominantly from Latin American countries met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes reported by the studies in relation to CCTs' effectiveness in improving child health were reduction in morbidity risk, improvement in nutritional outcomes, health services utilisation, and immunisation coverage. The review suggests that to a large extent, CCTs are effective in improving child health by addressing child health determinants such as access to health care, child and maternal nutrition, morbidity risk, immunisation coverage, and household poverty in developing countries particularly middle-income countries. Of importance to both policy and practice, it appears that CCTs require effective functioning of health care systems to effectively promote child health.

  9. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes.

  10. Recommendations for the Improved Effectiveness and Reporting of Telemedicine Programs in Developing Countries: Results of a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Sumesh; Burgon, Joseph; Leonard, Saoirse; Griffiths, Matthew; Eddowes, Lucy A

    2015-11-01

    A lack of decisive evidence on the impact of telemedicine on financial and clinical outcomes has not prohibited significant investment in developing countries. Understanding characteristics that facilitate effective telemedicine programs is required to allow telemedicine to be used to its full potential. This systematic review aimed to identify organizational, technological, and financial features of successful telemedicine programs providing direct clinical care in developing countries. Databases were searched, and the results were reviewed systematically according to predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Information on location(s), measure of success, and organizational, technological, and financial characteristics were extracted. This review was impeded by inadequate program reporting, and so a concise checklist was developed to aid improved reporting, enabling future reviews to identify key characteristics of effective programs. This systematic review identified 46 articles reporting 36 programs that fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Programs were distributed globally, including regional, national, and international programs. Technological modalities included synchronous technology, real-time teleconsultations, and asynchronous technology. Program integration with existing systems and twinning of international institutions were identified as factors enabling program success. Other factors included simple and easy-to-use technology, ability to reduce the burden on healthcare professionals, and technology able to maintain functionality in challenging environmental circumstances. Reports describing effectiveness and costs were limited. This systematic review identified key factors associated with telemedicine program success. However, inconsistencies in reporting represent an obstacle to establishment of successful programs in developing countries by limiting the application of previous experiences. Adhering to the guidelines suggested here may allow

  11. Factors associated with pregnancy among adolescents in low-income and lower middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Rina; Wynter, Karen; Fisher, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality is much more prevalent among adolescents than adults. Adolescent pregnancy is therefore a significant public health problem. Most births to adolescents (95%) occur in resource-constrained countries. The aim was to review the available evidence about the factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in low-income and lower middle-income countries. The review used the PRISMA procedure of identification, screening and eligibility of publications. PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, SCOPUS and CINAHL plus were searched systematically for peer-reviewed English language papers published before December 2013. In total, 2005 articles were identified and 12 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Despite varied methods, there was substantial consistency in the findings. Limited education, low socioeconomic position, insufficient access to and non-use of contraception were consistently found to be risks for pregnancy among adolescents. There was some evidence that early marriage, living in a rural area, early sexual initiation, belonging to an ethnic and religious minority group also increased the risk of adolescent pregnancy. Higher education, access to income-generating work and family support were found to protect against adolescent pregnancy. In resource-constrained countries, as in well-resourced countries, low socioeconomic position appears to increase the risk of pregnancy among adolescents. Additional risks specific to these contexts include cultural traditions such as early marriage and inaccurate beliefs about contraception. It is unlikely that strategies to reduce pregnancy among women aged less than 20 years will be effective unless these are addressed directly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The prevalence and incidence of diabetic foot ulcers among five countries in the Arab world: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mairghani, M; Elmusharaf, K; Patton, D; Burns, J; Eltahir, O; Jassim, G; Moore, Z

    2017-09-01

    There is a rising incidence of diabetes worldwide; however there seems to be a higher incidence and prevalence rates in the Arab world when compared with the global average. (1) Out of the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence rates, six are Arab countries and almost 20.5 million people in that part of the world live with diabetes. Despite this, published scientific research from the 22 Arab countries is limited and seems to be of lower quality when compared with the rest of the developed world. (2) Therefore, our aim was to explore the contribution of the different Arab countries in the world literature, to identify the diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) prevalence and incidence rates and to quality appraise these studies. A systematic review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken to identify the incidence and prevalence of DFUs in the Arab world. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Embase CINAHL, Web of Science (Scopus), Global Health and EBSCO Results: A total of nine papers were identified. The mean prevalence of DFU in Saudi Arabia was 11.85% (4.7-19%), in Egypt was 4.2% (1-7.4%), in Jordan was 4.65% (4-5.3%), in Bahrain was 5.9% and in Iraq was 2.7%. A single study identified DFU incidence in Saudi Arabia as 1.8% between 2009-2010. The mean prevalence rates of DFU were highest in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain and lowest in Iraq. Saudi Arabia had the only reported incidence study, thus findings could not be compared to other countries of the Arab world. There were no studies identified during our search reporting prevalence rates of DFU in 17 of the 22 Arab countries. It is clear that further research is required to determine the incidence and prevalance of DFUs in the Arab world and that progress is needed in order to improve the quality of research conducted in those countries.

  13. Review of national research ethics regulations and guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research ethics guidelines are essential for conducting medical research. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to establish national clinical research documents in the countries of the Middle East. This article analyzes these documents. Methods Thirteen Arab countries in the Middle East were explored for available national codes, regulations, and guidelines concerning research ethics, and 10 documents from eight countries were found. We studied these documents, considering the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines, and the International Conference of Harmonization - Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Our paper comprises a complete list of protections, such as confidentiality, informed consent, ethics committees, and others. Results This study found different levels and kinds of research ethics regulations and guidelines in the countries examined. Two groups can be distinguished: the countries in the first group have one or more research ethics regulations or guidelines, while the countries in the second group have not yet established any. Most of the documents showed various degrees of deficiencies in regard to ethical protection. The majority of the documents that were examined refer to one or more international documents on biomedical research ethics. Conclusions Recently, a lot of efforts have been made in many countries in the Middle East. However, compared with international documents, most of the research ethics documents in use in this region demonstrate numerous deficiencies. As it relates to these documents, extensive differences could be observed in regard to development, structure, content, and reference to international guidelines. PMID:23234422

  14. Barriers to access to opioid medicines: a review of national legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Lisman, John A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas; Payne, Sheila; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2016-01-01

    Control measures designed to prevent the misuse of opioid medicines can often unintentionally restrict legitimate medical use, leaving patients with cancer in pain. This study aimed to develop and validate an assessment instrument based on WHO policy guidelines to systematically identify legal and regulatory barriers to opioid access in 11 European countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Turkey) as part of the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project. Relevant legislation and regulations were independently assessed by three reviewers and potential barriers were identified within nine categories including prescribing, penalties, and others. Potential barriers were identified in all countries, ranging from 22 potential barriers (Cyprus) to 128 potential barriers (Lithuania). The total number of barriers in a single category varied from one (Slovenia, usage category) to 49 (Greece, prescribing category). Differences, such as prescription validity, varied within one category, ranging from 5 days (Hungary) to 13 weeks (Cyprus). The results of this Review should give rise to a national review and revision of provisions that impede access to opioids, disproportionate to their (intended) benefit in preventing misuse, in these 11 European countries.

  15. A systematic literature review of pediculosis due to head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: what country specific research on head lice is needed?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually. PRISMA methodology was used. Exclusion criteria were: i) not on topic; ii) publications on pediculosis not relevant to the country of the particular search; iii) in grey literature. Results Of 24 publications identified, only 5 were included. Four related to treatment and one to epidemiology. None contained information relevant to informing national guidelines. Conclusions Current local evidence on head lice in the PICTs is minimal and totally inadequate to guide any recommendations for treatment or control. We recommend that local research is required to generate evidence on: i) epidemiology; ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers and community members; iii) efficacy of local commercially available pharmaceutical treatments and local customary treatments; iv) acceptability, accessibility and affordability of available treatment strategies; and iv) appropriate control strategies for families, groups and institutions. We also recommend that operational research be done by local researchers based in the PICTs, supported by experienced head lice researchers, using a two way research capacity building model. PMID:24962507

  16. Effect of rural-to-urban within-country migration on cardiovascular risk factors in low and middle income countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Adrián V.; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Deshpande, Abhishek; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Context Limited information is available of effects of rural-to-urban within-country migration on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Objective We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating these effects and having rural and/or urban control groups. Study Selection Two teams of investigators searched observational studies in MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus until December 2010. Studies evaluating international migration were excluded. Data Extraction Three investigators extracted the information stratified by gender. We captured information on 17 known CV risk factors. Results Eighteen studies (n=58,536) were included. Studies were highly heterogeneous with respect to study design, migrant sampling frame, migrant urban exposure, and reported CV risk factors. In migrants, commonly reported CV risk factors –systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, obesity, total cholesterol, and LDL– were usually higher or more frequent than the rural group, and usually lower or less frequent than the urban group. This gradient was usually present in both genders. Anthropometric (waist-to-hip ratio, hip/waist circumference, triceps skinfolds) and metabolic (fasting glucose/insulin, insulin resistance) risk factors usually followed the same gradient, but conclusions are weak due to information paucity. Hypertension, HDL, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein did not follow any pattern. Conclusions In LMIC, most but not all CV risk factors have a gradient of higher or more frequent in migrants than in the rural groups but lower or less frequent than the urban groups. Such gradients may or may not be associated to differential CV events and long-term evaluations remain necessary. PMID:21917659

  17. Systematic Review of Postgraduate Surgical Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Surgical care is recognized as an important component of public health, however, many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are faced with a shortage of trained personnel. In response to this unmet need, many countries have developed local postgraduate training programs in surgery. This study aims to characterize general surgery postgraduate education in LMICs. PubMed, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus databases were searched for articles related to postgraduate general surgery education in LMICs. Studies in other surgical specialties and those published prior to 1990 were excluded. Data were collected on the characteristics of postgraduate training programs. Sixty-four articles discussed postgraduate surgical education in LMICs. Programs in 34 different countries and 6 different regions were represented. Nine countries were low-income, 12 were low-middle-income, and 13 were upper-middle-income countries. Sixty-four articles described aspects of the local postgraduate training program. Prior to postgraduate training, residents complete an undergraduate medical degree with 19 programs describing a pre-training experience such as internship. Surgical curricula were broad-based to prepare trainees to work in low-resource settings. At the completion of postgraduate training, examination formats varied including oral, written, and clinical exams. Postgraduate general surgery programs ranged from 2.5 to 7 years. Postgraduate surgical education is one mechanism to increase surgical capacity in LMICs. Different strategies have been employed to improve surgical education in LMICs and learning from these programs can optimize surgical education across teaching sites.

  18. Collaborative care for depression: a literature review and a model for implementation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Saeed

    2013-03-01

    Depression will soon be the leading cause of disability in developing countries but effective treatments are not widely available. There is compelling evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the multicondition collaborative care (MCC) model for depression in developing and developed countries. In the MCC model integrated care for depression is provided along with care for different non-communicable disorders. MCC has been shown to reduce hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia and can lead to depression-free days when integrated care for depression and diabetes is provided. However, due to limited resources, it is not possible to make this effective model of care available at the population level. It is suggested that a public health intervention based on the MCC model can lead to better care for depression in developing countries. A public health programme of MCC which provides treatment for depression, diabetes and hypertension in a collaborative care programme will be a cost-effective way of providing treatment for depression in developing countries. This will cater for the leading cause of disability (unipolar depression) and the leading projected causes of mortality (ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease) in low-income and middle-income countries.

