Science.gov

Sample records for elf-1 transcription factors

  1. Identification and Characterization of Elf1, a Conserved Transcription Elongation Factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Donald; Krogan, Nevan J.; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Winston, Fred

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify previously unknown transcription elongation factors, a genetic screen was carried out to identify mutations that cause lethality when combined with mutations in the genes encoding the elongation factors TFIIS and Spt6. This screen identified a mutation in YKL160W, hereafter named ELF1 (elongation factor 1). Further analysis identified synthetic lethality between an elf1Δ mutation and mutations in genes encoding several known elongation factors, including Spt4, Spt5, Spt6, and members of the Paf1 complex. Genome-wide synthetic lethality studies confirmed that elf1Δ specifically interacts with mutations in genes affecting transcription elongation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Elf1 is cotranscriptionally recruited over actively transcribed regions and that this association is partially dependent on Spt4 and Spt6. Analysis of elf1Δ mutants suggests a role for this factor in maintaining proper chromatin structure in regions of active transcription. Finally, purification of Elf1 suggests an association with casein kinase II, previously implicated in roles in transcription. Together, these results suggest an important role for Elf1 in the regulation of transcription elongation. PMID:16260625

  2. Critical role for the Ets transcription factor ELF-1 in the development of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuling; Brown, Courtney; Ni, Weihua; Maynard, Elizabeth; Rigby, Alan C; Oettgen, Peter

    2006-04-15

    The Ets transcription factors regulate a wide variety of biologic processes. Several members have been shown to play a role in regulating angiogenesis and vascular development. For example, the Ets factor ELF-1 is enriched in the developing vasculature of the embryo, where it regulates the expression of the Tie2 gene. We have determined that ELF-1 and Tie2 expression is also enriched in tumor blood vessels, and have identified a short peptide, 34 amino acids in length, corresponding to the terminal portion of the highly conserved ETS domain that potently blocks the function of ELF-1. A tailored ELF-1 blocking peptide, containing a 12-amino acid HIV-1 TAT protein, readily crosses the cell membrane and enters into the nucleus of endothelial cells, leading to a marked reduction in the expression of ELF-1 gene targets including Tie2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, the ELF-1 blocking peptide potently inhibits angiopoietin-1-mediated endothelial cell migration. Systemic administration of this peptide markedly attenuates B16 melanoma tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis in nude mice. These results support the function of ELF-1 in the regulation of Tie2 gene expression during the development of tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Differential requirements for the Ets transcription factor Elf-1 in the development of NKT cells and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Geng, Yanbiao; Cho, Hoonsik; Li, Sha; Giri, Pramod Kumar; Felio, Kyrie; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2011-02-10

    E26 Transformation specific (Ets) family transcription factors control the expression of a large number of genes regulating hematopoietic cell development and function. Two such transcription factors, Ets-1 and myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF), have been shown to play critical roles in both natural killer (NK)- and NKT-cell development, but not in the development of conventional T cells. In this study, we address the role of E74-like factor 1 (Elf-1), another Ets family transcription factor that is closely related to MEF but divergent from Ets-1, in NK- and NKT-cell development using Elf-1-deficient (Elf-1(-/-)) mice. Whereas the proportion of NK cells in Elf-1(-/-) mice was normal, the proportion of NKT cells was significantly reduced in the thymus and periphery of Elf-1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Although Ets-1-deficient mice lack NKT cells altogether, Elf-1(-/-) mice exhibited only a partial block in NKT-cell development caused by a cell-intrinsic defect in the selection, survival, and maturation of NKT cells. In addition, residual NKT cells found in Elf-1(-/-) mice produced less cytokine upon antigen stimulation compared with WT NKT cells. Our data demonstrate that Elf-1 plays an important and nonredundant role in the development and function of NKT cells, but is not involved in NK-cell development.

  4. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-03-13

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  5. Protein expression of the Ets transcription factor Elf-1 in breast cancer cells is negatively correlated with histological grading, but not with clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Gerloff, Alice; Dittmer, Angela; Oerlecke, Ilka; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Dittmer, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    Several members of the Ets (E26 transformation specific) transcription factor family are involved in tumor progression, e.g. by activating matrix metalloproteases. Ets proteins share a unique DNA-binding domain, the Ets domain, which specifically recognizes GGAA/T-containing sequences common in many promoters. While the roles of quite a number of Ets proteins in carcinogenesis have been well established, little is known about the importance of the Ets protein Elf-1 (E74-like factor 1) in cancer. Herein, we analyzed the expression of Elf-1 in breast cancer. We found that, like T-cells, breast cancer cells express both the 80 and 98 kDa isoforms of the Elf-1 protein with the 98 kDa isoform only be present in the nucleus. Immunohistochemical analysis of 119 breast cancer biopsies showed anti-Elf-1 immunoreactivity exclusively in the nucleus. Elf-1 expression varied largely among the breast cancer samples showing a negative correlation with histological grading. However, no association of Elf-1 expression with clinical outcome was observed, even when sub-cohorts of patients who received either only adjuvant endocrine treatment or only chemotherapy were separately analyzed. These data suggest that Elf-1 may modulate breast cancer progression to some extent without having an impact on survival of breast cancer patients.

  6. The ETS Factor Myeloid Elf-1-Like Factor (MEF)/Elf4 Is Transcriptionally and Functionally Activated by Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Suico, Mary Ann; Taura, Manabu; Kudo, Eriko; Gotoh, Kumiko; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Seiji; Kai, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a transcription factor belonging to the HIF family that is activated in mammalian cells during conditions of low oxygen tension or hypoxia to induce an adaptive response and promote cell survival. Some of the genes targeted by HIF-1α are important for angiogenesis and proliferation. Here, we found that the E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor myeloid elf-1-like factor (MEF)/Elf4 is activated by HIF-1α. MEF induces genes such as human beta-defensin 2 (HβD2) and perforin (PRF1), and is known to affect the cell cycle. Treatment with hypoxia mimetic CoCl2 or low O2 incubation up-regulated MEF mRNA and protein levels in various cell lines. HIF-1α overexpression in HEK293 cells also increased MEF mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, HIF-1α knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the induction of MEF in response to hypoxia. HIF-1α binds to the hypoxia response element in the MEF promoter region (-200 bp) and activates MEF promoter under hypoxia condition. The induction of MEF by hypoxia/HIF-1α correlated with the increase of MEF target genes HβD2 and PRF1. Intriguingly, the hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was enhanced by the exogenous addition of MEF. Overall, these data indicate that hypoxia or HIF-1α positively regulates MEF expression and function.

  7. The transcription factors myeloid elf-1-like factor (MEF) and distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) inversely regulate the differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In bone marrow, the differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes is reciprocally regulated. This inverse regulation occurs mainly through complex signaling crosstalk between transcriptional factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). This commentary addresses the role of myeloid elf-1 like factor (MEF) and distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5) in the lineage commitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes and osteoblasts, respectively. MEF suppresses osteoblastogenesis by preventing Runx2 from binding to the promoters of target genes and enhancing adipogenesis via transactivation of PPARγ expression. Conversely, Dlx5 enhances osteoblastogenesis through upregulation of the expression of Runx2 and osteoblast marker genes while suppressing adipogenesis through the downregulation of PPARγ expression by sequestering the cAMP response element binding protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. Studies designed to examine the effects of physiological and pathologic signals on the expression of MEF and Dlx5 will provide further insight to the function of these transcription factors in vivo.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of Elf-1: locus-wide analysis reveals four distinct promoters, a tissue-specific enhancer, control by PU.1 and the importance of Elf-1 downregulation for erythroid maturation.

    PubMed

    Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Wood, Andrew D; Wilson, Nicola K; Kinston, Sarah; Landry, Josette-Renée; Göttgens, Berthold

    2010-10-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles during the development and maintenance of the haematopoietic system. One such factor, Elf-1 (E74-like factor 1) controls the expression of multiple essential haematopoietic regulators including Scl/Tal1, Lmo2 and PU.1. However, to integrate Elf-1 into the wider regulatory hierarchies controlling haematopoietic development and differentiation, regulatory elements as well as upstream regulators of Elf-1 need to be identified. Here, we have used locus-wide comparative genomic analysis coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip) assays which resulted in the identification of five distinct regulatory regions directing expression of Elf-1. Further, ChIP-chip assays followed by functional validation demonstrated that the key haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 is a major upstream regulator of Elf-1. Finally, overexpression studies in a well-characterized erythroid differentiation assay from primary murine fetal liver cells demonstrated that Elf-1 downregulation is necessary for terminal erythroid differentiation. Given the known activation of PU.1 by Elf-1 and our newly identified reciprocal activation of Elf-1 by PU.1, identification of an inhibitory role for Elf-1 has significant implications for our understanding of how PU.1 controls myeloid-erythroid differentiation. Our findings therefore not only represent the first report of Elf-1 regulation but also enhance our understanding of the wider regulatory networks that control haematopoiesis.

  9. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  10. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  11. The hematopoietic regulator, ELF-1, enhances the transcriptional response to Interferon-β of the OAS1 anti-viral gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Steven; Kawamoto, Shota; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Uchiumi, Fumiaki

    2015-12-08

    Interferon (IFN) therapy is effective in treating cancers, haematological and virus induced diseases. The classical Jak/Stat pathway of IFN signal transduction leading to changes in transcriptional activity is well established but alone does not explain the whole spectrum of cellular responses to IFN. Gene promoters contain cis-acting sequences that allow precise and contextual binding of transcription factors, which control gene expression. Using the transcriptional response to IFN as a starting point we report a high frequency of tandem GGAA motifs in the proximal promoters of Interferon stimulated genes, suggesting a key regulatory action. Utilizing the well-characterized anti-viral gene, OAS1, as an example Interferon stimulated gene promoter containing such a duplicated GGAA motif, we have demonstrated a regulatory role of this promoter in response to IFN by mutation analysis. Furthermore, we identified ELF-1 as a direct binding factor at this motif. Additionally, recruitment of RB1 and SP1 factors to the promoter following IFN stimulation is shown. ELF-1 overexpression enhanced and knockdown of ELF-1 inhibited full activation of OAS1 by IFN stimulation. Collectively, ELF-1 binds an important duplicated GGAA cis-acting element at the OAS1 promoter and in cooperation with RB1 and SP1 recruitment contributes to regulation in response to IFN stimulation.

  12. The suppressive effect of myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF) in osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Han; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2007-04-01

    Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is a member of the Ets transcription factor family. Ets family proteins control the expression of genes that are critical for biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Some of Ets factors are also known to regulate bone development. In this study, we investigated the role of MEF in osteoblast differentiation. MEF expression was highest early in the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and was reduced by treatment with BMP-2. The expression of MEF suppressed the alkaline phosphatase activity and expression induced by BMP-2 stimulation and mediated by Runx2. The expression of MEF also reduces osteocalcin mRNA levels, and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that the MEF-mediated suppression of osteogenic differentiation was critically related to Runx2 regulation. The MEF and Runx2 proteins physically interact to form a complex, and this interaction interferes with Runx2 binding to the cis-acting element OSE2 derived from the osteocalcin promoter. Co-transfection of MEF inhibited the 6xOSE2-luciferase reporter activity induced by Runx2. In addition, MEF stimulated the transcription of a negative mediator Msx2, and a transcriptional repressor, Mab21L1, and suppressed the transcription of a positive mediator, Dlx5 in osteoblast differentiation. MEF overexpression stimulated C2C12 cell proliferation. Together, our findings suggest that MEF promotes cell proliferation and functions as a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation by directly interacting with Runx2 and suppressing its transcriptional activity.

  13. Suppressive effect of Elf-1 on FcepsilonRI alpha-chain expression in primary mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Hui; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Shimokawa, Naomi; Hara, Mutsuko; Kanada, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2008-10-01

    The high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE), FcepsilonRI, is specifically expressed in mast cells and basophils and plays a key role in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The transcription factor Elf-1 has been previously identified to bind to the promoter of the human FcepsilonRI alpha-chain, which is essential for the function and expression of FcepsilonRI. In the present study, Elf-1 siRNA was conducted to evaluate the effects of Elf-1 on FcepsilonRI alpha-chain expression in the primary mouse mast cells, bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Introduction of Elf-1 siRNA effectively reduced expression levels of Elf-1 mRNA and protein in BMMC. Transient reporter assay showed that the knockdown of Elf-1 by siRNA resulted in increased FcepsilonRI alpha-chain promoter activity, while overexpression of Elf-1 suppressed alpha-chain promoter activity in BMMC. Elf-1 siRNA-treated BMMC exhibited marked upregulation of FcepsilonRI alpha-chain transcription, whereas beta-chain mRNA was not affected by Elf-1 siRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that the amount of transcription factor PU.1, recognizing the cis-element close to the Elf-1-site on the FcepsilonRI alpha-chain promoter, was significantly increased by introduction of Elf-1 siRNA. These results indicate that Elf-1 negatively regulates FcepsilonRI alpha-chain expression by suppressing PU.1-mediated transcription of the alpha-chain in BMMC.

  14. PTH regulates myleoid ELF-1-like factor (MEF)-induced MAB-21-like-1 (MAB21L1) expression through the JNK1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Gyu; Park, Youn-Je; Libermann, Towia A; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2011-08-01

    Continuous treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) or excess endogenous PTH due to primary hyperparathyroidism causes increased bone resorption and, subsequently, decreased bone volume. Our previous studies showed that myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF) not only suppresses osteoblast differentiation through inhibition of Runx2 activity and other osteogenesis-related genes but also specifically increases the expression of Mab21, a potential transcriptional repressor of osteoblast differentiation. Here we show that the JNK1 pathway is involved in the MEF-mediated up-regulation of Mab21 expression due to PTH stimulation. PTH increased the transcription level of Mab21 in MG63 human osteoblastic cells, in contrast to the suppressive effect of TGFβ1. PTH phosphorylates serine residues of MEF as well as c-Jun, a known substrate of JNK1. By in vitro kinase assay, we confirmed that MEF is phosphorylated by JNK1, but not by ERK. Co-transfection of MEF with both MKK4 and JNK1 increased the promoter activity of Mab21 in CV1 cells significantly more than MEF alone. We also identified the phosphorylation of MEF serine 641 by in vitro and in vivo JNK1 kinase assays combined with a proteomics approach. In conclusion, our findings indicate that MEF is involved in PTH suppression of osteoblasts through activating the MKK4/JNK1 pathway and subsequently up-regulating Mab21 expression.

  15. Myeloid Elf-1-like factor stimulates adipogenic differentiation through the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Cho, Je-Yoel; Hwang, Hyo Rin; Kwon, Arang; Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Qadir, Abdul S; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Woo, Kyung Mi; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is one of the Ets transcription factors known to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. A previous report has shown that osteoblast-specific MEF transgenic mice (Col1a1-MEF TG mice) have low bone mass but high bone marrow adiposity. In the present study, we explored a previously unappreciated mechanism whereby MEF promotes adipogenesis in bone marrow. An adipogenic colony-forming unit assay showed that bone marrow cells derived from Col1a1-MEF TG mice had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential compared to those from wild-type. The levels of adipogenic marker genes expression in 3T3L1 cells were higher when co-cultured with Col1a1-MEF TG bone marrow cells than with wild-type cells. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts transfected with MEF secreted higher levels of 15-deoxy-delta (12, 14)-prostaglandin J(2), a potent endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), under adipogenic conditions. MEF overexpression increased the adipogenic marker genes expression including PPARγ and lipid droplet accumulation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and 3T3L1 preadipocytes. Endogenous MEF expression levels increased as adipocyte differentiation proceeded. Knockdown of MEF by siRNA suppressed expression levels of adipogenic marker genes including PPARγ. MEF directly bound to the MEF binding element on the mouse PPARγ promoter, transactivating promoter activity. Immunohistochemical staining of tibia sections demonstrated that bone lining cells and bone marrow cells express higher levels of PPARγ protein in Col1a1-MEF TG mice than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that MEF transactivates PPARγ expression, which, in turn, enhances adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, MEF overexpressing osteoblasts secrete higher levels of adipogenic factors, creating a marrow microenvironment that favors adipogenesis.

  16. cis-acting sequences required for inducible interleukin-2 enhancer function bind a novel Ets-related protein, Elf-1.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C B; Wang, C Y; Ho, I C; Bohjanen, P R; Petryniak, B; June, C H; Miesfeldt, S; Zhang, L; Nabel, G J; Karpinski, B

    1992-01-01

    The recent definition of a consensus DNA binding sequence for the Ets family of transcription factors has allowed the identification of potential Ets binding sites in the promoters and enhancers of many inducible T-cell genes. In the studies described in this report, we have identified two potential Ets binding sites, EBS1 and EBS2, which are conserved in both the human and murine interleukin-2 enhancers. Within the human enhancer, these two sites are located within the previously defined DNase I footprints, NFAT-1 and NFIL-2B, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift and methylation interference analyses demonstrated that EBS1 and EBS2 are essential for the formation of the NFAT-1 and NFIL-2B nuclear protein complexes. Furthermore, in vitro mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that inducible interleukin-2 enhancer function requires the presence of either EBS1 or EBS2. Two well-characterized Ets family members, Ets-1 and Ets-2, are reciprocally expressed during T-cell activation. Surprisingly, however, neither of these proteins bound in vitro to EBS1 or EBS2. We therefore screened a T-cell cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe from the DNA binding domain of Ets-1 and isolated a novel Ets family member, Elf-1. Elf-1 contains a DNA binding domain that is nearly identical to that of E74, the ecdysone-inducible Drosophila transcription factor required for metamorphosis (hence the name Elf-1, for E74-like factor 1). Elf-1 bound specifically to both EBS1 and EBS2 in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. It also bound to the purine-rich CD3R element from the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 long terminal repeat, which is required for inducible virus expression in response to signalling through the T-cell receptor. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiple Ets family members with apparently distinct DNA binding specificities regulate differential gene expression in resting and activated T cells. Images PMID:1545787

  17. WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paul J; Somssich, Imre E; Ringler, Patricia; Shen, Qingxi J

    2010-05-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signalling webs that modulate many plant processes. Here, we review recent significant progress in WRKY transcription factor research. New findings illustrate that WRKY proteins often act as repressors as well as activators, and that members of the family play roles in both the repression and de-repression of important plant processes. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that a single WRKY transcription factor might be involved in regulating several seemingly disparate processes. Mechanisms of signalling and transcriptional regulation are being dissected, uncovering WRKY protein functions via interactions with a diverse array of protein partners, including MAP kinases, MAP kinase kinases, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin, histone deacetylases, resistance proteins and other WRKY transcription factors. WRKY genes exhibit extensive autoregulation and cross-regulation that facilitates transcriptional reprogramming in a dynamic web with built-in redundancy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. WRKY transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  19. Visualization of nuclear localization of transcription factors with cyan and green fluorescent proteins in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Uji, Toshiki; Takahashi, Megumu; Saga, Naotsune; Mikami, Koji

    2010-04-01

    Transcription factors play a central role in expression of genomic information in all organisms. The objective of our study is to analyze the function of transcription factors in red algae. One way to analyze transcription factors in eukaryotic cells is to study their nuclear localization, as reported for land plants and green algae using fluorescent proteins. There is, however, no report documenting subcellular localization of transcription factors from red algae. In the present study, using the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we confirmed for the first time successful expression of humanized fluorescent proteins (ZsGFP and ZsYFP) from a reef coral Zoanthus sp. and land plant-adapted sGFP(S65T) in gametophytic cells comparable to expression of AmCFP. Following molecular cloning and characterization of transcription factors DP-E2F-like 1 (PyDEL1), transcription elongation factor 1 (PyElf1) and multiprotein bridging factor 1 (PyMBF1), we then demonstrated that ZsGFP and AmCFP can be used to visualize nuclear localization of PyElf1 and PyMBF1. This is the first report to perform visualization of subcellular localization of transcription factors as genome-encoded proteins in red algae.

  20. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515

  1. The transcription factor encyclopedia.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

  2. Smad transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Massagué, Joan; Seoane, Joan; Wotton, David

    2005-12-01

    Smad transcription factors lie at the core of one of the most versatile cytokine signaling pathways in metazoan biology-the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Recent progress has shed light into the processes of Smad activation and deactivation, nucleocytoplasmic dynamics, and assembly of transcriptional complexes. A rich repertoire of regulatory devices exerts control over each step of the Smad pathway. This knowledge is enabling work on more complex questions about the organization, integration, and modulation of Smad-dependent transcriptional programs. We are beginning to uncover self-enabled gene response cascades, graded Smad response mechanisms, and Smad-dependent synexpression groups. Our growing understanding of TGFbeta signaling through the Smad pathway provides general principles for how animal cells translate complex inputs into concrete behavior.

  3. Human papilloma virus (HPV) E7-mediated attenuation of retinoblastoma (Rb) induces hPygopus2 expression via Elf-1 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tzenov, Youlian R; Andrews, Phillip G; Voisey, Kim; Popadiuk, Paul; Xiong, Jieying; Popadiuk, Catherine; Kao, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of cervical cancer. In this study, we provide evidence for the human Pygopus (hPygo)2 gene as a cellular biomarker for HPV-related disease. In a tumor microarray of cervical cancer progression, hPygo2 levels were greater in high-grade lesions and squamous cell carcinomas than in normal epithelia. Similarly, hPygo2 mRNA and protein levels were greater in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells relative to uninfected primary cells. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of HPV-E7 increased whereas E74-like factor (Elf)-1 RNAi decreased association of Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor with the hPygo2 promoter in cervical cancer cell lines. Transfection of dominant-active Rb inhibited Elf-1-dependent activation of hPygo2, whereas Elf-1 itself increased hPygo2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Rb repressed hPygo2 by inhibiting Elf-1 at the Ets-binding site in the hPygo2 promoter. These results suggested that abrogation of Rb by E7 resulted in derepression of Elf-1, which in turn stimulated expression of hPygo2. Thus, initiation of hPygo2 expression by Elf-1 was required for proliferation of cervical cancer cells and its expression therefore may act as a surrogate marker for dysplasia.

  4. Transcription Factor Binding Sites Prediction Based on Modified Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Talebzadeh, Mohammad; Zare-Mirakabad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    In computational methods, position weight matrices (PWMs) are commonly applied for transcription factor binding site (TFBS) prediction. Although these matrices are more accurate than simple consensus sequences to predict actual binding sites, they usually produce a large number of false positive (FP) predictions and so are impoverished sources of information. Several studies have employed additional sources of information such as sequence conservation or the vicinity to transcription start sites to distinguish true binding regions from random ones. Recently, the spatial distribution of modified nucleosomes has been shown to be associated with different promoter architectures. These aligned patterns can facilitate DNA accessibility for transcription factors. We hypothesize that using data from these aligned and periodic patterns can improve the performance of binding region prediction. In this study, we propose two effective features, “modified nucleosomes neighboring” and “modified nucleosomes occupancy”, to decrease FP in binding site discovery. Based on these features, we designed a logistic regression classifier which estimates the probability of a region as a TFBS. Our model learned each feature based on Sp1 binding sites on Chromosome 1 and was tested on the other chromosomes in human CD4+T cells. In this work, we investigated 21 histone modifications and found that only 8 out of 21 marks are strongly correlated with transcription factor binding regions. To prove that these features are not specific to Sp1, we combined the logistic regression classifier with the PWM, and created a new model to search TFBSs on the genome. We tested the model using transcription factors MAZ, PU.1 and ELF1 and compared the results to those using only the PWM. The results show that our model can predict Transcription factor binding regions more successfully. The relative simplicity of the model and capability of integrating other features make it a superior method for TFBS

  5. Fungal CSL transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Background The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) transcription factor family members are well-known components of the transmembrane receptor Notch signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in metazoan development. They function as context-dependent activators or repressors of transcription of their responsive genes, the promoters of which harbor the GTG(G/A)GAA consensus elements. Recently, several studies described Notch-independent activities of the CSL proteins. Results We have identified putative CSL genes in several fungal species, showing that this family is not confined to metazoans. We have analyzed their sequence conservation and identified the presence of well-defined domains typical of genuine CSL proteins. Furthermore, we have shown that the candidate fungal protein sequences contain highly conserved regions known to be required for sequence-specific DNA binding in their metazoan counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis of the newly identified fungal CSL proteins revealed the existence of two distinct classes, both of which are present in all the species studied. Conclusion Our findings support the evolutionary origin of the CSL transcription factor family in the last common ancestor of fungi and metazoans. We hypothesize that the ancestral CSL function involved DNA binding and Notch-independent regulation of transcription and that this function may still be shared, to a certain degree, by the present CSL family members from both fungi and metazoans. PMID:17629904

  6. Mutational Landscape and Antiproliferative Functions of ELF Transcription Factors in Human Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ando, Mizuo; Kawazu, Masahito; Ueno, Toshihide; Koinuma, Daizo; Ando, Koji; Koya, Junji; Kataoka, Keisuke; Yasuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukumura, Kazutaka; Yamato, Azusa; Soda, Manabu; Sai, Eirin; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Asakage, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Miyazono, Kohei; Nimer, Stephen D; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    ELF4 (also known as MEF) is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. An oncogenic role for ELF4 has been demonstrated in hematopoietic malignancies, but its function in epithelial tumors remains unclear. Here, we show that ELF4 can function as a tumor suppressor and is somatically inactivated in a wide range of human tumors. We identified a missense mutation affecting the transactivation potential of ELF4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Restoration of the transactivation activity through introduction of wild-type ELF4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth. Furthermore, we found that ELF1 and ELF2, closely related transcription factors to ELF4, also exerted antiproliferative effects in multiple cancer cell lines. Mutations in ELF1 and ELF2, as in ELF4, were widespread across human cancers, but were almost all mutually exclusive. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing revealed ELF4-binding sites in genomic regions adjacent to genes related to cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. Finally, we provide mechanistic evidence that the antiproliferative effects of ELF4 were mediated through the induction of HRK, an activator of apoptosis, and DLX3, an inhibitor of cell growth. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel subtype of human cancer characterized by inactivating mutations in the ELF subfamily of proteins, and warrant further investigation of the specific settings where ELF restoration may be therapeutically beneficial. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1814-24. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation by Competing Transcription Factor Modules

    PubMed Central

    Hermsen, Rutger; Tans, Sander; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2006-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input–output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits. PMID:17140283

  8. Identification of Transcription Factors for Lineage-Specific ESC Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Piao, Yulan; Sharov, Alexei A.; Zsiros, Veronika; Yu, Hong; Nakazawa, Kazu; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A network of transcription factors (TFs) determines cell identity, but identity can be altered by overexpressing a combination of TFs. However, choosing and verifying combinations of TFs for specific cell differentiation have been daunting due to the large number of possible combinations of ∼2,000 TFs. Here, we report the identification of individual TFs for lineage-specific cell differentiation based on the correlation matrix of global gene expression profiles. The overexpression of identified TFs—Myod1, Mef2c, Esx1, Foxa1, Hnf4a, Gata2, Gata3, Myc, Elf5, Irf2, Elf1, Sfpi1, Ets1, Smad7, Nr2f1, Sox11, Dmrt1, Sox9, Foxg1, Sox2, or Ascl1—can direct efficient, specific, and rapid differentiation into myocytes, hepatocytes, blood cells, and neurons. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic mRNAs of TFs generates their appropriate target cells. These results demonstrate both the utility of this approach to identify potent TFs for cell differentiation, and the unanticipated capacity of single TFs directly guides differentiation to specific lineage fates. PMID:24371809

  9. In HIV-positive patients, myeloid-derived suppressor cells induce T-cell anergy by suppressing CD3ζ expression through ELF-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tumino, Nicola; Turchi, Federica; Meschi, Silvia; Lalle, Eleonora; Bordoni, Veronica; Casetti, Rita; Agrati, Chiara; Cimini, Eleonora; Montesano, Carla; Colizzi, Vittorio; Martini, Federico; Sacchi, Alessandra

    2015-11-28

    During HIV infection, a down-modulation of CD3ζ was found on T cells, contributing to T-cell anergy. In this work, we studied the correlation between myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) frequency and T-cell CD3ζ expression. Moreover, we investigated the mechanisms of CD3ζ decrease exploited by MDSC. CD3ζ expression and MDSC frequency were evaluated by flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 105 HIV-positive (HIV+) patients. The role of MDSC in the modulation of the HIV-specific T-cell response was evaluated. The level of CD3ζ mRNA and ELF-1 protein were analysed by real-time-PCR and western blot, respectively. We found that granulocytic-MDSC (Gr-MDSC) were expanded in HIV+ patients compared with healthy donors; in particular, in cART-treated individuals a higher Gr-MDSC frequency was observed in patients with a CD4 T-cell count below 400 cells/μl. We found an inverse correlation between the percentage of Gr-MDSC and CD3ζ level. Moreover, in-vitro MDSC depletion induced the up-regulation of CD3ζ in T cells, restoring the functionality of αβ, but not γδ T cells. The in-vitro effect of isolated MDSC on CD3ζ expression was found cell contact-dependent, and was not mediated by previously described molecules. CD3ζ down-modulation corresponds to the decrease of its mRNA induced by silencing the transcription factor ELF-1. Our data provide new knowledge on mechanisms used by Gr-MDSC in immune-modulation and on their role in the immune reconstitution during antiviral treatments.

  10. Functional dissection of the ETS transcription factor MEF.

    PubMed

    Suico, Mary Ann; Koyanagi, Takashi; Ise, Satoko; Lu, Zhuo; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Yoshiyuki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Isohama, Yoichiro; Miyata, Takeshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2002-08-19

    We previously indicated that myeloid elf-1-like factor (MEF) but not elf-1, specifically activated lysozyme gene expression in epithelial cells. MEF is highly homologous at the nucleotide and amino acid level, with elf-1 especially in the ETS domain. Here, we report the functional analysis of the nuclear localization and transactivation properties of MEF. To investigate the intracellular localization of MEF, we transiently transfected MEF-green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusion protein expression vector into HeLa cells. A region spanning residues 177-291 is required for nuclear localization. We produced deletion mutants of MEF to determine the transactivation domain. The data showed that the N-terminal region, encompassing amino acids 1-52 is a potent transactivation domain. The C-terminal region spanning residues 477-663 can also mediate transactivation but not as strongly as the N-terminal region. The activity of the amino acid residues 1-52 was confirmed by experiments with fused constructs of MEF to the DNA binding-domain of the yeast GAL4 protein. These results, which determined the localization of the functional domains of MEF, will provide us with new clues to its transactivation mechanisms to regulate lysozyme gene expression in epithelial cells.

  11. Roles and regulations of the ETS transcription factor ELF4/MEF.

    PubMed

    Suico, Mary Ann; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2016-12-08

    Most E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. This is in part due to the roles of ETS transcription factors in basic biological processes such as growth, proliferation, and differentiation, and also because of their regulatory functions that have physiological relevance in tumorigenesis, immunity, and basal cellular homoeostasis. A member of the E74-like factor (ELF) subfamily of the ETS transcription factor family-myeloid elf-1-like factor (MEF), designated as ELF4-has been shown to be critically involved in immune response and signalling, osteogenesis, adipogenesis, cancer, and stem cell quiescence. ELF4 carries out these functions as a transcriptional activator or through interactions with its partner proteins. Mutations in ELF4 cause aberrant interactions and induce downstream processes that may lead to diseased cells. Knowing how ELF4 impinges on certain cellular processes and how it is regulated in the cells can lead to a better understanding of the physiological and pathological consequences of modulated ELF4 activity.