  19. Measurement of social capital in relation to health in low and middle income countries (LMIC): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Glozier, Nicholas; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2015-03-01

    Social capital is a neglected determinant of health in low and middle income countries. To date, majority of evidence syntheses on social capital and health are based upon high income countries. We conducted this systematic review to identify the methods used to measure social capital in low and middle-income countries and to evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses. An electronic search was conducted using Pubmed, Science citation index expanded, Social science citation index expanded, Web of knowledge, Cochrane, Trip, Google scholar and selected grey literature sources. We aimed to include all studies conducted in low and middle-income countries, published in English that have measured any aspect of social capital in relation to health in the study, from 1980 to January 2013. We extracted data using a data extraction form and performed narrative synthesis as the measures were heterogeneous. Of the 472 articles retrieved, 46 articles were selected for the review. The review included 32 studies from middle income countries and seven studies from low income countries. Seven were cross national studies. Most studies were descriptive cross sectional in design (n = 39). Only two randomized controlled trials were included. Among the studies conducted using primary data (n = 32), we identified18 purposely built tools that measured various dimensions of social capital. Validity (n = 11) and reliability (n = 8) of the tools were assessed only in very few studies. Cognitive constructs of social capital, namely trust, social cohesion and sense of belonging had a positive association towards measured health outcome in majority of the studies. While most studies measured social capital at individual/micro level (n = 32), group level measurements were obtained by aggregation of individual measures. As many tools originate in high income contexts, cultural adaptation, validation and reliability assessment is mandatory in adapting the tool to the study setting. Evidence

  20. The role of micro health insurance in providing financial risk protection in developing countries--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Habib, Shifa Salman; Perveen, Shagufta; Khuwaja, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed

    2016-03-22

    Out of pocket payments are the predominant method of financing healthcare in many developing countries, which can result in impoverishment and financial catastrophe for those affected. In 2010, WHO estimated that approximately 100 million people are pushed below the poverty line each year by payments for healthcare. Micro health insurance (MHI) has been used in some countries as means of risk pooling and reducing out of pocket health expenditure. A systematic review was conducted to assess the extent to which MHI has contributed to providing financial risk protection to low-income households in developing countries, and suggest how the findings can be applied in the Pakistani setting. We conducted a systematic search for published literature using the search terms "Community based health insurance AND developing countries", "Micro health insurance AND developing countries", "Mutual health insurance AND developing countries", "mutual OR micro OR community based health insurance" "Health insurance AND impact AND poor" "Health insurance AND financial protection" and "mutual health organizations" on three databases, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct (Elsevier). Only those records that were published in the last ten years, in English language with their full texts available free of cost, were considered for inclusion in this review. Hand searching was carried out on the reference lists of the retrieved articles and webpages of international organizations like World Bank, World Health Organization and International Labour Organization. Twenty-three articles were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review (14 from Asia and 9 from Africa). Our analysis shows that MHI, in the majority of cases, has been found to contribute to the financial protection of its beneficiaries, by reducing out of pocket health expenditure, catastrophic health expenditure, total health expenditure, household borrowings and poverty. MHI also had a positive safeguarding effect on

  1. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S.; Feigl, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990–2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. Conclusions The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs. PMID:27669014

  2. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S; Feigl, Andrea B; Avila, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Gael; Macgregor-Skinner, Elizabeth; Spranca, Mark

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  3. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-03-21

    To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. A systematic review of the literature. 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Nicole; Arora, Monika; Grills, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the current literature around the potential impact, effectiveness and perceptions of plain packaging in low income settings. Method A systematic review of the literature. Data sources 9 databases (PubMed, Global Health, Social Policy and Practice, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Library for Development Studies (BLDS), Global Health Library and Scopus) were searched. The terms used for searching combined terms for smoking and tobacco use with terms for plain packaging. Study selection Studies investigating the impact of plain packaging on the determinants of tobacco use, such as smoking behaviour, appeal, prominence, effectiveness of health warnings, response to plain packs, attitudes towards quitting or likelihood of smoking in low-income settings, were identified. Studies must have been published in English and be original research of any level of rigour. Data extraction Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Data synthesis The results were synthesised qualitatively, with themes grouped under four key headings: appeal and attractiveness; salience of health warnings and perceptions of harm; enjoyment and perceived taste ratings; and perceptions of the impact on tobacco usage behaviour. Results This review has identified four articles that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified that tobacco products in plain packaging had less appeal than in branded packaging in low-income settings. Conclusions This review indicates that plain packaging appears to be successful in reducing appeal of smoking and packets, and supports the call for plain packaging to be widely implemented in conjunction with other tobacco control policies. However, there are considerable gaps in the amount of research conducted outside high-income countries. PMID:27000787

  5. Presence of nursing information on hospital websites in five countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, L L; Liu, Y L

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) examine the presence of nursing information on 50 hospital websites across five countries; (2) describe the accessibility, range and depth of nursing information provided; and (3) compare the characteristics of nursing web information across the countries. Providing information on hospital website is an increasingly popular strategy for marketing hospital services, and it has been playing unique and important roles for nursing. So far, the nursing information offered via hospital websites is not uncommon worldwide, but the amount, content and form of such information presented by the institutions of different countries have not been examined systematically. Objective sampling was employed to select 50 top hospital websites from five countries, with ten for each geographical region, namely, Australia (Oceania), China (Asia), South Africa (Africa), UK (Europe) and the USA (North America). A self-developed checklist was used to examine the presence of nursing information on the above-mentioned hospital websites. The most frequently presented information on the hospital websites was nursing employment (job placement), nursing education, and news and events concerning the nursing profession, but information about other aspects of nursing was relatively lacking. The hospital websites in the USA and Australia provided more information as compared with those in China and the UK. Nursing information was almost unavailable on hospital websites in South Africa. Although the accessibility of nursing-related information has been improved, the presence of nursing information was not strong on the hospital websites across the five countries. The nursing information presented on hospital websites varied with different countries. Efforts have to be made to improve the presence and accessibility of nursing information. Information about the nursing services, professional image of nurses and nursing employment should be enhanced.

  6. EMS Systems in Lower-Middle Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Suryanto; Plummer, Virginia; Boyle, Malcolm

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Prehospital care is one of the many issues that require addressing by lower-middle income countries (LMICs) where approximately 90% of global injuries occur. This may arise from more traffic in LMICs, poor road conditions, lack of public awareness of the importance of road safety, and the lack of ability to provide first aid to the victims. However, prehospital care in LMICs remains underdeveloped. Problem There is insufficient evidence regarding the development of prehospital care among LMICs. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the status of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in these countries.

  7. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Ricarda; Wyss, Kaspar; Prytherch, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a relatively short time and by

  8. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Ricarda; Wyss, Kaspar; Prytherch, Helen

    2009-06-05

    Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries--Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania--have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a relatively short time and by using donor funding support also

  9. PEPFAR Transitions to Country Ownership: Review of Past Donor Transitions and Application of Lessons Learned to the Eastern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Vogus, Abigail; Graff, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    The US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has shifted from an emergency response to a sustainable, country-owned response. The process of transition to country ownership is already underway in the Eastern Caribbean; the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) has advised the region that PEPFAR funding is being redirected away from the Eastern Caribbean toward Caribbean countries with high disease burden to strengthen services for key populations. This article seeks to highlight and apply lessons learned from other donor transitions to support a successful transition of HIV programs in the Eastern Caribbean. Based on a rapid review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature on donor transitions to country ownership in family planning, HIV, and other areas, we identified 48 resources that addressed key steps in the transition process and determinants of readiness for transition. Analysis of the existing literature revealed 6 steps that could help ensure successful transition, including developing a clear roadmap articulated through high-level diplomacy; investing in extensive stakeholder engagement; and supporting monitoring and evaluation during and after the transition to adjust course as needed. Nine specific areas to assess a country’s readiness for transition include: leadership and management capacity, political and economic factors, the policy environment, identification of alternative funding sources, integration of HIV programs into the wider health system, the institutionalization of processes, the strength of procurement and supply chain management, identification of staffing and training needs, and engagement of civil society and the private sector. In the Caribbean, key areas requiring strengthening to ensure countries in the region can maintain the gains made under PEPFAR include further engaging civil society and the private sector, building the capacity of NGOs to take on essential program functions, and maintaining donor

  10. Systemic review of the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries

    PubMed Central

    Salhia, Huda O.; Al-Nasser, Lubna A.; Taher, Lama S.; Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries, and identify gaps for future research. Methods: PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were used to identify relevant articles published until the 3rd of April 2013 (date of search). The search was conducted using the electronic library of King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they concerned the epidemiology of autism, conducted in any Arab Gulf country, and published in English. Results: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies showed a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 29 per 10,000 persons. Identified risk factors were metabolic, autoimmune, and environmental in nature. The following determinants were found as possible contributing factors for autism: suboptimal breast-feeding, advanced maternal and paternal age, cesarean section, and prenatal complications. Conclusion: Only a few studies explored the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries and none have investigated the burden of the disease on the child, family, or society. More research is needed to better identify the burden and risk factors of autism in Gulf countries. PMID:25274588

  11. Systemic review of the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Salhia, Huda O; Al-Nasser, Lubna A; Taher, Lama S; Al-Khathaami, Ali M; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries, and identify gaps for future research. PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were used to identify relevant articles published until the 3rd of April 2013 (date of search). The search was conducted using the electronic library of King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they concerned the epidemiology of autism, conducted in any Arab Gulf country, and published in English. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies showed a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 29 per 10,000 persons. Identified risk factors were metabolic, autoimmune, and environmental in nature. The following determinants were found as possible contributing factors for autism: suboptimal breast-feeding, advanced maternal and paternal age, cesarean section, and prenatal complications. Only a few studies explored the epidemiology of autism in Arab Gulf countries and none have investigated the burden of the disease on the child, family, or society. More research is needed to better identify the burden and risk factors of autism in Gulf countries.

  12. A review of the personal health records in selected countries and Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2012-04-01

    Personal Health Record (PHR) enables patients to access their health information and improves care quality by supporting self-care. The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of the concept of PHRs in selected countries and Iran in order to investigate the gaps between Iran and more advanced countries in terms of PHRs. The study was carried out in 2008-2009 using a descriptive-comparative method in Australia, the United States, England and Iran. Data was gathered from articles, books, journals and reputed websites in English and Persian published between 1995 and September 2009. After collecting the data, both advantages and disadvantages of each of concepts were analyzed. In the three countries considered in the present study the concepts of PHR, extracted from the literature, are that; a)patient/person be recognized as the owner of PHR; b)information be disclosed only to those authorized by the patient; c) and that PHR is created upon request and consent of the individual involved. Before PHRs can be profitably used in the health administration of a (developing) country, the necessary knowledge, infrastructures, and rules need to be developed.

  13. African Braille Production: A Statistical Review and Evaluation of Countries and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marc; Cylke, Frank Kurt

    A study was conducted in 52 African countries to determine the extent of braille facilities for the blind, with the aim of choosing a location for a central braille producing facility. To make the selection, the factors of ease of communication (i.e., central location), political stability, and extent of already existing organizations for the…

  14. Schooling Options for Muslim Children Living in Muslim-Minority Countries--A Thematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musharraf, Muhammad Nabeel; Nabeel, Fatima Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Islamic education of children is a common problem faced by Muslims living in western, European and other developed countries as minority. It can be due to a number of factors such as unavailability of Islamic schools at a particular location, lack of enough number of students to warrant opening a full-fledged Islamic school, curriculum legislated…

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pauliah, Shreela S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Wade, Angie; Cady, Ernest B.; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2013-01-01

    Although selective or whole body cooling combined with optimal intensive care improves outcomes following neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, the safety and efficacy of cooling in low-and middle-income countries is not known. Objective We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cooling therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries. Results Seven trials, comprising a total of 567 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Most study infants had mild (15%) or moderate encephalopathy (48%) and did not receive invasive ventilation (88%). Cooling devices included water-circulating cooling caps, frozen gel packs, ice, water bottles, and phase-changing material. No statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality was seen with cooling (risk ratio: 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44 to 1.25). Data on other neonatal morbidities and long-term neurological outcomes were insufficient. Conclusion Cooling therapy was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality in low-and middle-income countries although the confidence intervals were wide and not incompatible with results seen in high-income countries. The apparent lack of treatment effect may be due to the heterogeneity and poor quality of the included studies, inefficiency of the low technology cooling devices, lack of optimal neonatal intensive care, sedation and ventilatory support, overuse of oxygen, or may be due to the intrinsic difference in the population, for example higher rates of perinatal infection, obstructed labor, intrauterine growth retardation and maternal malnutrition. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cooling in adequately powered randomised controlled trials is required before cooling is offered in routine clinical practice in low-and middle-income countries. PMID:23527034

  16. Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Knerr, Wendy; Gardner, Frances; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-08-01

    Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.