  12. Structure of the complete elongation complex of RNA polymerase II with basal factors.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Haruhiko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Shigematsu, Hideki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sekine, Shun-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of transcription, eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) exchanges initiation factors with elongation factors to form an elongation complex for processive transcription. Here we report the structure of the Pol II elongation complex bound with the basal elongation factors Spt4/5, Elf1, and TFIIS. Spt4/5 (the Spt4/Spt5 complex) and Elf1 modify a wide area of the Pol II surface. Elf1 bridges the Pol II central cleft, completing a "DNA entry tunnel" for downstream DNA. Spt4 and the Spt5 NGN and KOW1 domains encircle the upstream DNA, constituting a "DNA exit tunnel." The Spt5 KOW4 and KOW5 domains augment the "RNA exit tunnel," directing the exiting nascent RNA. Thus, the elongation complex establishes a completely different transcription and regulation platform from that of the initiation complexes. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Endoglin expression in the endothelium is regulated by Fli-1, Erg, and Elf-1 acting on the promoter and a -8-kb enhancer.

    PubMed

    Pimanda, John E; Chan, W Y Iris; Donaldson, Ian J; Bowen, Mark; Green, Anthony R; Göttgens, Berthold

    2006-06-15

    Angiogenesis is critical to the growth and regeneration of tissue but is also a key component of tumor growth and chronic inflammatory disorders. Endoglin plays a key role in angiogenesis by modulating cellular responses to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling and is upregulated in proliferating endothelial cells. To gain insights into the transcriptional hierarchies that govern endoglin expression, we used a combination of comparative genomic, biochemical, and transgenic approaches. Both the promoter and a region 8 kb upstream of exon 1 were active in transfection assays in endothelial cells. In transgenic mice, the promoter directed low-level expression to a subset of endothelial cells. By contrast, inclusion of the -8 enhancer resulted in robust endothelial activity with additional staining in developing ear mesenchyme. Subsequent molecular analysis demonstrated that both the -8 enhancer and the promoter depend on conserved Ets sites, which were bound in endothelial cells in vivo by Fli-1, Erg, and Elf-1. This study therefore establishes the transcriptional framework within which endoglin functions during angiogenesis.

  14. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  15. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Jeffrey A; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  16. [Genetic transcription in eukaryotes: from transcriptional factors to disease].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rocha, J C; Revol de Mendoza, A; Barrera Saldaña, H A

    1999-01-01

    The organisms' genetic information is stored as DNA sequences: the genes. The most important level of gene expression regulation is exerted at the transfer process of this information from the genes into messenger RNA molecules; this process is called transcription and is carried out by a molecular machinery conformed by hundreds of different proteins which are assembled in an ordered step way. These proteins or transcriptional factors are classified according to their mode of action in 4 groups: general transcriptional factors, activators, coactivators and repressors. There are diseases like. Aniridia, the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and Hodgkin's disease, in which some transcriptional factor have been involved and in some, the molecular cause i.e. the mutations responsible for the molecular dysfunction in a transcriptional factor has been elucidated. Understanding at the molecular level the transcription process will help to comprehend the relationship of it with the development and health of the organism.

  17. The scl +18/19 stem cell enhancer is not required for hematopoiesis: identification of a 5' bifunctional hematopoietic-endothelial enhancer bound by Fli-1 and Elf-1.

    PubMed

    Göttgens, Berthold; Broccardo, Cyril; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Deveaux, Sophie; Murphy, George; Göthert, Joachim R; Kotsopoulou, Ekaterini; Kinston, Sarah; Delaney, Liz; Piltz, Sandie; Barton, Linda M; Knezevic, Kathy; Erber, Wendy N; Begley, C Glenn; Frampton, Jonathan; Green, Anthony R

    2004-03-01

    Analysis of cis-regulatory elements is central to understanding the genomic program for development. The scl/tal-1 transcription factor is essential for lineage commitment to blood cell formation and previous studies identified an scl enhancer (the +18/19 element) which was sufficient to target the vast majority of hematopoietic stem cells, together with hematopoietic progenitors and endothelium. Moreover, expression of scl under control of the +18/19 enhancer rescued blood progenitor formation in scl(-/-) embryos. However, here we demonstrate by using a knockout approach that, within the endogenous scl locus, the +18/19 enhancer is not necessary for the initiation of scl transcription or for the formation of hematopoietic cells. These results led to the identification of a bifunctional 5' enhancer (-3.8 element), which targets expression to hematopoietic progenitors and endothelium, contains conserved critical Ets sites, and is bound by Ets family transcription factors, including Fli-1 and Elf-1. These data demonstrate that two geographically distinct but functionally related enhancers regulate scl transcription in hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial cells and suggest that enhancers with dual hematopoietic-endothelial activity may represent a general strategy for regulating blood and endothelial development.

  18. Targeting Transcription Factors in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Anand S.; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are commonly deregulated in the pathogenesis of human cancer and are a major class of cancer cell dependencies. Consequently, targeting of TFs can be highly effective in treating particular malignancies, as highlighted by the clinical efficacy of agents that target nuclear hormone receptors. In this review we discuss recent advances in our understanding of TFs as drug targets in oncology, with an emphasis on the emerging chemical approaches to modulate TF function. The remarkable diversity and potency of TFs as drivers of cell transformation justifies a continued pursuit of TFs as therapeutic targets for drug discovery. PMID:26645049

  19. Regulated assembly of transcription factors and control of transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Beckett, D

    2001-11-30

    Proteins that function in regulation of transcription initiation are typically homo or hetero-oligomeric. Results of recent biophysical studies of transcription regulators indicate that the assembly of these proteins is often subject to regulation. This regulation of assembly dictates the frequency of transcription initiation via its influence on the affinity of a transcription regulator for DNA and its affect on target site selection. Factors that modulate transcription factor assembly include binding of small molecules, post-translational modification, DNA binding and interactions with other proteins. Here, the results of recent structural and/or thermodynamic studies of a number of transcription regulators that are subject to regulated assembly are reviewed. The accumulated data indicate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous and that mechanisms utilized in eukaryotes and prokaryotes share common features. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. DBD: a transcription factor prediction database.

    PubMed

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2006-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression influences almost all biological processes in an organism; sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors are critical to this control. For most genomes, the repertoire of transcription factors is only partially known. Hitherto transcription factor identification has been largely based on genome annotation pipelines that use pairwise sequence comparisons, which detect only those factors similar to known genes, or on functional classification schemes that amalgamate many types of proteins into the category of 'transcription factor'. Using a novel transcription factor identification method, the DBD transcription factor database fills this void, providing genome-wide transcription factor predictions for organisms from across the tree of life. The prediction method behind DBD identifies sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors through homology using profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of domains. Thus, it is limited to factors that are homologus to those HMMs. The collection of HMMs is taken from two existing databases (Pfam and SUPERFAMILY), and is limited to models that exclusively detect transcription factors that specifically recognize DNA sequences. It does not include basal transcription factors or chromatin-associated proteins, for instance. Based on comparison with experimentally verified annotation, the prediction procedure is between 95% and 99% accurate. Between one quarter and one-half of our genome-wide predicted transcription factors represent previously uncharacterized proteins. The DBD (www.transcriptionfactor.org) consists of predicted transcription factor repertoires for 150 completely sequenced genomes, their domain assignments and the hand curated list of DNA-binding domain HMMs. Users can browse, search or download the predictions by genome, domain family or sequence identifier, view families of transcription factors based on domain architecture and receive predictions for a protein sequence.

  1. Transcriptional Regulation by Hypoxia Inducible Factors

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Joaquín M.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular response to oxygen deprivation is governed largely by a family of transcription factors known as Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs). This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which HIFs regulate the transcriptional apparatus to enable the cellular and organismal response to hypoxia. We discuss here how the various HIF polypeptides, their post-translational modifications, binding partners and transcriptional cofactors affect RNA polymerase II activity to drive context-dependent transcriptional programs during hypoxia. PMID:24099156

  2. Fox transcription factors: from development to disease.

    PubMed

    Golson, Maria L; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2016-12-15

    Forkhead box (Fox) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. They regulate diverse biological processes both during development and throughout adult life. Mutations in many Fox genes are associated with human disease and, as such, various animal models have been generated to study the function of these transcription factors in mechanistic detail. In many cases, the absence of even a single Fox transcription factor is lethal. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the Fox family, highlighting several key Fox transcription factor families that are important for mammalian development.

  3. Agouti regulates adipocyte transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, R L; Stephens, J M

    2001-04-01

    Agouti is a secreted paracrine factor that regulates pigmentation in hair follicle melanocytes. Several dominant mutations cause ectopic expression of agouti, resulting in a phenotype characterized by yellow fur, adult-onset obesity and diabetes, increased linear growth and skeletal mass, and increased susceptibility to tumors. Humans also produce agouti protein, but the highest levels of agouti in humans are found in adipose tissue. To mimic the human agouti expression pattern in mice, transgenic mice (aP2-agouti) that express agouti in adipose tissue were generated. The transgenic mice develop a mild form of obesity, and they are sensitized to the action of insulin. We correlated the levels of specific regulators of insulin signaling and adipocyte differentiation with these phenotypic changes in adipose tissue. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma protein levels were elevated in the transgenic mice. Treatment of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes recapitulated these effects. These data demonstrate that agouti has potent effects on adipose tissue. We hypothesize that agouti increases adiposity and promotes insulin sensitivity by acting directly on adipocytes via PPAR-gamma.

  4. Purification & Characterization of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nagore, LI; Nadeau, RJ; Guo, Q; Jadhav, YLA; Jarrett, HW; Haskins, WE

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are essential for the expression of all proteins, including those involved in human health and disease. However, TFs are resistant to proteomic characterization because they are frequently masked by more abundant proteins due to the limited dynamic range of capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and protein database searching. Purification methods, particularly strategies that exploit the high affinity of TFs for DNA response elements on gene promoters, can enrich TFs prior to proteomic analysis to improve dynamic range and penetrance of the TF proteome. For example, trapping of TF complexes specific for particular response elements has been achieved by recovering the element DNA-protein complex on solid supports. Additional methods for improving dynamic range include two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis incorporating electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Southwestern blotting for detection. Here we review methods for TF purification and characterization. We fully expect that future investigations will apply these and other methods to illuminate this important but challenging proteome. PMID:23832591

  5. Transcription factor pathways and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    McCulley, David J; Black, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout life. Mutations in numerous transcription factors have been identified in patients and families with some of the most common forms of cardiac malformations and arrhythmias. This review discusses transcription factor pathways known to be important for normal heart development and how abnormalities in these pathways have been linked to morphological and functional forms of congenital heart defects. A comprehensive, current list of known transcription factor mutations associated with congenital heart disease is provided, but the review focuses primarily on three key transcription factors, Nkx2-5, GATA4, and Tbx5, and their known biochemical and genetic partners. By understanding the interaction partners, transcriptional targets, and upstream activators of these core cardiac transcription factors, additional information about normal heart formation and further insight into genes and pathways affected in congenital heart disease should result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. INSIGHTS FROM GENOMIC PROFILING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    A crucial question in the field of gene regulation is whether the location at which a transcription factor binds influences its effectiveness or the mechanism by which it regulates transcription. Comprehensive transcription factor binding maps are needed to address these issues, and genome-wide mapping is now possible thanks to the technological advances of ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq. This review discusses how recent genomic profiling of transcription factors gives insight into how binding specificity is achieved and what features of chromatin influence the ability of transcription factors to interact with the genome, and also suggests future experiments to further our understanding of the causes and consequences of transcription factor-genome interactions. PMID:19668247

  7. Transcription factor IIS impacts UV-inhibited transcription.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anne; Mullenders, Leon H F

    2010-11-10

    Inhibition of transcription elongation can cause severe developmental and neurological abnormalities notably manifested by the rare recessive progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS). DNA alterations can cause permanent blocks to an elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) leading to transcriptional arrest. Abrogation of transcription arrest requires removal of transcription blocking lesions through transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) a process defective in CS. Transcription elongation factor IIS (TFIIS) has been found to localize with the TC-NER complex after cellular exposure to UV-C light and in vitro addition of TFIIS to a damage arrested RNAPII causes transcript shortening. Hence default TFIIS activity might mimic or contribute to the severe phenotype of Cockayne syndrome. Here we show that down regulation of TFIIS by siRNA treatment of human cells lead to impaired RNA synthesis recovery and elevated levels of hyper-phosphorylated RNAPII after UV-irradiation. TFIIS knock down does not affect TC-NER, the reappearance of hypo-phosphorylated RNAPII post-UV-irradiation, UV sensitivity or the p53 damage response. These findings reveal a role for TFIIS in transcription recovery and re-establishment of the balance between hypo- and hyper-phosphorylated RNAPII after DNA damage repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Scaling factors: transcription factors regulating subcellular domains.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jason C; Taghert, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Developing cells acquire mature fates in part by selective (i.e. qualitatively different) expression of a few cell-specific genes. However, all cells share the same basic repertoire of molecular and subcellular building blocks. Therefore, cells must also specialize according to quantitative differences in cell-specific distributions of those common molecular resources. Here we propose the novel hypothesis that evolutionarily-conserved transcription factors called scaling factors (SFs) regulate quantitative differences among mature cell types. SFs: (1) are induced during late stages of cell maturation; (2) are dedicated to specific subcellular domains; and, thus, (3) allow cells to emphasize specific subcellular features. We identify candidate SFs and discuss one in detail: MIST1 (BHLHA15, vertebrates)/DIMM (CG8667, Drosophila); professional secretory cells use this SF to scale up regulated secretion. Because cells use SFs to develop their mature properties and also to adapt them to ever-changing environmental conditions, SF aberrations likely contribute to diseases of adult onset.

  9. Patents on plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Arce, Agustin L; Cabello, Julieta V; Chan, Raquel L

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factors are clue elements in the regulation of signal transduction pathways in living organisms. These proteins are able to recognize and bind specific sequences in the promoter regions of their targets and subsequently activate or repress entire metabolic or developmental processes. About 1500 TFs were informatically identified in plants, analysis mainly based in the presence of DNA-binding domains in the translated sequences. However, only a few of these 1500 were functionally characterized and clearly classified as TFs. Among these, several seem to be powerful biotechnological tools in order to improve agronomic crops via the obtaining of transgenic plants or as molecular markers. Such TFs have become the objects of patents presentations in the whole world. The assigned uses present a variety of purposes including the improvement in yield, abiotic and biotic stresses tolerances as well as a combination of them. Some examples are commented in the present overview. Most of these TFs confer to transgenic plants complex phenotypes due to a combination of different regulated pathways. In this sense, the use of inducible promoters instead of constitutive ones seems in some cases to be useful to limit the changed phenotype to the desired one, avoiding lateral effects. None of these TFs was converted up to now in a market product since time-consuming experiments and regulation permits are required to arrive to such point. Moreover, a considerable money investment must be done, not justified in all cases. However, it is likely that these molecules will become in the near future the first choice for breeders since it was demonstrated that TFs are very efficient conferring desired traits to transgenic plants. Additionally, for the public perception the over or ectopic expression of a plant gene should be more accepted than the use of molecules from other species.

  10. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  11. Promoting elongation with transcript cleavage stimulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Fish, Rachel N; Kane, Caroline M

    2002-09-13

    Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase is a dynamic process, capable of responding to a number of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. A number of elongation factors have been identified that enhance the rate or efficiency of transcription. One such class of factors facilitates RNA polymerase transcription through blocks to elongation by stimulating the polymerase to cleave the nascent RNA transcript within the elongation complex. These cleavage factors are represented by the Gre factors from prokaryotes, and TFIIS and TFIIS-like factors found in archaea and eukaryotes. High-resolution structures of RNA polymerases and the cleavage factors in conjunction with biochemical investigations and genetic analyses have provided insights into the mechanism of action of these elongation factors. However, there are yet many unanswered questions regarding the regulation of these factors and their effects on target genes.

  12. Creating cellular diversity through transcription factor competition

    PubMed Central

    Göttgens, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    The development of blood cells has long served as a model system to study the generation of diverse mature cells from multipotent progenitors. The article by Org et al (2015) reveals how transcription factor competition on primed DNA templates may contribute to embryonic blood cell specification during the early stages of mesoderm development. The study not only provides new insights into the functionality of the key haematopoietic transcription factor Scl/Tal1, but also provides a potentially widely applicable framework for transcription factor-mediated cell fate specification. PMID:25680687

  13. High throughput assays for analyzing transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianqiang; Jiang, Xin; Yaoi, Takuro

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors are a group of proteins that modulate the expression of genes involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations in transcription factor function are associated with many human diseases, and therefore these proteins are attractive potential drug targets. A key issue in the development of such therapeutics is the generation of effective tools that can be used for high throughput discovery of the critical transcription factors involved in human diseases, and the measurement of their activities in a variety of disease or compound-treated samples. Here, a number of innovative arrays and 96-well format assays for profiling and measuring the activities of transcription factors will be discussed.

  14. Mediator as a general transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuichiro; Kornberg, Roger D

    2006-01-06

    Others have shown that yeast strains bearing a ts mutation in the Srb4 subunit of Mediator cease transcription of all mRNA at the restrictive temperature, in a manner virtually indistinguishable from a strain bearing a ts mutation in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. We find that srb4ts Mediator is defective for the stimulation of basal RNA polymerase II transcription at the restrictive temperature in vitro. Taken together, these findings lead to the suggestion that Mediator is required for basal RNA polymerase II transcription in vivo. On this basis, Mediator is identified as a general transcription factor, comparable in importance to RNA polymerase II and other general factors for the initiation of transcription. The possibility that Mediator serves as an anti-inhibitor, opposing the effects of global negative regulators, is largely excluded.

  15. Pax factors in transcription and epigenetic remodelling.

    PubMed

    Mayran, Alexandre; Pelletier, Audrey; Drouin, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    The nine Pax transcription factors that constitute the mammalian family of paired domain (PD) factors play key roles in many developmental processes. As DNA binding transcription factors, they exhibit tremendous variability and complexity in their DNA recognition patterns. This is ascribed to the presence of multiple DNA binding structural domains, namely helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains. The PD contains two HTH subdomains and four of the nine Pax factors have an additional HTH domain, the homeodomain (HD). We now review these diverse DNA binding modalities together with their properties as transcriptional activators and repressors. The action of Pax factors on gene expression is also exerted through recruitment of chromatin remodelling complexes that introduce either activating or repressive chromatin marks. Interestingly, the recent demonstration that Pax7 has pioneer activity, the unique property to "open" chromatin, further underlines the mechanistic versatility and the developmental importance of these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning, memory, and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Michael V; Alemi, Lily; Harum, Karen H

    2003-03-01

    Cognitive disorders in children have traditionally been described in terms of clinical phenotypes or syndromes, chromosomal lesions, metabolic disorders, or neuropathology. Relatively little is known about how these disorders affect the chemical reactions involved in learning and memory. Experiments in fruit flies, snails, and mice have revealed some highly conserved pathways that are involved in learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity, which is the primary substrate for memory storage. These can be divided into short-term memory storage through local changes in synapses, and long-term storage mediated by activation of transcription to translate new proteins that modify synaptic function. This review summarizes evidence that disruptions in these pathways are involved in human cognitive disorders, including neurofibromatosis type I, Coffin-Lowry syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis-2, Down syndrome, X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, cretinism, Huntington disease, and lead poisoning.

  17. Inducing goat pluripotent stem cells with four transcription factor mRNAs that activate endogenous promoters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zuo, Qisheng; Wang, Yingjie; Song, Jiuzhou; Yang, Huilin; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2017-02-13

    Traditional approaches for generating goat pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) suffer from complexity and low preparation efficiency. Therefore, we tried to derive goat iPSCs with a new method by transfecting exogenous Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into goat embryonic fibroblasts (GEFs), and explore the mechanisms regarding the transcription regulation of the reprogramming factors in goat iPSCs induction. mRNAs of the four reprogramming factors were transfected into GEFs, and were localized in nucleus with approximately 90% transfection efficiency. After five consecutive transfections, GEFs tended to aggregate by day 10. Clones appeared on day 15-18, and typical embryonic stem cell -like clones formed on day 20. One thousand AKP staining positive clones were achieved in 10(4) GEFs, with approximately 1.0% induction efficiency. Immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR detection of the ESCs markers confirmed the properties of the goat iPSCs. The achieved goat iPSCs could be cultured to 22nd passage, which showed normal karyotype. The goat iPSCs were able to differentiate into embryoid bodies with three germ layers. qRT-PCR and western blot showed activated endogenous pluripotent factors expression in the later phase of mRNA-induced goat iPSCs induction. Epigenetic analysis of the endogenous pluripotent gene Nanog revealed its demethylation status in derived goat iPSCs. Core promoter regions of the four reprogramming factors were determined. Transcription factor binding sites, including Elf-1, AP-2, SP1, C/EBP and MZF1, were identified to be functional in the core promoter regions of these reprogramming genes. Demethylation and deacetylation of the promoters enhanced their transcription activities. We successfully generated goat iPSCs by transfection of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc mRNAs into GEFs, which initiated the endogenous reprogramming network and altered the methylation status of pluripotent genes. Core promoter regions and functional transcription binding sites of

  18. Yeast TATA-box transcription factor gene.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M C; Kao, C C; Pei, R; Berk, A J

    1989-10-01

    The first step in the transcription of most protein-encoding genes in eukaryotes is the binding of a transcription factor to the TATA-box promoter element. This TATA-box transcription factor was purified from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using reconstitution of in vitro transcription reactions as an assay. The activity copurified with a protein whose sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel mobility is 25 kDa. The sequence of the amino-terminal 21 residues of this protein was determined by sequential Edman degradation. A yeast genomic library was screened with mixed oligonucleotides encoding six residues of the protein sequence. The yeast TATA-box factor gene was cloned, and DNA sequencing revealed a 720-base-pair open reading frame encoding a 27,016-Da protein. The identity of the clone was confirmed by expressing the gene in Escherichia coli and detecting TATA-box factor DNA binding and transcriptional activities in extracts of the recombinant E. coli. The TATA-box factor gene was mapped to chromosome five of S. cerevisiae. RNA blot hybridization and nuclease S1 analysis indicated that the major TATA-box factor mRNA is 1.3 kilobases, including an unusually long 5' untranslated region of 188 +/- 5 nucleotides. Homology searches showed a region of distant similarity to the calcium-binding structures of calpains, a structure that has a conformation similar to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA binding proteins.

  19. Pioneer transcription factors in cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2014-12-15

    A subset of eukaryotic transcription factors possesses the remarkable ability to reprogram one type of cell into another. The transcription factors that reprogram cell fate are invariably those that are crucial for the initial cell programming in embryonic development. To elicit cell programming or reprogramming, transcription factors must be able to engage genes that are developmentally silenced and inappropriate for expression in the original cell. Developmentally silenced genes are typically embedded in "closed" chromatin that is covered by nucleosomes and not hypersensitive to nuclease probes such as DNase I. Biochemical and genomic studies have shown that transcription factors with the highest reprogramming activity often have the special ability to engage their target sites on nucleosomal DNA, thus behaving as "pioneer factors" to initiate events in closed chromatin. Other reprogramming factors appear dependent on pioneer factors for engaging nucleosomes and closed chromatin. However, certain genomic domains in which nucleosomes are occluded by higher-order chromatin structures, such as in heterochromatin, are resistant to pioneer factor binding. Understanding the means by which pioneer factors can engage closed chromatin and how heterochromatin can prevent such binding promises to advance our ability to reprogram cell fates at will and is the topic of this review.

  20. Interactions of transcription factors with chromatin.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Harm

    2011-01-01

    Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in regulating transcription initiation by directing the recruitment and activity of the general transcription machinery and accessory factors. It is now well established that many of the effects exerted by TFs in eukaryotes are mediated through interactions with a host of coregulators that modify the chromatin state, resulting in a more open (in case of activation) or closed conformation (in case of repression). The relationship between TFs and chromatin is a two-way street, however, as chromatin can in turn influence the recognition and binding of target sequences by TFs. The aim of this chapter is to highlight how this dynamic interplay between TF-directed remodelling of chromatin and chromatin-adjusted targeting of TF binding determines where and how transcription is initiated, and to what degree it is productive.

  1. Transcription Factors in Xylem Development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sederoff, Ronald; Whetten, Ross; O'Malley, David; Campbell, Malcolm

    1999-07-01

    Answers to the following questions are answered in this report. do the two pine Byb proteins previously identified as candidate transcription factors bind to DNA and activate transcription? In what cell types are tehse Myb proteins expressed? Are these proteins localized to the nucleus? Do other proteins in pine xylem interact with these Myb proteins? Does altered expression of these genes have an impact on xylogenesis, specifically the expression of monolignol biosynthetic genes?

  2. Pioneer transcription factors in cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    A subset of eukaryotic transcription factors possesses the remarkable ability to reprogram one type of cell into another. The transcription factors that reprogram cell fate are invariably those that are crucial for the initial cell programming in embryonic development. To elicit cell programming or reprogramming, transcription factors must be able to engage genes that are developmentally silenced and inappropriate for expression in the original cell. Developmentally silenced genes are typically embedded in “closed” chromatin that is covered by nucleosomes and not hypersensitive to nuclease probes such as DNase I. Biochemical and genomic studies have shown that transcription factors with the highest reprogramming activity often have the special ability to engage their target sites on nucleosomal DNA, thus behaving as “pioneer factors” to initiate events in closed chromatin. Other reprogramming factors appear dependent on pioneer factors for engaging nucleosomes and closed chromatin. However, certain genomic domains in which nucleosomes are occluded by higher-order chromatin structures, such as in heterochromatin, are resistant to pioneer factor binding. Understanding the means by which pioneer factors can engage closed chromatin and how heterochromatin can prevent such binding promises to advance our ability to reprogram cell fates at will and is the topic of this review. PMID:25512556

  3. Transcription factors make a turn into migration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the brain depends on a tightly regulated process of proliferation, neuronal fate specification and migration which eventually leads to the final architecture of the cerebral cortex. The specification of different neuronal subtypes depends on a complex developmental program mastered by several transcription factors. Besides, it was shown that the same transcription factors can subsequently control neural migration. However, the mechanisms of this regulation are still unclear. Two papers recently published by Heng et al.1 and Nóbrega-Pereira et al.2 confirm that these transcription factors are involved in controlling neural migration. In addition, these studies show that these transcription factors can control neural migration via different molecular mechanisms: Heng and coworkers show that Neurogenin 2 controls neural migration by directly regulating the expression of the small GTPase Rnd2 (a modulator of cytoskeletal dynamics); whereas Nóbrega-Pereira and colleagues demonstrate that Nkx2-1 establishes the response to guidance cues, in migrating interneurons, by directly regulating the expression of the semaphorin receptor Neuropilin 2. Taken together, these findings support the idea that transcription factors are reused during development to control neural migration and they shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:19262164

  4. Onecut transcription factors in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, Peter A.; Gannon, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Developmental processes are remarkably well conserved among species, and among the most highly conserved developmental regulators are transcription factor families. The Onecut transcription factor family consists of three members known for their single “cut” DNA-binding domain and an aberrant homeodomain. The three members of the Onecut family are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and have significant roles in regulating the development of diverse tissues derived from the ectoderm or endoderm, where they activate a number of gene families. Of note, the genetic interaction between Onecut family members and Neurogenin genes appears to be essential in multiple tissues for proper specification and development of unique cell types. This review highlights the importance of the Onecut factors in cell fate specification and organogenesis, highlighting their role in vertebrates, and discusses their role in the maintenance of cell fate and prevention of disease. We cover the essential spatial and temporal control of Onecut factor expression and how this tight regulation is required for proper specification and subsequent terminal differentiation of multiple tissue types including those within the retina, central nervous system, liver and pancreas. Beyond development, Onecut factors perform necessary functions in mature cell types; their misregulation can contribute to diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Given the importance of this family of transcription factors in development and disease, their consideration in essential transcription factor networks is underappreciated. PMID:28018056

  5. Ultraviolet B Regulation of Transcription Factor Families

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, S.J.; Bowden, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged and repeated exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light (UV) leads not only to aging of the skin but also increases the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Damage of cells induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) light both at the DNA level and molecular level initiates the activation of transcription factor pathways, which in turn regulate the expression of a number of genes termed the “UV response genes”. Two such transcription factor families that are activated in this way are those of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) families. These two transcription factor families have been identified to be involved in the processes of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell survival and therefore play important roles in tumorigenesis. The study of these two transcription factor pathways and the cross-talk between them in response to UVB exposure may help with the development of new chemopreventive strategies for the prevention of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:17979627

  6. The transcription factor MEF/Elf4 is dually modulated by p53-MDM2 axis and MEF-MDM2 autoregulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Suico, Mary Ann; Fukuda, Ryosuke; Miyakita, Rui; Koyama, Kosuke; Taura, Manabu; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2014-09-19

    Myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF) or Elf4 is an ETS transcription factor that activates innate immunity-associated genes such as lysozyme (LYZ), human β-defensin 2 (HβD2), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in epithelial cells and is also known to influence cell cycle progression. MEF is transcriptionally activated by E2F1, but the E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation is inhibited by p53 through E2F1-p53 protein interaction. Although the transcriptional activation of MEF has been investigated in depth, its post-translational regulation is not well explored. By overexpressing MEF cDNA in human cell lines, here we show that MEF protein expression is suppressed by p53. By screening a number of E3 ligases regulated by p53, we found that MDM2 is involved in the effect of p53 on MEF. MDM2 is transcriptionally activated by p53 and interacts with MEF protein to enhance MEF degradation. MDM2 reduces MEF protein expression, as well as stability and function of MEF as transcriptional activator. Furthermore, MDM2 was able to down-regulate MEF in the absence of p53, indicating a p53-independent effect on MEF. Notably, MEF transcriptionally activates MDM2, which was previously demonstrated to be the mechanism by which MEF suppresses the p53 protein. These results reveal that in addition to the potential of MEF to down-regulate p53 by transcriptionally activating E3 ligase MDM2, MEF participates with MDM2 in a novel autoregulatory feedback loop to regulate itself. Taken together with the findings on the effect of p53 on MEF, these data provide evidence that the p53-MDM2-MEF axis is a feedback mechanism that exquisitely controls the balance of these transcriptional regulators.

  7. The Transcription Factor MEF/Elf4 Is Dually Modulated by p53-MDM2 Axis and MEF-MDM2 Autoregulatory Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Suico, Mary Ann; Fukuda, Ryosuke; Miyakita, Rui; Koyama, Kosuke; Taura, Manabu; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid Elf-1-like factor (MEF) or Elf4 is an ETS transcription factor that activates innate immunity-associated genes such as lysozyme (LYZ), human β-defensin 2 (HβD2), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in epithelial cells and is also known to influence cell cycle progression. MEF is transcriptionally activated by E2F1, but the E2F1-mediated transcriptional activation is inhibited by p53 through E2F1-p53 protein interaction. Although the transcriptional activation of MEF has been investigated in depth, its post-translational regulation is not well explored. By overexpressing MEF cDNA in human cell lines, here we show that MEF protein expression is suppressed by p53. By screening a number of E3 ligases regulated by p53, we found that MDM2 is involved in the effect of p53 on MEF. MDM2 is transcriptionally activated by p53 and interacts with MEF protein to enhance MEF degradation. MDM2 reduces MEF protein expression, as well as stability and function of MEF as transcriptional activator. Furthermore, MDM2 was able to down-regulate MEF in the absence of p53, indicating a p53-independent effect on MEF. Notably, MEF transcriptionally activates MDM2, which was previously demonstrated to be the mechanism by which MEF suppresses the p53 protein. These results reveal that in addition to the potential of MEF to down-regulate p53 by transcriptionally activating E3 ligase MDM2, MEF participates with MDM2 in a novel autoregulatory feedback loop to regulate itself. Taken together with the findings on the effect of p53 on MEF, these data provide evidence that the p53-MDM2-MEF axis is a feedback mechanism that exquisitely controls the balance of these transcriptional regulators. PMID:25081543

  8. Hey bHLH transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Weber, David; Wiese, Cornelia; Gessler, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Hey bHLH transcription factors are direct targets of canonical Notch signaling. The three mammalian Hey proteins are closely related to Hes proteins and they primarily repress target genes by either directly binding to core promoters or by inhibiting other transcriptional activators. Individual candidate gene approaches and systematic screens identified a number of Hey target genes, which often encode other transcription factors involved in various developmental processes. Here, we review data on interaction partners and target genes and conclude with a model for Hey target gene regulation. Furthermore, we discuss how expression of Hey proteins affects processes like cell fate decisions and differentiation, e.g., in cardiovascular, skeletal, and neural development or oncogenesis and how this relates to the observed developmental defects and phenotypes observed in various knockout mice.

  9. The LIM Homeodomain Transcription Factor LHX6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zichao; Gutierrez, Diana; Li, Xiao; Bidlack, Felicitas; Cao, Huojun; Wang, Jianbo; Andrade, Kelsey; Margolis, Henry C.; Amendt, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    LHX6 is a LIM-homeobox transcription factor expressed during embryogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating LHX6 transcriptional activities are unknown. LHX6 and the PITX2 homeodomain transcription factor have overlapping expression patterns during tooth and craniofacial development, and in this report, we demonstrate new transcriptional mechanisms for these factors. PITX2 and LHX6 are co-expressed in the oral and dental epithelium and epithelial cell lines. Lhx6 expression is increased in Pitx2c transgenic mice and decreased in Pitx2 null mice. PITX2 activates endogenous Lhx6 expression and the Lhx6 promoter, whereas LHX6 represses its promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal endogenous PITX2 binding to the Lhx6 promoter. LHX6 directly interacts with PITX2 to inhibit PITX2 transcriptional activities and activation of multiple promoters. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays reveal an LHX6·PITX2 nuclear interaction in living cells. LHX6 has a dominant repressive effect on the PITX2 synergistic activation with LEF-1 and β-catenin co-factors. Thus, LHX6 acts as a transcriptional repressor and represses the expression of several genes involved in odontogenesis. We have identified specific defects in incisor, molar, mandible, bone, and root development and late stage enamel formation in Lhx6 null mice. Amelogenin and ameloblastin expression is reduced and/or delayed in the Lhx6 null mice, potentially resulting from defects in dentin deposition and ameloblast differentiation. Our results demonstrate that LHX6 regulates cell proliferation in the cervical loop and promotes cell differentiation in the anterior region of the incisor. We demonstrate new molecular mechanisms for LHX6 and an interaction with PITX2 for normal craniofacial and tooth development. PMID:23229549

  10. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-01-01

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)). PMID:26529010

  11. TCP transcription factors: architectures of plant form.

    PubMed

    Manassero, Nora G Uberti; Viola, Ivana L; Welchen, Elina; Gonzalez, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    After its initial definition in 1999, the TCP family of transcription factors has become the focus of a multiplicity of studies related with plant development at the cellular, organ, and tissue levels. Evidence has accumulated indicating that TCP transcription factors are the main regulators of plant form and architecture and constitute a tool through which evolution shapes plant diversity. The TCP transcription factors act in a multiplicity of pathways related with cell proliferation and hormone responses. In recent years, the molecular pathways of TCP protein action and biochemical studies on their mode of interaction with DNA have begun to shed light on their mechanism of action. However, the available information is fragmented and a unifying view of TCP protein action is lacking, as well as detailed structural studies of the TCP-DNA complex. Also important, the possible role of TCP proteins as integrators of plant developmental responses to the environment has deserved little attention. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the structure and functions of TCP transcription factors and analyze future perspectives for the study of the role of these proteins and their use to modify plant development.

  12. GOLDEN 2-LIKE Transcription Factors of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Ji, Meiling; Wen, Binbin; Liu, Li; Li, Shaoxuan; Chen, Xiude; Gao, Dongsheng; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are members of the GARP family of Myb transcription factors with an established relationship to chloroplast development in the plant kingdom. In the last century, Golden2 was proposed as a second golden producing factor and identified as controlling cellular differentiation in maize leaves. Then, GLKs were also found to play roles in disease defense and their function is conserved in regulating chloroplast development. Recently, research on GLKs has rapidly increased and shown that GLKs control chloroplast development in green and non-green tissues. Moreover, links between phytohormones and GLKs were verified. In this mini-review, we summarize the history, conservation, function, potential targets and degradation of GLKs. PMID:27757121

  13. The world according to GARP transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Safi, Alaeddine; Medici, Anna; Szponarski, Wojciech; Ruffel, Sandrine; Lacombe, Benoît; Krouk, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners. We conclude that the GARP family may hold keys to understand the interactions between nutritional signaling pathways (nitrogen and phosphate at least) and development. Understanding how plant nutrition and development are coordinated is central to understand how to adapt plants to an ever-changing environment. Consequently GARPs are likely to attract increasing research attentions, as they are likely at the crossroads of these fundamental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of transcription factors by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, Shishir; Singh, Tulika; Chaturvedi, Madan M

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric that has been consumed as a dietary spice for ages. Turmeric is widely used in traditional Indian medicine to cure biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. Extensive investigation over the last five decades has indicated that curcumin reduces blood cholesterol, prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation, inhibits platelet aggregation, suppresses thrombosis and myocardial infarction, suppresses symptoms associated with type II diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease, inhibits HIV replication, enhances wound healing, protects from liver injury, increases bile secretion, protects from cataract formation, and protects from pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis. Evidence indicates that the divergent effects of curcumin are dependent on its pleiotropic molecular effects. These include the regulation of signal transduction pathways and direct modulation of several enzymatic activities. Most of these signaling cascades lead to the activation of transcription factors. Curcumin has been found to modulate the activity of several key transcription factors and, in turn, the cellular expression profiles. Curcumin has been shown to elicit vital cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation by activating a cascade of molecular events. In this chapter, we briefly review the effects of curcumin on transcription factors NF-KB, AP-1, Egr-1, STATs, PPAR-gamma, beta-catenin, nrf2, EpRE, p53, CBP, and androgen receptor (AR) and AR-related cofactors giving major emphasis to the molecular mechanisms of its action.

  15. Systematic genetic analysis of transcription factors to map the fission yeast transcription-regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Chua, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Mapping transcriptional-regulatory networks requires the identification of target genes, binding specificities and signalling pathways of transcription factors. However, the characterization of each transcription factor sufficiently for deciphering such networks remains laborious. The recent availability of overexpression and deletion strains for almost all of the transcription factor genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides a valuable resource to better investigate transcription factors using systematic genetics. In the present paper, I review and discuss the utility of these strain collections combined with transcriptome profiling and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify the target genes of transcription factors.

  16. Predicting tissue specific transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of gene regulation often utilize genome-wide predictions of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Most existing prediction methods are based on sequence information alone, ignoring biological contexts such as developmental stages and tissue types. Experimental methods to study in vivo binding, including ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, can only study one transcription factor in a single cell type and under a specific condition in each experiment, and therefore cannot scale to determine the full set of regulatory interactions in mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks. Results We developed a new computational approach, PIPES, for predicting tissue-specific TF binding. PIPES integrates in vitro protein binding microarrays (PBMs), sequence conservation and tissue-specific epigenetic (DNase I hypersensitivity) information. We demonstrate that PIPES improves over existing methods on distinguishing between in vivo bound and unbound sequences using ChIP-seq data for 11 mouse TFs. In addition, our predictions are in good agreement with current knowledge of tissue-specific TF regulation. Conclusions We provide a systematic map of computationally predicted tissue-specific binding targets for 284 mouse TFs across 55 tissue/cell types. Such comprehensive resource is useful for researchers studying gene regulation. PMID:24238150

  17. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Munro, James B.; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Cruz, Josefa; Lee, Iris W.; Heraty, John M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) genes encode a family of transcription factors defined by a ‘winged helix’ DNA-binding domain. In this study we aimed to identify Fox factors that are expressed within the fat body of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, and determine whether any of these are involved in the regulation of mosquito yolk protein gene expression. The Ae. aegypti genome contains eighteen loci that encode putative Fox factors. Our stringent cladistic analysis has profound implications for the use of Fox genes as phylogenetic markers. Twelve Ae. aegypti Fox genes are expressed within various tissues of adult females, six of which are expressed within the fat body. All six Fox genes expressed in the fat body displayed dynamic expression profiles following a blood meal. We knocked down the ’fat body Foxes’ through RNAi to determine whether these “knockdowns” hindered amino acid-induced vitellogenin gene expression. We also determined the effect of these knockdowns on the number of eggs deposited following a blood meal. Knockdown of FoxN1, FoxN2, FoxL, and FoxO, had a negative effect on amino acid- induced vitellogenin gene expression and resulted in significantly fewer eggs laid. Our analysis stresses the importance of Fox transcription factors in regulating mosquito reproduction. PMID:17681238

  18. PAX transcription factors in neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2015-08-01

    The nine vertebrate PAX transcription factors (PAX1-PAX9) play essential roles during early development and organogenesis. Pax genes were identified in vertebrates using their homology with the Drosophila melanogaster paired gene DNA-binding domain. PAX1-9 functions are largely conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, in particular during central nervous system and neural crest development. The neural crest is a vertebrate invention, which gives rise to numerous derivatives during organogenesis, including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton and mesenchyme, the heart outflow tract, endocrine and pigment cells. Human and mouse spontaneous mutations as well as experimental analyses have evidenced the critical and diverse functions of PAX factors during neural crest development. Recent studies have highlighted the role of PAX3 and PAX7 in neural crest induction. Additionally, several PAX proteins - PAX1, 3, 7, 9 - regulate cell proliferation, migration and determination in multiple neural crest-derived lineages, such as cardiac, sensory, and enteric neural crest, pigment cells, glia, craniofacial skeleton and teeth, or in organs developing in close relationship with the neural crest such as the thymus and parathyroids. The diverse PAX molecular functions during neural crest formation rely on fine-tuned modulations of their transcriptional transactivation properties. These modulations are generated by multiple means, such as different roles for the various isoforms (formed by alternative splicing), or posttranslational modifications which alter protein-DNA binding, or carefully orchestrated protein-protein interactions with various co-factors which control PAX proteins activity. Understanding these regulations is the key to decipher the versatile roles of PAX transcription factors in neural crest development, differentiation and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutations in the nucleolar phosphoprotein, nucleophosmin, promote the expression of the oncogenic transcription factor MEF/ELF4 in leukemia cells and potentiates transformation.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji; Tsushima, Hideki; Matsuo, Emi; Horio, Kensuke; Tominaga-Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Iwanaga, Masako; Itonaga, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Hata, Tomoko; Moriuchi, Ryozo; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Nimer, Stephen; Mano, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Tomoki; Tomonaga, Masao; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2013-03-29

    Myeloid ELF1-like factor (MEF/ELF4), a member of the ETS transcription factors, can function as an oncogene in murine cancer models and is overexpressed in various human cancers. Here, we report a mechanism by which MEF/ELF4 may be activated by a common leukemia-associated mutation in the nucleophosmin gene. By using a tandem affinity purification assay, we found that MEF/ELF4 interacts with multifactorial protein nucleophosmin (NPM1). Coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down experiments demonstrated that MEF/ELF4 directly forms a complex with NPM1 and also identified the region of NPM1 that is responsible for this interaction. Functional analyses showed that wild-type NPM1 inhibited the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of MEF/ELF4 on the HDM2 promoter, whereas NPM1 mutant protein (Mt-NPM1) enhanced these activities of MEF/ELF4. Induction of Mt-NPM1 into MEF/ELF4-overexpressing NIH3T3 cells facilitated malignant transformation. In addition, clinical leukemia samples with NPM1 mutations had higher human MDM2 (HDM2) mRNA expression. Our data suggest that enhanced HDM2 expression induced by mutant NPM1 may have a role in MEF/ELF4-dependent leukemogenesis.

  20. HIF Transcription Factors, Inflammation, and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors that play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:25367569

  1. HIF transcription factors, inflammation, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda W; Nizet, Victor; Johnson, Randall S

    2014-10-16

    The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors; these play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity.

  2. Transcription factor regulation by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Melissa G; Janmey, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    New technologies and interest in cell mechanics are generating exciting new discoveries about how material properties and forces affect biological structure and function. Mechanical forces are transduced via a variety of mechanisms, recently beginning to be revealed, into signals capable of altering cell function and structure. Responses to physical stimuli occur at multiple levels, from changes in the structures of single proteins to global cascades capable of altering cell proliferation and differentiation. This review describes recent findings in which physical stimuli were shown to modulate transcription factor activity, including that of armadillo/β-catenin, serum response factor (SRF), yes-associated protein (YAP) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The evolution of WRKY transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Roel C; Tripathi, Prateek; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-02-27

    The availability of increasing numbers of sequenced genomes has necessitated a re-evaluation of the evolution of the WRKY transcription factor family. Modern day plants descended from a charophyte green alga that colonized the land between 430 and 470 million years ago. The first charophyte genome sequence from Klebsormidium flaccidum filled a gap in the available genome sequences in the plant kingdom between unicellular green algae that typically have 1-3 WRKY genes and mosses that contain 30-40. WRKY genes have been previously found in non-plant species but their occurrence has been difficult to explain. Only two WRKY genes are present in the Klebsormidium flaccidum genome and the presence of a Group IIb gene was unexpected because it had previously been thought that Group IIb WRKY genes first appeared in mosses. We found WRKY transcription factor genes outside of the plant lineage in some diplomonads, social amoebae, fungi incertae sedis, and amoebozoa. This patchy distribution suggests that lateral gene transfer is responsible. These lateral gene transfer events appear to pre-date the formation of the WRKY groups in flowering plants. Flowering plants contain proteins with domains typical for both resistance (R) proteins and WRKY transcription factors. R protein-WRKY genes have evolved numerous times in flowering plants, each type being restricted to specific flowering plant lineages. These chimeric proteins contain not only novel combinations of protein domains but also novel combinations and numbers of WRKY domains. Once formed, R protein WRKY genes may combine different components of signalling pathways that may either create new diversity in signalling or accelerate signalling by short circuiting signalling pathways. We propose that the evolution of WRKY transcription factors includes early lateral gene transfers to non-plant organisms and the occurrence of algal WRKY genes that have no counterparts in flowering plants. We propose two alternative hypotheses

  4. Matrix Factorization for Transcriptional Regulatory Network Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Michael F.; Fertig, Elana J.

    2013-01-01

    Inference of Transcriptional Regulatory Networks (TRNs) provides insight into the mechanisms driving biological systems, especially mammalian development and disease. Many techniques have been developed for TRN estimation from indirect biochemical measurements. Although successful when initially tested in model organisms, these regulatory models often fail when applied to data from multicellular organisms where multiple regulation and gene reuse increase dramatically. Non-negative matrix factorization techniques were initially introduced to find non-orthogonal patterns in data, making them ideal techniques for inference in cases of multiple regulation. We review these techniques and their application to TRN analysis. PMID:25364782

  5. Genetic analysis of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA.

    PubMed

    Bumbulis, M J; Wroblewski, G; McKean, D; Setzer, D R

    1998-12-18

    We describe a method for the genetic analysis of the DNA-binding properties of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). In this approach, a transcriptional activator with the DNA-binding specificity of Xenopus TFIIIA is expressed in yeast cells, where it specifically activates expression of a beta-galactosidase reporter gene containing one or more Xenopus 5 S rRNA genes that function as upstream activator sequences. This transcription-promoting activity was used as the basis for a genetic assay of Xenopus TFIIIA's DNA-binding function in yeast, an assay that we show can be calibrated quantitatively to allow the affinity of the Xenopus TFIIIA-5 S rRNA gene interaction to be deduced from measurements of beta-galactosidase activity. We have combined this genetic assay with a simple and efficient method of mutagenesis that makes use of error-prone PCR and homologous recombination to generate and screen large numbers of TFIIIA mutants for those with altered 5 S rRNA gene-binding affinity. Over 30 such mutants have been identified and partially characterized. The mutants we have obtained provide strong support for the application to intact TFIIIA of recent structural models of the N-terminal zinc fingers of the protein bound to fragments of the 5 S rRNA gene. Other mutants permit identification of important residues in more C-terminal zinc fingers of TFIIIA for which high-resolution structural information is not currently available. Finally, our results have interesting implications with respect to the mechanism of activation of transcription by RNA polymerase II in yeast. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  6. Fatty Acid–Regulated Transcription Factors in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Depner, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription was first reported in the early 1990s. Several transcription factors have been identified as targets of fatty acid regulation. This regulation is achieved by direct fatty acid binding to the transcription factor or by indirect mechanisms where fatty acids regulate signaling pathways controlling the expression of transcription factors or the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, or proteolytic cleavage of the transcription factor. Although dietary fatty acids are well-established regulators of hepatic transcription factors, emerging evidence indicates that endogenously generated fatty acids are equally important in controlling transcription factors in the context of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Our first goal in this review is to provide an up-to-date examination of the molecular and metabolic bases of fatty acid regulation of key transcription factors controlling hepatic metabolism. Our second goal is to link these mechanisms to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a growing health concern in the obese population. PMID:23528177

  7. Transcription factor repertoire of homeostatic eosinophilopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bouffi, Carine; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Schollaert, Kaila L.; Chen, Xiaoting; Bacon, W. Clark; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Barski, Artem; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The production of mature eosinophils is a tightly orchestrated process with the aim to sustain normal eosinophil levels in tissues while also maintaining low numbers of these complex and sensitive cells in the blood. To identify regulators of homeostatic eosinophilopoiesis in mice, we took a global approach to identify genome-wide transcriptome and epigenome changes that occur during homeostasis at critical developmental stages, including eosinophil-lineage commitment and lineage maturation. Our analyses revealed a markedly greater number of transcriptome alterations associated with eosinophil maturation (1199 genes) than with eosinophil-lineage commitment (490 genes), highlighting the greater transcriptional investment necessary for differentiation. Eosinophil progenitors (EoPs) were noted to express high levels of granule proteins and contain granules with an ultrastructure distinct from that of mature resting eosinophils. Our analyses also delineated a 976-gene eosinophil-lineage transcriptome that included a repertoire of 56 transcription factors, many of which have never previously been associated with eosinophils. EoPs and eosinophils, but not granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) or neutrophils, expressed Helios and Aiolos, members of the Ikaros family of transcription factors, which regulate gene expression via modulation of chromatin structure and DNA accessibility. Epigenetic studies revealed a distinct distribution of active chromatin marks between genes induced with lineage commitment and genes induced with cell maturation during eosinophil development. In addition, Aiolos and Helios binding sites were significantly enriched in genes expressed by EoPs and eosinophils with active chromatin, highlighting a potential novel role for Helios and Aiolos in regulating gene expression during eosinophil development. PMID:26268651

  8. Differences in Transcriptional Activity of Human Papillomavirus Type 6 Molecular Variants in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Measso do Bonfim, Caroline; Simão Sobrinho, João; Lacerda Nogueira, Rodrigo; Salgado Kupper, Daniel; Cardoso Pereira Valera, Fabiana; Lacerda Nogueira, Maurício; Villa, Luisa Lina; Rahal, Paula; Sichero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is caused by human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6). The long control region (LCR) contains cis-elements for regulation of transcription. Our aim was to characterize LCR HPV-6 variants in RRP cases, compare promoter activity of these isolates and search for cellular transcription factors (TFs) that could explain the differences observed. The complete LCR from 13 RRP was analyzed. Transcriptional activity of 5 variants was compared using luciferase assays. Differences in putative TFs binding sites among variants were revealed using the TRANSFAC database. Chromatin immunoprecipation (CHIP) and luciferase assays were used to evaluate TF binding and impact upon transcription, respectively. Juvenile-onset RRP cases harbored exclusively HPV-6vc related variants, whereas among adult-onset cases HPV-6a variants were more prevalent. The HPV-6vc reference was more transcriptionally active than the HPV-6a reference. Active FOXA1, ELF1 and GATA1 binding sites overlap variable nucleotide positions among isolates and influenced LCR activity. Furthermore, our results support a crucial role for ELF1 on transcriptional downregulation. We identified TFs implicated in the regulation of HPV-6 early gene expression. Many of these factors are mutated in cancer or are putative cancer biomarkers, and must be further studied. PMID:26151558

  9. Transcription factor binding energy vs. biological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, M.; Grotewold, E.

    2007-03-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that bind to DNA and regulate expression of genes. Identification of transcription factor binding sites within the regulatory segments of genomic DNA is an important step towards understanding of gene regulatory networks. Recent theoretical advances that we developed [1,2], allow us to infer TF-DNA interaction parameters from in-vitro selection experiments [3]. We use more than 6000 binding sequences [3], assembled under controlled conditions, to obtain protein-DNA interaction parameters for a mammalian TF with up to now unprecedented accuracy. Can one accurately identify biologically functional TF binding sites (i.e. the binding sites that regulate gene expression), even with the best possible protein-DNA interaction parameters? To address this issue we i) compare our prediction of protein binding with gene expression data, ii) use evolutionary comparison between related mammalian genomes. Our results strongly suggest that in a genome there exists a large number of randomly occurring high energy binding sites that are not biologically functional. [1] M Djordjevic, submitted to Biomol. Eng. [2] M. Djordjevic and A. M. Sengupta, Phys. Biol. 3: 13, 2006. [3] E. Roulet et al., Nature Biotech. 20: 831, 2002.

  10. From tissue mechanics to transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Janmey, Paul A; Wells, Rebecca G; Assoian, Richard K; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2013-10-01

    Changes in tissue stiffness are frequently associated with diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. Several recent studies suggest that, in addition to resulting from pathology, mechanical changes may play a role akin to soluble factors in causing the progression of disease, and similar mechanical control might be essential for normal tissue development and homeostasis. Many cell types alter their structure and function in response to exogenous forces or as a function of the mechanical properties of the materials to which they adhere. This review summarizes recent progress in identifying intracellular signaling pathways, and especially transcriptional programs, that are differentially activated when cells adhere to materials with different mechanical properties or when they are subject to tension arising from external forces. Several cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal signaling pathways involving small GTPases, focal adhesion kinase and transforming growth factor beta as well as the transcriptional regulators MRTF-A, NFκB, and Yap/Taz have emerged as important mediators of mechanical signaling. © 2013 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial nucleoid and transcription factor A.

    PubMed

    Kanki, Tomotake; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Narie; Takio, Koji; Alam, Tanfis Istiaq; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kang, Dongchon

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear DNA is tightly packed into nucleosomal structure. In contrast, human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) had long been believed to be rather naked because mitochondria lack histone. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of a high mobility group (HMG) protein family and a first-identified mitochondrial transcription factor, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Abf2, a yeast counterpart of human TFAM, is abundant enough to cover the whole region of mtDNA and to play a histone-like role in mitochondria. Human TFAM is indeed as abundant as Abf2, suggesting that TFAM also has a histone-like architectural role for maintenance of mtDNA. When human mitochondria are solubilized with non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 and then separated into soluble and particulate fractions, most TFAM is recovered from the particulate fraction together with mtDNA, suggesting that human mtDNA forms a nucleoid structure. TFAM is tightly associated with mtDNA as a main component of the nucleoid.

  12. From tissue mechanics to transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Janmey, Paul A.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Assoian, Richard K.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in tissue stiffness are frequently associated with diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and atherosclerosis. Several recent studies suggest that, in addition to resulting from pathology, mechanical changes may play a role akin to soluble factors in causing the progression of disease, and similar mechanical control might be essential for normal tissue development and homeostasis. Many cell types alter their structure and function in response to exogenous forces or as a function of the mechanical properties of the materials to which they adhere. This review summarizes recent progress in identifying intracellular signaling pathways, and especially transcriptional programs, that are differentially activated when cells adhere to materials with different mechanical properties or when they are subject to tension arising from external forces. Several cytoplasmic or cytoskeletal signaling pathways involving small GTPases, focal adhesion kinase and transforming growth factor beta as well as the transcriptional regulators MRTF-A, NFκB, and Yap/Taz have emerged as important mediators of mechanical signaling. PMID:23969122

  13. Pleiotropic Functions for Transcription Factor Zscan10

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Petra; V, Sivakamasundari; Yu, Hong Bing; Xing, Xing; Lim, Siew Lan; Adler, Thure; Pimentel, Juan Antonio Aguilar; Becker, Lore; Bohla, Alexander; Garrett, Lillian; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.; Janas, Eva; Moreth, Kristin; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Busch, Dirk H.; Graw, Jochen; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Neff, Frauke; Ollert, Markus; Stoeger, Tobias; Yildrim, Ali Önder; Eickelberg, Oliver; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Lufkin, Thomas; Stanton, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Zscan10 had been attributed a role as a pluripotency factor in embryonic stem cells based on its interaction with Oct4 and Sox2 in in vitro assays. Here we suggest a potential role of Zscan10 in controlling progenitor cell populations in vivo. Mice homozygous for a Zscan10 mutation exhibit reduced weight, mild hypoplasia in the spleen, heart and long bones and phenocopy an eye malformation previously described for Sox2 hypomorphs. Phenotypic abnormalities are supported by the nature of Zscan10 expression in midgestation embryos and adults suggesting a role for Zscan10 in either maintaining progenitor cell subpopulation or impacting on fate choice decisions thereof. PMID:25111779

  14. Myeloid zinc finger (MZF)-like, Kruppel-like and Ets families of transcription factors determine the cell-specific expression of mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Zelko, Igor N; Folz, Rodney J

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD or SOD3) is an important protective enzyme against the toxicity of superoxide radicals that are produced under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. We have isolated and characterized over 11 kb of the mouse EC-SOD gene and its 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. The gene consists of two exons, with the entire coding region located within exon 2. In order to study the mechanism of cell-specific gene regulation for mouse EC-SOD, we characterized 2500 bp of its 5'-flanking region using cultured cells derived from mouse lung fibroblasts (MLg), kidney medulla (mIMCD3) and hepatocytes (Hepa 1-6). Real-time PCR showed that basal expression of EC-SOD was considerably higher in MLg cells compared with the other cell types. Reporter-gene assays revealed that the proximal promoter region was sufficient to support this high expression in MLg cells. Although no obvious TATA box was identified, our results show that a highly purine-rich region from -208 to +104 contains active binding sites for both the Kruppel-like and Ets families of transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNase footprinting and reporter gene assays, we identified myeloid zinc finger 1 and gut-enriched Kruppel-like-factor-like nuclear transcription factors as repressors of EC-SOD expression, whereas nuclear transcription factors from the Ets family, such as Elf-1 and GA-binding protein alpha and beta, were potent activators of EC-SOD transcription. We propose a model that highlights competition between Ets activators and Kruppel-like repressors within the proximal promoter region that determines the level of EC-SOD expression in a particular cell type. PMID:12374566

  15. Nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites exert interdependent effects on the binding affinities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulyk, Martha L.; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Church, George M.

    2002-01-01

    We can determine the effects of many possible sequence variations in transcription factor binding sites using microarray binding experiments. Analysis of wild-type and mutant Zif268 (Egr1) zinc fingers bound to microarrays containing all possible central 3 bp triplet binding sites indicates that the nucleotides of transcription factor binding sites cannot be treated independently. This indicates that the current practice of characterizing transcription factor binding sites by mutating individual positions of binding sites one base pair at a time does not provide a true picture of the sequence specificity. Similarly, current bioinformatic practices using either just a consensus sequence, or even mononucleotide frequency weight matrices to provide more complete descriptions of transcription factor binding sites, are not accurate in depicting the true binding site specificities, since these methods rely upon the assumption that the nucleotides of binding sites exert independent effects on binding affinity. Our results stress the importance of complete reference tables of all possible binding sites for comparing protein binding preferences for various DNA sequences. We also show results suggesting that microarray binding data using particular subsets of all possible binding sites can be used to extrapolate the relative binding affinities of all possible full-length binding sites, given a known binding site for use as a starting sequence for site preference refinement. PMID:11861919

  16. Functional specialization of transcription elongation factors

    PubMed Central

    Belogurov, Georgiy A; Mooney, Rachel A; Svetlov, Vladimir; Landick, Robert; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Elongation factors NusG and RfaH evolved from a common ancestor and utilize the same binding site on RNA polymerase (RNAP) to modulate transcription. However, although NusG associates with RNAP transcribing most Escherichia coli genes, RfaH regulates just a few operons containing ops, a DNA sequence that mediates RfaH recruitment. Here, we describe the mechanism by which this specificity is maintained. We observe that RfaH action is indeed restricted to those several operons that are devoid of NusG in vivo. We also show that RfaH and NusG compete for their effects on transcript elongation and termination in vitro. Our data argue that RfaH recognizes its DNA target even in the presence of NusG. Once recruited, RfaH remains stably associated with RNAP, thereby precluding NusG binding. We envision a pathway by which a specialized regulator has evolved in the background of its ubiquitous paralogue. We propose that RfaH and NusG may have opposite regulatory functions: although NusG appears to function in concert with Rho, RfaH inhibits Rho action and activates the expression of poorly translated, frequently foreign genes. PMID:19096362

  17. DNA residence time is a regulatory factor of transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Clauß, Karen; Popp, Achim P; Schulze, Lena; Hettich, Johannes; Reisser, Matthias; Escoter Torres, Laura; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Gebhardt, J Christof M

    2017-08-21

    Transcription comprises a highly regulated sequence of intrinsically stochastic processes, resulting in bursts of transcription intermitted by quiescence. In transcription activation or repression, a transcription factor binds dynamically to DNA, with a residence time unique to each factor. Whether the DNA residence time is important in the transcription process is unclear. Here, we designed a series of transcription repressors differing in their DNA residence time by utilizing the modular DNA binding domain of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and varying the number of nucleotide-recognizing repeat domains. We characterized the DNA residence times of our repressors in living cells using single molecule tracking. The residence times depended non-linearly on the number of repeat domains and differed by more than a factor of six. The factors provoked a residence time-dependent decrease in transcript level of the glucocorticoid receptor-activated gene SGK1. Down regulation of transcription was due to a lower burst frequency in the presence of long binding repressors and is in accordance with a model of competitive inhibition of endogenous activator binding. Our single molecule experiments reveal transcription factor DNA residence time as a regulatory factor controlling transcription repression and establish TALE-DNA binding domains as tools for the temporal dissection of transcription regulation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Transcriptional interference by RNA polymerase pausing and dislodgement of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Adam C; Egan, J Barry; Shearwin, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional interference is the in cis suppression of one transcriptional process by another. Mathematical modeling shows that promoter occlusion by elongating RNA polymerases cannot produce strong interference. Interference may instead be generated by (1) dislodgement of slow-to-assemble pre-initiation complexes and transcription factors and (2) prolonged occlusion by paused RNA polymerases.