  17. A review of health promotion funding for older adults in Europe: a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim; Tambor, Marzena; Golinowska, Stanislawa; Sowada, Christoph; Pavlova, Milena

    2016-09-05

    Health promotion interventions for older adults are important as they can decrease the onset and evolution of diseases and thus can reduce the medical costs related to those diseases. However, there is no comparative evidence on how those interventions are funded in European countries. The aim of this study is to explore the funding of health promotion interventions in general and health promotion interventions for older adults in particular in European countries. We use desk research to identify relevant sources of information such as official national documents, international databases and scientific articles. Fora descriptive overview on how health promotion is funded, we focus on three dimensions: who is funding health promotion, what are the contribution mechanisms and who are the collecting agents. In addition to general information on funding of health promotion, we explore how programs on health promotion for older population groups are funded. There is a great diversity in funding of health promotion in European countries. Although public sources (tax and social health insurance revenues) are still most often used, other mechanisms of funding such as private donations or European funds are also common. Furthermore, there is no clear pattern in the funding of health promotion for different population groups. This is of particular importance for health promotion for older adults where information is limited across European countries. This study provides an overview of funding of health promotion interventions in European countries. The main obstacles for funding health promotion interventions are lack of information and the fragmentation in the funding of health promotion interventions for older adults.

  18. The public health crisis of child sexual abuse in low and middle income countries: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Corley, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies conducted to ascertain the incidence and characteristics of child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing countries around the world are inconsistent and poorly synthesized. In order to prevent and respond to these heinous acts, clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base interventions and treatment programs. The purpose of this study is to conduct an integrative review of the literature concerning CSA in non-industrialized nations. Ultimately, this evidence could be used to drive research and policy implementation in this area. An integrative literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) regarding the incidence and characteristics of all forms of child sexual assault in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) since 1980. Independent and collective thematic assessment and analysis was utilized to identify major concepts of the phenomenon. Forty-four articles were identified. These represented 32 separate low or middle-income countries. More studies were identified in low-income countries, and there was a disproportional distribution of studies conducted on regions of the world. CSA has been identified at all levels of society in nearly every region and continent of the world. It is being falsely perceived as a new phenomenon in some developing countries, most likely as a result of increases in CSA reporting. Researching and discussing CSA is difficult because of the sensitive and taboo nature of the topic. Four major themes emerged including difficulty of accurate measurement, barriers to reporting, barriers to justice, and the false perception of CSA as a new phenomenon. Themes of early marriage, human trafficking, sexual coercion and forced first sex, and males as victims have been identified as characteristics and topics placing individuals at risk for CSA. Poverty and its resultant

  19. Comparison of diabetes management in five countries for general and indigenous populations: an internet-based review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The diabetes epidemic is associated with huge human and economic costs, with some groups, such as indigenous populations in industrialised countries, being at especially high risk. Monitoring and improving diabetes care at a population level are important to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. A set of diabetes indicators has been developed collaboratively among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries to monitor performance of diabetes care. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of diabetes management in five selected OECD countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the US and the UK), based on data available for general and indigenous populations where appropriate. Methods We searched websites of health departments and leading national organisations related to diabetes care in each of the five countries to identify publicly released reports relevant to diabetes care. We collected data relevant to 6 OECD diabetes indicators on processes of diabetes care (annual HbA1c testing, lipid testing, renal function screening and eye examination) and proximal outcomes (HbA1c and lipid control). Results Data were drawn from 29 websites, with 14 reports and 13 associated data sources included in this review. Australia, New Zealand, the US and the UK had national data available to construct most of the 6 OECD diabetes indicators, but Canadian data were limited to two indicators. New Zealand and the US had national level diabetes care data for indigenous populations, showing relatively poorer care among these groups when compared with general populations. The US and UK performed well across the four process indicators when compared with Australia and New Zealand. For example, annual HbA1c testing and lipid testing were delivered to 70-80% of patients in the US and UK; the corresponding figures for Australia and New Zealand were 50-60%. Regarding proximal outcomes, HbA1c control for patients in Australia and

  20. Access to HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review of socio-cultural determinants in low and high income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of socio-cultural factors in influencing access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support is increasingly recognized by researchers, international donors and policy makers. Although many of them have been identified through qualitative studies, the evidence gathered by quantitative studies has not been systematically analysed. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review of quantitative studies comparing surveys done in high and low income countries to assess the extent to which socio-cultural determinants of access, identified through qualitative studies, have been addressed in epidemiological survey studies. Methods Ten electronic databases were searched (Cinahl, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, IBSS, JSTOR, MedLine, Psyinfo, Psyindex and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data comparing studies between low and high income countries. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the final review, 21 (62%) done in high income countries and 13 (38%) in low income countries. In low income settings, epidemiological research on access to HIV/AIDS services focused on socio-economic and health system factors while in high income countries the focus was on medical and psychosocial factors. These differences depict the perceived different barriers in the two regions. Common factors between the two regions were also found to affect HIV testing, including stigma, high risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners and not using condoms, and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, having experienced previous illness or other health conditions and good family communication was associated with adherence to ART uptake. Due to insufficient consistent data, a meta-analysis was only possible on adherence to treatment. Conclusions This review offers evidence of the current challenges for interdisciplinary work in epidemiology and public health

  1. Access to HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review of socio-cultural determinants in low and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Gari, Sara; Doig-Acuña, Camilo; Smail, Tino; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja

    2013-05-28

    The role of socio-cultural factors in influencing access to HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support is increasingly recognized by researchers, international donors and policy makers. Although many of them have been identified through qualitative studies, the evidence gathered by quantitative studies has not been systematically analysed. To fill this knowledge gap, we did a systematic review of quantitative studies comparing surveys done in high and low income countries to assess the extent to which socio-cultural determinants of access, identified through qualitative studies, have been addressed in epidemiological survey studies. Ten electronic databases were searched (Cinahl, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, IBSS, JSTOR, MedLine, Psyinfo, Psyindex and Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected eligible publications based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data comparing studies between low and high income countries. Thirty-four studies were included in the final review, 21 (62%) done in high income countries and 13 (38%) in low income countries. In low income settings, epidemiological research on access to HIV/AIDS services focused on socio-economic and health system factors while in high income countries the focus was on medical and psychosocial factors. These differences depict the perceived different barriers in the two regions. Common factors between the two regions were also found to affect HIV testing, including stigma, high risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners and not using condoms, and alcohol abuse. On the other hand, having experienced previous illness or other health conditions and good family communication was associated with adherence to ART uptake. Due to insufficient consistent data, a meta-analysis was only possible on adherence to treatment. This review offers evidence of the current challenges for interdisciplinary work in epidemiology and public health. Quantitative studies did not

  2. Quality of Reporting of Randomised Controlled Trials of Herbal Interventions in ASEAN Plus Six Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of herbal interventions have been conducted in the ASEAN Communities. Good quality reporting of RCTs is essential for assessing clinical significance. Given the importance ASEAN placed on herbal medicines, the reporting quality of RCTs of herbal interventions among the ASEAN Communities deserved a special attention. Objectives To systematically review the quality of reporting of RCTs of herbal interventions conducted in the ASEAN Plus Six Countries. Methods Searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), from inception through October 2013. These were limited to studies specific to humans and RCTs. Herbal species search terms were based on those listed in the National List of Essential Medicines [NLEM (Thailand, 2011)]. Studies conducted in the ASEAN Plus Six Countries, published in English were included. Results Seventy-one articles were identified. Thirty (42.25%) RCTs were from ASEAN Countries, whereas 41 RCTs (57.75%) were from Plus Six Group. Adherence to the recommended CONSORT checklist items for reporting of RCTs of herbal interventions among ASEAN Plus Six Countries ranged from 0% to 97.18%. Less than a quarter of the RCTs (18.31%) reported information on standardisation of the herbal products. However, the scope of our interventions of interest was limited to those developed from 20 herbal species listed in the NLEM of Thailand. Conclusions The present study highlights the need to improve reporting quality of RCTs of herbal interventions across ASEAN Plus Six Communities. PMID:25633206

  3. Young people of Chinese origin in western countries: a systematic review of their sexual attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juping

    2010-03-01

    People of Chinese origin are a growing population group in western countries. The community is seen to be marginalised, under-researched and neglected, in fact the least understood ethnic minority. This paper reports on a systematic review of sexual attitudes and behaviour among ethnic Chinese young people (mainly aged 13-25 years) living in western countries. An extensive literature search was conducted to cover the period of 1989 and 2009 using Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect databases. There has been a dearth of literature in this area. However, results from existing literature show that ethnic Chinese youth reported poorer sexual health knowledge than white young people in their host countries, while they were found to be more likely to disapprove of uncommitted sex, be virgins, lose their virginity at a later age and have fewer sexual partners. Factors associated with their sexual attitudes and behaviour have also been identified. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States and Canada have become multicultural societies with many diverse ethnic groups. Without doubt educators and sexual health professionals need to provide sex education and services which should be culturally appropriate to people from diverse ethnic backgrounds. An understanding of their sexual values, sexual behaviour and associated factors is the first step towards achieving this goal.

  4. Underutilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low and middle income countries: a review of contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Chidyaonga-Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen Leah; Muula, Adamson Sinjani

    2015-01-01

    This review aims at identifying barriers to utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low- and middle-income countries. An electronic search was conducted using the following key words, HPV vaccination, screening, barriers, utilization and low and middle income/developed countries. Using the Garrard (1999) Matrix method approach, a modified matrix was designed and used as a data collection tool and data related to each category listed on the tool were entered into a matrix containing columns reflecting the categories. Constant comparative analysis was used to identify thematic categories. 31 articles published between 2001 and 2014 were yielded from the search. Analysis of the contents of the articles showed that the underutilization of cervical cancer screening services in low and middle-income countries is the result of barriers in accessing and utilizing of the prevention services. Though not mutually exclusive, the barriers were categorized in three categories; individual, community and health system related. Individual barriers include lack of awareness and knowledge about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer. Age, marital status, diffidence, social economic status, cultural and religious belief of the women also determine the women's' willingness to utilize the services. In some communities there is stigma attached to discussing reproductive health issues and this limits the young women's awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention. Understanding individual, community and health system barriers that hinder women's utilization of cervical cancer prevention services is very crucial in designing effective cervical cancer control programs in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26523173

  5. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  6. A Systematic Literature Review of Funding for Higher Education Institutions in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Ning, Kang; Barnes, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation and funding in higher education is crucial to the success of reform and transformation of our higher education system. With a view to identifying trends and best practices in the area, utilizing a method of systematic literature review, we have critically reviewed relevant theories and practices from developed counties that are…

  7. Early Childhood, Major Challenges: Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policies in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John; Neuman, Michelle J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the most recent results of a comparative review of early childhood education and care carried out by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Founded in 1961 and based in Paris, OECD is one of the world's most important sources of statistical, economic, and social data. Based on reviews in the…

  8. Costs, payments, and incentives in family planning programs: a review for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, J A; Isaacs, S L

    1988-01-01

    Anxieties about financing health and family planning programs have grown in recent years, leading to discussions of cost-recovery measures that would raise charges to the consumer. Yet some governments wish to lower cost to encourage contraceptive use, and a few use incentives and disincentives. Data from numerous developing countries are presented on contraceptive cost topics: charges for contraceptive supplies and services, in both public and private sectors, and conversely, payments made to clients and providers to offset costs and to increase contraceptive use. The data show great diversity, and much inconsistency within countries, indicating that the structures of charges, payments, and incentives in many programs could be improved. Ethical considerations are discussed, and guidelines are suggested for developing effective financial policies.