  19. Transcription factor binding predicts histone modifications in human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Dan; Sonntag, Hans-Joachim; Sanguinetti, Guido; Sproul, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression in higher organisms is thought to be regulated by a complex network of transcription factor binding and chromatin modifications, yet the relative importance of these two factors remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that a computational approach allows surprisingly accurate prediction of histone modifications solely from knowledge of transcription factor binding both at promoters and at potential distal regulatory elements. This accuracy significantly and substantially exceeds what could be achieved by using DNA sequence as an input feature. Remarkably, we show that transcription factor binding enables strikingly accurate predictions across different cell lines. Analysis of the relative importance of specific transcription factors as predictors of specific histone marks recapitulated known interactions between transcription factors and histone modifiers. Our results demonstrate that reported associations between histone marks and gene expression may be indirect effects caused by interactions between transcription factors and histone-modifying complexes. PMID:25187560

  20. TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Paul J; Bokowiec, Marta T; Laudeman, Thomas W; Brannock, Jennifer F; Chen, Xianfeng; Timko, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Background Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription is a major control point in many biological processes. Transcription factors (TFs) can activate and/or repress the transcriptional rate of target genes and vascular plant genomes devote approximately 7% of their coding capacity to TFs. Global analysis of TFs has only been performed for three complete higher plant genomes – Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Presently, no large-scale analysis of TFs has been made from a member of the Solanaceae, one of the most important families of vascular plants. To fill this void, we have analysed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) TFs using a dataset of 1,159,022 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs) obtained by methylation filtering of the tobacco genome. An analytical pipeline was developed to isolate TF sequences from the GSR data set. This involved multiple (typically 10–15) independent searches with different versions of the TF family-defining domain(s) (normally the DNA-binding domain) followed by assembly into contigs and verification. Our analysis revealed that tobacco contains a minimum of 2,513 TFs representing all of the 64 well-characterised plant TF families. The number of TFs in tobacco is higher than previously reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Results TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors, is an integrative database that provides a portal to sequence and phylogeny data for the identified TFs, together with a large quantity of other data concerning TFs in tobacco. The database contains an individual page dedicated to each of the 64 TF families. These contain background information, domain architecture via Pfam links, a list of all sequences and an assessment of the minimum number of TFs in this family in tobacco. Downloadable phylogenetic trees of the major families are provided along with detailed information on the bioinformatic pipeline that was used to find all family members

  1. Competitive inhibition of transcription factors by small interfering peptides.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Hong, Shin-Young; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-10-01

    Combinatorial assortment by dynamic dimer formation diversifies gene transcriptional specificities of transcription factors. A similar but biochemically distinct mechanism is competitive inhibition in which small proteins act as negative regulators by competitively forming nonfunctional heterodimers with specific transcription factors. The most extensively studied is the negative regulation of auxin response factors by AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID repressors. Similarly, Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) little zipper and mini finger proteins act as competitive inhibitors of target transcription factors. Competitive inhibitors are also generated by alternative splicing and controlled proteolytic processing. Because they provide a way of attenuating transcription factors we propose to call them small interfering peptides (siPEPs). The siPEP-mediated strategy could be applied to deactivate specific transcription factors in crop plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Label free analysis of transcription factors using microcantilever arrays.

    PubMed

    Huber, François; Hegner, Martin; Gerber, Christoph; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Hans Peter

    2006-02-15

    We report the measurement of protein interaction with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using cantilever microarray technology. We investigated two different DNA-binding proteins, the transcription factors SP1 and NF-kappaB, using cantilever arrays as they allow label-free measurement of different biomolecular interactions in parallel. Double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing a specific binding site for a transcription factor were sensitized on gold-coated cantilevers. The binding of the transcription factor creates a surface stress, resulting in a bending of the cantilevers. Both transcription factors could be detected independently at concentrations of 80-100 nM. A concentration dependence of the bending signal was measured using concentrations from 100 to 400 nM of NF-kappaB. The experiments show that the recognition sequence of one transcription factor can serve as a reference for the other, highlighting the sequence specificity of transcription factor binding.

  3. Genome-Wide Chromosomal Targets of Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer. Cancer involves, at least in part, aberrant programs of gene expression often mediated by oncogenic transcription factors activating downstream...networks that underlie complex gene expression programs that are activated in cancer. Indeed, transcription factors have been proposed as targets of...some of the limitations of ChIP-chip analysis and can be applied to transcription factors important in breast cancer such as c-myc and ER ( estrogen

  4. Multiple functions of nucleosomes and regulatory factors in transcription.

    PubMed

    Workman, J L; Buchman, A R

    1993-03-01

    The in vivo packaging of DNA with histone proteins to form chromatin makes its transcription a difficult process. Biochemical and genetic studies are beginning to reveal mechanistic details of how transcriptional regulatory factors confront at least two hurdles created by nucleosomes, the primary structural unit of chromatin. Regulatory factors must gain access to their respective binding sites and activate the formation of transcription complexes at core promoter elements. Distinct regulatory factors may be specialized to perform these functions.

  5. DNA-binding small molecules as inhibitors of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chung-Hang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Ma, Victor Pui-Yan; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2013-07-01

    Accumulating evidence implicating the role of aberrant transcription factor signaling in the pathogenesis of various human diseases such as cancer and inflammation has stimulated the development of small molecule ligands capable of targeting transcription factor activity and modulating gene expression. The use of DNA-binding small molecules to selectively inhibit transcription factor-DNA interactions represents one possible approach toward this goal. In this review, we summarize the development of DNA-binding small molecule inhibitors of transcription factors from 2004 to 2011, and their binding mode and therapeutic potential will be discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In vivo delivery of transcription factors with multifunctional oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kunwoo; Rafi, Mohammad; Wang, Xiaojian; Aran, Kiana; Feng, Xuli; Lo Sterzo, Carlo; Tang, Richard; Lingampalli, Nithya; Kim, Hyun Jin; Murthy, Niren

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutics based on transcription factors have the potential to revolutionize medicine but have had limited clinical success as a consequence of delivery problems. The delivery of transcription factors is challenging because it requires the development of a delivery vehicle that can complex transcription factors, target cells and stimulate endosomal disruption, with minimal toxicity. Here, we present a multifunctional oligonucleotide, termed DARTs (DNA assembled recombinant transcription factors), which can deliver transcription factors with high efficiency in vivo. DARTs are composed of an oligonucleotide that contains a transcription-factor-binding sequence and hydrophobic membrane-disruptive chains that are masked by acid-cleavable galactose residues. DARTs have a unique molecular architecture, which allows them to bind transcription factors, trigger endocytosis in hepatocytes, and stimulate endosomal disruption. The DARTs have enhanced uptake in hepatocytes as a result of their galactose residues and can disrupt endosomes efficiently with minimal toxicity, because unmasking of their hydrophobic domains selectively occurs in the acidic environment of the endosome. We show that DARTs can deliver the transcription factor nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the liver, catalyse the transcription of Nrf2 downstream genes, and rescue mice from acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

  7. Mechanisms of transcription factor evolution in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Jonathan F.; Zimmer, Fabian; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptions factors (TFs) are pivotal for the regulation of virtually all cellular processes, including growth and development. Expansions of TF families are causally linked to increases in organismal complexity. Here we study the evolutionary dynamics, genetic causes and functional implications of the five largest metazoan TF families. We find that family expansions dominate across the whole metazoan tree; however, some branches experience exceptional family-specific accelerated expansions. Additionally, we find that such expansions are often predated by modular domain rearrangements, which spur the expansion of a new sub-family by separating it from the rest of the TF family in terms of protein–protein interactions. This separation allows for radical shifts in the functional spectrum of a duplicated TF. We also find functional differentiation inside TF sub-families as changes in expression specificity. Furthermore, accelerated family expansions are facilitated by repeats of sequence motifs such as C2H2 zinc fingers. We quantify whole genome duplications and single gene duplications as sources of TF family expansions, implying that some, but not all, TF duplicates are preferentially retained. We conclude that trans-regulatory changes (domain rearrangements) are instrumental for fundamental functional innovations, that cis-regulatory changes (affecting expression) accomplish wide-spread fine tuning and both jointly contribute to the functional diversification of TFs. PMID:27288445

  8. Quantitatively predictable control of Drosophila transcriptional enhancers in vivo with engineered transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Justin; Ilsley, Garth R; Stern, David L

    2016-03-01

    Genes are regulated by transcription factors that bind to regions of genomic DNA called enhancers. Considerable effort is focused on identifying transcription factor binding sites, with the goal of predicting gene expression from DNA sequence. Despite this effort, general, predictive models of enhancer function are currently lacking. Here we combine quantitative models of enhancer function with manipulations using engineered transcription factors to examine the extent to which enhancer function can be controlled in a quantitatively predictable manner. Our models, which incorporate few free parameters, can accurately predict the contributions of ectopic transcription factor inputs. These models allow the predictable 'tuning' of enhancers, providing a framework for the quantitative control of enhancers with engineered transcription factors.

  9. Transcription factor abundance controlled by an auto-regulatory mechanism involving a transcription start site switch.

    PubMed

    Ngondo, Richard Patryk; Carbon, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    A transcriptional feedback loop is the simplest and most direct means for a transcription factor to provide an increased stability of gene expression. In this work performed in human cells, we reveal a new negative auto-regulatory mechanism involving an alternative transcription start site (TSS) usage. Using the activating transcription factor ZNF143 as a model, we show that the ZNF143 low-affinity binding sites, located downstream of its canonical TSS, play the role of protein sensors to induce the up- or down-regulation of ZNF143 gene expression. We uncovered that the TSS switch that mediates this regulation implies the differential expression of two transcripts with an opposite protein production ability due to their different 5' untranslated regions. Moreover, our analysis of the ENCODE data suggests that this mechanism could be used by other transcription factors to rapidly respond to their own aberrant expression level.

  10. Networks of Transcription Factors for Oct4 Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The present review aimed to assess the networks of transcription factors regulating the Oct4 expression in mice. Through a comprehensive analysis of the binding sites and the interrelationships of the transcription factors of Oct4, it is found that transcription factors of Oct4 form three regulating complexes centered by Oct4-Sox2, Nanog, and Lrh1. They bind on CR4, CR2, and CR1 regions of Oct4 promoter/enhancer, respectively, to activate Oct4 transcription synergistically. This article also discusses the mechanisms of fine-tuning the Oct4 expression. These findings have important implications in the field of stem cell and developmental biology.

  11. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-06-22

    A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor

  12. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. Results We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. Conclusions The description

  13. Transcriptional repression of BODENLOS by HD-ZIP transcription factor HB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Ive; Lau, Steffen; Ehrismann, Jasmin S.; Axiotis, Ioannis; Kolb, Martina; Kientz, Marika; Weijers, Dolf; Jürgens, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin is an important patterning agent during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development, exerting effects through transcriptional regulation. The main determinants of the transcriptional auxin response machinery are AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors and AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) inhibitors. Although members of these two protein families are major developmental regulators, the transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding them has not been well explored. For example, apart from auxin-linked regulatory inputs, factors regulating the expression of the AUX/IAA BODENLOS (BDL)/IAA12 are not known. Here, it was shown that the HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP) transcription factor HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 5 (HB5) negatively regulates BDL expression, which may contribute to the spatial control of BDL expression. As such, HB5 and probably other class I HD-ZIP proteins, appear to modulate BDL-dependent auxin response. PMID:23682118

  14. The physical size of transcription factors is key to transcriptional regulation in chromatin domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Kaizu, Kazunari; Tamura, Sachiko; Nozaki, Tadasu; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2015-02-01

    Genetic information, which is stored in the long strand of genomic DNA as chromatin, must be scanned and read out by various transcription factors. First, gene-specific transcription factors, which are relatively small (˜50 kDa), scan the genome and bind regulatory elements. Such factors then recruit general transcription factors, Mediators, RNA polymerases, nucleosome remodellers, and histone modifiers, most of which are large protein complexes of 1-3 MDa in size. Here, we propose a new model for the functional significance of the size of transcription factors (or complexes) for gene regulation of chromatin domains. Recent findings suggest that chromatin consists of irregularly folded nucleosome fibres (10 nm fibres) and forms numerous condensed domains (e.g., topologically associating domains). Although the flexibility and dynamics of chromatin allow repositioning of genes within the condensed domains, the size exclusion effect of the domain may limit accessibility of DNA sequences by transcription factors. We used Monte Carlo computer simulations to determine the physical size limit of transcription factors that can enter condensed chromatin domains. Small gene-specific transcription factors can penetrate into the chromatin domains and search their target sequences, whereas large transcription complexes cannot enter the domain. Due to this property, once a large complex binds its target site via gene-specific factors it can act as a ‘buoy’ to keep the target region on the surface of the condensed domain and maintain transcriptional competency. This size-dependent specialization of target-scanning and surface-tethering functions could provide novel insight into the mechanisms of various DNA transactions, such as DNA replication and repair/recombination.

  15. Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Heard, J; Martin, G; Reuber, L; Jiang, C; Keddie, J; Adam, L; Pineda, O; Ratcliffe, O J; Samaha, R R; Creelman, R; Pilgrim, M; Broun, P; Zhang, J Z; Ghandehari, D; Sherman, B K; Yu, G

    2000-12-15

    The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to families common to all eukaryotes do not share significant similarity with those of the other kingdoms beyond the conserved DNA binding domains, many of which have been arranged in combinations specific to each lineage. The genome-wide comparison reveals the evolutionary generation of diversity in the regulation of transcription.

  16. Temperature, template topology, and factor requirements of archaeal transcription

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephen D.; Jaxel, Christine; Nadal, Marc; Kosa, Peter F.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    Although Archaea are prokaryotic and resemble Bacteria morphologically, their transcription apparatus is remarkably similar to those of eukaryotic cell nuclei. Because some Archaea exist in environments with temperatures of around 100°C, they are likely to have evolved unique strategies for transcriptional control. Here, we investigate the effects of temperature and DNA template topology in a thermophilic archaeal transcription system. Significantly, and in marked contrast with characterized eucaryal systems, archaeal DNA template topology has negligible effect on transcription levels at physiological temperatures using highly purified polymerase and recombinant transcription factors. Furthermore, archaeal transcription does not require hydrolysis of the β-γ phosphoanhydride bond of ATP. However, at lower temperatures, negatively supercoiled templates are transcribed more highly than those that are positively supercoiled. Notably, the block to transcription on positively supercoiled templates at lowered temperatures is at the level of polymerase binding and promoter opening. These data imply that Archaea do not possess a functional homologue of transcription factor TFIIH, and that for the promoters studied, transcription is mediated by TATA box-binding protein, transcription factor TFB, and RNA polymerase alone. Furthermore, they suggest that the reduction of plasmid linking number by hyperthermophilic Archaea in vivo in response to cold shock is a mechanism to maintain gene expression under these adverse circumstances. PMID:9860949

  17. Understanding variation in transcription factor binding by modeling transcription factor genome-epigenome interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chieh-Chun; Xiao, Shu; Xie, Dan; Cao, Xiaoyi; Song, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Ting; He, Chuan; Zhong, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Despite explosive growth in genomic datasets, the methods for studying epigenomic mechanisms of gene regulation remain primitive. Here we present a model-based approach to systematically analyze the epigenomic functions in modulating transcription factor-DNA binding. Based on the first principles of statistical mechanics, this model considers the interactions between epigenomic modifications and a cis-regulatory module, which contains multiple binding sites arranged in any configurations. We compiled a comprehensive epigenomic dataset in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, including DNA methylation (MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq), DNA hydroxymethylation (5-hmC-seq), and histone modifications (ChIP-seq). We discovered correlations of transcription factors (TFs) for specific combinations of epigenomic modifications, which we term epigenomic motifs. Epigenomic motifs explained why some TFs appeared to have different DNA binding motifs derived from in vivo (ChIP-seq) and in vitro experiments. Theoretical analyses suggested that the epigenome can modulate transcriptional noise and boost the cooperativity of weak TF binding sites. ChIP-seq data suggested that epigenomic boost of binding affinities in weak TF binding sites can function in mES cells. We showed in theory that the epigenome should suppress the TF binding differences on SNP-containing binding sites in two people. Using personal data, we identified strong associations between H3K4me2/H3K9ac and the degree of personal differences in NFκB binding in SNP-containing binding sites, which may explain why some SNPs introduce much smaller personal variations on TF binding than other SNPs. In summary, this model presents a powerful approach to analyze the functions of epigenomic modifications. This model was implemented into an open source program APEG (Affinity Prediction by Epigenome and Genome, http://systemsbio.ucsd.edu/apeg).

  18. TFIIB-related Factors in RNA Polymerase I Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Bruce A.; Hahn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pol) I, II, III and archaeal Pol use a related set of general transcription factors to recognize promoter sequences, recruit Pol to promoters and to function at key points in the transcription initiation mechanism. The TFIIB-like general transcription factors (GTFs) function during several important and conserved steps in the initiation pathway for Pol II, III, and archaeal Pol. Until recently, the mechanism of Pol I initiation seemed unique, since it appeared to lack a GTF paralogous to the TFIIB-like proteins. The surprising recent discovery of TFIIB-related Pol I general factors in yeast and humans highlights the evolutionary conservation of transcription initiation mechanisms for all eukaryotic and archaeal Pols. These findings reveal new roles for the function of the Pol I GTFs and insight into the function of TFIIB-related factors. Models for Pol I transcription initiation are reexamined in light of these recent findings. PMID:22960599

  19. The transcription factor TFEB links mTORC1 signaling to transcriptional control of lysosome homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Roczniak-Ferguson, Agnes; Petit, Constance S; Froehlich, Florian; Qian, Sharon; Ky, Jennifer; Angarola, Brittany; Walther, Tobias C; Ferguson, Shawn M

    2012-06-12

    Lysosomes are the major cellular site for clearance of defective organelles and digestion of internalized material. Demand on lysosomal capacity can vary greatly, and lysosomal function must be adjusted to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here, we identified an interaction between the lysosome-localized mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the transcription factor TFEB (transcription factor EB), which promotes lysosome biogenesis. When lysosomal activity was adequate, mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of TFEB on Ser(211) triggered the binding of 14-3-3 proteins to TFEB, resulting in retention of the transcription factor in the cytoplasm. Inhibition of lysosomal function reduced the mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of TFEB, resulting in diminished interactions between TFEB and 14-3-3 proteins and the translocation of TFEB into the nucleus, where it could stimulate genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis. These results identify TFEB as a target of mTOR and suggest a mechanism for matching the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding proteins of autophagosomes and lysosomes to cellular need. The closely related transcription factors MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) and TFE3 (transcription factor E3) also localized to lysosomes and accumulated in the nucleus when lysosome function was inhibited, thus broadening the range of physiological contexts under which this regulatory mechanism may prove important.

  20. Mercury inactivates transcription and the generalized transcription factor TFB in the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Vidula; Bini, Elisabetta; Drozda, Melissa; Blum, Paul

    2004-06-01

    Mercury has a long history as an antimicrobial agent effective against eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Despite its prolonged use, the basis for mercury toxicity in prokaryotes is not well understood. Archaea, like bacteria, are prokaryotes but they use a simplified version of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus. This study examined the mechanism of mercury toxicity to the archaeal prokaryote Sulfolobus solfataricus. In vivo challenge with mercuric chloride instantaneously blocked cell division, eliciting a cytostatic response at submicromolar concentrations and a cytocidal response at micromolar concentrations. The cytostatic response was accompanied by a 70% reduction in bulk RNA synthesis and elevated rates of degradation of several transcripts, including tfb-1, tfb-2, and lacS. Whole-cell extracts prepared from mercuric chloride-treated cells or from cell extracts treated in vitro failed to support in vitro transcription of 16S rRNAp and lacSp promoters. Extract-mixing experiments with treated and untreated extracts excluded the occurrence of negative-acting factors in the mercury-treated cell extracts. Addition of transcription factor B (TFB), a general transcription factor homolog of eukaryotic TFIIB, to mercury-treated cell extracts restored >50% of in vitro transcription activity. Consistent with this finding, mercuric ion treatment of TFB in vitro inactivated its ability to restore the in vitro transcription activity of TFB-immunodepleted cell extracts. These findings indicate that the toxicity of mercuric ion in S. solfataricus is in part the consequence of transcription inhibition due to TFB-1 inactivation.

  1. Identification of human autoantibodies to transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed Central

    Abendroth, F D; Peterson, S R; Galman, M; Suwa, A; Hardin, J A; Dynan, W S

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized the ability of various human autoimmune sera to react with RNA polymerase II transcription factors. One serum, which strongly inhibited transcription in a cell-free system, was shown to contain antibodies directed against human TFIIB. The serum did not show reactivity against the other general transcription factors, including human TBP, TFIIE and TFIIF. The inhibition of transcription was directly attributable to depletion of TFIIB activity, as demonstrated by reconstitution of activity with recombinant TFIIB. It has long been recognized that components of the RNA processing machinery are major human autoantigens. The present results show that at least one general transcription factor required for messenger RNA synthesis is an autoantigen as well. Images PMID:7651839

  2. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented. PMID:28119722

  3. The Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor Y Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hang; Wu, Di; Kong, Fanying; Lin, Ke; Zhang, Haishen; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved trimeric transcription factor complex present in nearly all eukaryotes. The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and binds to the CCAAT box in the promoter regions of its target genes to regulate their expression. Yeast and mammal genomes generally have single genes with multiple splicing isoforms that encode each NF-Y subunit. By contrast, plant genomes generally have multi-gene families encoding each subunit and these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues or stages. Therefore, different subunit combinations can lead to a wide variety of NF-Y complexes in various tissues, stages, and growth conditions, indicating the potentially diverse functions of this complex in plants. Indeed, many recent studies have proved that the NF-Y complex plays multiple essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. In this review, we highlight recent progress on NF-Y in Arabidopsis thaliana, including NF-Y protein structure, heterotrimeric complex formation, and the molecular mechanism by which NF-Y regulates downstream target gene expression. We then focus on its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms. Finally, possible directions for future research on NF-Y are also presented.

  4. Experimental determination of the evolvability of a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Maerkl, Sebastian J; Quake, Stephen R

    2009-11-03

    Sequence-specific binding of a transcription factor to DNA is the central event in any transcriptional regulatory network. However, relatively little is known about the evolutionary plasticity of transcription factors. For example, the exact functional consequence of an amino acid substitution on the DNA-binding specificity of most transcription factors is currently not predictable. Furthermore, although the major structural families of transcription factors have been identified, the detailed DNA-binding repertoires within most families have not been characterized. We studied the sequence recognition code and evolvability of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family by creating all possible 95 single-point mutations of five DNA-contacting residues of Max, a human helix-loop-helix transcription factor and measured the detailed DNA-binding repertoire of each mutant. Our results show that the sequence-specific repertoire of Max accessible through single-point mutations is extremely limited, and we are able to predict 92% of the naturally occurring diversity at these positions. All naturally occurring basic regions were also found to be accessible through functional intermediates. Finally, we observed a set of amino acids that are functional in vitro but are not found to be used naturally, indicating that functionality alone is not sufficient for selection.

  5. Maintenance of Transcription-Translation Coupling by Elongation Factor P

    PubMed Central

    Elgamal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu fully restored translation. EF-P was also shown to inhibit premature termination during synthesis and translation of mRNAs encoding intrinsic terminators. The effects of EF-P loss on expression of polyproline mRNAs were augmented by a substitution in RNA polymerase that accelerates transcription. Analyses of previously reported ribosome profiling and global proteomic data identified several candidate gene clusters where EF-P could act to prevent premature transcription termination. In vivo probing allowed detection of some predicted premature termination products in the absence of EF-P. Our findings support a model in which EF-P maintains coupling of translation and transcription by decreasing ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs. Other regulators that facilitate ribosome translocation through roadblocks to prevent premature transcription termination upon uncoupling remain to be identified. PMID:27624127

  6. Yin Yang 1: a multifaceted protein beyond a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiyong; Cao, Paul; Wan, Mei Mei; Sui, Guangchao

    2010-01-01

    As a transcription factor, Yin Yang 1 (YY1) regulates the transcription of a dazzling list of genes and the number of its targets still mounts. Recent studies revealed that YY1 possesses functions independent of its DNA binding activity and its regulatory role in tumorigenesis has started to emerge.

  7. Antisense-mediated FLC transcriptional repression requires the P-TEFb transcription elongation factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhe; Raitskin, Oleg; Sun, Qianwen; Dean, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The functional significance of noncoding transcripts is currently a major question in biology. We have been studying the function of a set of antisense transcripts called COOLAIR that encompass the whole transcription unit of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Alternative polyadenylation of COOLAIR transcripts correlates with different FLC sense expression states. Suppressor mutagenesis aimed at understanding the importance of this sense–antisense transcriptional circuitry has identified a role for Arabidopsis cyclin-dependent kinase C (CDKC;2) in FLC repression. CDKC;2 functions in an Arabidopsis positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex and influences global RNA polymerase II (Pol II) Ser2 phosphorylation levels. CDKC;2 activity directly promotes COOLAIR transcription but does not affect an FLC transgene missing the COOLAIR promoter. In the endogenous gene context, however, the reduction of COOLAIR transcription by cdkc;2 disrupts a COOLAIR-mediated repression mechanism that increases FLC expression. This disruption then feeds back to indirectly increase COOLAIR expression. This tight interconnection between sense and antisense transcription, together with differential promoter sensitivity to P-TEFb, is central to quantitative regulation of this important floral repressor gene. PMID:24799695

  8. Transcriptional Control of Synaptic Plasticity by Transcription Factor NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Christian; Haenold, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors is required for the induction of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. All components of this signaling pathway are localized at synapses, and transcriptionally active NF-κB dimers move to the nucleus to translate synaptic signals into altered gene expression. Neuron-specific inhibition results in altered connectivity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses and functionally in selective learning deficits. Recent research on transgenic mice with impaired or hyperactivated NF-κB gave important insights into plasticity-related target gene expression that is regulated by NF-κB. In this minireview, we update the available data on the role of this transcription factor for learning and memory formation and comment on cross-sectional activation of NF-κB in the aged and diseased brain that may directly or indirectly affect κB-dependent transcription of synaptic genes.

  9. Pioneer transcription factors: establishing competence for gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zaret, Kenneth S.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors are adaptor molecules that detect regulatory sequences in the DNA and target the assembly of protein complexes that control gene expression. Yet much of the DNA in the eukaryotic cell is in nucleosomes and thereby occluded by histones, and can be further occluded by higher-order chromatin structures and repressor complexes. Indeed, genome-wide location analyses have revealed that, for all transcription factors tested, the vast majority of potential DNA-binding sites are unoccupied, demonstrating the inaccessibility of most of the nuclear DNA. This raises the question of how target sites at silent genes become bound de novo by transcription factors, thereby initiating regulatory events in chromatin. Binding cooperativity can be sufficient for many kinds of factors to simultaneously engage a target site in chromatin and activate gene expression. However, in cases in which the binding of a series of factors is sequential in time and thus not initially cooperative, special “pioneer transcription factors” can be the first to engage target sites in chromatin. Such initial binding can passively enhance transcription by reducing the number of additional factors that are needed to bind the DNA, culminating in activation. In addition, pioneer factor binding can actively open up the local chromatin and directly make it competent for other factors to bind. Passive and active roles for the pioneer factor FoxA occur in embryonic development, steroid hormone induction, and human cancers. Herein we review the field and describe how pioneer factors may enable cellular reprogramming. PMID:22056668

  10. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STAT transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas; Vinkemeier, Uwe

    2004-12-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have initially been described as cytoplasmic proteins that enter the nucleus only after cytokine treatment of cells. Contrary to this assumption, it was demonstrated that STATs are constantly shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of cytokine stimulation. This happens both via carrier-dependent as well as carrier-independent transportation. Moreover, it was also recognized that cytokine stimulation triggers nuclear retention of dimeric STATs, rather than affecting the rate of nuclear import. In summary, it is increasingly being appreciated that STAT nucleocytoplasmic cycling determines the quality of cytokine signaling and also constitutes an important area for microbial intervention.

  11. ETS transcription factors in hematopoietic stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Ciau-Uitz, Aldo; Wang, Lu; Patient, Roger; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for the maintenance of the hematopoietic system. However, these cells cannot be maintained or created in vitro, and very little is known about their generation during embryogenesis. Many transcription factors and signaling pathways play essential roles at various stages of HSC development. Members of the ETS ('E twenty-six') family of transcription factors are recognized as key regulators within the gene regulatory networks governing hematopoiesis, including the ontogeny of HSCs. Remarkably, although all ETS transcription factors bind the same DNA consensus sequence and overlapping tissue expression is observed, individual ETS transcription factors play unique roles in the development of HSCs. Also, these transcription factors are recurrently used throughout development and their functions are context-dependent, increasing the challenge of studying their mechanism of action. Critically, ETS factors also play roles under pathological conditions, such as leukemia and, therefore, deciphering their mechanism of action will not only enhance our knowledge of normal hematopoiesis, but also inform protocols for their creation in vitro from pluripotent stem cells and the design of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of malignant blood cell diseases. In this review, we summarize the key findings on the roles of ETS transcription factors in HSC development and discuss novel mechanisms by which they could control hematopoiesis. © 2013.

  12. Transcription factor binding dynamics during human ESC differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tsankov, Alexander M.; Gu, Hongcang; Akopian, Veronika; Ziller, Michael J.; Donaghey, Julie; Amit, Ido; Gnirke, Andreas; Meissner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotent stem cells provide a powerful system to dissect the underlying molecular dynamics that regulate cell fate changes during mammalian development. Here we report the integrative analysis of genome wide binding data for 38 transcription factors with extensive epigenome and transcriptional data across the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the three germ layers. We describe core regulatory dynamics and show the lineage specific behavior of selected factors. In addition to the orchestrated remodeling of the chromatin landscape, we find that the binding of several transcription factors is strongly associated with specific loss of DNA methylation in one germ layer and in many cases a reciprocal gain in the other layers. Taken together, our work shows context-dependent rewiring of transcription factor binding, downstream signaling effectors, and the epigenome during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. PMID:25693565

  13. Human transcription factor Sp3: genomic structure, identification of a processed pseudogene, and transcript analysis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Kelly M; Crusio, Robbert H J; Chan, Connie H; Grekova, Maria C; Richert, John R

    2004-10-27

    The human transcription factor Sp3 has been widely studied at the translational level and has been described as a regulatory factor for a number of genes. Sp3 is currently characterized as a bifunctional transcription factor having the ability to behave as both an activator and/or a repressor in various promoter regions. Previous translational studies have attempted to determine the basis for these diverse functions with mostly contradictory evidence to date. Little data are available, however, concerning genomic structure, full-length cDNA, potential transcript variants, or location of translation initiation sites for the large isoform of the Sp3 gene. In this study, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), genomic PCR, and database mining indicate that the Sp3 gene encompasses seven exons spanning more than 55 kb of genomic DNA on Chromosome 2. The 5' end of this sequence contains a large CpG island. This work also detected a processed pseudogene, psiSp3, located on Chromosome 13, spanning approximately 4.0 kb. Northern blot analysis detected three predominant transcripts at 4.0, 6.0 and 2.5 kb. Sequence analysis indicated that alternative splicing of exon 3 allows for multiple transcripts of Sp3. Each sequenced transcript possesses three to five potential translation initiation sites. This diversity at the level of gene expression will likely be key to understanding the diverse functions of Sp3.

  14. Transcription factor networks regulating hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Talianidis, Iannis

    2015-01-01

    Tight regulation of lipid levels is critical for cellular and organismal homeostasis, not only in terms of energy utilization and storage, but also to prevent potential toxicity. The liver utilizes a set of hepatic transcription factors to regulate the expression of genes implicated in all aspects of lipid metabolism including catabolism, transport, and synthesis. In this article, we will review the main transcriptional mechanisms regulating the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. The principal regulatory pathways are composed of simple modules of transcription factor crosstalks, which correspond to building blocks of more complex regulatory networks. These transcriptional networks contribute to the regulation of proper lipid homeostasis in parallel to posttranslational mechanisms and end product-mediated modulation of lipid metabolizing enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooperative activation of Xenopus rhodopsin transcription by paired-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, rod photoreceptor-specific gene expression is regulated by the large Maf and Pax-like transcription factors, Nrl/LNrl and Crx/Otx5. The ubiquitous occurrence of their target DNA binding sites throughout rod-specific gene promoters suggests that multiple transcription factor interactions within the promoter are functionally important. Cooperative action by these transcription factors activates rod-specific genes such as rhodopsin. However, a quantitative mechanistic explanation of transcriptional rate determinants is lacking. Results We investigated the contributions of various paired-like transcription factors and their cognate cis-elements to rhodopsin gene activation using cultured cells to quantify activity. The Xenopus rhodopsin promoter (XOP) has a bipartite structure, with ~200 bp proximal to the start site (RPP) coordinating cooperative activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 and the adjacent 5300 bp upstream sequence increasing the overall expression level. The synergistic activation by Nrl/LNrl-Crx/Otx5 also occurred when XOP was stably integrated into the genome. We determined that Crx/Otx5 synergistically activated transcription independently and additively through the two Pax-like cis-elements, BAT1 and Ret4, but not through Ret1. Other Pax-like family members, Rax1 and Rax2, do not synergistically activate XOP transcription with Nrl/LNrl and/or Crx/Otx5; rather they act as co-activators via the Ret1 cis-element. Conclusions We have provided a quantitative model of cooperative transcriptional activation of the rhodopsin promoter through interaction of Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl at two paired-like cis-elements proximal to the NRE and TATA binding site. Further, we have shown that Rax genes act in cooperation with Crx/Otx5 with Nrl/LNrl as co-activators of rhodopsin transcription. PMID:24499263

  16. TrSDB: a proteome database of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Hermoso, Antoni; Aguilar, Daniel; Aviles, Francesc X.; Querol, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    TrSDB—TranScout Database—(http://ibb.uab.es/trsdb) is a proteome database of eukaryotic transcription factors based upon predicted motifs by TranScout and data sources such as InterPro and Gene Ontology Annotation. Nine eukaryotic proteomes are included in the current version. Extensive and diverse information for each database entry, different analyses considering TranScout classification and similarity relationships are offered for research on transcription factors or gene expression. PMID:14681387

  17. Regulatory coding of lymphoid lineage choice by hematopoietic transcription factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Luigi A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2003-01-01

    During lymphopoiesis, precursor cells negotiate a complex regulatory space, defined by the levels of several competing and cross-regulating transcription factors, before arriving at stable states of commitment to the B-, T- and NK-specific developmental programs. Recent perturbation experiments provide evidence that this space has three major axes, corresponding to the PU.1 versus GATA-1 balance, the intensity of Notch signaling through the CSL pathway, and the ratio of E-box transcription factors to their Id protein antagonists.

  18. Regulatory coding of lymphoid lineage choice by hematopoietic transcription factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Luigi A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2003-01-01

    During lymphopoiesis, precursor cells negotiate a complex regulatory space, defined by the levels of several competing and cross-regulating transcription factors, before arriving at stable states of commitment to the B-, T- and NK-specific developmental programs. Recent perturbation experiments provide evidence that this space has three major axes, corresponding to the PU.1 versus GATA-1 balance, the intensity of Notch signaling through the CSL pathway, and the ratio of E-box transcription factors to their Id protein antagonists.

  19. DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Boian S; Gelev, Vladimir; Yoo, Sang Wook; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Bishop, Alan R; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Usheva, Anny

    2010-04-01

    We assess the role of DNA breathing dynamics as a determinant of promoter strength and transcription start site (TSS) location. We compare DNA Langevin dynamic profiles of representative gene promoters, calculated with the extended non-linear PBD model of DNA with experimental data on transcription factor binding and transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that DNA dynamic activity at the TSS can be suppressed by mutations that do not affect basal transcription factor binding-DNA contacts. We use this effect to establish the separate contributions of transcription factor binding and DNA dynamics to transcriptional activity. Our results argue against a purely 'transcription factor-centric' view of transcription initiation, suggesting that both DNA dynamics and transcription factor binding are necessary conditions for transcription initiation.

  20. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and cancer.

    PubMed

    Escárcega, R O; Fuentes-Alexandro, S; García-Carrasco, M; Gatica, A; Zamora, A

    2007-03-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in 1986, many studies have been conducted showing the link between the NF-kappaB signalling pathway and control of the inflammatory response. Today it is well known that control of the inflammatory response and apoptosis is closely related to the activation of NF-kappaB. Three NF-kappaB activation pathways exist. The first (the classical pathway) is normally triggered in response to microbial and viral infections or exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the tripartite IKK complex, leading to phosphorylation-induced IkappaB degradation and depends mainly on IKKbeta activity. The second (the alternative pathway), leads to selective activation of p52:RelB dimers by inducing the processing of the NF-kappaB2/p100 precursor protein, which mostly occurs as a heterodimer with RelB in the cytoplasm. This pathway is triggered by certain members of the tumour necrosis factor cytokine family, through selective activation of IKKalpha homodimers by the upstream kinase NIK. The third pathway is named CK2 and is IKK independent. NF-kappaB acts through the transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins, leading to increased proliferation of cells and tumour growth. It is also known that some drugs act directly in the inhibition of NF-kappaB, thus producing regulation of apoptosis; some examples are aspirin and corticosteroids. Here we review the role of NF-kappaB in the control of apoptosis, its link to oncogenesis, the evidence of several studies that show that NF-kappaB activation is closely related to different cancers, and finally the potential target of NF-kappaB as cancer therapy.

  1. Networks of WRKY transcription factors in defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Eulgem, Thomas; Somssich, Imre E

    2007-08-01

    Members of the complex family of WRKY transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant immune responses. Recently genetic evidence directly proving their significance as positive and negative regulators of disease resistance has accumulated. WRKY genes were shown to be functionally connected forming a transcriptional network composed of positive and negative feedback loops and feed-forward modules. Within a web of partially redundant elements some WRKY factors hold central positions mediating fast and efficient activation of defense programs. A key mechanism triggering strong immune responses appears to be based on the inactivation of defense-suppressing WRKY proteins.

  2. Retroactivity effects dependency on the transcription factors binding mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Hernández, Libertad; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena; Aguilar-Ibáñez, Carlos F; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; Soria-López, Alberto; Martínez-García, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-07

    Downstream connection effects on transcription are caused by retroactivity. When biomolecular dynamical systems interconnect retroactivity is a property that becomes important. The biological functional meaning of these effects is increasingly becoming an area of interest. Downstream targets, which are operator binding sites in transcriptional networks, may induce behaviors such as ultrasensitive responses or even represent an undesired issue in regulation. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the binding mechanisms of transcription factors in relation to minimizing - or enhancing - retroactivity effects has not been previously addressed. Our aim is to evaluate retroactivity effects considering how the binding mechanism impacts the number of free functional transcription factor (FFTF) molecules using a simple model via deterministic and stochastic simulations. We study four transcription factor binding mechanisms (BM): simple monomer binding (SMB), dimer binding (DB), cooperative sequential binding (CSB) and cooperative sequential binding with dimerization (CSB_D). We consider weak and strong binding regimes for each mechanism, where we contrast the cases when the FFTF is bound or unbound to the downstream loads. Upon interconnection, the number of FFTF molecules changed less for the SMB mechanism while for DB they changed the most. Our results show that for the chosen mechanisms (in terms of the corresponding described dynamics), retroactivity effects depend on transcription binding mechanisms. This contributes to the understanding of how the transcription factor regulatory function-such as decision making-and its dynamic needs for the response, may determine the nature of the selected binding mechanism.

  3. A bacteriophage transcription regulator inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by σ-factor displacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Mekler, Vladimir; Xu, Yingqi; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the inhibition of bacterial RNAp by the transcription regulator P7 encoded by Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp10. We reveal that P7 uses a two-step mechanism to simultaneously interact with the catalytic β and β' subunits of the bacterial RNAp and inhibits transcription initiation by inducing the displacement of the σ(70)-factor on initial engagement of RNAp with promoter DNA. The new mode of interaction with and inhibition mechanism of bacterial RNAp by P7 underscore the remarkable variety of mechanisms evolved by phages to interfere with host transcription.

  4. A non-bacterial transcription factor inhibits bacterial transcription by a multipronged mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Carol; James, Ellen; Barton, Geraint; Matthews, Stephen; Severinov, Konstantin; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2013-04-01

    The process of transcription initiation is the major target for regulation of gene expression in bacteria and is performed by a multi-subunit RNA polymerase enzyme (RNAp). A complex network of regulatory elements controls the activity of the RNAp to fine-tune transcriptional output. Thus, RNAp is a nexus for controlling bacterial gene expression at the transcription level. Many bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, encode transcription factors that specifically target and modulate the activity of the host RNAp and, thereby, facilitate the acquisition of the host bacteria by the phage. Here, we describe the modus operandi of a T7 bacteriophage-encoded small protein called Gp2 and define Gp2 as a non-bacterial regulator of bacterial transcription.

  5. Multilayered Control of Alternative Splicing Regulatory Networks by Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Han, Hong; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas; Weatheritt, Robert J; Hirsch, Calley L; Ha, Kevin C H; Radovani, Ernest; Nabeel-Shah, Syed; Sterne-Weiler, Tim; Wang, Juli; O'Hanlon, Dave; Pan, Qun; Ray, Debashish; Zheng, Hong; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Datti, Alessandro; Magomedova, Lilia; Cummins, Carolyn L; Hughes, Timothy R; Greenblatt, Jack F; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Moffat, Jason; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2017-02-02

    Networks of coordinated alternative splicing (AS) events play critical roles in development and disease. However, a comprehensive knowledge of the factors that regulate these networks is lacking. We describe a high-throughput system for systematically linking trans-acting factors to endogenous RNA regulatory events. Using this system, we identify hundreds of factors associated with diverse regulatory layers that positively or negatively control AS events linked to cell fate. Remarkably, more than one-third of the regulators are transcription factors. Further analyses of the zinc finger protein Zfp871 and BTB/POZ domain transcription factor Nacc1, which regulate neural and stem cell AS programs, respectively, reveal roles in controlling the expression of specific splicing regulators. Surprisingly, these proteins also appear to regulate target AS programs via binding RNA. Our results thus uncover a large "missing cache" of splicing regulators among annotated transcription factors, some of which dually regulate AS through direct and indirect mechanisms.

  6. Evolution of transcriptional networks in yeast: alternative teams of transcriptional factors for different species.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Adriana; Santos Muñoz, Daniella; Zimin, Aleksey; Yorke, James A

    2016-11-11

    The diversity in eukaryotic life reflects a diversity in regulatory pathways. Nocedal and Johnson argue that the rewiring of gene regulatory networks is a major force for the diversity of life, that changes in regulation can create new species. We have created a method (based on our new "ping-pong algorithm) for detecting more complicated rewirings, where several transcription factors can substitute for one or more transcription factors in the regulation of a family of co-regulated genes. An example is illustrative. A rewiring has been reported by Hogues et al. that RAP1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae substitutes for TBF1/CBF1 in Candida albicans for ribosomal RP genes. There one transcription factor substitutes for another on some collection of genes. Such a substitution is referred to as a "rewiring". We agree with this finding of rewiring as far as it goes but the situation is more complicated. Many transcription factors can regulate a gene and our algorithm finds that in this example a "team" (or collection) of three transcription factors including RAP1 substitutes for TBF1 for 19 genes. The switch occurs for a branch of the phylogenetic tree containing 10 species (including Saccharomyces cerevisiae), while the remaining 13 species (Candida albicans) are regulated by TBF1. To gain insight into more general evolutionary mechanisms, we have created a mathematical algorithm that finds such general switching events and we prove that it converges. Of course any such computational discovery should be validated in the biological tests. For each branch of the phylogenetic tree and each gene module, our algorithm finds a sub-group of co-regulated genes and a team of transcription factors that substitutes for another team of transcription factors. In most cases the signal will be small but in some cases we find a strong signal of switching. We report our findings for 23 Ascomycota fungi species.

  7. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  8. Depleting Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the transcription termination factor Rho causes pervasive transcription and rapid death

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Laure; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Livny, Jonathan; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Rifampicin, which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, provides one of the most effective treatments for tuberculosis. Inhibition of the transcription termination factor Rho is used to treat some bacterial infections, but its importance varies across bacteria. Here we show that Rho of Mycobacterium tuberculosis functions to both define the 3′ ends of mRNAs and silence substantial fragments of the genome. Brief inactivation of Rho affects over 500 transcripts enriched for genes of foreign DNA elements and bacterial virulence factors. Prolonged inactivation of Rho causes extensive pervasive transcription, a genome-wide increase in antisense transcripts, and a rapid loss of viability of replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis in vitro and during acute and chronic infection in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of Rho may provide an alternative strategy to treat tuberculosis with an efficacy similar to inhibition of RNA polymerase. PMID:28348398

  9. Depleting Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the transcription termination factor Rho causes pervasive transcription and rapid death.

    PubMed

    Botella, Laure; Vaubourgeix, Julien; Livny, Jonathan; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2017-03-28

    Rifampicin, which inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, provides one of the most effective treatments for tuberculosis. Inhibition of the transcription termination factor Rho is used to treat some bacterial infections, but its importance varies across bacteria. Here we show that Rho of Mycobacterium tuberculosis functions to both define the 3' ends of mRNAs and silence substantial fragments of the genome. Brief inactivation of Rho affects over 500 transcripts enriched for genes of foreign DNA elements and bacterial virulence factors. Prolonged inactivation of Rho causes extensive pervasive transcription, a genome-wide increase in antisense transcripts, and a rapid loss of viability of replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis in vitro and during acute and chronic infection in mice. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of Rho may provide an alternative strategy to treat tuberculosis with an efficacy similar to inhibition of RNA polymerase.

  10. Functional Profiling of Transcription Factor Genes in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Alexander J; Schacht, Patrick; Cabrera, Ilva E; Blahut, Johnathon; Prudhomme, Loren; Dietrich, Sarah; Bekman, Thomas; Mei, Jennifer; Carrera, Cristian; Chen, Vivian; Clark, Isaiah; Fierro, Gerardo; Ganzen, Logan; Orellana, Jose; Wise, Shelby; Yang, Kevin; Zhong, Hui; Borkovich, Katherine A

    2017-09-07

    Regulation of gene expression by DNA-binding transcription factors is essential for proper control of growth and development in all organisms. In this study, we annotate and characterize growth and developmental phenotypes for transcription factor genes in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa We identified 312 transcription factor genes, corresponding to 3.2% of the protein coding genes in the genome. The largest class was the fungal-specific Zn2Cys6 (C6) binuclear cluster, with 135 members, followed by the highly conserved C2H2 zinc finger group, with 61 genes. Viable knockout mutants were produced for 273 genes, and complete growth and developmental phenotypic data are available for 242 strains, with 64% possessing at least one defect. The most prominent defect observed was in growth of basal hyphae (43% of mutants analyzed), followed by asexual sporulation (38%), and the various stages of sexual development (19%). Two growth or developmental defects were observed for 21% of the mutants, while 8% were defective in all three major phenotypes tested. Analysis of available mRNA expression data for a time course of sexual development revealed mutants with sexual phenotypes that correlate with transcription factor transcript abundance in wild type. Inspection of this data also implicated cryptic roles in sexual development for several cotranscribed transcription factor genes that do not produce a phenotype when mutated. Copyright © 2017 Carrillo et al.

  11. Epigenetic program and transcription factor circuitry of dendritic cell development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Chauvistré, Heike; Costa, Ivan G.; Gusmao, Eduardo G.; Mitzka, Saskia; Hänzelmann, Sonja; Baying, Bianka; Klisch, Theresa; Moriggl, Richard; Hennuy, Benoit; Smeets, Hubert; Hoffmann, Kurt; Benes, Vladimir; Seré, Kristin; Zenke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that develop from hematopoietic stem cells through successive steps of lineage commitment and differentiation. Multipotent progenitors (MPP) are committed to DC restricted common DC progenitors (CDP), which differentiate into specific DC subsets, classical DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC). To determine epigenetic states and regulatory circuitries during DC differentiation, we measured consecutive changes of genome-wide gene expression, histone modification and transcription factor occupancy during the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC. Specific histone marks in CDP reveal a DC-primed epigenetic signature, which is maintained and reinforced during DC differentiation. Epigenetic marks and transcription factor PU.1 occupancy increasingly coincide upon DC differentiation. By integrating PU.1 occupancy and gene expression we devised a transcription factor regulatory circuitry for DC commitment and subset specification. The circuitry provides the transcription factor hierarchy that drives the sequel MPP-CDP-cDC/pDC, including Irf4, Irf8, Tcf4, Spib and Stat factors. The circuitry also includes feedback loops inferred for individual or multiple factors, which stabilize distinct stages of DC development and DC subsets. In summary, here we describe the basic regulatory circuitry of transcription factors that drives DC development. PMID:26476451

  12. Transcription factors and induction in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Knöchel, W; Kaufmann, E

    1997-04-01

    Studies with amphibian embryos have contributed major insights into the molecular basis of induction processes and the formation of germ layers during vertebrate embryogenesis. Primary signals that have been identified as growth factors or growth factor-related ligands act as inducing factors on their target cells and, by a change of the genetic program, evoke a specification of the cellular differentiation pathways. While at present the signal transduction mechanisms leading from the ligands via cognate receptors to the nuclei are still poorly understood, there is growing information on transcription factors which are activated upon induction. They govern the expression of other regulatory molecules and co-ordinate the expression of cell type-specific structural genes. Meanwhile, it is generally accepted that development and cellular differentiation in all multicellular organisms depends upon a cascade of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors. Striking structural similarities within their DNA-binding domains allow many of these factors to be subdivided into different transcription factor families. Most of the basic knowledge on these factors emerged from the pioneering work done with Drosophila embryos which was greatly facilitated by the availability of numerous mutants. Despite the fact that Drosophila development until the blastoderm stage proceeds in a multinuclear syncytium and thus is significantly different from that in vertebrate organisms, the primary structures of many embryonic transcription factors have been conserved in higher organisms. This especially holds true for the various DNA binding motifs and it facilitated the isolation and characterization of vertebrate homologues to factors previously identified in lower organisms.

  13. Transcription factor network reconstruction using the living cell array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eric; Yarmush, Martin L; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2009-02-07

    The objective of identifying transcriptional regulatory networks is to provide insights as to what governs an organism's long term response to external stimuli. We explore the coupling of the living cell array (LCA), a novel microfluidics device which utilizes fluorescence levels as a surrogate for transcription factor activity with reverse Euler deconvolution (RED) a computational technique proposed in this work to decipher the dynamics of the interactions. It is hypothesized that these two methods will allow us to first assess the underlying network architecture associated with the transcription factor network as well as specific mechanistic consequences of transcription factor activation such as receptor dimerization or tolerance. The overall approach identifies evidence of time-lagged response which may be indicative of mechanisms such as receptor dimerization, tolerance mechanisms which are evidence of various receptor mediated dynamics, and feedback loops which regulate the response of an organism to changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, through the exploration of multiple network architectures, we were able to obtain insights as to the role each transcription factor plays in the overall response and their overall redundancy in the organism's response to external perturbations. Thus, the LCA along with the proposed analysis technique is a valuable tool for identifying the possible architectures and mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response.

  14. Bayesian model-based inference of transcription factor activity

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Simon; Khanin, Raya; Girolami, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background In many approaches to the inference and modeling of regulatory interactions using microarray data, the expression of the gene coding for the transcription factor is considered to be an accurate surrogate for the true activity of the protein it produces. There are many instances where this is inaccurate due to post-translational modifications of the transcription factor protein. Inference of the activity of the transcription factor from the expression of its targets has predominantly involved linear models that do not reflect the nonlinear nature of transcription. We extend a recent approach to inferring the transcription factor activity based on nonlinear Michaelis-Menten kinetics of transcription from maximum likelihood to fully Bayesian inference and give an example of how the model can be further developed. Results We present results on synthetic and real microarray data. Additionally, we illustrate how gene and replicate specific delays can be incorporated into the model. Conclusion We demonstrate that full Bayesian inference is appropriate in this application and has several benefits over the maximum likelihood approach, especially when the volume of data is limited. We also show the benefits of using a non-linear model over a linear model, particularly in the case of repression. PMID:17493251

  15. BACH transcription factors in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Roychoudhuri, Rahul

    2017-07-01

    BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4(+) regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions. The findings contribute to a general understanding of how transcriptional repressors shape lineage commitment and cell-type-specific functions through repression of alternative lineage programmes.

  16. A heteromeric transcription factor required for mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, S; Tanaka, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Nagaoka, T; Weissman, S M; Yasukochi, Y

    1990-01-01

    A general transcription factor, FC, essential for specific initiation of in vitro transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II was identified and a procedure developed to purify it to near homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei. Purified FC is composed of two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 80 kDa and 30 kDa, on SDS-PAGE, and has a native size of 280 kDa estimated by gel filtration column. Both polypeptides were shown to be essential for reconstituting in vitro transcription activity. Biochemical analysis showed that the 80 kDa and 30 kDa components were present in a 1:1 molar ratio. FC was also demonstrated to interact directly or indirectly with purified RNA polymerase II. Similarities between FC and transcription factors reported by others from human, rat or Drosophila cells are discussed. Images PMID:2395645

  17. Function of transcription factors at DNA lesions in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Malewicz, Michal; Perlmann, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Cellular systems for DNA repair ensure prompt removal of DNA lesions that threaten the genomic stability of the cell. Transcription factors (TFs) have long been known to facilitate DNA repair via transcriptional regulation of specific target genes encoding key DNA repair proteins. However, recent findings identified TFs as DNA repair components acting directly at the DNA lesions in a transcription-independent fashion. Together this recent progress is consistent with the hypothesis that TFs have acquired the ability to localize DNA lesions and function by facilitating chromatin remodeling at sites of damaged DNA. Here we review these recent findings and discuss how TFs may function in DNA repair.

  18. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  19. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  20. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in yeast transcription factor IIE (TFIIE) mutants.

    PubMed

    Lommel, L; Gregory, S M; Becker, K I; Sweder, K S

    2000-02-01

    We examined the role of yeast transcription initiation factor IIE (TFIIE) in eukaryotic transcription-coupled repair (TCR), the preferential removal of DNA damage from the transcribed strands of genes over non-transcribed sequences. TFIIE can recruit the transcription initiation/repair factor TFIIH to the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) initiation complex to facilitate promoter clearance. Following exposure to UV radiation, the RNA pol II elongation complex is blocked at sites of UV-induced DNA damage, and may be recognized by nucleotide excision repair proteins, thus enabling TCR. The TFA1 gene encodes the large subunit of TFIIE. We determined how DNA repair is affected by TFA1 conditional mutations. In particular, we find proficient TCR in a heat-sensitive tfa1 mutant at the non-permissive temperature during which growth is inhibited and overall RNA pol II transcription is reported to be inhibited. We demonstrate that transcription of the RPB2 gene was reduced, but readily detectable, in the heat-sensitive tfa1 mutant at the non-permissive temperature and thereby prove that TCR does occur in an expressed gene in the absence of TFIIE in vivo. We demonstrate that TCR occurs even at low levels of transcription.

  1. Mechanistic duality of transcription factor function in phytochrome signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phytochrome (phy) family of sensory photoreceptors (phyA–E in Arabidopsis) elicit changes in gene expression after light-induced migration to the nucleus, where they interact with basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors, such as phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3). The mechanism by whic...

  2. Resetting the transcription factor network reverses terminal chronic hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Taichiro; Bell, Aaron; Brooks, Jenna M.; Setoyama, Kentaro; Melis, Marta; Han, Bing; Fukumitsu, Ken; Handa, Kan; Tian, Jianmin; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Locker, Joseph; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of organ failure is enigmatic for many degenerative diseases, including end-stage liver disease. Here, using a CCl4-induced rat model of irreversible and fatal hepatic failure, which also exhibits terminal changes in the extracellular matrix, we demonstrated that chronic injury stably reprograms the critical balance of transcription factors and that diseased and dedifferentiated cells can be returned to normal function by re-expression of critical transcription factors, a process similar to the type of reprogramming that induces somatic cells to become pluripotent or to change their cell lineage. Forced re-expression of the transcription factor HNF4α induced expression of the other hepatocyte-expressed transcription factors; restored functionality in terminally diseased hepatocytes isolated from CCl4-treated rats; and rapidly reversed fatal liver failure in CCl4-treated animals by restoring diseased hepatocytes rather than replacing them with new hepatocytes or stem cells. Together, the results of our study indicate that disruption of the transcription factor network and cellular dedifferentiation likely mediate terminal liver failure and suggest reinstatement of this network has therapeutic potential for correcting organ failure without cell replacement. PMID:25774505

  3. Emerging functions of transcription factors in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu; Ansari, Abulaish; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-01-01

    Transcription is a process by which the genetic information stored in DNA is converted into mRNA by enzymes known as RNA polymerase. Bacteria use only one RNA polymerase to transcribe all of its genes while eukaryotes contain three RNA polymerases to transcribe the variety of eukaryotic genes. RNA polymerase also requires other factors/proteins to produce the transcript. These factors generally termed as transcription factors (TFs) are either associated directly with RNA polymerase or add in building the actual transcription apparatus. TFs are the most common tools that our cells use to control gene expression. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for causing the most lethal form of malaria in humans. It shows most of its characteristics common to eukaryotic transcription but it is assumed that mechanisms of transcriptional control in P. falciparum somehow differ from those of other eukaryotes. In this article we describe the studies on the main TFs such as myb protein, high mobility group protein and ApiA2 family proteins from malaria parasite. These studies show that these TFs are slowly emerging to have defined roles in the regulation of gene expression in the parasite.

  4. Homeodomain transcription factors regulate BMP-2-induced osteoactivin transcription in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maneet; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E; Monroy, M Alexandra; Popoff, Steven N; Safadi, Fayez F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoactivin (OA) is required for the differentiation of osteoblast cells. OA expression is stimulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). BMP-2 recruits homeodomain transcription factors Dlx3, Dlx5, and Msx2 to selectively activate or repress transcription of osteogenic genes and hence tightly regulate their transcription during osteoblast differentiation. Considering the key roles of Dlx3, Dlx5, and Msx2 in osteoblast differentiation, here we hypothesize that homeodomain proteins regulate BMP-2-induced OA transcription during osteoblast differentiation. Four classical homeodomain binding sites were identified in the proximal 0.96 kb region of rat OA promoter. Deletions and mutagenesis studies of the OA promoter region indicated that all four homeodomain binding sites are crucial for BMP-2-induced OA promoter activity. Simultaneous disruption of homeodomain binding sites at -852 and -843 of the transcription start site of OA gene significantly decreased the BMP-2-induced OA transcription and inhibited binding of Dlx3, Dlx5, and Msx2 proteins to the OA promoter. Dlx3 and Dlx5 proteins were found to activate the OA transcription, whereas, Msx2 suppressed BMP-2-induced OA transcription. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that the OA promoter is predominantly occupied by Dlx3 and Dlx5 during the proliferation and matrix maturation stages of osteoblast differentiation, respectively. During the matrix mineralization stage, BMP-2 robustly enhanced the recruitment of Dlx5 and to a lesser extent of Dlx3 and Msx2 to the OA promoter region. Collectively, our results show that the BMP-2-induced OA transcription is differentially regulated by Dlx3, Dlx5, and Msx2 during osteoblast differentiation.

  5. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation in planta via synthetic dCas9-based transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Piatek, Agnieszka; Ali, Zahir; Baazim, Hatoon; Li, Lixin; Abulfaraj, Aala; Al-Shareef, Sahar; Aouida, Mustapha; Mahfouz, Magdy M

    2015-05-01

    Targeted genomic regulation is a powerful approach to accelerate trait discovery and development in agricultural biotechnology. Bacteria and archaea use clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) regulatory systems for adaptive molecular immunity against foreign nucleic acids introduced by invading phages and conjugative plasmids. The type II CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted for genome editing in many cell types and organisms. A recent study used the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) protein combined with guide-RNAs (gRNAs) as a DNA-targeting platform to modulate gene expression in bacterial, yeast, and human cells. Here, we modified this DNA-targeting platform for targeted transcriptional regulation in planta by developing chimeric dCas9-based transcriptional activators and repressors. To generate transcriptional activators, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the activation domains of EDLL and TAL effectors. To generate a transcriptional repressor, we fused the dCas9 C-terminus with the SRDX repression domain. Our data demonstrate that dCas9 fusion with the EDLL activation domain (dCas9:EDLL) and the TAL activation domain (dCas9:TAD), guided by gRNAs complementary to selected promoter elements, induce strong transcriptional activation on Bs3::uidA targets in plant cells. Further, the dCas9:SRDX-mediated transcriptional repression of an endogenous gene. Thus, our results suggest that the synthetic transcriptional repressor (dCas9:SRDX) and activators (dCas9:EDLL and dCas9:TAD) can be used as endogenous transcription factors to repress or activate transcription of an endogenous genomic target. Our data indicate that the CRISPR/dCas9 DNA-targeting platform can be used in plants as a functional genomics tool and for biotechnological applications. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Hamard, Pierre-Jacques; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Camuzeaux, Barbara; Dujardin, Denis; Hauss, Charlotte; Oelgeschläger, Thomas; Vigneron, Marc; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification has emerged as an important regulator of diverse pathways and activities including protein localization and transcriptional regulation. We identified a consensus sumoylation motif (IKEE), located within the N-terminal activation domain of the ATF7 transcription factor and thus investigated the role of this modification. ATF7 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, homologous to ATF2, that binds to CRE elements within specific promoters. This protein is able to heterodimerize with Jun or Fos proteins and its transcriptional activity is mediated by interaction with TAF12, a subunit of the general transcription factor TFIID. In the present article, we demonstrate that ATF7 is sumoylated in vitro (using RanBP2 as a E3-specific ligase) and in vivo. Moreover, we show that ATF7 sumoylation affects its intranuclear localization by delaying its entry into the nucleus. Furthermore, SUMO conjugation inhibits ATF7 transactivation activity by (i) impairing its association with TAF12 and (ii) blocking its binding-to-specific sequences within target promoters.

  7. Theory on the dynamic memory in the transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, R.

    2011-04-01

    We develop a theory to explain the origin of the static and dynamical memory effects in transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation. Our results suggest that the following inequality conditions should be satisfied to observe such memory effects: (a) τL≫max(τR,τE), (b) τLT≫τT, and (c) τI⩾(τEL+τTR) where τL is the average time required for the looping-mediated spatial interactions of enhancer—transcription-factor complex with the corresponding promoter—RNA-polymerase or eukaryotic RNA polymerase type II (PolII in eukaryotes) complex that is located L base pairs away from the cis-acting element, (τR,τE) are respectively the search times required for the site-specific binding of the RNA polymerase and the transcription factor with the respective promoter and the cis-regulatory module, τLT is the time associated with the relaxation of the looped-out segment of DNA that connects the cis-acting site and promoter, τT is the time required to generate a complete transcript, τI is the transcription initiation time, τEL is the elongation time, and τTR is the termination time. We have theoretically derived the expressions for the various searching, looping, and loop-relaxation time components. Using the experimentally determined values of various time components we further show that the dynamical memory effects cannot be experimentally observed whenever the segment of DNA that connects the cis-regulatory element with the promoter is not loaded with bulky histone bodies. Our analysis suggests that the presence of histone-mediated compaction of the connecting segment of DNA can result in higher values of looping and loop-relaxation times, which is the origin of the static memory in the transcription activation that is mediated by the memory gene loops in eukaryotes.