  9. Health information technology in primary health care in developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Maia, Maria de Fatima Santos

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the debate and initiatives concerning the use of information technology (IT) in primary health care in developing countries. The literature from 1992-2002 was identified from searches of the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. The search identified 884 references, 350 of which were classified according to the scheme described by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). For the analysis of advantages, problems and perspectives of IT applications and systems, 52 articles were selected according to their potential contribution to the primary health-care processes in non-developed countries. These included: 10 on electronic patient registries (EPR), 22 on process and programmatic action evaluation and management systems (PPAEM) and 20 on clinical decision-support systems (CDS). The main advantages, limitations and perspectives are discussed. PMID:15640923

  10. Service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Maya; Lempp, Heidi; Keynejad, Roxanne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Mugisha, James; Raja, Shoba; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Alem, Atalay; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of mental health service users and their caregivers in health system policy and planning, service monitoring and research can contribute to mental health system strengthening, but as yet there have been very few efforts to do so in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review examined the evidence and experience of service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening, as well as models of best practice for evaluation of capacity-building activities that facilitate their greater participation. Both the peer-reviewed and the grey literature were included in the review, which were identified through database searches (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane), as well as hand-searching of reference lists and the internet, and a snowballing process of contacting experts active in the area. This review included any kind of study design that described or evaluated service user, family or caregiver (though not community) involvement in LMICs (including service users with intellectual disabilities, dementia, or child and adolescent mental health problems) and that were relevant to mental health system strengthening across five categories. Data were extracted and summarised as a narrative review. Twenty papers matched the inclusion criteria. Overall, the review found that although there were examples of service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in numerous countries, there was a lack of high-quality research and a weak evidence base for the work that was being conducted across countries. However, there was some emerging research on the development of policies and strategies, including advocacy work, and to a lesser extent the development of services, service monitoring and evaluation, with most service user involvement having taken place within advocacy and service delivery. Research was scarce within

  11. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Sayyah, Mohammad Kazem; Akbari, Hesam; Khorramirouz, Reza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Shokraneh, Farhad; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) in the developing world. Developing countries were selected based on the definition proposed by the International Monetary Fund. A literature search was performed in July 2012 in Medline and Embase. Further article procurement was obtained via the reference lists of the identified articles, websites, and direct contact with the authors of the identified studies. We designed search strategies using the key words: SCI, epidemiology, incidence, and prevalence. According to the inclusion criteria, 64 studies from 28 countries were included. The incidence of SCI in developing countries is 25.5/million/year (95% CI: 21.7-29.4/million/year) and ranges from 2.1 to 130.7/million/year. Males comprised 82.8% (95% CI: 80.3-85.2) of all SCIs with a mean age of 32.4 years (95% CI: 29.7-35.2). The two leading causes of SCI were found to be motor vehicle crashes (41.4%; 95% CI: 35.4-47.4) and falls (34.9%; 95% CI: 26.7-43.1). Complete SCIs were found to be more common than incomplete injuries (complete SCI: 56.5%; 95% CI: 47.6-65.3; incomplete SCI: 43.0%; 95% CI: 34.1-52.0). Similarly, paraplegia was found to be more common than tetraplegia (paraplegia: 58.7%; 95% CI: 51.5-66.0; tetraplegia: 40.6%; 95% CI: 33.3-48.0). Through an understanding of the epidemiology of SCI in developing countries, appropriate preventative strategies and resource allocation may decrease the incidence and improve the care of these injuries. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Schizophrenia in women and children: a selective review of literature from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prabha S; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Rudhran, Vidyendran

    2012-10-01

    Women and children with psychotic disorders in developing countries may be vulnerable and have considerable social disadvantages. Gender disadvantage has implications for all health outcomes including mental illnesses. In the more relevant gender-related context we discuss several important issues which affect women with schizophrenia, namely stigma, caregiver burden, functional outcome, marriage, victimization and help-seeking. The findings indicate that there are variations in clinical and functional outcomes and age of onset of illness between different regions. Drug side effects, such as metabolic syndrome appear to be quite common, adding to disease burden in women from developing countries. Victimization and coercion may contribute to poor quality of life and health concerns such as STIs and HIV. Stigma among women with schizophrenia appears to play a major role in help-seeking, caregiver burden and issues such as marriage and parenting. Gender-sensitive care and practices are few and not well documented. Research in the area of psychoses in children and adolescents from LAMI countries is sparse and is mainly restricted to a few clinic-based studies. More research is needed on organic and medical factors contributing to childhood psychoses, pathways to care, help-seeking, and impact of early detection and community care.

  13. Studying the consumption and health outcomes of fiscal interventions (taxes and subsidies) on food and beverages in countries of different income classifications; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alagiyawanna, Amaap; Townsend, Nick; Mytton, Oli; Scarborough, Pete; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike

    2015-09-14

    Governments use fiscal interventions (FIs) on food and beverages to encourage healthy food behaviour and positive health outcomes. The objective of this review was to study the behavioural and health outcomes of implemented food and beverage FIs in the form of taxes and subsidies in countries of different income classifications. The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane protocols. The search was carried out on academic and grey literature in English, for studies conducted in different countries on implemented FIs on food and non-alcoholic beverages and health outcomes, with a special focus on the income of those countries. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and 14 were from peer- reviewed journals. Thirteen studies came from high-income (HI) countries, four from upper middle-income (UMI) countries and only one came from a lower middle-income (LMI) country. There were no studies from lower-income (LI) countries. Of these 18 studies; nine focused on taxes, all of which were from HI countries. Evidence suggests that FIs on foods can influence consumption of taxed and subsidized foods and consequently have the potential to improve health. Although this review supports previous findings that FIs can have an impact on healthy food consumption, it also highlights the lack of evidence available from UMI, LMI and LI countries on such interventions. Therefore, evidence from HI countries may not be directly applicable to middle-income and LI countries. Similar research conducted in middle and low income countries will be beneficial in advocating policy makers on the effectiveness of FIs in countering the growing issues of non-communicable diseases in these countries.

  14. Managing water supply systems using free-market economy approaches: A detailed review of the implications for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, C.; Kujinga, K.

    2017-08-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are often confronted by difficult choices regarding the selection and deployment of appropriate water supply governance regimes that sufficiently take into account national socio-economic and political realities. Indeed, scholars and practitioners alike continue to grapple with the need to create the optimum water supply and allocation decision-making space applicable to specific developing countries. In this paper, we review documented case studies from various parts of the world to explore the utility of free-market economics approaches in water supply governance. This is one of the major paradigms that have emerged in the face of enduring questions regarding how best to govern water supply systems in developing countries. In the paper, we postulate that increasing pressure on available natural resources may have already rendered obsolete some of the water supply governance regimes that have served human societies very well for many decades. Our main findings show that national and municipal water supply governance paradigms tend to change in tandem with emerging national development frameworks and priorities. While many developing countries have adopted water management and governance policy prescriptions from the international arena, national and local socio-economic and political realities ultimately determine what works and what does not work on the ground. We thus, conclude that the choice of what constitutes an appropriate water supply governance regime in context is never simple. Indeed, the majority of case studies reviewed in the paper tend to rely on a mix of market economics and developmental statism to make their water governance regimes more realistic and workable on the ground.

  15. Economic and quality of life outcomes of antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Beard, Jennifer; Feeley, Frank; Rosen, Sydney

    2009-11-01

    The impacts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on quality of life, mental health, labor productivity, and economic wellbeing for people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries are only beginning to be measured. We conducted a systematic literature review to analyze the effect of ART on these economic and quality of life indicators in developing countries and assess the state of research on these topics. We searched Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Psych Info, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the abstract database of the International AIDS Society Conference and the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included, as were peer-reviewed articles, gray literature, and conference abstracts and presentations. Findings are reported from 21 publications, including 14 full-length articles, six abstracts, and one presentation (representing 16 studies). Compared to HIV-positive patients not yet on treatment, patients on ART reported significant improvements in physical, emotional and mental health, and daily function. Work performance improved and absenteeism decreased, with the most dramatic changes occurring in the first three months of treatment and then leveling off. Little research has been done on the impact of ART on household wellbeing, with modest changes in child and family wellbeing within households where adults are receiving ART reportrd so far. Most studies from developing countries have not yet assessed economic and quality of life outcomes of therapy beyond the first year; therefore, longitudinal outcomes are still unknown. Findings were limited geographically, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa and adult treatment. As ART roll out extends throughout high HIV prevalence, low-resource countries and is sustained over years and decades, research on pediatric and differential gender economic and quality of life outcomes will become increasingly urgent, as will systematic evaluation of ART programs.

  16. Narrative review comparing the benefits of and participation in cardiac rehabilitation in high-, middle- and low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Turk-Adawi, Karam I; Grace, Sherry L

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive secondary prevention approach, with established benefits in reducing morbidity in high-income countries (HICs). The objectives of this review were to summarise what is known about the benefits of CR, including consideration of cost-effectiveness, in addition to rates of CR participation and adherence in high-, as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A literature search of Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Google Scholar was conducted for published articles from database inception to October 2013. The search was first directed to identify meta-analyses and reviews reporting on the benefits of CR. Then, the search was focussed to identify articles reporting CR participation and dropout rates. Full-text versions of relevant abstracts were summarised qualitatively. Based on meta-analysis, CR significantly reduced all-cause mortality by 13%-26%, cardiac mortality by 20%-36%, myocardial re-infarction by 25%-47%, and risk factors. CR is cost-effective in HICs. In LMICs, CR is demonstrated to reduce risk factors, with no studies on mortality or cost-effectiveness. Based on available data, CR participation rates are <50% in the majority of countries, with documented dropout rates up to 56% and 82% in high- and middle-income countries, respectively. CR is a beneficial intervention for heart patients in high and LMICs, but is underutilised with low participation and adherence rates worldwide. While more research is needed in LMICs, strategies shown to increase participation and program adherence should be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Narrative Review Comparing the Benefits of and Participation in Cardiac Rehabilitation in High-, Middle- and Low-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive secondary prevention approach, with established benefits in reducing morbidity in high-income countries (HICs). The objectives of this review were to summarize what is known about the benefits of CR, including consideration of cost-effectiveness, in addition to rates of CR participation and adherence in high-, as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A literature search of Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and Google Scholar was conducted for published articles from database inception to October 2013. The search was first directed to identify meta-analyses and reviews reporting on the benefits of CR. Then, the search was focused to identify articles reporting CR participation and dropout rates. Full-text versions of relevant abstracts were summarized qualitatively. Results Based on meta-analysis, CR significantly reduced all-cause mortality by 13%–26%, cardiac mortality by 20%–36%, myocardial re-infarction by 25%–47%, and risk factors. CR is cost-effective in HICs. In LMICs, CR is demonstrated to reduce risk factors, with no studies on mortality or cost-effectiveness. Based on available data, CR participation rates are <50% in the majority of countries, with documented dropout rates up to 56% and 82% in high- and middle-income countries, respectively. Conclusions CR is a beneficial intervention for heart patients in high and LMICs, but is underutilized with low participation and adherence rates worldwide. While more research is needed in LMICs, strategies shown to increase participation and program adherence should be implemented. PMID:25534902

  18. The 'problematisation' of palliative care in hospital: an exploratory review of international palliative care policy in five countries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn; Gardiner, Clare; Ingleton, Christine

    2016-07-25

    Government policy is a fundamental component of initiating change to improve the provision of palliative care at a national level. The World Health Organisation's recognition of palliative care as a basic human right has seen many countries worldwide develop national policy in palliative and end of life care. There is increasing debate about what form comprehensive palliative care services should take, particularly in relation to the balance between acute and community based services. It is therefore timely to review how national policy positions the current and future role of the acute hospital in palliative care provision. The aim of this exploratory review is to identify the role envisaged for the acute hospital in palliative and end of life care provision in five countries with an 'advanced' level of integration. Countries were identified using the Global Atlas of Palliative Care. Policies were accessed through internet searching of government websites between October and December 2014. Using a process of thematic analysis key themes related to palliative care in hospital were identified. Policies from Switzerland, England, Singapore, Australia and Ireland were analysed for recurring themes. Three themes were identified: preferences for place of care and place of death outside the hospital setting, unnecessary or avoidable hospital admissions, and quality of care in hospital. No policy focused upon exploring how palliative care could be improved in the hospital setting or indeed what role the hospital may have in the provision of palliative care. Palliative care policy in five countries with 'advanced' levels of palliative care integration focuses on solving the 'problems' associated with hospital as a place of palliative care and death. No positive role for hospitals in palliative care provision is envisaged. Given the rapidly increasing population of people requiring palliative care, and emerging evidence that patients themselves report benefits of hospital

  19. Tobacco Use and Smoking Cessation Practices among Physicians in Developing Countries: A Literature Review (1987–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Abu S.; Stillman, Frances A.; Yang, Li; Luo, Hongye; Zhang, Zhiyong; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of smoking cessation services among physicians in developing countries, a detailed literature review of studies published in English, between 1987 and 2010 was carried out. The electronic databases Medline and Pub Med were searched for published studies. The findings show that there are regional variations in the current smoking prevalence, quitting intentions, and cessation services among physicians. Smoking prevalence (median) was highest in Central/Eastern Europe (37%), followed by Africa (29%), Central and South America (25%) and Asia (17.5%). There were significant gender differences in smoking prevalence across studies, with higher prevalence among males than females. Smoking at work or in front of patients was commonly practiced by physicians in some countries. Asking about smoking status or advising patients to quit smoking was not common practice among the physicians, especially among smoker physicians. Organized smoking cessation programs for physicians did not exist in all of these regions. This review suggests that while smoking of physicians varies across different developing regions; prevalence rates tend to be higher than among physicians in developed countries. Quitting rates were low among the physicians, and the delivery of advice on quitting smoking was not common across the studies. To promote tobacco control and increase cessation in populations, there is a need to build physicians’ capacity so that they can engage in tobacco use prevention and cessation activities. PMID:24380976

  20. Retrospective review of Surgical Availability and Readiness in 8 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, D A; Droti, B; Relan, P; Hobson, S; Cherian, M N; O'Neill, K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess surgical availability and readiness in 8 African countries using the WHO's Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool. Setting We analysed data for surgical services, including basic and comprehensive surgery, comprehensive obstetric care, blood transfusion, and infection prevention, obtained from the WHO's SARA surveys in Sierra Leone, Uganda, Mauritania, Benin, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo and Togo. Primary and secondary outcome measures Among the facilities that were expected to offer surgical services (N=3492), there were wide disparities between the countries in the number of facilities per 100 000 population that reported offering basic surgery (1.0–12.1), comprehensive surgery (0.1–0.8), comprehensive obstetric care (0.1–0.8) and blood transfusion (0.1–0.8). Only 0.1–0.3 facilities per 100 000 population had all three bellwether procedures available, namely laparotomy, open fracture management and caesarean section. In all the countries, the facilities that reported offering surgical services generally had a shortage of the necessary items for offering the services and this varied greatly between the countries, with the facilities having on average 27–53% of the items necessary for offering basic surgery, 56–83% for comprehensive surgery, 49–72% for comprehensive obstetric care and 54–80% for blood transfusion. Furthermore, few facilities had all the necessary items present. However, facilities that reported offering surgical services had on average most of the necessary items for the prevention of infection. Conclusions There are important gaps in the surgical services in the 8 African countries surveyed. Efforts are therefore urgently needed to address deficiencies in the availability and readiness to deliver surgical services in these nations, and this will require commitment from multiple stakeholders. SARA may be used to monitor availability and

  1. Community Engagement to Enhance Child Survival and Early Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Evidence Review

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, S. Katherine; Böse, Kirsten; Fajobi, Olaoluwa; Souza, Patricia Portela; Peniston, Anne; Davidson, Leslie L.; Griffiths, Marcia; Hodgins, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    As part of a broader evidence summit, USAID and UNICEF convened a literature review of effective means to empower communities to achieve behavioral and social changes to accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize early child development. The authors conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilization and participation that led to behavioral change and one or more of the following: child health, survival, and development. The level and nature of community engagement was categorized using two internationally recognized models and only studies where the methods of community participation could be categorized as collaborative or shared leadership were eligible for analysis. The authors identified 34 documents from 18 countries that met the eligibility criteria. Studies with shared leadership typically used a comprehensive community action cycle, whereas studies characterized as collaborative showed clear emphasis on collective action but did not undergo an initial process of community dialogue. The review concluded that programs working collaboratively or achieving shared leadership with a community can lead to behavior change and cost-effective sustained transformation to improve critical health behaviors and reduce poor health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, community engagement is an understudied component of improving child outcomes. PMID:25207448

  2. What research tells us about knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Siron, Stéphanie; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the current state of research on knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries, to identify the knowledge gaps on this topic. In this scoping review, a descriptive and systematic process was used to analyse, for each article retained, descriptions of research context and methods, types of knowledge transfer activities and results reported. 28 articles were analysed. They dealt with the evaluation of transfer strategies that employed multiple activities, mostly targeting health professionals and women with very young children. Most often these studies used quantitative designs and measurements of instrumental use with some methodological shortcomings. Results were positive and suggested recommendations for improving professional practices, knowledge and health-related behaviours. The review highlights the great diversity of transfer strategies used, strategies and many conditions for knowledge use. The review provides specific elements for understanding the transfer processes in low-income countries and highlights the need for systematic evaluation of the conditions for research results utilization.

  3. Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis among Health Care Workers in High Burden Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Malvankar-Mehta, Monali S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Twenty-two high burden countries contributed to the majority of worldwide tuberculosis cases in 2015. Health care workers are at high risk of acquiring tuberculosis through occupational exposure. Objective To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers in high burden countries. Methods Databases including MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), CINAHL (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science (Thompson-Reuters), and grey literature were searched for English language records on relevant medical subject headings (MeSH) terms of LTBI and health care providers. Literature was systematically reviewed using EPPI-Reviewer4 software. Prevalence and incidence of LTBI and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Pooled prevalence of LTBI and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis models and heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. Sub-group analysis was conducted to assess the cause of heterogeneity. Results A total of 990 records were identified. Of those, 18 studies from only 7 high burden countries representing 10,078 subjects were included. Tuberculin skin test results were available for 9,545 participants. The pooled prevalence of LTBI was 47% (95% CI 34% to 60%, I2 = 99.6%). In subgroup analyses according to the country of the study, the pooled prevalence of LTBI was lowest in Brazil (37%) and highest in South Africa (64%). The pooled prevalence of LTBI among medical and nursing students was 26% (95% CI 6% to 46%, I2 = 99.3%) while the prevalence among all types of health care workers was 57% (95% CI 44% to 70%, I2 = 99.1%). Incidence of LTBI was available for health care workers in four countries. The cumulative incidence ranged from 2.8% in Brazilian medical students to 38% among all types of health care workers in South Africa. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that there is a high burden of LTBI among health care workers in

  4. Equity in the allocation of public sector financial resources in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2015-05-01

    This review aims to identify, assess and analyse the evidence on equity in the distribution of public health sector expenditure in low- and middle-income countries. Four bibliographic databases and five websites were searched to identify quantitative studies examining equity in the distribution of public health funding in individual countries or groups of countries. Two different types of studies were identified: benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and resource allocation comparison (RAC) studies. Quality appraisal and data synthesis were tailored to each study type to reflect differences in the methods used and in the information provided. We identified 39 studies focusing on African, Asian and Latin American countries. Of these, 31 were BIA studies that described the distribution, typically across socio-economic status, of individual monetary benefit derived from service utilization. The remaining eight were RAC studies that compared the actual expenditure across geographic areas to an ideal need-based distribution. Overall, the quality of the evidence from both types of study was relatively weak. Looking across studies, the evidence confirms that resource allocation formulae can enhance equity in resource allocation across geographic areas and that the poor benefits proportionally more from primary health care than from hospital expenditure. The lack of information on the distribution of benefit from utilization in RAC studies and on the countries' approaches to resource allocation in BIA studies prevents further policy analysis. Additional research that relates the type of resource allocation mechanism to service provision and to the benefit distribution is required for a better understanding of equity-enhancing resource allocation policies. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  5. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5-15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT.

  6. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  7. Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Walker, Damian; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between settings. Such analyses still

  8. A review of published literature on emergency medicine training programs in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this review is to identify and critically evaluate the published literature on emergency medicine (EM) training programs in resource-limited health-care settings in order to provide insight for developing EM training programs in such health systems. Methods A literature search was conducted up to the end of April 2011 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, EBM Reviews, Healthstar and Web of Science databases, using the following search terms: Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Services, Education Training Residency Programs, Emergency Medical Systems and Medical Education, without limitation to income countries as outlined in the World Bank World Trade Indicators classification 2009-2010 (World Trade Indicators Country Classification by Region and Income, July 2009-July 2010). As the intent of the review was to identify and critically evaluate the literature readily available (published) to LMICs developing EM programs, the gray literature was not searched. Results The search yielded 16 articles that met the final inclusion criteria. As the majority of articles provide a narrative description of the processes and building blocks used in developing the residency programs reported, we present our results in narrative format. By providing a summary of the lessons learned to date, we hope to provide a useful starting point for other resource-limited settings interested in establishing emergency medicine specialty training programs and hope to encourage further information exchange on this matter. Conclusions The results of the review indicate that EM training is in its infancy in resource-constrained health-care systems. There are few detailed reports of these programs successes and limitations, including efforts to optimize graduate retention. Despite the paucity of currently published data on the development of EM residency training programs in these settings, this review demonstrates the need for encouraging further information

  9. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994–2007

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-01-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  10. Community health workers in Canada and other high-income countries: A scoping review and research gaps.

    PubMed

    Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Labonte, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Torres, Sara

    2015-03-12

    Community health workers (CHWs) have been deployed to provide health-related services to their fellow community members and to guide them through often complex health systems. They help address concerns about how marginalized populations in many countries experience health inequities that are due, in part, to lack of appropriate primary health care services, possibly resulting in inappropriate use of higher-cost health services or facilities. This paper reviews studies on CHW interventions in a number of high-income countries, including Canada, to identify research gaps on CHW roles. A scoping review using 68 sources of interventions involving CHWs was undertaken. The five-step Arksey and O'Malley model guided this review with the aim of summarizing research findings and identifying research gaps in the existing literature on CHWs in Canada (23 sources). A standardized extraction tool was employed to synthesize the literature. We found that CHWs provide a wide range of health-related services but in a manner that, in Canada, is unrecognized and unregulated. In highincome countries, CHW interventions have contributed to health-related issues in communities and demonstrated potential to both reduce health inequity in marginalized populations and reduce the cost of medical services. CHWs are an under-recognized, and therefore underutilized, public health workforce, which has a promising capacity to reduce health inequities in marginalized populations in Canada. There is growing support to suggest that CHW roles need to be better integrated within the broader health and social services systems to enable their full potential to be realized.