  8. Theory on the dynamic memory in the transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Murugan, R

    2011-04-01

    We develop a theory to explain the origin of the static and dynamical memory effects in transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation. Our results suggest that the following inequality conditions should be satisfied to observe such memory effects: (a) τ(L)≫max(τ(R),τ(E)), (b) τ(LT)≫τ(T), and (c) τ(I)≥(τ(EL)+τ(TR)) where τ(L) is the average time required for the looping-mediated spatial interactions of enhancer-transcription-factor complex with the corresponding promoter--RNA-polymerase or eukaryotic RNA polymerase type II (PolII in eukaryotes) complex that is located L base pairs away from the cis-acting element, (τ(R),τ(E)) are respectively the search times required for the site-specific binding of the RNA polymerase and the transcription factor with the respective promoter and the cis-regulatory module, τ(LT) is the time associated with the relaxation of the looped-out segment of DNA that connects the cis-acting site and promoter, τ(T) is the time required to generate a complete transcript, τ(I) is the transcription initiation time, τ(EL) is the elongation time, and τ(TR) is the termination time. We have theoretically derived the expressions for the various searching, looping, and loop-relaxation time components. Using the experimentally determined values of various time components we further show that the dynamical memory effects cannot be experimentally observed whenever the segment of DNA that connects the cis-regulatory element with the promoter is not loaded with bulky histone bodies. Our analysis suggests that the presence of histone-mediated compaction of the connecting segment of DNA can result in higher values of looping and loop-relaxation times, which is the origin of the static memory in the transcription activation that is mediated by the memory gene loops in eukaryotes.

  9. Identifying genetic modulators of the connectivity between transcription factors and their transcriptional targets.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, Mina; Muroff, Ivor; Lee, Eunjee; Causton, Helen C; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2016-03-29

    Regulation of gene expression by transcription factors (TFs) is highly dependent on genetic background and interactions with cofactors. Identifying specific context factors is a major challenge that requires new approaches. Here we show that exploiting natural variation is a potent strategy for probing functional interactions within gene regulatory networks. We developed an algorithm to identify genetic polymorphisms that modulate the regulatory connectivity between specific transcription factors and their target genes in vivo. As a proof of principle, we mapped connectivity quantitative trait loci (cQTLs) using parallel genotype and gene expression data for segregants from a cross between two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We identified a nonsynonymous mutation in the DIG2 gene as a cQTL for the transcription factor Ste12p and confirmed this prediction empirically. We also identified three polymorphisms in TAF13 as putative modulators of regulation by Gcn4p. Our method has potential for revealing how genetic differences among individuals influence gene regulatory networks in any organism for which gene expression and genotype data are available along with information on binding preferences for transcription factors.

  10. Generalisation of a procedure for computing transcription factor profiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Chu, Y; Cunha, B; Hahn, J

    2010-03-01

    The limited amount of quantitative experimental data generated from life-science experiments poses a major challenge in systems biology. The reason for this is that many systems approaches, such as parameter estimation, simulation and sensitivity analysis make use of models or analyse quantitative data. However, these techniques are only of limited use if only qualitative or semi-quantitative information is available about a system. Therefore procedures that generate quantitative data from experiments in the life sciences can greatly expand the use of systems approaches to biological problems. This study addresses this issue as it introduces a procedure that computes quantitative transcription factor profiles from fluorescent microscopy data collected from green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter cells. This technique forms a generalisation of a method that has recently been introduced for monitoring NF-B profiles. The contribution made in this work is that the assumption that the transcription factor profile exhibits damped oscillations is relaxed, as transcription factors, other than the previously investigated NF-B, may exhibit different profiles. This is achieved by investigating a variety of potential profiles and solving the inverse problem for the model describing transcription, translation and activation of GFP for each one. The transcription factor profile that results in the best fit among the potential candidates, for the measured fluorescent intensity data, is then chosen as the most likely concentration profile. The technique is illustrated in two detailed case studies, where one case study involves simulation data whereas the other one uses experimentally derived fluorescent intensity data.

  11. The transcription factor ATF-3 promotes neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Seijffers, Rhona; Allchorne, Andrew J; Woolf, Clifford J

    2006-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons regenerate after a peripheral nerve injury but not after injury to their axons in the spinal cord. A key question is which transcription factors drive the changes in gene expression that increase the intrinsic growth state of peripherally injured sensory neurons? A prime candidate is activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), a transcription factor that we find is induced in all DRG neurons after peripheral, but not central axonal injury. Moreover, we show in adult DRG neurons that a preconditioning peripheral, but not central axonal injury, increases their growth, correlating closely with the pattern of ATF-3 induction. Using viral vectors, we delivered ATF-3 to cultured adult DRG neurons and find that ATF-3 enhances neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, ATF-3 promotes long sparsely branched neurites. ATF-3 overexpression did not increase c-Jun expression. ATF-3 may contribute, therefore, to neurite outgrowth by orchestrating the gene expression responses in injured neurons.

  12. Role of non-coding RNA transcription around gene regulatory elements in transcription factor recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells produce a variety of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which have been shown to play pivotal roles in biological processes such as differentiation, maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells, and cellular response to various stresses. Genome-wide analyses have revealed that many ncRNAs are transcribed around regulatory DNA elements located proximal or distal to gene promoters, but their biological functions are largely unknown. Recently, it has been demonstrated in yeast and mouse that ncRNA transcription around gene promoters and enhancers facilitates DNA binding of transcription factors to their target sites. These results suggest universal roles of promoter/enhancer-associated ncRNAs in the recruitment of transcription factors to their binding sites. PMID:27763805

  13. Transcriptional elongation factor ENL phosphorylated by ATM recruits polycomb and switches off transcription for DSB repair.

    PubMed

    Ui, Ayako; Nagaura, Yuko; Yasui, Akira

    2015-05-07

    Transcription is repressed if a DNA double-strand break (DSB) is introduced in close proximity to a transcriptional activation site at least in part by H2A-ubiquitination. While ATM signaling is involved, how it controls H2A-ubiquitination remains unclear. Here, we identify that, in response to DSBs, a transcriptional elongation factor, ENL (MLLT1), is phosphorylated by ATM at conserved SQ sites. This phosphorylation increases the interaction between ENL and the E3-ubiquitin-ligase complex of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) via BMI1. This interaction promotes enrichment of PRC1 at transcription elongation sites near DSBs to ubiquitinate H2A leading to transcriptional repression. ENL SQ sites and BMI1 are necessary for KU70 accumulation at DSBs near active transcription sites and cellular resistance to DSBs. Our data suggest that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ENL functions as switch from elongation to Polycomb-mediated repression to preserve genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Transcriptional Targets of the Dual Function Transcription Factor/Phosphatase Eyes Absent

    PubMed Central

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development. PMID:17714699

  15. CRTR-1, a developmentally regulated transcriptional repressor related to the CP2 family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rodda, S; Sharma, S; Scherer, M; Chapman, G; Rathjen, P

    2001-02-02

    CP2-related proteins comprise a family of DNA-binding transcription factors that are generally activators of transcription and expressed ubiquitously. We reported a differential display polymerase chain reaction fragment, Psc2, which was expressed in a regulated fashion in mouse pluripotent cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report further characterization of the Psc2 cDNA and function. The Psc2 cDNA contained an open reading frame homologous to CP2 family proteins. Regions implicated in DNA binding and oligomeric complex formation, but not transcription activation, were conserved. Psc2 expression in vivo during embryogenesis and in the adult mouse demonstrated tight spatial and temporal regulation, with the highest levels of expression in the epithelial lining of distal convoluted tubules in embryonic and adult kidneys. Functional analysis demonstrated that PSC2 repressed transcription 2.5-15-fold when bound to a heterologous promoter in ES, 293T, and COS-1 cells. The N-terminal 52 amino acids of PSC2 were shown to be necessary and sufficient for this activity and did not share obvious homology with reported repressor motifs. These results represent the first report of a CP2 family member that is expressed in a developmentally regulated fashion in vivo and that acts as a direct repressor of transcription. Accordingly, the protein has been named CP2-Related Transcriptional Repressor-1 (CRTR-1).

  16. Regulation of the Hippo Pathway Transcription Factor TEAD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kimberly C; Park, Hyun Woo; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2017-09-27

    The TEAD transcription factor family is best known for transcriptional output of the Hippo signaling pathway and has been implicated in processes such as development, cell growth and proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Our understanding of the functional importance of TEADs has increased dramatically since its initial discovery three decades ago. The majority of our knowledge of TEADs is in the context of Hippo signaling as nuclear DNA-binding proteins passively activated by Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional activator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ), transcription coactivators downstream of the Hippo pathway. However, recent studies suggest that TEAD itself is actively regulated. Here, we highlight evidence demonstrating Hippo-independent regulation of TEADs and the potential impacts these studies may have on new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Sigova, Alla A; Abraham, Brian J; Ji, Xiong; Molinie, Benoit; Hannett, Nancy M; Guo, Yang Eric; Jangi, Mohini; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Sharp, Phillip A; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-20

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Split personality of transcription factors inside and outside the nuclear border.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, José R; Mellström, Britt

    2007-01-30

    Growing evidence indicates that transcription factors may have functions entirely distinct from the regulation of gene transcription. Here we describe three transcription factors that, when outside the nucleus, regulate calcium homeostasis by three independent but convergent mechanisms.

  19. The Transcription Factor THO Promotes Transcription Initiation and Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; French, Sarah L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2016-02-05

    Although ribosomal RNA represents the majority of cellular RNA, and ribosome synthesis is closely connected to cell growth and proliferation rates, a complete understanding of the factors that influence transcription of ribosomal DNA is lacking. Here, we show that the THO complex positively affects transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We found that THO physically associates with the rDNA repeat and interacts genetically with Pol I transcription initiation factors. Pol I transcription in hpr1 or tho2 null mutants is dramatically reduced to less than 20% of the WT level. Pol I occupancy of the coding region of the rDNA in THO mutants is decreased to ~50% of WT level. Furthermore, although the percentage of active rDNA repeats remains unaffected in the mutant cells, the overall rDNA copy number increases ~2-fold compared with WT. Together, these data show that perturbation of THO function impairs transcription initiation and elongation by Pol I, identifying a new cellular target for the conserved THO complex. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. A Transcription Factor Pulse Can Prime Chromatin for Heritable Transcriptional Memory

    PubMed Central

    Iberg-Badeaux, Aimee; Collombet, Samuel; Laurent, Benoit; van Oevelen, Chris; Chin, Kuo-Kai; Thieffry, Denis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in postmitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM) and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli. We find that a pulse of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) induces LTTM on a subset of target genes that survives nine cell divisions. The chromatin landscape at genes that acquire LTTM is more repressed than at those genes that do not exhibit memory, akin to a latent state. We show through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chemical inhibitor studies that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation is important for establishing memory in this model but that Pol II itself is not retained as part of the memory mechanism. More generally, our work reveals that a transcription factor involved in lineage specification can induce LTTM and that failure to rerepress chromatin is one epigenetic mechanism underlying transcriptional memory. PMID:27920256

  1. A Transcription Factor Pulse Can Prime Chromatin for Heritable Transcriptional Memory.

    PubMed

    Iberg-Badeaux, Aimee; Collombet, Samuel; Laurent, Benoit; van Oevelen, Chris; Chin, Kuo-Kai; Thieffry, Denis; Graf, Thomas; Shi, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Short-term and long-term transcriptional memory is the phenomenon whereby the kinetics or magnitude of gene induction is enhanced following a prior induction period. Short-term memory persists within one cell generation or in postmitotic cells, while long-term memory can survive multiple rounds of cell division. We have developed a tissue culture model to study the epigenetic basis for long-term transcriptional memory (LTTM) and subsequently used this model to better understand the epigenetic mechanisms that enable heritable memory of temporary stimuli. We find that a pulse of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) induces LTTM on a subset of target genes that survives nine cell divisions. The chromatin landscape at genes that acquire LTTM is more repressed than at those genes that do not exhibit memory, akin to a latent state. We show through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chemical inhibitor studies that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation is important for establishing memory in this model but that Pol II itself is not retained as part of the memory mechanism. More generally, our work reveals that a transcription factor involved in lineage specification can induce LTTM and that failure to rerepress chromatin is one epigenetic mechanism underlying transcriptional memory. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Differential regulation of TGA transcription factors by post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Pontier, Dominique; Privat, Isabelle; Trifa, Youssef; Zhou, Jun-Ma; Klessig, Daniel F; Lam, Eric

    2002-12-01

    Transcription factors often belong to multigene families and their individual contribution in a particular regulatory network remains difficult to assess. We show here that specific members from a family of conserved Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factors, the TGA proteins, are regulated in their protein stability by developmental stage-specific proteolysis. Using GFP fusions of three different Arabidopsis TGA factors that represent members of distinct subclasses of the TGA factor family, we demonstrate that two of these TGA proteins are specifically targeted for proteolysis in mature leaf cells. Using a supershift gel mobility assay, we found evidence for similar regulation of the cognate proteins as compared to the GFP fusion proteins expressed under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Using various inhibitors, we showed that the expression of at least one of these three TGA factors could be stabilized by inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis. This study indicates that TGA transcription factors may be regulated by distinct pathways of targeted proteolysis that can serve to modulate the contribution of specific members of a multigene family in complex regulatory pathways.

  3. In vivo phosphorylation of WRKY transcription factor by MAPK.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Nobuaki; Adachi, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Plants activate signaling networks in response to diverse pathogen-derived signals, facilitating transcriptional reprogramming through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Identification of phosphorylation targets of MAPK and in vivo detection of the phosphorylated substrates are important processes to elucidate the signaling pathway in plant immune responses. We have identified a WRKY transcription factor, which is phosphorylated by defense-related MAPKs, SIPK and WIPK. Recent evidence demonstrated that some group I WRKY transcription factors, which contain a conserved motif in the N-terminal region, are activated by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation. In this chapter, we describe protocols for preparation of anti-phosphopeptide antibodies, detection of activated MAPKs using anti-phospho-MAPK antibody, and activated WRKY using anti-phospho-WRKY antibody, respectively.

  4. Transcriptional Profiling of Intrinsic PNS Factors in the Postnatal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robin P.; Lerch-Haner, Jessica K.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Buchser, William J.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) display a higher capacity to regenerate after injury than those in the central nervous system, suggesting cell specific transcriptional modules underlying axon growth and inhibition. We report a systems biology based search for PNS specific transcription factors (TFs). Messenger RNAs enriched in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons compared to cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were identified using subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray approaches. Network and transcription factor binding site enrichment analyses were used to further identify TFs that may be differentially active. Combining these techniques, we identified 32 TFs likely to be enriched and/or active in the PNS. Twenty-five of these TFs were then tested for an ability to promote CNS neurite outgrowth in an overexpression screen. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that one representative TF, STAT3, is intrinsic to PNS neurons, and that constitutively active STAT3 is sufficient to promote CGN neurite outgrowth. PMID:20696251

  5. Transcriptional profiling of intrinsic PNS factors in the postnatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robin P; Lerch-Haner, Jessica K; Pardinas, Jose R; Buchser, William J; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) display a higher capacity to regenerate after injury than those in the central nervous system, suggesting cell specific transcriptional modules underlying axon growth and inhibition. We report a systems biology based search for PNS specific transcription factors (TFs). Messenger RNAs enriched in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons compared to cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were identified using subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray approaches. Network and transcription factor binding site enrichment analyses were used to further identify TFs that may be differentially active. Combining these techniques, we identified 32 TFs likely to be enriched and/or active in the PNS. Twenty-five of these TFs were then tested for an ability to promote CNS neurite outgrowth in an overexpression screen. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that one representative TF, STAT3, is intrinsic to PNS neurons, and that constitutively active STAT3 is sufficient to promote CGN neurite outgrowth.

  6. Resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2017-03-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin of grapes and other fruits and plants, is a common constituent of our diet and of dietary supplements. Many health-promoting benefits have been connected with resveratrol in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and diseases connected with aging. To explain the pleiotropic effects of resveratrol, the molecular targets of this compound have to be identified on the cellular level. Resveratrol induces intracellular signal transduction pathways which ultimately lead to changes in the gene expression pattern of the cells. Here, we review the effect of resveratrol on the activation of the stimulus-responsive transcription factors CREB, AP-1, Egr-1, Elk-1, and Nrf2. Following activation, these transcription factors induce transcription of delayed response genes. The gene products of these delayed response genes are ultimately responsible for the changes in the biochemistry and physiology of resveratrol-treated cells. The activation of stimulus-responsive transcription factors may explain many of the intracellular activities of resveratrol. However, results obtained in vitro may not easily be transferred to in vivo systems.

  7. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-05

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na(+)-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na(+) currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases.

  8. Regulation of neural gene transcription by optogenetic inhibition of the RE1-silencing transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Paonessa, Francesco; Criscuolo, Stefania; Sacchetti, Silvio; Amoroso, Davide; Scarongella, Helena; Pecoraro Bisogni, Federico; Carminati, Emanuele; Pruzzo, Giacomo; Maragliano, Luca; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics provides new ways to activate gene transcription; however, no attempts have been made as yet to modulate mammalian transcription factors. We report the light-mediated regulation of the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST), a master regulator of neural genes. To tune REST activity, we selected two protein domains that impair REST-DNA binding or recruitment of the cofactor mSin3a. Computational modeling guided the fusion of the inhibitory domains to the light-sensitive Avena sativa light–oxygen–voltage-sensing (LOV) 2-phototrophin 1 (AsLOV2). By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, we achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na+-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na+ currents and neuronal firing. This optogenetic approach allows the coordinated expression of a cluster of genes impinging on neuronal activity, providing a tool for studying neuronal physiology and correcting gene expression changes taking place in brain diseases. PMID:26699507

  9. In vitro squelching of activated transcription by serum response factor: evidence for a common coactivator used by multiple transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Prywes, R; Zhu, H

    1992-01-01

    Low amounts of serum response factor (SRF) activate transcription in vitro from a fos promoter construct containing an SRF binding site. Using this human HeLa cell-derived in vitro transcription system, we have found that high amounts of SRF inhibited, or 'squelched', transcription from this construct. Transcription from several other promoters activated by different gene-specific factors, including CREB and the acidic activator VP16, was also inhibited by high amounts of SRF. Basal transcription, from TATA-only promoters, however, was not inhibited. These results suggest that SRF binds to a common factor(s) (termed coactivator) required for activated transcription by a diverse group of transcriptional activators. Inhibition of transcription by SRF could be blocked by a double stranded oligonucleotide containing an SRF binding site. Mutations in SRF which abolished its DNA binding activity also reduced its ability to inhibit transcription. In addition, a C-terminal truncation of SRF which reduced its ability to activate transcription also reduced SRF's ability to inhibit transcription. These results suggest that activation and inhibition of transcription may be mediated by SRF binding to the same factor and that SRF can only bind to this factor when SRF is bound to plasmid DNA. Images PMID:1531519

  10. The WRKY transcription factor family and senescence in switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Early aerial senescence in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can significantly limit biomass yields. WRKY transcription factors that can regulate senescence could be used to reprogram senescence and enhance biomass yields. Methods: All potential WRKY genes present in the version 1.0 of the...

  11. Why Transcription Factor Binding Sites Are Ten Nucleotides Long

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Hannenhalli, Sridhar; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled primarily by transcription factors, whose DNA binding sites are typically 10 nt long. We develop a population-genetic model to understand how the length and information content of such binding sites evolve. Our analysis is based on an inherent trade-off between specificity, which is greater in long binding sites, and robustness to mutation, which is greater in short binding sites. The evolutionary stable distribution of binding site lengths predicted by the model agrees with the empirical distribution (5–31 nt, with mean 9.9 nt for eukaryotes), and it is remarkably robust to variation in the underlying parameters of population size, mutation rate, number of transcription factor targets, and strength of selection for proper binding and selection against improper binding. In a systematic data set of eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription factors we also uncover strong relationships between the length of a binding site and its information content per nucleotide, as well as between the number of targets a transcription factor regulates and the information content in its binding sites. Our analysis explains these features as well as the remarkable conservation of binding site characteristics across diverse taxa. PMID:22887818

  12. A Recommendation for Naming Transcription Factor Proteins in the Grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcription factors are central for the exquisite temporal and spatial expression patterns of many genes. These proteins are characterized by their ability to be tethered to particular regulatory sequences in the genes that they control. While many other proteins participate in the regulation of g...

  13. Metastatic Bone Disease: Role of Transcription Factors and Future Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Jitesh; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of cancer from the earliest event of cell transformation through stages of tumor growth and metastasis at a distal site involves many complex biological processes. Underlying the numerous responses of cancer cells to the tumor microenvironment which support their survival, migration and metastasis are transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes reflecting properties of the tumor cell. A number of transcription factors have been identified that play key roles in promoting oncogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis and tissue destruction. Relevant to solid tumors and leukemias, tissue specific transcription factors that are deregulated resulting from mutations, being silenced or aberrantly expressed, have been well characterized. These are the master transcription factors of the Runx family of genes, the focus of this review, with emphasis placed on Runx2 that is abnormally expressed at very high levels in cancer cell lines that are metastatic to bone. Recent evidence has identified a correlation of Runx2 levels in advanced stages of prostate and breast cancer and demonstrated that effective depletion of Runx2 by RNA interference inhibits migration and invasive properties of the cells prevents metastatic bone disease. This striking effect is consistent with the broad spectrum of Runx2 properties in activating many genes in tumor cells that have already been established as indicators of bone metastasis in poor prognosis. Potential strategies to translate these findings for therapeutic applications are discussed. PMID:20561908

  14. Control of cellulose biosynthesis by overexpression of a transcription factor

    DOEpatents

    Han, Kyung-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Heung; Kim, Won-Chan; Kim; , Joo-Yeol

    2017-05-16

    The invention relates to the over-expression of a transcription factor selected from the group consisting of MYB46, HAM1, HAM2, MYB112, WRKY11, ERF6, and any combination thereof in a plant, which can modulate and thereby modulating the cellulose content of the plant.

  15. Epistatic relationships reveal the functional organization of yeast transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiashun; Benschop, Joris J; Shales, Michael; Kemmeren, Patrick; Greenblatt, Jack; Cagney, Gerard; Holstege, Frank; Li, Hao; Krogan, Nevan J

    2010-10-05

    The regulation of gene expression is, in large part, mediated by interplay between the general transcription factors (GTFs) that function to bring about the expression of many genes and site-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (STFs). Here, quantitative genetic profiling using the epistatic miniarray profile (E-MAP) approach allowed us to measure 48 391 pairwise genetic interactions, both negative (aggravating) and positive (alleviating), between and among genes encoding STFs and GTFs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This allowed us to both reconstruct regulatory models for specific subsets of transcription factors and identify global epistatic patterns. Overall, there was a much stronger preference for negative relative to positive genetic interactions among STFs than there was among GTFs. Negative genetic interactions, which often identify factors working in non-essential, redundant pathways, were also enriched for pairs of STFs that co-regulate similar sets of genes. Microarray analysis demonstrated that pairs of STFs that display negative genetic interactions regulate gene expression in an independent rather than coordinated manner. Collectively, these data suggest that parallel/compensating relationships between regulators, rather than linear pathways, often characterize transcriptional circuits.

  16. The forkhead transcription factor AFX activates apoptosis by induction of the BCL-6 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tracy Tzu-Ling; Dowbenko, Donald; Jackson, Amanda; Toney, Lisa; Lewin, David A; Dent, Alexander L; Lasky, Laurence A

    2002-04-19

    The activation of the AKT/protein kinase B kinases by mutation of the PTEN lipid phosphatase results in enhanced survival of a diversity of tumors. This resistance to apoptosis is partly accomplished by the inhibition of genetic programs induced by a subfamily of forkhead transcription factors including AFX. Here we describe an AFX-regulated pathway that appears to account for at least part of this apoptotic regulatory system. Cells induced to synthesize an active form of AFX die by activating the apoptotic death pathway. An analysis of genes regulated by AFX demonstrated that BCL-6, a transcriptional repressor, is up-regulated approximately 4-7-fold. An examination of the BCL-6 promoter demonstrated that AFX bound to specific target sites that could activate transcription. BCL-X(L), an anti-apoptotic protein, contains potential BCL-6 target sites in its promoter. An analysis of endogenous BCL-X(L) levels in AFX-expressing cells revealed enhanced down-regulation of the transcript ( approximately 1.3-1.7-fold) and protein, and BCL-6 directly binds to and suppresses the BCL-X(L) promoter. Finally, macrophages isolated from BCL-6-/- mice show enhanced survival in vitro. These results suggest that AFX regulates apoptosis in part by suppressing the levels of anti-apoptotic BCL-XL through the transcriptional repressor BCL-6.

  17. Controlling for Gene Expression Changes in Transcription Factor Protein Networks*

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Charles A. S.; Lee, Zachary T.; Boanca, Gina; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Groppe, Brad D.; Wen, Zhihui; Hattem, Gaye L.; Seidel, Chris W.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    The development of affinity purification technologies combined with mass spectrometric analysis of purified protein mixtures has been used both to identify new protein–protein interactions and to define the subunit composition of protein complexes. Transcription factor protein interactions, however, have not been systematically analyzed using these approaches. Here, we investigated whether ectopic expression of an affinity tagged transcription factor as bait in affinity purification mass spectrometry experiments perturbs gene expression in cells, resulting in the false positive identification of bait-associated proteins when typical experimental controls are used. Using quantitative proteomics and RNA sequencing, we determined that the increase in the abundance of a set of proteins caused by overexpression of the transcription factor RelA is not sufficient for these proteins to then co-purify non-specifically and be misidentified as bait-associated proteins. Therefore, typical controls should be sufficient, and a number of different baits can be compared with a common set of controls. This is of practical interest when identifying bait interactors from a large number of different baits. As expected, we found several known RelA interactors enriched in our RelA purifications (NFκB1, NFκB2, Rel, RelB, IκBα, IκBβ, and IκBε). We also found several proteins not previously described in association with RelA, including the small mitochondrial chaperone Tim13. Using a variety of biochemical approaches, we further investigated the nature of the association between Tim13 and NFκB family transcription factors. This work therefore provides a conceptual and experimental framework for analyzing transcription factor protein interactions. PMID:24722732

  18. Repression of chimeric transcripts emanating from endogenous retrotransposons by a sequence-specific transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retroviral elements are pervasively transcribed and dynamically regulated during development. While multiple histone- and DNA-modifying enzymes have broadly been associated with their global silencing, little is known about how the many diverse retroviral families are each selectively recognized. Results Here we show that the zinc finger protein Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) specifically silences transcription from the ORR1A0 long terminal repeat in murine fetal and adult erythroid cells. In the absence of KLF3, we detect widespread transcription from ORR1A0 elements driven by the master erythroid regulator KLF1. In several instances these aberrant transcripts are spliced to downstream genic exons. One such chimeric transcript produces a novel, dominant negative isoform of PU.1 that can induce erythroid differentiation. Conclusions We propose that KLF3 ensures the integrity of the murine erythroid transcriptome through the selective repression of a particular retroelement and is likely one of multiple sequence-specific factors that cooperate to achieve global silencing. PMID:24946810

  19. Analysis of Genomic Sequence Motifs for Deciphering Transcription Factor Binding and Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites, and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation. PMID:26941778

  20. The EDLL motif: a potent plant transcriptional activation domain from AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shiv B; Belachew, Alemu; Ma, Siu Fong; Young, Melinda; Ade, Jules; Shen, Yu; Marion, Colleen M; Holtan, Hans E; Bailey, Adina; Stone, Jeffrey K; Edwards, Leslie; Wallace, Andreah D; Canales, Roger D; Adam, Luc; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Repetti, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    In plants, the ERF/EREBP family of transcriptional regulators plays a key role in adaptation to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins contain a conserved AP2 DNA-binding domain and several uncharacterized motifs. Here, we describe a short motif, termed 'EDLL', that is present in AtERF98/TDR1 and other clade members from the same AP2 sub-family. We show that the EDLL motif, which has a unique arrangement of acidic amino acids and hydrophobic leucines, functions as a strong activation domain. The motif is transferable to other proteins, and is active at both proximal and distal positions of target promoters. As such, the EDLL motif is able to partly overcome the repression conferred by the AtHB2 transcription factor, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. We further examined the activation potential of EDLL by analysis of the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y (nuclear factor Y) proteins. Genetic evidence indicates that NF-Y protein complexes potentiate the action of CONSTANS in regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis; we show that the transcriptional activation function of CONSTANS can be substituted by direct fusion of the EDLL activation motif to NF-YB subunits. The EDLL motif represents a potent plant activation domain that can be used as a tool to confer transcriptional activation potential to heterologous DNA-binding proteins.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, H. Susana; Real, Carla; Cyrne, Luísa; Soares, Helena; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR), lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4) and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1) are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1) synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii) stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii) cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv) DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for highly

  2. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-03-18

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, 'Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli' (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Transcription profile of Escherichia coli: genomic SELEX search for regulatory targets of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Ishihama, Akira; Shimada, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes are transcribed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), which achieves gene selectivity through interaction with sigma factors that recognize promoters, and transcription factors (TFs) that control the activity and specificity of RNAP holoenzyme. To understand the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, the identification of regulatory targets is needed for all these factors. We then performed genomic SELEX screenings of targets under the control of each sigma factor and each TF. Here we describe the assembly of 156 SELEX patterns of a total of 116 TFs performed in the presence and absence of effector ligands. The results reveal several novel concepts: (i) each TF regulates more targets than hitherto recognized; (ii) each promoter is regulated by more TFs than hitherto recognized; and (iii) the binding sites of some TFs are located within operons and even inside open reading frames. The binding sites of a set of global regulators, including cAMP receptor protein, LeuO and Lrp, overlap with those of the silencer H-NS, suggesting that certain global regulators play an anti-silencing role. To facilitate sharing of these accumulated SELEX datasets with the research community, we compiled a database, ‘Transcription Profile of Escherichia coli’ (www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/tec/). PMID:26843427

  4. Transcription factors mediate long-range enhancer-promoter interactions.

    PubMed

    Nolis, Ilias K; McKay, Daniel J; Mantouvalou, Eva; Lomvardas, Stavros; Merika, Menie; Thanos, Dimitris

    2009-12-01

    We examined how remote enhancers establish physical communication with target promoters to activate gene transcription in response to environmental signals. Although the natural IFN-beta enhancer is located immediately upstream of the core promoter, it also can function as a classical enhancer element conferring virus infection-dependent activation of heterologous promoters, even when it is placed several kilobases away from these promoters. We demonstrated that the remote IFN-beta enhancer "loops out" the intervening DNA to reach the target promoter. These chromatin loops depend on sequence-specific transcription factors bound to the enhancer and the promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer-promoter interactions, especially in complex genetic loci. Transcription factor binding sites scattered between an enhancer and a promoter can work as decoys trapping the enhancer in nonproductive loops, thus resembling insulator elements. Finally, replacement of the transcription factor binding sites involved in DNA looping with those of a heterologous prokaryotic protein, the lambda repressor, which is capable of loop formation, rescues enhancer function from a distance by re-establishing enhancer-promoter loop formation.

  5. The transcription factor network in Th9 cells.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    The development of T helper cell subsets requires activated T cells that respond to a polarizing cytokine environment resulting in the activation and expression of transcription factors. The subset-specific transcription factors bind and induce the production of specific effector cytokines. Th9 cells express IL-9 and develop in the presence of TGFβ, IL-4, and IL-2. Each of these cytokines activates signaling pathways that are required for Th9 differentiation and IL-9 production. In this review, I summarize what is currently understood about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that promote the Th9 genetic program, providing some perspective for the integration of the signals in regulating the Il9 gene and dictating the expression of other Th9-associated genes. I highlight how experiments in mouse cells have established a transcriptional network that is conserved in human T cells and set the stage toward defining the next important questions for a more detailed understanding of Th9 cell development and function.