  11. The terrain of health policy analysis in low and middle income countries: a review of published literature 1994-2007.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Lucy; Raphaely, Nika

    2008-09-01

    This article provides the first ever review of literature analysing the health policy processes of low and middle income countries (LMICs). Based on a systematic search of published literature using two leading international databases, the article maps the terrain of work published between 1994 and 2007, in terms of policy topics, lines of inquiry and geographical base, as well as critically evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. The overall objective of the review is to provide a platform for the further development of this field of work. From an initial set of several thousand articles, only 391 were identified as relevant to the focus of inquiry. Of these, 164 were selected for detailed review because they present empirical analyses of health policy change processes within LMIC settings. Examination of these articles clearly shows that LMIC health policy analysis is still in its infancy. There are only small numbers of such analyses, whilst the diversity of policy areas, topics and analytical issues that have been addressed across a large number of country settings results in a limited depth of coverage within this body of work. In addition, the majority of articles are largely descriptive in nature, limiting understanding of policy change processes within or across countries. Nonetheless, the broad features of experience that can be identified from these articles clearly confirm the importance of integrating concern for politics, process and power into the study of health policy. By generating understanding of the factors influencing the experience and results of policy change, such analysis can inform action to strengthen future policy development and implementation. This article, finally, outlines five key actions needed to strengthen the field of health policy analysis within LMICs, including capacity development and efforts to generate systematic and coherent bodies of work underpinned by both the intent to undertake rigorous analytical work and concern

  12. Supervising community health workers in low-income countries – a review of impact and implementation issues

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Zelee; Dumbaugh, Mari; Benton, Lorna; Källander, Karin; Strachan, Daniel; Asbroek, Augustinus ten; Tibenderana, James; Kirkwood, Betty; Meek, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) are an increasingly important component of health systems and programs. Despite the recognized role of supervision in ensuring CHWs are effective, supervision is often weak and under-supported. Little is known about what constitutes adequate supervision and how different supervision strategies influence performance, motivation, and retention. Objective To determine the impact of supervision strategies used in low- and middle-income countries and discuss implementation and feasibility issues with a focus on CHWs. Design A search of peer-reviewed, English language articles evaluating health provider supervision strategies was conducted through November 2013. Included articles evaluated the impact of supervision in low- or middle-income countries using a controlled, pre-/post- or observational design. Implementation and feasibility literature included both peer-reviewed and gray literature. Results A total of 22 impact papers were identified. Papers were from a range of low- and middle-income countries addressing the supervision of a variety of health care providers. We classified interventions as testing supervision frequency, the supportive/facilitative supervision package, supervision mode (peer, group, and community), tools (self-assessment and checklists), focus (quality assurance/problem solving), and training. Outcomes included coverage, performance, and perception of quality but were not uniform across studies. Evidence suggests that improving supervision quality has a greater impact than increasing frequency of supervision alone. Supportive supervision packages, community monitoring, and quality improvement/problem-solving approaches show the most promise; however, evaluation of all strategies was weak. Conclusion Few supervision strategies have been rigorously tested and data on CHW supervision is particularly sparse. This review highlights the diversity of supervision approaches that policy makers have to choose

  13. Effectiveness of preventive school-based obesity interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Leroy, Jef L; Holdsworth, Michelle; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick W

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries, and informed policies to tackle the problem must be defined. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions targeting dietary behavior and/or physical activity for the primary prevention of obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-18 y in low- and middle-income countries. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases for peer-reviewed controlled studies published in English, Spanish, French, German, or Dutch between January 1990 and July 2011. The quality of the included studies was appraised independently by 2 authors who used the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. From a total of 7218 unique references, we retained 22 studies. Most of the interventions (82%) had a positive effect on dietary behavior and physical activity behavior (effect size ranged from -0.48 to 1.61). BMI decreased in 8 studies (effect size ranged from -0.7 to 0.0). Effective interventions targeted both diet and physical activity, involved multiple stakeholders, and integrated educational activities into the school curriculum. School-based interventions have the potential to improve dietary and physical activity behavior and to prevent unhealthy body weights in low- and middle-income countries. To reach their full potential, interventions should conduct process evaluations to document program implementation. The effect and the pathways through which interventions have this effect need to be better documented through rigorous evaluation studies.

  14. mHealth adoption in low-resource environments: a review of the use of mobile healthcare in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chib, Arul; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The acknowledged potential of using mobile phones for improving healthcare in low-resource environments of developing countries has yet to translate into significant mHealth policy investment. The low uptake of mHealth in policy agendas may stem from a lack of evidence of the scalable, sustainable impact on health indicators. The mHealth literature in low- and middle-income countries reveals a burgeoning body of knowledge; yet, existing reviews suggest that the projects yield mixed results. This article adopts a stage-based approach to understand the varied contributions to mHealth research. The heuristic of inputs-mechanism-outputs is proposed as a tool to categorize mHealth studies. This review (63 articles comprising 53 studies) reveals that mHealth studies in developing countries tend to concentrate on specific stages, principally on pilot projects that adopt a deterministic approach to technological inputs (n = 32), namely introduction and implementation. Somewhat less studied were research designs that demonstrate evidence of outputs (n = 15), such as improvements in healthcare processes and public health indicators. The review finds a lack of emphasis on studies that provide theoretical understanding (n = 6) of adoption and appropriation of technological introduction that produces measurable health outcomes. As a result, there is a lack of dominant theory, or measures of outputs relevant to making policy decisions. Future work needs to aim for establishing theoretical and measurement standards, particularly from social scientific perspectives, in collaboration with researchers from the domains of information technology and public health. Priorities should be set for investments and guidance in evaluation disseminated by the scientific community to practitioners and policymakers.

  15. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  16. What makes Health Demand-Side Financing Schemes Work in Low-and Middle-Income Countries? A Realist Review

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Saji S.; Das, Ashis; Mutasa, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This realist review explored causal pathways of the possible consumer effects of health sector demand-side financial (DSF) incentives, their contextual factors and mechanisms in low-and-middle-income countries. We searched six electronic data bases and identified 659 abstracts with different evaluation designs. Based on methodological rigor and content relevance, only 24 studies published up to April 2013 were selected for the final review. A conceptual framework consisting of various program theories on potential context-mechanism-outcome (C-M-O) configuration of DSF initiative was designed, tested and adapted during the review. Synthesized results were presented as a C-M-O configuration for each of the consumer –side effect. DSF was effective to improve health seeking behaviour considerably and health status to some extent. The causal pathway of DSF’s functioning and effectiveness was not linear. Key demand-side contextual factors which affected DSF’s consumer-side effects were background characteristics of the beneficiaries including their socio-cultural beliefs, motivations, and level of health awareness. At the supply-side, service availability status and provider incentives were contextual determinants. The mechanisms which enabled the interaction of contextual influence were consumer and provider accountability and consumer trust on providers. In order to enhance DSF programs’ effectiveness, their design and implementation should carefully consider the potential contextual elements that may influence the causal pathways. Significance for public health This article focuses on a rare topic i.e. Realist Review, which is an emerging concept to explore causal factors behind every intervention that make it effective or ineffective. This manuscript is a first attempt on a Realist Review of health sector demand-side financing (DSF) in a number of low-and middle-income countries. DSF is a widely employed health promotion strategy in many countries to improve

  17. A review of the Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries: systematics and geographic distributions.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    A total of 30 species of Gymnetini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) are known from Argentina: Allorhina corni-frons (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842; Blaesia subrugosa Moser, 1905; Desicasta purpurascens Schoch, 1898, dubious record; Gymnetis bajula (Olivier, 1789); Gymnetis bonplandi Schaum, 1844, new country record; Gymnetis bouvieri Bourgoin, 1912; Gymnetis bruchi Moser, 1910, new status (= Aemilius wagneri Le Moult, 1939, new synonymy); Gymnetis carbo (Schürhoff, 1937); Gymnetis chalcipes Gory & Percheron, 1833; Gymnetis cordobana (Schürhoff, 1937), new status; Gymnetis flavomarginata Blanchard, 1847; Gymnetis goryi Janson, 1877, new status; Gym-netis hebraica (Drapiez, 1820), new country record; Gymnetis hepatica Di Iorio, new species; Gymnetis litigiosa Gory & Percheron, 1833, new status; Gymnetis pantherina Blanchard, 1842 (= Gymnetis meleagris Burmeister, 1842, = Paragym-netis rubrocincta Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy), new country record; Gymnetis pudibunda Burmeister, 1866; Gymne-tis schistacea Burmeister, 1847, new status; Gymnetis undata (Olivier, 1789); Heterocotinis semiopaca (Moser, 1907); Hologymnetis sp. (= Gymnetis rubida, not Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga albiventris (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga brasiliensis (Gory & Percheron, 1833); Hoplopyga liturata (Olivier, 1789); Hoplopygothrix atropurpurea (Schaum, 1841), new country record; Marmarina insculpta (Kirby, 1819), new status, new country record; Marmarina tigrina (Gory & Percheron, 1833), (= Maculinetis litorea Schürhoff, 1937, new synonymy); Neocorvicoana reticulata (Kirby, 1819); Neocorvicoana tricolor (Schürhoff, 1933). Marmarina argentina Moser, 1917 is considered a nomen du-bium until a redescription and illustration of the type specimen facilitates the proper identification of this species. The fol-lowing type specimens were examined: Blaesia atra Burmeister, 1842 (holotype); Gymnetis alauda Burmeister, 1842 (holotype, = G. pantherina); G

  18. A review of mental health recovery programs in selected industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold A; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Sara, Grant; Goldner, Elliot M; Prince, Pamela N; Ramanuj, Parashar; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Großimlinghaus, Isabell; Wrigley, Margo; van Weeghel, Jaap; Smith, Mark; Ruud, Torleif; Mitchell, John R; Patton, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The concept of recovery has gained increasing attention and many mental health systems have taken steps to move towards more recovery oriented practice and service structures. This article represents a description of current recovery-oriented programs in participating countries including recovery measurement tools. Although there is growing acceptance that recovery needs to be one of the key domains of quality in mental health care, the implementation and delivery of recovery oriented services and corresponding evaluation strategies as an integral part of mental health care have been lacking.

  19. Country tobacco laws and article 11 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a review of tobacco packaging and labeling regulations of 25 countries.

    PubMed

    Awopegba, Ayodeji J; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-11-06

    Urgent, evidence-based tobacco control efforts have been advocated by the WHO through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) articles and guidelines. The level of implementation of these guidelines varies by country and region. This paper identifies areas of alignment and non-alignment of country tobacco laws with respect to the FCTC's article 11 requirements, which lists guidelines for regulating tobacco packaging and labeling. Countries from each of the six WHO regions were ranked by number of smokers and 25 countries were selected, representing countries from all WHO regions with the highest number of smokers. A scoring guide based on the FCTC article 11 requirements was created and used to rank country tobacco laws and assess levels of alignment as well as identify common areas of weakness and strength. Across the countries examined, laws were generally strong in mandating the display of health warning messages on the front and back of cigarette packs and cartons. However, they were deficient in prohibiting the display of emission yields, and placing warnings at the top of the principal display area, as well as requiring health messages on tobacco's negative social and economic outcomes. Country tobacco packaging and labeling laws can be strengthened by greater compliance with the FCTC article 11 guidelines.

  20. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs’ perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. Methods A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. Results A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Conclusions Research ethics committees

  1. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Raju, Mahesh; Ansell, David; Bleck, Thomas P

    2011-03-01

    Tetanus is an expected complication when disasters strike in developing countries, where tetanus immunization coverage is often low or nonexistent. Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal disease. Clusters of infections have recently occurred after tsunamis and earthquakes in Indonesia, Kashmir, and Haiti. The emergency response to clusters of tetanus infections in developing countries after a natural disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach in the absence of an intensive care unit, readily available resources, and a functioning cold-chain system. It is essential that injured people receive immediate surgical and medical care of contaminated, open wounds with immunization and immunoglobulin therapy. Successful treatment of tetanus depends on prompt diagnosis of clinical tetanus, treatment to ensure neutralization of circulating toxin and elimination of C. tetani infection, control of spasms and convulsions, maintenance of the airway, and management of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction.