  6. TFClass: an expandable hierarchical classification of human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wingender, Edgar; Schoeps, Torsten; Dönitz, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    TFClass (http://tfclass.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/) provides a comprehensive classification of human transcription factors based on their DNA-binding domains. Transcription factors constitute a large functional family of proteins directly regulating the activity of genes. Most of them are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, thus reading out the information encoded in cis-regulatory DNA elements of promoters, enhancers and other regulatory regions of a genome. TFClass is a database that classifies human transcription factors by a six-level classification schema, four of which are abstractions according to different criteria, while the fifth level represents TF genes and the sixth individual gene products. Altogether, nine superclasses have been identified, comprising 40 classes and 111 families. Counted by genes, 1558 human TFs have been classified so far or >2900 different TFs when including their isoforms generated by alternative splicing or protein processing events. With this classification, we hope to provide a basis for deciphering protein–DNA recognition codes; moreover, it can be used for constructing expanded transcriptional networks by inferring additional TF-target gene relations. PMID:23180794

  7. MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Duan, Shaowei; Zhu, Yana; Qi, Shuanghui; Liu, Kaige; Gao, Chenhao; Ma, Haoli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2017-01-01

    In many higher plants, seed oil accumulation is precisely controlled by intricate multilevel regulatory networks, among which transcriptional regulation mainly influences oil biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the master positive transcription factors, WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), are important for seed oil accumulation. We found that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, MYB89, was expressed predominantly in developing seeds during maturation. Oil and major fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds was significantly promoted by myb89-1 mutation and MYB89 knockdown; thus, MYB89 was an important repressor during seed oil accumulation. RNA sequencing revealed remarkable up-regulation of numerous genes involved in seed oil accumulation in myb89 seeds at 12 d after pollination. Posttranslational activation of a MYB89-glucocorticoid receptor fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that MYB89 inhibited seed oil accumulation by directly repressing WRI1 and five key genes and by indirectly suppressing L1L and 11 key genes involved in oil biosynthesis during seed maturation. These results help us to understand the novel function of MYB89 and provide new insights into the regulatory network of transcriptional factors controlling seed oil accumulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:27932421

  8. Transcription factor binding site analysis identifies FOXO transcription factors as regulators of the cutaneous wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Roupé, Karl Markus; Veerla, Srinivas; Olson, Joshua; Stone, Erica L; Sørensen, Ole E; Hedrick, Stephen M; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The search for significantly overrepresented and co-occurring transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of the most differentially expressed genes in microarray data sets could be a powerful approach for finding key regulators of complex biological processes. To test this concept, two previously published independent data sets on wounded human epidermis were re-analyzed. The presence of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites for FOXO1, FOXO3 and FOXO4 in the majority of the promoter regions of the most significantly differentially expressed genes between non-wounded and wounded epidermis implied an important role for FOXO transcription factors during wound healing. Expression levels of FOXO transcription factors during wound healing in vivo in both human and mouse skin were analyzed and a decrease for all FOXOs in human wounded skin was observed, with FOXO3 having the highest expression level in non wounded skin. Impaired re-epithelialization was found in cultures of primary human keratinocytes expressing a constitutively active variant of FOXO3. Conversely knockdown of FOXO3 in keratinocytes had the opposite effect and in an in vivo mouse model with FOXO3 knockout mice we detected significantly accelerated wound healing. This article illustrates that the proposed approach is a viable method for identifying important regulators of complex biological processes using in vivo samples. FOXO3 has not previously been implicated as an important regulator of wound healing and its exact function in this process calls for further investigation.

  9. Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II regulates uncoupling protein 3 gene transcription in Phodopus sungorus

    PubMed Central

    Fromme, Tobias; Reichwald, Kathrin; Platzer, Matthias; Li, Xing-Sheng; Klingenspor, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Ucp3 is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane with a role in lipid metabolism preventing deleterious effects of fatty acids in states of high lipid oxidation. Ucp3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and controlled by a transcription factor complex including PPARalpha, MyoD and the histone acetyltransferase p300. Several studies have demonstrated interaction of these factors with chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (Coup-TFII). This nuclear receptor is involved in organogenesis and other developmental processes including skeletal muscle development, but also co-regulates a number of metabolic genes. In this study we in silico analyzed the upstream region of Ucp3 of the Djungarian hamster Phodopus sungorus and identified several putative response elements for Coup-TFII. We therefore investigated whether Coup-TFII is a further player in the transcriptional control of the Ucp3 gene in rodents. Results By quantitative PCR we demonstrated a positive correlation of Coup-TFII and Ucp3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in response to food deprivation and cold exposure, respectively. In reporter gene assays Coup-TFII enhanced transactivation of the Ucp3 promoter conveyed by MyoD, PPARalpha, RXRalpha and/or p300. Using deletions and mutated constructs, we identified a Coup-TFII enhancer element 816–840 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Binding of Coup-TFII to this upstream enhancer was confirmed in electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Conclusion Transcriptional regulation of the Coup-TFII gene in response to starvation and cold exposure seems to be the regulatory mechanism of Ucp3 mRNA expression in brown adipose and skeletal muscle tissue determining the final appropriate rate of transcript synthesis. These findings add a crucial component to the complex transcriptional machinery controlling expression of Ucp3. Given the substantial evidence

  10. Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Raymond E; Cornejo, Melanie; Davis, Tina N; Del Bianco, Cristina; Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C; Kung, Andrew L; Gilliland, D Gary; Verdine, Gregory L; Bradner, James E

    2009-11-12

    Direct inhibition of transcription factor complexes remains a central challenge in the discipline of ligand discovery. In general, these proteins lack surface involutions suitable for high-affinity binding by small molecules. Here we report the design of synthetic, cell-permeable, stabilized alpha-helical peptides that target a critical protein-protein interface in the NOTCH transactivation complex. We demonstrate that direct, high-affinity binding of the hydrocarbon-stapled peptide SAHM1 prevents assembly of the active transcriptional complex. Inappropriate NOTCH activation is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of several disease states, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). The treatment of leukaemic cells with SAHM1 results in genome-wide suppression of NOTCH-activated genes. Direct antagonism of the NOTCH transcriptional program causes potent, NOTCH-specific anti-proliferative effects in cultured cells and in a mouse model of NOTCH1-driven T-ALL.

  11. Determination and inference of eukaryotic transcription factor sequence specificity.

    PubMed

    Weirauch, Matthew T; Yang, Ally; Albu, Mihai; Cote, Atina G; Montenegro-Montero, Alejandro; Drewe, Philipp; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Lambert, Samuel A; Mann, Ishminder; Cook, Kate; Zheng, Hong; Goity, Alejandra; van Bakel, Harm; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Galli, Mary; Lewsey, Mathew G; Huang, Eryong; Mukherjee, Tuhin; Chen, Xiaoting; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Shaulsky, Gad; Walhout, Albertha J M; Bouget, François-Yves; Ratsch, Gunnar; Larrondo, Luis F; Ecker, Joseph R; Hughes, Timothy R

    2014-09-11

    Transcription factor (TF) DNA sequence preferences direct their regulatory activity, but are currently known for only ∼1% of eukaryotic TFs. Broadly sampling DNA-binding domain (DBD) types from multiple eukaryotic clades, we determined DNA sequence preferences for >1,000 TFs encompassing 54 different DBD classes from 131 diverse eukaryotes. We find that closely related DBDs almost always have very similar DNA sequence preferences, enabling inference of motifs for ∼34% of the ∼170,000 known or predicted eukaryotic TFs. Sequences matching both measured and inferred motifs are enriched in chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks and upstream of transcription start sites in diverse eukaryotic lineages. SNPs defining expression quantitative trait loci in Arabidopsis promoters are also enriched for predicted TF binding sites. Importantly, our motif "library" can be used to identify specific TFs whose binding may be altered by human disease risk alleles. These data present a powerful resource for mapping transcriptional networks across eukaryotes.

  12. Spurious transcription factor binding: Non-functional or genetically redundant?

    PubMed Central

    Spivakov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on the DNA are generally accepted as the key nodes of gene control. However, the multitudes of TFBSs identified in genome-wide studies, some of them seemingly unconstrained in evolution, have prompted the view that in many cases TF binding may serve no biological function. Yet, insights from transcriptional biochemistry, population genetics and functional genomics suggest that rather than segregating into ‘functional’ or ‘non-functional’, TFBS inputs to their target genes may be generally cumulative, with varying degrees of potency and redundancy. As TFBS redundancy can be diminished by mutations and environmental stress, some of the apparently ‘spurious’ sites may turn out to be important for maintaining adequate transcriptional regulation under these conditions. This has significant implications for interpreting the phenotypic effects of TFBS mutations, particularly in the context of genome-wide association studies for complex traits. PMID:24888900

  13. Direct inhibition of the NOTCH transcription factor complex

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Raymond E.; Cornejo, Melanie; Davis, Tina N.; Del Bianco, Cristina; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Kung, Andrew L.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Verdine, Gregory L.; Bradner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Direct inhibition of transcription factor complexes remains a central challenge in the discipline of ligand discovery. In general, these proteins lack surface involutions suitable for high-affinity binding by small molecules. Here we report the design of synthetic, cell-permeable, stabilized α-helical peptides that target a critical protein–protein interface in the NOTCH transactivation complex. We demonstrate that direct, high-affinity binding of the hydrocarbon-stapled peptide SAHM1 prevents assembly of the active transcriptional complex. Inappropriate NOTCH activation is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of several disease states, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). The treatment of leukaemic cells with SAHM1 results in genome-wide suppression of NOTCH-activated genes. Direct antagonism of the NOTCH transcriptional program causes potent, NOTCH-specific anti-proliferative effects in cultured cells and in a mouse model of NOTCH1-driven T-ALL. PMID:19907488

  14. Molecular mechanisms of ETS transcription factor mediated tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Adwitiya; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors is critical for development, differentiation, proliferation and also has a role in apoptosis and tissue remodeling. Changes in expression of ETS proteins therefore have a significant impact on normal physiology of the cell. Transcriptional consequences of ETS protein deregulation by overexpression, gene fusion, and modulation by RAS/MAPK signaling are linked to alterations in normal cell functions, and lead to unlimited increased proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Existing data show that ETS proteins control pathways in epithelial cells as well as stromal compartments, and the crosstalk between the two is essential for normal development and cancer. In this review we have focused on ETS factors with a known contribution in cancer development. Instead of focusing on a prototype, we address cancer associated ETS proteins and have highlighted the diverse mechanisms by which they affect carcinogenesis. Finally, we discuss strategies for ETS factor targeting as a potential means for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24066765

  15. Molecular mechanisms of ETS transcription factor-mediated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kar, Adwitiya; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family of transcription factors is critical for development, differentiation, proliferation and also has a role in apoptosis and tissue remodeling. Changes in expression of ETS proteins therefore have a significant impact on normal physiology of the cell. Transcriptional consequences of ETS protein deregulation by overexpression, gene fusion, and modulation by RAS/MAPK signaling are linked to alterations in normal cell functions, and lead to unlimited increased proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Existing data show that ETS proteins control pathways in epithelial cells as well as stromal compartments, and the crosstalk between the two is essential for normal development and cancer. In this review, we have focused on ETS factors with a known contribution in cancer development. Instead of focusing on a prototype, we address cancer associated ETS proteins and have highlighted the diverse mechanisms by which they affect carcinogenesis. Finally, we discuss strategies for ETS factor targeting as a potential means for cancer therapeutics.

  16. Transcription factor clusters regulate genes in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Erik G; Friemann, Rosmarie; Hohmann, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Transcription is regulated through binding factors to gene promoters to activate or repress expression, however, the mechanisms by which factors find targets remain unclear. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, we determined in vivo stoichiometry and spatiotemporal dynamics of a GFP tagged repressor, Mig1, from a paradigm signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find the repressor operates in clusters, which upon extracellular signal detection, translocate from the cytoplasm, bind to nuclear targets and turnover. Simulations of Mig1 configuration within a 3D yeast genome model combined with a promoter-specific, fluorescent translation reporter confirmed clusters are the functional unit of gene regulation. In vitro and structural analysis on reconstituted Mig1 suggests that clusters are stabilized by depletion forces between intrinsically disordered sequences. We observed similar clusters of a co-regulatory activator from a different pathway, supporting a generalized cluster model for transcription factors that reduces promoter search times through intersegment transfer while stabilizing gene expression. PMID:28841133

  17. A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Sheila S; An, Luye; Hansen, Anders S; Xie, Liangqi; Darzacq, Xavier; Tjian, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, transcription is shut off, chromatin condenses, and most transcription factors (TFs) are reported to be excluded from chromosomes. How do daughter cells re-establish the original transcription program? Recent discoveries that a select set of TFs remain bound on mitotic chromosomes suggest a potential mechanism for maintaining transcriptional programs through the cell cycle termed mitotic bookmarking. Here we report instead that many TFs remain associated with chromosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells, and that the exclusion previously described is largely a fixation artifact. In particular, most TFs we tested are significantly enriched on mitotic chromosomes. Studies with Sox2 reveal that this mitotic interaction is more dynamic than in interphase and is facilitated by both DNA binding and nuclear import. Furthermore, this dynamic mode results from lack of transcriptional activation rather than decreased accessibility of underlying DNA sequences in mitosis. The nature of the cross-linking artifact prompts careful re-examination of the role of TFs in mitotic bookmarking. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22280.001 PMID:27855781

  18. Functionality of soybean CBF/DREB1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Randall, Stephen K

    2016-05-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is considered to be cold intolerant and is not able to significantly acclimate to cold/freezing stress. In most cold tolerant plants, the C-repeat/DRE Binding Factors (CBF/DREBs) are critical contributors to successful cold-responses; rapidly increasing following cold treatment and regulating the induction of many cold responsive genes. In soybean vegetative tissue, we found strong, transient accumulation of CBF transcripts in response to cold stress; however, the soybean transcripts of typical cold responsive genes (homologues to Arabidopsis genes such as dehydrins, ADH1, RAP2.1, and LEA14) were not significantly altered. Soybean CBFs were found to be functional, as when expressed constitutively in Arabidopsis they increased the levels of AtCOR47 and AtRD29a transcripts and increased freezing tolerance as measured by a decrease in leaf freezing damage and ion leakage. Furthermore the constitutive expression of GmDREB1A;2 and GmDREB1B;1 in Arabidopsis led to stronger up-regulation of downstream genes and more freezing tolerance than GmDREB1A;1, the gene whose transcript is the major contributor to total CBF/DREB1 transcripts in soybean. The inability for the soybean CBFs to significantly up regulate the soybean genes that contribute to cold tolerance is consistent with poor acclimation capability and the cold intolerance of soybean.

  19. Effects of cytosine methylation on transcription factor binding sites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation in promoters is closely linked to downstream gene repression. However, whether DNA methylation is a cause or a consequence of gene repression remains an open question. If it is a cause, then DNA methylation may affect the affinity of transcription factors (TFs) for their binding sites (TFBSs). If it is a consequence, then gene repression caused by chromatin modification may be stabilized by DNA methylation. Until now, these two possibilities have been supported only by non-systematic evidence and they have not been tested on a wide range of TFs. An average promoter methylation is usually used in studies, whereas recent results suggested that methylation of individual cytosines can also be important. Results We found that the methylation profiles of 16.6% of cytosines and the expression profiles of neighboring transcriptional start sites (TSSs) were significantly negatively correlated. We called the CpGs corresponding to such cytosines “traffic lights”. We observed a strong selection against CpG “traffic lights” within TFBSs. The negative selection was stronger for transcriptional repressors as compared with transcriptional activators or multifunctional TFs as well as for core TFBS positions as compared with flanking TFBS positions. Conclusions Our results indicate that direct and selective methylation of certain TFBS that prevents TF binding is restricted to special cases and cannot be considered as a general regulatory mechanism of transcription. PMID:24669864

  20. Training response of mitochondrial transcription factors in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, J; Wallman, S E; Gustafsson, T; Rundqvist, H; Jansson, E; Sundberg, C J

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is essential for physical performance and health. Aerobic fitness is positively associated with mitochondrial (mt) biogenesis in muscle cells through partly unknown regulatory mechanisms. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of exercise and training status on key mt transcription factors in relation to oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle. The basal mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitochondrial transcription factors B1 (TFB1M) or B2 (TFB2M), and mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF), were measured in a cross-sectional study with elite athletes (EA) and moderately active (MA) and the basal mRNA levels of these factors were measured during a 10-day endurance training programme with (R-leg) and without (NR-leg) restricted blood flow to the working leg. TFAM protein expression was significantly higher in the EA than in the MA, while protein levels of TFB1M and TFB2M were not different between the groups. There was no difference between EA and MA, or any effect with training on TFAM mRNA levels. However, the mRNA levels of TFB1M, TFB2M and mTERF were higher in EA compared with MA. For TFB1M and TFB2M, the mRNA expression was increased in the R-leg after 10 days of training, but not in the NR-leg. mTERF mRNA levels were higher in EA compared with MA. This study further establishes that TFAM protein levels are higher in conditions with enhanced oxidative capacity. The mRNA levels of TFB1M and TFB2M are influenced by endurance training, possibly suggesting a role for these factors in the regulation of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis.

  1. Cellular transcription factor YY1 mediates the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE62 transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin; Arvin, Ann; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T

    2014-01-20

    Several cellular transcription factors have been shown to be involved in IE62-mediated activation. The YY1 cellular transcription factor has activating and repressive effects on gene transcription. Analysis of the VZV genome revealed 19 postulated YY1 binding sites located within putative promoters of 16 VZV genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) confirmed the binding of YY1 to ORF10, ORF28/29 and gI promoters and the mutation of these binding sites inhibited YY1 binding and the promoter activation by IE62 alone or following VZV infection. Mutation of the ORF28/29 YY1 site in the VZV genome displayed insignificant influence on virus growth in melanoma cells; but it inhibited the virus replication significantly at day 5 and 6 post infection in HELF cells. This work suggests a novel role for the cellular factor YY1 in VZV replication through the mediation of IE62 activation of viral gene expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Snapshots of a hybrid transcription factor in the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuelian

    2010-09-01

    The Hippo pathway plays key roles in animal development. It suppresses tumorigenesis by controlling the transcription of the target genes that are critical for cell proliferation and apoptosis. The transcriptional coactivator YAP is the major downstream effector of the Hippo signaling. Upon extracellular stimulation, a kinase cascade in the Hippo pathway phosphorylates YAP and promotes its cytoplasmic sequestration by 14-3-3 and ubiquitin-dependent degradation. When the Hippo pathway is turned off, YAP (which lacks a DNA-binding domain) is dephosphorylated and translocates to the nucleus, where it associates with the transcription factor TEAD to form a functional heterodimeric transcription factor and to promote the expression of the Hippo-responsive genes. Recently, structures of the YAP-binding domain of TEAD alone or in complex with YAP have revealed the atomic details of the TEAD-YAP interaction. Here, I review these exciting advances, propose a strategy for targeting the TEAD-YAP interaction using small molecules, and suggest potential mechanisms by which phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding regulate the cytoplasmic retention of YAP.

  3. Zinc transfer from transcription factor IIIA fingers to thionein clusters.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, J; Vallee, B L; Kägi, J H

    1991-01-01

    The rapid induction of thionein (apometallothionein) by many endogenous stimuli such as steroid hormones, cytokines, and second messengers suggests that this cysteine-rich, metal binding protein participates in an as yet undefined role in cellular regulatory processes. This study demonstrates with DNA and RNA binding assays and in vitro transcription measurements that thionein suppresses the binding of the Xenopus laevis zinc finger transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) to 5S RNA and to the 5S RNA gene and abrogates the capacity of TFIIIA to initiate the RNA polymerase III-catalyzed synthesis of 5S RNA. The effect is reversed by the addition of zinc and is not observed in the TFIIIA-independent transcription of a tRNA gene by the same RNA polymerase. In view of the strong tendency of thionein to complex posttransition metals such as zinc, one effect of its enhanced synthesis in vivo could be to reduce the intracellular disposability of zinc and thus modulate the actions of zinc-dependent enzymes and proteins, most notably those of the zinc finger transcription factors. Images PMID:1835092

  4. Functionally significant, rare transcription factor variants in tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Töpf, Ana; Griffin, Helen R; Glen, Elise; Soemedi, Rachel; Brown, Danielle L; Hall, Darroch; Rahman, Thahira J; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Jüngst, Christoph; Stuart, A Graham; O'Sullivan, John; Keavney, Bernard D; Goodship, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sequenced the coding, 5'UTR, and 3'UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3-13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease.

  5. Functionally Significant, Rare Transcription Factor Variants in Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Töpf, Ana; Griffin, Helen R.; Glen, Elise; Soemedi, Rachel; Brown, Danielle L.; Hall, Darroch; Rahman, Thahira J.; Eloranta, Jyrki J.; Jüngst, Christoph; Stuart, A. Graham; O'Sullivan, John; Keavney, Bernard D.; Goodship, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Results We sequenced the coding, 5′UTR, and 3′UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network. Significance This study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3–13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease. PMID:25093829

  6. Transcriptional activation by mitochondrial transcription factor A involves preferential distortion of promoter DNA

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Christopher S.; Bestwick, Megan; Kuhlwilm, Jane E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Churchill, Mair E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA/TFAM) is a nucleus-encoded, high-mobility-group-box (HMG-box) protein that regulates transcription of the mitochondrial genome by specifically recognizing light-strand and heavy-strand promoters (LSP, HSP1). TFAM also binds mitochondrial DNA in a non-sequence specific (NSS) fashion and facilitates its packaging into nucleoid structures. However, the requirement and contribution of DNA-bending for these two different binding modes has not been addressed in detail, which prompted this comparison of binding and bending properties of TFAM on promoter and non-promoter DNA. Promoter DNA increased the stability of TFAM to a greater degree than non-promoter DNA. However, the thermodynamic properties of DNA binding for TFAM with promoter and non-specific (NS) DNA were similar to each other and to other NSS HMG-box proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays showed that TFAM bends promoter DNA to a greater degree than NS DNA. In contrast, TFAM lacking the C-terminal tail distorted both promoter and non-promoter DNA to a significantly reduced degree, corresponding with markedly decreased transcriptional activation capacity at LSP and HSP1 in vitro. Thus, the enhanced bending of promoter DNA imparted by the C-terminal tail is a critical component of the ability of TFAM to activate promoter-specific initiation by the core mitochondrial transcription machinery. PMID:21948790

  7. Identification of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulators by Yeast One-Hybrid Screens Using a Transcription Factor ORFeome.

    PubMed

    Breton, Ghislain; Kay, Steve A; Pruneda-Paz, José L

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and molecular approaches revealed that the circadian clock network structure is comprised of several interlocked positive and negative transcriptional feedback loops. The network evolved to sense and integrate inputs from environmental cues to adjust daily rhythms in physiological processes. Compiling evidence indicates that part of this regulation happens at the transcriptional level through subtle adjustments in the expression of core clock genes. Thus, to better understand the network and identify the molecular mechanisms of clock input pathways, it is imperative to determine how core clock genes are regulated. For this purpose we developed reagents for an unbiased approach to identify transcription factors (TFs) interacting with the promoters of core clock genes. At the center of this approach lies the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay in which a pool of proteins fused to the GAL4 transcriptional activation domain are tested for their ability to interact with a selected promoter fragment in yeast cells. Taking advantage of the fact that Arabidopsis TF genes are well annotated, we generated a comprehensive TF clone collection (TF ORFeome) and used it to replace the standard cDNA pool strategy traditionally used in Y1H screens. The use of this TF clone collection substantially accelerates the comprehensive discovery of promoter-specific DNA binding activities among all Arabidopsis TFs. Considering that this strategy can be extended to the study of the promoter interactome of any Arabidopsis gene, we developed a low throughput protocol that can be universally implemented to screen the ~2000 TF clone library.

  8. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C; Côté, Maxime C; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-10-14

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors.

  9. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors. PMID:27739523

  10. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors.

  11. Mesothelial cell autoantibodies upregulate transcription factors associated with fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, John; Harding, Tanner; Woods, Linda; Black, Brad; Flores, Raja; Pfau, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Amphibole asbestos exposure is associated with the production of mesothelial cell autoantibodies (MCAA). These MCAA have been linked with pleural fibrotic disease in the asbestos exposed community of Libby, Montana, and induce collagen deposition by cultured mesothelial cells. However, the exact intracellular mechanism by which these autoantibodies cause an increase in collagen deposition remains unknown. This study sought to gain insight into the transcription factors involved in the collagen production after human mesothelial cells are exposed to MCAA. In this study, transcription factor activation profiles were generated from human mesothelial cells (Met5A) treated with serum from Libby subjects, and were compared to cells treated with serum cleared of IgG, and therefore containing no MCAA. Analysis of those profiles indicated C/EBP-beta and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) are significantly increased in the nucleus, indicating activation, due to MCAA exposure compared to controls. Inhibition of either of these transcription factors significantly reduced collagen 1 deposition by these cells following exposure to MCAA. These data suggest autoantibodies are directly involved in type I collagen deposition and may elucidate potential therapeutic targets for autoantibody mediated fibrosis.

  12. An expansive human regulatory lexicon encoded in transcription factor footprints.

    PubMed

    Neph, Shane; Vierstra, Jeff; Stergachis, Andrew B; Reynolds, Alex P; Haugen, Eric; Vernot, Benjamin; Thurman, Robert E; John, Sam; Sandstrom, Richard; Johnson, Audra K; Maurano, Matthew T; Humbert, Richard; Rynes, Eric; Wang, Hao; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Diegel, Morgan; Roach, Vaughn; Dunn, Douglas; Neri, Jun; Schafer, Anthony; Hansen, R Scott; Kutyavin, Tanya; Giste, Erika; Weaver, Molly; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter; Zhang, Miaohua; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; MacCoss, Michael J; Akey, Joshua M; Bender, M A; Groudine, Mark; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2012-09-06

    Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million distinct short sequence elements. Here we show that this small genomic sequence compartment, roughly twice the size of the exome, encodes an expansive repertoire of conserved recognition sequences for DNA-binding proteins that nearly doubles the size of the human cis-regulatory lexicon. We find that genetic variants affecting allelic chromatin states are concentrated in footprints, and that these elements are preferentially sheltered from DNA methylation. High-resolution DNase I cleavage patterns mirror nucleotide-level evolutionary conservation and track the crystallographic topography of protein-DNA interfaces, indicating that transcription factor structure has been evolutionarily imprinted on the human genome sequence. We identify a stereotyped 50-base-pair footprint that precisely defines the site of transcript origination within thousands of human promoters. Finally, we describe a large collection of novel regulatory factor recognition motifs that are highly conserved in both sequence and function, and exhibit cell-selective occupancy patterns that closely parallel major regulators of development, differentiation and pluripotency.

  13. A transcription factor active on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, R; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I

    1988-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro transcription system for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene by using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce EGFR. We found that a nuclear factor, termed EGFR-specific transcription factor (ETF), specifically stimulated EGFR transcription by 5- to 10-fold. In this report, ETF, purified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, is shown by renaturing material eluted from a NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel to be a protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. ETF binds to the promoter region, as measured by DNase I "footprinting" and gel-mobility-shift assays, and specifically stimulates the transcription of the EGFR gene in a reconstituted in vitro transcription system. These results suggest that ETF could play a role in the overexpression of the cellular oncogene EGFR. Images PMID:3393529

  14. Enhanceosomes as integrators of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response.

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Matthew R; Hu, Cheng-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent attribute of the solid tumor microenvironment that promotes the expression of genes through posttranslational modifications and stabilization of alpha subunits (HIF1α and HIF2α) of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Despite significant similarities, HIF1 (HIF1α/ARNT) and HIF2 (HIF2α/ARNT) activate common as well as unique target genes and exhibit different functions in cancer biology. More surprisingly, accumulating data indicates that the HIF1- and/or HIF2-mediated hypoxia responses can be oncogenic as well as tumor suppressive. While the role of HIF in the hypoxia response is well established, recent data support the concept that HIF is necessary, but not sufficient for the hypoxic response. Other transcription factors that are activated by hypoxia are also required for the HIF-mediated hypoxia response. HIFs, other transcription factors, co-factors and RNA poll II recruited by HIF and other transcription factors form multifactorial enhanceosome complexes on the promoters of HIF target genes to activate hypoxia inducible genes. Importantly, HIF1 or HIF2 requires distinct partners in activating HIF1 or HIF2 target genes. Because HIF enhanceosome formation is required for the gene activation and distinct functions of HIF1 and HIF2 in tumor biology, disruption of the HIF1 or HIF2 specific enhanceosome complex may prove to be a beneficial strategy in tumor treatment in which tumor growth is specifically dependent upon HIF1 or HIF2 activity.

  15. The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Riechmann, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    AP2 (APETALA2) and EREBPs (ethylene-responsive element binding proteins) are the prototypic members of a family of transcription factors unique to plants, whose distinguishing characteristic is that they contain the so-called AP2 DNA-binding domain. AP2/ REBP genes form a large multigene family, and they play a variety of roles throughout the plant life cycle: from being key regulators of several developmental processes, like floral organ identity determination or control of leaf epidermal cell identity, to forming part of the mechanisms used by plants to respond to various types of biotic and environmental stress. The molecular and biochemical characteristics of the AP2/EREBP transcription factors and their diverse functions are reviewed here, and this multigene family is analyzed within the context of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence project.

  16. Does transcription factor induced pluripotency accurately mimic embryo derived pluripotency?

    PubMed

    Lowry, William E

    2012-10-01

    When Takahashi and Yamanaka first demonstrated that just four transcription factors could reprogram a fibroblast to a pluripotent state, the first wave of data to emerge focused on how similar these induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were to embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells (ESCs) [1]. The next wave of data focused on determining the degree of difference between iPSCs and ESCs [2]. Now the focus is on tweaking the process to generate iPSCs that are more similar to ESCs [3,4]. Because transcription factor based reprogramming allows for nearly any type of cell to be created from any donor cell, there is obviously enormous interest in this technique as a tool for both basic developmental biology and for clinical applications. In this review, I will attempt to summarize the data that serve to distinguish these types of pluripotent stem cells and speculate on the ramifications of any differences.

  17. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease.

  18. The role of Octamer binding transcription factors in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Rooj, AK.; Bronisz, A.

    2016-01-01

    A group of transcription factors (TF) that are master developmental regulators of the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency during embryogenesis play additional roles to control tissue homeostasis and regeneration in adults. Among these TFs, members of the Octamer-binding transcription factor (OCT) gene family are well documented as major regulators controlling the self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells isolated from different adult organs including the brain. In the last few years a large number of studies show the aberrant expression and dysfunction of OCT in different types of cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and contains a subpopulation of undifferentiated stem cells (GSCs), with self-renewal and tumorigenic potential that contribute to tumor initiation, invasion, recurrence, and therapeutic resistance. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge about OCT family in GBM and their crucial role in the initiation, maintenance and drug resistance properties of GSCs. PMID:26968235

  19. Regulation of basophil and mast cell development by transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Haruka; Kurotaki, Daisuke; Tamura, Tomohiko

    2016-04-01

    Basophils and mast cells play important roles in host defense against parasitic infections and allergic responses. Several progenitor populations, either shared or specific, for basophils and/or mast cells have been identified, thus elucidating the developmental pathways of these cells. Multiple transcription factors essential for their development and the relationships between them have been also revealed. For example, IRF8 induces GATA2 expression to promote the generation of both basophils and mast cells. The STAT5-GATA2 axis induces C/EBPα and MITF expression, facilitating the differentiation into basophils and mast cells, respectively. In addition, C/EBPα and MITF mutually suppress each other's expression. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of how transcription factors regulate the development of basophils and mast cells.