  2. Systematic review of barriers to surgical care in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Caris E; Bowman, Kendra G; Dodgion, Christopher M; Lavy, Christopher B D

    2011-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that lack of facilities, equipment, and expertise in district hospitals across many low- and middle-income countries constitutes a major barrier to accessing surgical care. However, what is less clear, is the extent to which people perceive barriers when trying to access surgical care. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using key words ("access" and "surgery," "barrier" and "surgery," "barrier" and "access"), MeSH headings ("health services availability," "developing countries," "rural population"), and the subject heading "health care access." Articles were included if they were qualitative and applied to illnesses where the treatment is primarily surgical. Key barriers included difficulty accessing surgical services due to distance, poor roads, and lack of suitable transport; lack of local resources and expertise; direct and indirect costs related to surgical care; and fear of undergoing surgery and anesthesia. The significance of cultural, financial, and structural barriers pertinent to surgery and their role in wider health care issues are discussed. Immediate action to improve financial and geographic accessibility along with investment in district hospitals is likely to make a significant impact on overcoming access and barrier issues. Further research is needed to identify issues that need to be addressed to close the gap between the care needed and that provided.

  3. The problem of children's injuries in low-income countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Sheridan N

    2002-03-01

    Unintentional injuries are the cause of death and disability for millions of children every year in low-income countries. Challenging living conditions, heavy traffic, a lack of safe play space and an absence of child care options, together with a disproportionate vulnerability to injury, combine to put children at high risk. Inaccessible and unaffordable emergency services add to the number of resulting deaths and impairments. Yet this major public health problem receives relatively little attention. Because communicable disease and nutritional problems continue to rank higher as causes of child mortality and morbidity in most of the developing world, injury is perceived as a less serious problem. Existing research is scanty and is largely limited to hospital-based studies, which cannot present a comprehensive picture of either causes or outcomes. Development of preventive measures is hampered not only by limited health budgets, but by a tendency (not unique to low-income countries) to see injuries as random events, and hence as unpredictable and uncontrollable. There is an urgent need for more research that can contribute to effective analyses of the situation, and especially for locally-based research and record keeping, which is most likely to contribute to awareness and to practical and well-targeted prevention measures.

  4. Adapting and Implementing Open Dialogue in the Scandinavian Countries: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Bikic, Aida; Jacobsen, Elise Kragh; Müller-Nielsen, Klaus; Aagaard, Jørgen; Rossen, Camilla Blach

    2017-02-06

    Open Dialogue is a resource-oriented mental health approach, which mobilises a crisis-struck person's psychosocial network resources. This scoping review 1) identifies the range and nature of literature on the adoption of Open Dialogue in Scandinavia in places other than the original sites in Finland, and 2) summarises this literature. We included 33 publications. Most studies in this scoping review were published as "grey" literature and most grappled with how to implement Open Dialogue faithfully. In the Scandinavian research context, Open Dialogue was mainly described as a promising and favourable approach to mental health care.

  5. The Identification of Children with, or at Significant Risk of, Intellectual Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Janet; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Yasamy, M. Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Developmental monitoring of children is an important strategy for the early detection and management of intellectual disabilities (ID) in high-income countries. This review summarizes the literature on identifying children with ID in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Materials and methods: Electronic literature database searches…

  6. The Identification of Children with, or at Significant Risk of, Intellectual Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Janet; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Yasamy, M. Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Developmental monitoring of children is an important strategy for the early detection and management of intellectual disabilities (ID) in high-income countries. This review summarizes the literature on identifying children with ID in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Materials and methods: Electronic literature database searches…

  7. Human resources and the quality of emergency obstetric care in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dogba, Maman; Fournier, Pierre

    2009-02-06

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review exploring the importance of human resources in the quality of emergency obstetric care and thus in the reduction of maternal deaths. A systematic search of two electronic databases (ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE) was conducted, based on the following key words "quality obstetric* care" OR "pregnancy complications OR emergency obstetric* care OR maternal mortality" AND "quality health care OR quality care" AND "developing countries. Relevant papers were analysed according to three customary components of emergency obstetric care: structure, process and results. This review leads to three main conclusions: (1) staff shortages are a major obstacle to providing good quality EmOC; (2) women are often dissatisfied with the care they receive during childbirth; and (3) the technical quality of EmOC has not been adequately studied. The first two conclusions provide lessons to consider when formulating EmOC policies, while the third point is an area where more knowledge is needed.

  8. Are countries using global fund support to implement HIV drug resistance surveillance? A review of funded HIV grants.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Karen F; Caudwell, Emily; Xueref, Serge; Ha, Thuy Huong; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) is the largest funder of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programs worldwide. Since 2002, the Global Fund has encouraged grant recipients to implement drug resistance surveillance (DRS) as part of treatment programs. We reviewed documentation of 147 grants funded in 2004-2008 (funding rounds 4-8) to assess grantees' use of funds to support HIV DRS. Overall, 94 grants (64%) described HIV DRS as part of the national treatment program. However, only 32 grants (22%) specifically documented DRS as a grant-funded activity. This review provides baseline information suggesting limited use by countries of Global Fund financing to support HIV DRS. Additional assessment is required to evaluate barriers to using Global Fund grants to support DRS.

  9. Cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Mirelman, Andrew; Stack, Meghan L; Walker, Damian G; Levine, Orin S

    2012-12-17

    Public health interventions that prevent mortality and morbidity have greatly increased over the past decade. Immunization is one of these preventive interventions, with a potential to bring economic benefits beyond just health benefits. While vaccines are considered to be a cost-effective public health intervention, implementation has become increasingly challenging. As vaccine costs rise and competing priorities increase, economic evidence is likely to play an increasingly important role in vaccination decisions. To assist policy decisions today and potential investments in the future, we provide a systematic review of the literature on the cost-effectiveness and economic benefits of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2010. The review identified 108 relevant articles from 51 countries spanning 23 vaccines from three major electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase and Econlit). Among the 44 articles that reported costs per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, vaccines cost less than or equal to $100 per DALY averted in 23 articles (52%). Vaccines cost less than $500 per DALY averted in 34 articles (77%), and less than $1000 per DALY averted in 38 articles (86%) in one of the scenarios. 24 articles (22%) examined broad level economic benefits of vaccines such as greater future wage-earning capacity and cost savings from averting disease outbreaks. 60 articles (56%) gathered data from a primary source. There were little data on long-term and societal economic benefits such as morbidity-related productivity gains, averting catastrophic health expenditures, growth in gross domestic product (GDP), and economic implications of demographic changes resulting from vaccination. This review documents the available evidence and shows that vaccination in low- and middle-income countries brings important economic benefits. The cost-effectiveness studies reviewed suggest to policy makers that vaccines are an efficient investment. This review further

  10. Diabetes self-management arrangements in Europe: a realist review to facilitate a project implemented in six countries.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Patelarou, Evridiki; Shea, Sue; Foss, Christina; Ruud Knutsen, Ingrid A; Todorova, Elka; Roukova, Poli; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Pumar-Méndez, María J; Mujika, Agurtzane; Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Serrano-Gil, Manuel; Lionis, Christos

    2014-10-02

    Self-management of long term conditions can promote quality of life whilst delivering benefits to the financing of health care systems. However, rarely are the meso-level influences, likely to be of direct relevance to these desired outcomes, systematically explored. No specific international guidelines exist suggesting the features of the most appropriate structure and organisation of health care systems within which to situate self-management approaches and practices. This review aimed to identify the quantitative literature with regard to diabetes self-management arrangements currently in place within the health care systems of six countries (The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Bulgaria, and Greece) and explore how these are integrated into the broader health care and welfare systems in each country. The methodology for a realist review was followed. Publications of interest dating from 2000 to 2013 were identified through appropriate MeSH terms by a systematic search in six bibliographic databases. A search diary was maintained and the studies were assessed for their quality and risk of bias. Following the multi-step search strategy, 56 studies were included in the final review (the majority from the UK) reporting design methods and findings on 21 interventions and programmes for diabetes and chronic disease self-management. Most (11/21, 52%) of the interventions were designed to fit within the context of primary care. The majority (11/21, 52%) highlighted behavioural change as an important goal. Finally, some (5/21, 24%) referred explicitly to Internet-based tools. This review is based on results which are derived from a total of at least 5,500 individuals residing in the six participating countries. It indicates a policy shift towards patient-centred self-management of diabetes in a primary care context. The professional role of diabetes specialist nurses, the need for multidisciplinary approaches and a focus on patient education emerge as

  11. Mobile health use in low- and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Armstrong, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of mobile phone technology has introduced new possibilities to the field of medicine. Combining technological advances with medical expertise has led to the use of mobile phones in all healthcare areas including diagnostics, telemedicine, research, reference libraries and interventions. This article provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1 August 2006 and 1 August 2011, for the application of mobile/cell phones (from basic text-messaging systems to smartphones) in healthcare in both resource-poor and high-income countries. Smartphone use is paving the way in high-income countries, while basic text-messaging systems of standard mobile phones are proving to be of value in low- and middle-income countries. Ranging from infection outbreak reporting, anti-HIV therapy adherence to gait analysis, resuscitation training and radiological imaging, the current uses and future possibilities of mobile phone technology in healthcare are endless. Multiple mobile phone based applications are available for healthcare workers and healthcare consumers; however, the absolute majority lack an evidence base. Therefore, more rigorous research is required to ensure that healthcare is not flooded with non-evidence based applications and is maximized for patient benefit.

  12. Mobile health use in low- and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature

    PubMed Central

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Armstrong, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of mobile phone technology has introduced new possibilities to the field of medicine. Combining technological advances with medical expertise has led to the use of mobile phones in all healthcare areas including diagnostics, telemedicine, research, reference libraries and interventions. This article provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1 August 2006 and 1 August 2011, for the application of mobile/cell phones (from basic text-messaging systems to smartphones) in healthcare in both resource-poor and high-income countries. Smartphone use is paving the way in high-income countries, while basic text-messaging systems of standard mobile phones are proving to be of value in low- and middle-income countries. Ranging from infection outbreak reporting, anti-HIV therapy adherence to gait analysis, resuscitation training and radiological imaging, the current uses and future possibilities of mobile phone technology in healthcare are endless. Multiple mobile phone based applications are available for healthcare workers and healthcare consumers; however, the absolute majority lack an evidence base. Therefore, more rigorous research is required to ensure that healthcare is not flooded with non-evidence based applications and is maximized for patient benefit. PMID:23564897

  13. Multinational Corporations in Developed Countries: A Review of Recent Research and Policy Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Sperry; Webley, Simon

    The present state of multinational corporations (MNC) in North America and Europe is described and commented upon in this study. Specifically, it reviews serious research and policy thinking by private and official bodies in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and on the continent of Europe. It concentrates on the major issues arising…

  14. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  15. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  16. Education and social inclusion of people with disabilities in five countries in West Africa: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Emma; Lynch, Paul; Virendrakumar, Bhavisha; Rowe, Stacy; Schmidt, Elena

    2017-07-14

    An estimated 1 billion people worldwide live with some form of disability. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the "Leave no one behind" agenda, there is a global momentum to ensure that disadvantaged groups, not least people with disabilities, are included and accounted for, in mainstream development efforts. However, in many low-income settings little is known about disability and the policies and programs in place to improve the lives of those affected. This literature review describes the extent and quality of published and unpublished literature on education and social inclusion of people with disabilities in five West African countries: Cameroon, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone and Senegal. Fifty-four unique documents met inclusion criteria of the review and described related policy and legislation; national and international stakeholders; intervention programs and primary research related to disability and inclusion. The majority of documents were from Sierra Leone (19); and four described more than one country. Primary research included mainly qualitative studies and cross-sectional surveys; 33 sources were critically appraised with the majority being attributed unclear risk of bias (20). The findings call for (i) standardized tools for monitoring the implementation of programs and policies at national level; (ii) improved stakeholder coordination mechanisms; (iii) development and adoption of coordinated approaches to measuring disability and social exclusion; (iv) rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness of disability programs and (v) disaggregation of routine data by disability. Implication for Rehabilitation There is a need for standardized tools for monitoring the implementation of programs and policies at national level. Countries that have not yet ratified the UNCRPD or the protocol should be supported to do so. Stakeholder coordination mechanisms need to be improved. Improved coordination between stakeholders involved in

  17. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Igor; Sidhu, Simrita; Papana, Angeliki; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Xin-Wei, Yu; Wang, Wei; Campbell-Page, Ruth M; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Nair, Harish; Sridhar, Devi; Theodoratou, Evropi; Dowman, Ben; Adeloye, Davies; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Campbell, Harry; Wang, Wei; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small joints of the body. It is one of the leading causes of chronic morbidity in high-income countries, but little is known about the burden of this disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RA in six of the World Health Organization's (WHO) regions that harbour LMIC by identifying all relevant studies in those regions. To accomplish this aim various bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, LILACS and the Chinese databases CNKI and WanFang. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, including a definition of RA based on the 1987 revision of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Meta-estimates of regional RA prevalence rates for countries of low or middle income were 0.40% (95% CI: 0.23-0.57%) for Southeast Asian, 0.37% (95% CI: 0.23-0.51%) for Eastern Mediterranean, 0.62% (95% CI: 0.47-0.77%) for European, 1.25% (95% CI: 0.64-1.86%) for American and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.30-0.53%) for Western Pacific regions. A formal meta-analysis could not be performed for the sub-Saharan African region due to limited data. Male prevalence of RA in LMIC was 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%) while the prevalence in women reached 0.75% (95% CI: 0.60-0.90%). This difference between males and females was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of RA did not differ significantly between urban and rural settings (P = 0.353). These prevalence estimates represent 2.60 (95% CI: 1.85-3.34%) million male sufferers and 12.21 (95% CI: 9.78-14.67%) million female sufferers in LMIC in the year 2000, and 3.16 (95% CI: 2.25-4.05%) million affected males and 14.87 (95% CI: 11.91-17.86%) million affected females in LMIC in the year 2010. Given that majority of the world's population resides in LMIC, the number of affected people is substantial, with a projection to increase in the coming

  18. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: a literature review of attraction and retention.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-23

    Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS), and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income countries. About 600 papers were initially assessed and

  19. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS), and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. Methods This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income countries. About 600 papers were

  20. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  1. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  2. Mutations of a country: a mutation review of single gene disorders in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Ali, Bassam R

    2010-05-01

    The United Arab Emirates inhabitants are ethnically diverse, with ancestries from Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and Africa. However, the majority of the current five million inhabitants are expatriates from the Asian subcontinent, Middle Eastern, African, and European countries. Consanguineous marriages within most UAE subpopulations are still the norm, leading to the formation of isolates and higher frequencies of recessive conditions. The UAE is ranked sixth in terms of prevalence of birth defects, with more than 270 genetic disorders reported in the national population. The UAE has high frequencies of blood disorders including thalassemias, sickle cell disease, and G6PD. In addition, certain genetic conditions are relatively common including cystic fibrosis, Joubert, and Meckel syndromes. Furthermore, numerous rare congenital malformations and metabolic disorders have been reported. We review the single gene disorders that have been studied at the molecular level in the UAE (which currently stand at 76) and compile the mutations found. Several novel (p.S2439fs) mutations have been reported including c.7317delA in NF1, c.5C>T (p.A2V) in DKC1, c.1766T>A (p.I589N) in TP63, and c.2117G>T (p.R706L) in VLDLR. We hope that this review will form the basis to establish a UAE mutations database and serve as a model for the collection of mutations of a country. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. When do newborns die? A systematic review of timing of overall and cause-specific neonatal deaths in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, M J; Natarajan, C K; Das, R R; Agarwal, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Paul, V K

    2016-01-01

    About 99% of neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. There is a paucity of information on the exact timing of neonatal deaths in these settings. The objective of this review was to determine the timing of overall and cause-specific neonatal deaths in developing country settings. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, WHOLIS and CABI using sensitive search strategies. Searches were limited to studies involving humans published in the last 10 years. A total of 22 studies were included in the review. Pooled results indicate that about 62% of the total neonatal deaths occurred during the first 3 days of life; the first day alone accounted for two-thirds. Almost all asphyxia-related and the majority of prematurity- and malformation-related deaths occurred in the first week of life (98%, 83% and 78%, respectively). Only one-half of sepsis-related deaths occurred in the first week while one-quarter occurred in each of the second and third to fourth weeks of life. The distribution of both overall and cause-specific mortality did not differ greatly between Asia and Africa. The first 3 days after birth account for about 30% of under-five child deaths. The first week of life accounts for most of asphyxia-, prematurity- and malformation-related mortality and one-half of sepsis-related deaths. PMID:27109087

  4. Responsiveness of emergency obstetric care systems in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review of the "third delay".

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Francesca L; Marchant, Tanya J

    2013-05-01

    We reviewed the evidence on the duration, causes and effects of delays in providing emergency obstetric care to women attending health facilities (the third delay) in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a critical literature review using terms related to obstetric care, birth outcome, delays and developing countries. A manual search of reference lists of key articles was also performed. 69 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported long delays in providing care, and the mean waiting time for women admitted with complications was as much as 24 h before treatment. The three most cited barriers to providing timely care were shortage of treatment materials, surgery facilities and qualified staff. Existing evidence is insufficient to estimate the effect of delays on birth outcomes. Delays in providing emergency obstetric care seem common in resource-constrained settings but further research is necessary to determine the effect of the third delay on birth outcomes. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Information needs of health care workers in developing countries: a literature review with a focus on Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pakenham-Walsh, Neil; Bukachi, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers in developing countries continue to lack access to basic, practical information to enable them to deliver safe, effective care. This paper provides the first phase of a broader literature review of the information and learning needs of health care providers in developing countries. A Medline search revealed 1762 papers, of which 149 were identified as potentially relevant to the review. Thirty-five of these were found to be highly relevant. Eight of the 35 studies looked at information needs as perceived by health workers, patients and family/community members; 14 studies assessed the knowledge of health workers; and 8 looked at health care practice. The studies suggest a gross lack of knowledge about the basics on how to diagnose and manage common diseases, going right across the health workforce and often associated with suboptimal, ineffective and dangerous health care practices. If this level of knowledge and practice is representative, as it appears to be, it indicates that modern medicine, even at a basic level, has largely failed the majority of the world's population. The information and learning needs of family caregivers and primary and district health workers have been ignored for too long. Improving the availability and use of relevant, reliable health care information has enormous potential to radically improve health care worldwide. PMID:19356239

  6. Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in developing countries--a review of recent developments (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Jinadasa, K B S N; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-08-01

    Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation has become one of the most pervasive problems afflicting people throughout the developing world. Replication of centralized water-, energy- and cost-intensive technologies has proved ineffective in resolving the complex water-related problems resulting from rapid urbanization in the developing countries. Instead constructed wetlands (CWs) have emerged and become a viable option for wastewater treatment, and are currently being recognized as attractive alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment methods. The primary objective of this review is to present a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of practice, applications and researches of CW systems for removing various contaminants from wastewater in developing countries, placing them in the overall context of the need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. Emphasis of this review is placed on the treatment performance of various types of CWs including: (i) free water surface flow CW; (ii) subsurface flow CW; (iii) hybrid systems; and, (iv) floating treatment wetland. The impacts of different wetland design and pertinent operational variables (e.g., hydraulic loading rate, vegetation species, physical configurations, and seasonal variation) on contaminant removal in CW systems are also summarized and highlighted. Finally, the cost and land requirements for CW systems are critically evaluated.

  7. A systematic review of the social and economic burden of influenza in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    de Francisco Shapovalova, Natasha; Donadel, Morgane; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2015-11-27

    The economic burden of seasonal influenza outbreaks as well as influenza pandemics in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has yet to be specifically systematically reviewed. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the evidence of influenza economic burden assessment methods in LMIC and to quantify the economic consequences of influenza disease in these countries, including broader opportunity costs in terms of impaired social progress and economic development. We conducted an all language literature search across 5 key databases using an extensive list of key words for the time period 1950-2013. We included studies which explored direct costs (medical and non-medical), indirect costs (productivity losses), and broader economic impact in LMIC associated with different influenza outcomes such as confirmed seasonal influenza infection, influenza-like illnesses, and pandemic influenza. We included 62 full-text studies in English, Spanish, Russian, Chinese languages, mostly from the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean and East Asia and Pacific with pertinent cost data found in 39 papers. Estimates for direct and indirect costs were the highest in Latin American and the Caribbean. Compared to high-income economies, direct costs in LMIC were lower and productivity losses higher. Evidence on broader impact of influenza included impact on the wider national economy, security dimension, medical insurance policy, legal frameworks, distributional impact, and investment flows. The economic burden of influenza in LMIC encompasses multiple dimensions such as direct costs to the health service and households, indirect costs due to productivity losses as well as broader detriments to the wider economy. Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa and in pregnant women remains very limited. Heterogeneity of methods used to estimate cost components makes data synthesis challenging. There is a strong need for standardizing research, data collection and evaluation methods

  8. Retention of participants in medication-assisted programs in low- and middle-income countries: an international systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Feelemyer, Jonathan; Jarlais, Don Des; Arasteh, Kamyar; Abdul-Quader, Abu S.; Hagan, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is a key component in overdose prevention, reducing illicit opiate use and risk of blood-borne virus infection. By retaining participants in MAT programs for longer periods of time, more noticeable and permanent changes in drug use, risk behavior and quality of life can be achieved. Many studies have documented retention in MAT programs in high-income countries, using a 50% average 12-month follow-up retention rate as a marker for a successful MAT program. This study contributes to a systematic understanding of how successful programs have been in retaining participants in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) over time. Methods Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a systematic literature search to identify MAT program studies that documented changes in retention over time for participants in buprenorphine and methadone programs in LMIC. Retention was measured for participants by length of follow-up, type of MAT and treatment dosage. Results There were 58 MAT program studies, with 27 047 participants eligible for inclusion in the review. Overall average retention after 12 months was 54.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 46.2, 63.7%]. Overall average retention was moderately good for both buprenorphine (48.3%, 95% CI = 22.1, 74.6%) and methadone (56.6%, 95% CI = 45.9%, 67.3%) after 12 months of treatment. Among programs using methadone there was no statistically significant difference in average retention by dosage level, and the 10 highest and lowest dosage programs obtained similar average retention levels after 12 months. Conclusion Medication-assisted treatment programs in low- and middle-income countries achieve an average 50% retention rate after 12 months, with wide variation across programs but little difference between those using buprenorphine versus methadone. PMID:23859638

  9. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Jan P; Kaap-Fröhlich, Sylvia; Mahler, Cornelia; Scherer, Theresa; Huber, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA) aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries. Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of international interprofessional organisations (CAIPE, EIPEN, AIPEN), as well as in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Reviews focusing on quantitative instruments to evaluate competencies according to the modified Kirkpatrick competency levels were searched for. Psychometrics, language/country and setting, in which the instrument was applied, were recorded. Results: Six reviews out of 73 literature research hits were included. A large number of instruments were identified; however, their psychometrics and the applied setting were very heterogeneous. The instruments can mainly be assigned to Kirkpatrick levels 1, 2a & 2b. Most instruments have been developed in English but their psychometrics were not always reported rigorously. Only very few instruments are available in German. Conclusion: It is difficult to find appropriate instruments in German. Internationally, there are different approaches and objectives in the measurement and evaluation of interprofessional competencies. The question arises whether it makes sense to translate existing instruments or to go through the lengthy process of developing new ones. The evaluation of interprofessional seminars with quantitative instruments remains mainly on

  10. Analysis of Six Reviews on the Quality of Instruments for the Evaluation of Interprofessional Education in German-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Jan P.; Kaap-Fröhlich, Sylvia; Mahler, Cornelia; Scherer, Theresa; Huber, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Background: More and more institutions worldwide and in German-speaking countries are developing and establishing interprofessional seminars in undergraduate education of health professions. In order to evaluate the different didactic approaches and different outcomes regarding the anticipated interprofessional competencies, it is necessary to apply appropriate instruments. Cross-cultural instruments are particularly helpful for international comparability. The Interprofessional Education working group of the German Medical Association (GMA) aims at identifying existing instruments for the evaluation of interprofessional education in order to make recommendations for German-speaking countries. Methods: Systematic literature research was performed on the websites of inter