  20. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease. PMID:27479905

  1. Drosophila factor 2, an RNA polymerase II transcript release factor, has DNA-dependent ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Price, D

    1997-12-12

    Drosophila factor 2 has been identified as a component of negative transcription elongation factor (N-TEF) that causes the release of RNA polymerase II transcripts in an ATP-dependent manner (Xie, Z. and Price D. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11043-11046). We show here that the transcript release activity of factor 2 requires ATP or dATP and that adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS), adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imino)triphosphate (AMP-PNP), or other NTPs do not support the activity. Factor 2 demonstrated a strong DNA-dependent ATPase activity that correlated with its transcript release activity. At 20 microg/ml DNA, the ATPase activity of factor 2 had an apparent Km(ATP) of 28 microM and an estimated Kcat of 140 min-1. Factor 2 caused the release of nascent transcripts associated with elongation complexes generated by RNA polymerase II on a dC-tailed template. Therefore, no other protein cofactors are required for the transcript release activity of factor 2. Using the dC-tailed template assay, it was found that renaturation of the template was required for factor 2 function.

  2. The Role of the Ubiquitously Expressed Transcription Factor Sp1 in Tissue-specific Transcriptional Regulation and in Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Leigh; Gilmour, Jane; Bonifer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Sp1 belongs to the 26 member strong Sp/KLF family of transcription factors. It is a paradigm for a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor and is involved in regulating the expression of genes associated with a wide range of cellular processes in mammalian cells. Sp1 can interact with a range of proteins, including other transcription factors, members of the transcription initiation complex and epigenetic regulators, enabling tight regulation of its target genes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in Sp1-mediated transcriptional regulation, as well as how a ubiquitous transcription factor can be involved in establishing a tissue-specific pattern of gene expression and mechanisms by which its activity may be regulated. We also consider the role of Sp1 in human diseases, such as cancer. PMID:28018142

  3. Transcription factor NF-kappa B represses ANT1 transcription and leads to mitochondrial dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Pin; Liu, Heng; Sun, Xiulian

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB). NF-κB is bound to two NF-κB responsive elements (NREs) located at +1 to +20 bp and +41 to +61 bp in the ANT1 promoter. An NF-κB signalling stimulator, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), suppresses ANT1 mRNA and protein expression. Activation of NF-κB by TNFα impairs ATP/ADP exchange and decreases ATP production in mitochondria. Activation of NF-κB by TNFα decreases calcium induced mPTP opening, elevates mitochondrial potential and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both T98G human glioblastoma cells and rat cortical neurons. These results demonstrate that NF-κB signalling may repress ANT1 gene transcription and impair mitochondrial functions. PMID:28317877

  4. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of transcription factor expression in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Colinas, Juliette; Wang, Jean Y.; Mace, Daniel; Ohler, Uwe; Benfey, Philip N.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how the expression of transcription factor (TF) genes is modulated is essential for reconstructing gene regulatory networks. There is increasing evidence that sequences other than upstream noncoding can contribute to modulating gene expression, but how frequently they do so remains unclear. Here, we investigated the regulation of TFs expressed in a tissue-enriched manner in Arabidopsis roots. For 61 TFs, we created GFP reporter constructs driven by each TF’s upstream noncoding sequence (including the 5′UTR) fused to the GFP reporter gene alone or together with the TF’s coding sequence. We compared the visually detectable GFP patterns with endogenous mRNA expression patterns, as defined by a genome-wide microarray root expression map. An automated image analysis method for quantifying GFP signals in different tissues was developed and used to validate our visual comparison method. From these combined analyses, we found that (i) the upstream noncoding sequence was sufficient to recapitulate the mRNA expression pattern for 80% (35/44) of the TFs, and (ii) 25% of the TFs undergo posttranscriptional regulation via microRNA-mediated mRNA degradation (2/24) or via intercellular protein movement (6/24). The results suggest that, for Arabidopsis TFs, upstream noncoding sequences are major contributors to mRNA expression pattern establishment, but modulation of transcription factor protein expression pattern after transcription is relatively frequent. This study provides a systematic overview of regulation of TF expression at a cellular level. PMID:16581911

  5. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  6. Transcription factors expressed in soybean roots under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S S; Guimarães, F C M; Carvalho, J F C; Stolf-Moreira, R; Oliveira, M C N; Rolla, A A P; Farias, J R B; Neumaier, N; Nepomuceno, A L

    2011-10-21

    To gain insight into stress-responsive gene regulation in soybean plants, we identified consensus sequences that could categorize the transcription factors MYBJ7, BZIP50, C2H2, and NAC2 as members of the gene families myb, bzip, c2h2, and nac, respectively. We also investigated the evolutionary relationship of these transcription factors and analyzed their expression levels under drought stress. The NCBI software was used to find the predicted amino acid sequences of the transcription factors, and the Clustal X software was used to align soybean and other plant species sequences. Phylogenetic trees were built using the Mega 4.1 software by neighbor joining and the degree of confidence test by Bootstrap. Expression level studies were carried out using hydroponic culture; the experiments were designed in completely randomized blocks with three repetitions. The blocks consisted of two genotypes, MG/BR46 Conquista (drought-tolerant) and BR16 (drought-sensitive) and the treatments consisted of increasingly long dehydration periods (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 min). The transcription factors presented domains and/or conserved regions that characterized them as belonging to the bzip, c2h2, myb, and nac families. Based on the phylogenetic trees, it was found that the myb, bzip and nac genes are closely related to myb78, bzip48 and nac2 of soybean and that c2h2 is closely related to c2h2 of Brassica napus. Expression of all genes was in general increased under drought stress in both genotypes. Major differences between genotypes were due to the lowering of the expression of the mybj7 and c2h2 genes in the drought-tolerant variety at some times. Over-expression or silencing of some of these genes has the potential to increase stress tolerance.

  7. Transcription factors regulating B cell fate in the germinal centre.

    PubMed

    Recaldin, T; Fear, D J

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of the antibody repertoire is essential for the normal operation of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Following antigen encounter, B cells are activated, proliferate rapidly and undergo two diversification events; somatic hypermutation (followed by selection), which enhances the affinity of the antibody for its cognate antigen, and class-switch recombination, which alters the effector functions of the antibody to adapt the response to the challenge faced. B cells must then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. These activities take place in specialized immunological environments called germinal centres, usually located in the secondary lymphoid organs. To complete the germinal centre activities successfully, a B cell adopts a transcriptional programme that allows it to migrate to specific sites within the germinal centre, proliferate, modify its DNA recombination and repair pathways, alter its apoptotic potential and finally undergo terminal differentiation. To co-ordinate these processes, B cells employ a number of 'master regulator' transcription factors which mediate wholesale transcriptomic changes. These master transcription factors are mutually antagonistic and form a complex regulatory network to maintain distinct gene expression programs. Within this network, multiple points of positive and negative feedback ensure the expression of the 'master regulators', augmented by a number of 'secondary' factors that reinforce these networks and sense the progress of the immune response. In this review we will discuss the different activities B cells must undertake to mount a successful T cell-dependent immune response and describe how a regulatory network of transcription factors controls these processes.

  8. Involvement of E2F transcription factor family in cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsantoulis, P K; Gorgoulis, V G

    2005-11-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors is a central modulator of important cellular events, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA damage response. The role of E2F family members in various human malignancies is yet unclear and may provide vital clues to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of cancer patients. In this review we provide a brief but concise overview of E2F function and its putative role in the most common human tumour types.

  9. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  10. Transcriptional Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Transcription Factor Regulation and Function, Mechanisms of Initiation, and Roles of Activators and Coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Steven; Young, Elton T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we review recent advances in understanding the regulation of mRNA synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many fundamental gene regulatory mechanisms have been conserved in all eukaryotes, and budding yeast has been at the forefront in the discovery and dissection of these conserved mechanisms. Topics covered include upstream activation sequence and promoter structure, transcription factor classification, and examples of regulated transcription factor activity. We also examine advances in understanding the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, conserved coactivator complexes, transcription activation domains, and the cooperation of these factors in gene regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22084422

  11. Synthetic mammalian trigger-controlled bipartite transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Folcher, Marc; Xie, Mingqi; Spinnler, Andrea; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic control devices, gene circuits and networks that can reprogram mammalian cells in a trigger-inducible manner. Prokaryotic helix-turn-helix motifs have become the standard resource to design synthetic mammalian transcription factors that tune chimeric promoters in a small molecule-responsive manner. We have identified a family of Actinomycetes transcriptional repressor proteins showing a tandem TetR-family signature and have used a synthetic biology-inspired approach to reveal the potential control dynamics of these bi-partite regulators. Daisy-chain assembly of well-characterized prokaryotic repressor proteins such as TetR, ScbR, TtgR or VanR and fusion to either the Herpes simplex transactivation domain VP16 or the Krueppel-associated box domain (KRAB) of the human kox-1 gene resulted in synthetic bi- and even tri-partite mammalian transcription factors that could reversibly program their individual chimeric or hybrid promoters for trigger-adjustable transgene expression using tetracycline (TET), γ-butyrolactones, phloretin and vanillic acid. Detailed characterization of the bi-partite ScbR-TetR-VP16 (ST-TA) transcription factor revealed independent control of TET- and γ-butyrolactone-responsive promoters at high and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) relay switch qualities at low intracellular concentrations. Similar to electromagnetically operated mechanical DPDT relay switches that control two electric circuits by a fully isolated low-power signal, TET programs ST-TA to progressively switch from TetR-specific promoter-driven expression of transgene one to ScbR-specific promoter-driven transcription of transgene two while ST-TA flips back to exclusive transgene 1 expression in the absence of the trigger antibiotic. We suggest that natural repressors and activators with tandem TetR-family signatures may also provide independent as well as DPDT-mediated control of two sets of transgenes in

  12. Plant MYB Transcription Factors: Their Role in Drought Response Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Baldoni, Elena; Genga, Annamaria; Cominelli, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major causes of poor plant performance and limited crop yields worldwide and it is the single most common cause of severe food shortage in developing countries. Several molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated so far. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling. In recent years, different MYB transcription factors, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. but also in some crops, have been characterized for their involvement in drought response. For some of them there is evidence supporting a specific role in response to water stress, such as the regulation of stomatal movement, the control of suberin and cuticular waxes synthesis and the regulation of flower development. Moreover, some of these genes have also been characterized for their involvement in other abiotic or biotic stresses, an important feature considering that in nature, plants are often simultaneously subjected to multiple rather than single environmental perturbations. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting the role of the MYB family of transcription factors in the adaptive responses to drought stress. The practical application value of MYBs in crop improvement, such as stress tolerance engineering, is also discussed. PMID:26184177

  13. Specification of jaw identity by the Hand2 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Noriko; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of the lower jaw (mandible) was evolutionarily important for jawed vertebrates. In humans, syndromic craniofacial malformations often accompany jaw anomalies. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2, which is conserved among jawed vertebrates, is expressed in the neural crest in the mandibular process but not in the maxillary process of the first branchial arch. Here, we provide evidence that Hand2 is sufficient for upper jaw (maxilla)-to-mandible transformation by regulating the expression of homeobox transcription factors in mice. Altered Hand2 expression in the neural crest transformed the maxillae into mandibles with duplicated Meckel’s cartilage, which resulted in an absence of the secondary palate. In Hand2-overexpressing mutants, non-Hox homeobox transcription factors were dysregulated. These results suggest that Hand2 regulates mandibular development through downstream genes of Hand2 and is therefore a major determinant of jaw identity. Hand2 may have influenced the evolutionary acquisition of the mandible and secondary palate. PMID:27329940

  14. The role of octamer binding transcription factors in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Rooj, A K; Bronisz, A; Godlewski, J

    2016-06-01

    A group of transcription factors (TF) that are master developmental regulators of the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency during embryogenesis play additional roles to control tissue homeostasis and regeneration in adults. Among these TFs, members of the octamer-binding transcription factor (OCT) gene family are well documented as major regulators controlling the self-renewal and pluripotency of stem cells isolated from different adult organs including the brain. In the last few years a large number of studies show the aberrant expression and dysfunction of OCT in different types of cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and contains a subpopulation of undifferentiated stem cells (GSCs), with self-renewal and tumorigenic potential that contribute to tumor initiation, invasion, recurrence, and therapeutic resistance. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge about OCT family in GBM and their crucial role in the initiation, maintenance and drug resistance properties of GSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Oct Transcription Factor Family, edited by Dr. Dean Tantin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regeneration of the aged thymus by a single transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Nowell, Craig S; Blackburn, C Clare

    2014-04-01

    Thymic involution is central to the decline in immune system function that occurs with age. By regenerating the thymus, it may therefore be possible to improve the ability of the aged immune system to respond to novel antigens. Recently, diminished expression of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-specific transcription factor Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) has been implicated as a component of the mechanism regulating age-related involution. The effects of upregulating FOXN1 function in the aged thymus are, however, unknown. Here, we show that forced, TEC-specific upregulation of FOXN1 in the fully involuted thymus of aged mice results in robust thymus regeneration characterized by increased thymopoiesis and increased naive T cell output. We demonstrate that the regenerated organ closely resembles the juvenile thymus in terms of architecture and gene expression profile, and further show that this FOXN1-mediated regeneration stems from an enlarged TEC compartment, rebuilt from progenitor TECs. Collectively, our data establish that upregulation of a single transcription factor can substantially reverse age-related thymic involution, identifying FOXN1 as a specific target for improving thymus function and, thus, immune competence in patients. More widely, they demonstrate that organ regeneration in an aged mammal can be directed by manipulation of a single transcription factor, providing a provocative paradigm that may be of broad impact for regenerative biology.

  16. Clever cancer strategies with FoxO transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling

    2008-12-15

    Given that cancer and related disorders affect a wide spectrum of the world's population, and in most cases are progressive in nature, it is essential that future care must overcome the present limitations of existing therapies in the absence of toxic side effects. Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may fill this niche since these proteins are increasingly considered to represent unique cellular targets directed against human cancer in light of their pro-apoptotic effects and ability to lead to cell cycle arrest. Yet, FoxOs also can significantly affect normal cell survival and longevity, requiring new treatments for neoplastic growth to modulate novel pathways that integrate cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and survival. In this respect, members of the FoxO family are extremely compelling to consider since these transcription factors have emerged as versatile proteins that can control angiogenesis, stem cell proliferation, cell adhesion and autoimmune disease. Further elucidation of FoxO protein function during neoplastic growth should continue to lay the foundation for the successful translation of these transcription factors into novel and robust clinical therapies for cancer.

  17. Plant MYB Transcription Factors: Their Role in Drought Response Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baldoni, Elena; Genga, Annamaria; Cominelli, Eleonora

    2015-07-13

    Water scarcity is one of the major causes of poor plant performance and limited crop yields worldwide and it is the single most common cause of severe food shortage in developing countries. Several molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated so far. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling. In recent years, different MYB transcription factors, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. but also in some crops, have been characterized for their involvement in drought response. For some of them there is evidence supporting a specific role in response to water stress, such as the regulation of stomatal movement, the control of suberin and cuticular waxes synthesis and the regulation of flower development. Moreover, some of these genes have also been characterized for their involvement in other abiotic or biotic stresses, an important feature considering that in nature, plants are often simultaneously subjected to multiple rather than single environmental perturbations. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting the role of the MYB family of transcription factors in the adaptive responses to drought stress. The practical application value of MYBs in crop improvement, such as stress tolerance engineering, is also discussed.

  18. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development. PMID:28066489

  19. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development.

  20. Transcription Factors Exhibit Differential Conservation in Bacteria with Reduced Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Vásquez, Edgardo; Sánchez-Osorio, Ismael; Martínez-Antonio, Agustino

    2016-01-01

    The description of transcriptional regulatory networks has been pivotal in the understanding of operating principles under which organisms respond and adapt to varying conditions. While the study of the topology and dynamics of these networks has been the subject of considerable work, the investigation of the evolution of their topology, as a result of the adaptation of organisms to different environmental conditions, has received little attention. In this work, we study the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria from a genome reduction perspective, which manifests itself as the loss of genes at different degrees. We used the transcriptional regulatory network of Escherichia coli as a reference to compare 113 smaller, phylogenetically-related γ-proteobacteria, including 19 genomes of symbionts. We found that the type of regulatory action exerted by transcription factors, as genomes get progressively smaller, correlates well with their degree of conservation, with dual regulators being more conserved than repressors and activators in conditions of extreme reduction. In addition, we found that the preponderant conservation of dual regulators might be due to their role as both global regulators and nucleoid-associated proteins. We summarize our results in a conceptual model of how each TF type is gradually lost as genomes become smaller and give a rationale for the order in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:26766575

  1. Inferring transcription factor collaborations in gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Living cells are realized by complex gene expression programs that are moderated by regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs). The TFs control the differential expression of target genes in the context of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), either individually or in groups. Deciphering the mechanisms of how the TFs control the expression of target genes is a challenging task, especially when multiple TFs collaboratively participate in the transcriptional regulation. Results We model the underlying regulatory interactions in terms of the directions (activation or repression) and their logical roles (necessary and/or sufficient) with a modified association rule mining approach, called mTRIM. The experiment on Yeast discovered 670 regulatory interactions, in which multiple TFs express their functions on common target genes collaboratively. The evaluation on yeast genetic interactions, TF knockouts and a synthetic dataset shows that our algorithm is significantly better than the existing ones. Conclusions mTRIM is a novel method to infer TF collaborations in transcriptional regulation networks. mTRIM is available at http://www.msu.edu/~jinchen/mTRIM. PMID:24565025

  2. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  3. The transcriptional factor Osterix directly interacts with RNA helicase A.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; Okamura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Kaya; Qiu, Lihong; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2007-04-06

    Osterix is an osteoblast-specific transcriptional factor, required for bone formation and osteoblast differentiation. Here, we identified new Osterix interacting factors by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among the candidates, RNA helicase A was identified to interact with Osterix. To determine the interaction of Osterix with RNA helicase A, immunoprecipitation assay was performed. Western analysis confirmed the association between Osterix and RNA helicase A. Immunocytochemical analysis also showed that Osterix and RNA helicase A were co-localized in HEK 293 cells. Our data suggest that RNA helicase A might be a component of Osterix regulation.

  4. Inhibition of host cell RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by poliovirus: Inactivation of specific transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, L.G.; Yoshinaga, S.K.; Berk, A.J.; Dasgupta, A.

    1987-11-01

    The inhibition of transcription by RNA polymerase III in poliovirus-infected cells was studied. Experiments utilizing two different cell lines showed that the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase III was impaired by infection of these cells with the virus. The observed inhibition of transcription was not due to shut-off of host cell protein synthesis by poliovirus. Among four distinct components required for accurate transcription in vitro from cloned DNA templates, activities of RNA polymerase III and transcription factor TFIIIA were not significantly affected by virus infection. The activity of transcription factor TFIIIC, the limiting component required for transcription of RNA polymerase III genes, was severely inhibited in infected cells, whereas that of transcription factor TFIIIB was inhibited to a lesser extent. The sequence-specific DNA-binding of TFIIIC to the adenovirus VA1 gene internal promoted, however, was not altered by infection of cells with the virus. The authors conclude that (i) at least two transcription factors, TFIIIB and TFIIIC, are inhibited by infection of cells with poliovirtus, (ii) inactivation of TFIIIC does not involve destruction of its DNA-binding domain, and (iii) sequence-specific DNA binding by TFIIIC may be necessary but is not sufficient for the formation of productive transcription complexes.

  5. Regulation of Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 Transcription Factors by Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    She, Hua; Mao, Zixu

    2011-01-01

    Various isoforms of myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) constitute a group of nuclear proteins found to play important roles in increasing types of cells. In neurons, MEF2s are required to regulate neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, as well as survival. MEF2s promote the survival of several types of neurons under different conditions. In cellular models, negative regulation of MEF2s by stress and toxic signals contributes to neuronal death. In contrast, enhancing MEF2 activity not only protects cultured primary neurons from death in vitro but also attenuates the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta in a 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. In this work, the mechanisms of regulation of MEF2 function by several well-known neurotoxins and their implications in various neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:21741404

  6. The transcription factor LSF: a novel oncogene for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Siddiq, Ayesha; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Schaus, Scott E; Hansen, Ulla; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor LSF (Late SV40 Factor), also known as TFCP2, belongs to the LSF/CP2 family related to Grainyhead family of proteins and is involved in many biological events, including regulation of cellular and viral promoters, cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell survival and Alzheimer’s disease. Our recent studies establish an oncogenic role of LSF in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LSF overexpression is detected in human HCC cell lines and in more than 90% cases of human HCC patients, compared to normal hepatocytes and liver, and its expression level showed significant correlation with the stages and grades of the disease. Forced overexpression of LSF in less aggressive HCC cells resulted in highly aggressive, angiogenic and multi-organ metastatic tumors in nude mice. Conversely, inhibition of LSF significantly abrogated growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HCC cells in nude mice. Microarray studies revealed that as a transcription factor LSF modulated specific genes regulating invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and senescence. LSF transcriptionally regulates thymidylate synthase (TS) gene, thus contributing to cell cycle regulation and chemoresistance. Our studies identify a network of proteins, including osteopontin (OPN), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), c-Met and complement factor H (CFH), that are directly regulated by LSF and play important role in LSF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. A high throughput screening identified small molecule inhibitors of LSF DNA binding and the prototype of these molecules, Factor Quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1), profoundly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in human HCC cells without exerting harmful effects to normal immortal human hepatocytes and primary mouse hepatocytes. In nude mice xenograft studies, FQI1 markedly inhibited growth of human HCC xenografts as well as angiogenesis without exerting any toxicity. These studies establish a key role of LSF in hepatocarcinogenesis and usher in a

  7. Pirfenidone exerts antifibrotic effects through inhibition of GLI transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Didiasova, Miroslava; Singh, Rajeev; Wilhelm, Jochen; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Wujak, Lukasz; Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Schaefer, Liliana; Markart, Philipp; Seeger, Werner; Lauth, Matthias; Wygrecka, Malgorzata

    2017-02-01

    Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic drug, recently approved for the treatment of patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although pirfenidone exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antifibrotic properties, the molecular mechanism underlying its protective effects remains unknown. Here, we link pirfenidone action with the regulation of the profibrotic hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. We demonstrate that pirfenidone selectively destabilizes the glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)2 protein, the primary activator of Hh-mediated gene transcription. Consequently, pirfenidone decreases overall Hh pathway activity in patients with IPF and in patient-derived primary lung fibroblasts and leads to diminished levels of Hh target genes such as GLI1, Hh receptor Patched-1, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin and to reduced cell migration and proliferation. Interestingly, Hh-triggered TGF-β1 expression potentiated Hh responsiveness of primary lung fibroblasts by elevating the available pool of glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI)1/GLI2, thus creating a vicious cycle of amplifying fibrotic processes. Because GLI transcription factors are not only crucial for Hh-mediated changes but are also required as mediators of TGF-β signaling, our findings suggest that pirfenidone exerts its clinically beneficial effects through dual Hh/TGF-β inhibition by targeting the GLI2 protein.-Didiasova, M., Singh, R., Wilhelm, J., Kwapiszewska, G., Wujak, L., Zakrzewicz, D., Schaefer, L., Markart, P., Seeger, W., Lauth, M., Wygrecka, M. Pirfenidone exerts antifibrotic effects through inhibition of GLI transcription factors.

  8. Cellular dynamics of the negative transcription elongation factor NELF

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Tetsu M.C.; Narita, Takashi; Komori, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-06-10

    Negative Elongation Factor (NELF) is a transcription factor discovered based on its biochemical activity to suppress transcription elongation, and has since been implicated in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. Besides its role in promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II during early stages of transcription, recently we found that it also plays important roles in the 3'-end processing of histone mRNA. Furthermore, NELF has been found to form a distinct subnuclear structure, which we named NELF bodies. These recent developments point to a wide range of potential functions for NELF, and, as most studies on NELF thus far had been carried out in vitro, here, we prepared a complete set of fusion protein constructs of NELF subunits and carried out a general cell biological study of the intracellular dynamics of NELF. Our data show that NELF subunits exhibit highly specific subcellular localizations, such as in NELF bodies or in midbodies, and some shuttle actively between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We further show that loss of NELF from cells can lead to enlarged and/or multiple nuclei. This work serves as a foundation and starting point for further cell biological investigations of NELF in the future.

  9. Transcription factor LSF (TFCP2) inhibits melanoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yuji; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Asami; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kyoya, Mikiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Late SV40 factor 3 (LSF), a transcription factor, contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, decreased expression level of LSF in skin melanoma compared to that in benign melanocytic tumors and nevi in mice and humans was found in this study. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of melanoma cells was suppressed by LSF overexpression through an increased percentage of G1 phase cells and an increased p21CIP1 expression level in vitro and in vivo. Anchorage-dependent growth in LSF-overexpressed melanoma cells was promoted by depletion of LSF in the LSF-overexpressed cells. Integrated results of our EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of LSF within a 150-bp upstream region of the transcription start site of p21CIP1 in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest potential roles of LSF as a growth regulator through control of the transcription of p21CIP1 in melanocytes and melanoma cells as well as a biomarker for nevus. PMID:26506241

  10. Myogenic regulatory transcription factors regulate growth in rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tenente, Inês M; Hayes, Madeline N; Ignatius, Myron S; McCarthy, Karin; Yohe, Marielle; Sindiri, Sivasish; Gryder, Berkley; Oliveira, Mariana L; Ramakrishnan, Ashwin; Tang, Qin; Chen, Eleanor Y; Petur Nielsen, G; Khan, Javed; Langenau, David M

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignacy of muscle with myogenic regulatory transcription factors MYOD and MYF5 being expressed in this disease. Consensus in the field has been that expression of these factors likely reflects the target cell of transformation rather than being required for continued tumor growth. Here, we used a transgenic zebrafish model to show that Myf5 is sufficient to confer tumor-propagating potential to RMS cells and caused tumors to initiate earlier and have higher penetrance. Analysis of human RMS revealed that MYF5 and MYOD are mutually-exclusively expressed and each is required for sustained tumor growth. ChIP-seq and mechanistic studies in human RMS uncovered that MYF5 and MYOD bind common DNA regulatory elements to alter transcription of genes that regulate muscle development and cell cycle progression. Our data support unappreciated and dominant oncogenic roles for MYF5 and MYOD convergence on common transcriptional targets to regulate human RMS growth. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19214.001 PMID:28080960

  11. Sequence dependence of transcription factor-mediated DNA looping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephanie; Lindén, Martin; Phillips, Rob

    2012-09-01

    DNA is subject to large deformations in a wide range of biological processes. Two key examples illustrate how such deformations influence the readout of the genetic information: the sequestering of eukaryotic genes by nucleosomes and DNA looping in transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These kinds of regulatory problems are now becoming amenable to systematic quantitative dissection with a powerful dialogue between theory and experiment. Here, we use a single-molecule experiment in conjunction with a statistical mechanical model to test quantitative predictions for the behavior of DNA looping at short length scales and to determine how DNA sequence affects looping at these lengths. We calculate and measure how such looping depends upon four key biological parameters: the strength of the transcription factor binding sites, the concentration of the transcription factor, and the length and sequence of the DNA loop. Our studies lead to the surprising insight that sequences that are thought to be especially favorable for nucleosome formation because of high flexibility lead to no systematically detectable effect of sequence on looping, and begin to provide a picture of the distinctions between the short length scale mechanics of nucleosome formation and looping.

  12. Sp1- and Krüppel-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Joanna; Cook, Tiffany; Urrutia, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Sp1-like proteins and Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are highly related zinc-finger proteins that are important components of the eukaryotic cellular transcriptional machinery. By regulating the expression of a large number of genes that have GC-rich promoters, Sp1-like/KLF transcription regulators may take part in virtually all facets of cellular function, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Individual members of the Sp1-like/KLF family can function as activators or repressors depending on which promoter they bind and the coregulators with which they interact. A long-standing research aim has been to define the mechanisms by which Sp1-like factors and KLFs regulate gene expression and cellular function in a cell- and promoter-specific manner. Most members of this family have been identified in mammals, with at least 21 Sp1-like/KLF proteins encoded in the human genome, and members are also found in frogs, worms and flies. Sp1-like/KLF proteins have highly conserved carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domains that function in DNA binding. The amino terminus, containing the transcription activation domain, can vary significantly between family members. PMID:12620113

  13. The BEL1-like family of transcription factors in potato

    PubMed Central

    Hannapel, David J.

    2014-01-01

    BEL1-type proteins are ubiquitous plant transcription factors in the three-amino-acid-loop-extension superfamily. They interact with KNOTTED1-like proteins, and function as heterodimers in both floral and vegetative development. Using the yeast two-hybrid system with POTATO HOMEOBOX1 (POTH1) as the bait, seven BEL1-type proteins were originally identified. One of these genes, designated StBEL5, has transcripts that move long distances in the plant and enhance tuberization and root growth. Using the potato genome database, 13 active BEL1-like genes were identified that contain the conserved homeobox domain and the BELL domain, both of which are essential for the function of BEL1-type proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the StBEL family demonstrated a degree of orthology with the 13 BEL1-like genes of Arabidopsis. A profile of the gene structure of the family revealed conservation of the length and splicing patterns of internal exons that encode key functional domains. Yeast two-hybrid experiments with KNOTTED1-like proteins and the new StBELs confirmed the interactive network between these two families. Analyses of RNA abundance patterns clearly showed that three StBEL genes, BEL5, -11, and -29, make up approximately two-thirds of the total transcript values for the entire family. Among the 10 organs evaluated here, these three genes exhibited the 12 greatest transcript abundance values. Using a phloem-transport induction system and gel-shift assays, transcriptional cross-regulation within the StBEL family was confirmed. Making use of the potato genome and current experimental data, a comprehensive profile of the StBEL family is presented in this study. PMID:24474812

  14. Isl1 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead transcription factors in second heart field-derived mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jione; Nathan, Elisha; Xu, Shan-Mei; Tzahor, Eldad; Black, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    The cells of the second heart field (SHF) contribute to the outflow tract and right ventricle, as well as to parts of the left ventricle and atria. Isl1, a member of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor family, is expressed early in this cardiac progenitor population and functions near the top of a transcriptional pathway essential for heart development. Isl1 is required for the survival and migration of SHF-derived cells into the early developing heart at the inflow and outflow poles. Despite this important role for Isl1 in early heart formation, the transcriptional regulation of Isl1 has remained largely undefined. Therefore, to identify transcription factors that regulate Isl1 expression in vivo, we screened the conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Isl1 locus for enhancer activity in transgenic mouse embryos. Here, we report the identification of an enhancer from the mouse Isl1 gene that is sufficient to direct expression to the SHF and its derivatives. The Isl1 SHF enhancer contains three consensus Forkhead transcription factor binding sites that are efficiently and specifically bound by Forkhead transcription factors. Importantly, the activity of the enhancer is dependent on these three Forkhead binding sites in transgenic mouse embryos. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Isl1 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead transcription factors in the SHF and establish a transcriptional pathway upstream of Isl1 in the SHF. PMID:19580802

  15. Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, Ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-11-26

    Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures.

  16. Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil

    2014-01-01

    Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures. PMID:25425016

  17. Isolation, classification and transcription profiles of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in citrus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-lan; Shen, Shu-ling; Yin, Xue-ren; Xu, Qian; Sun, Chong-de; Grierson, Donald; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kun-song

    2014-07-01

    The AP2/ERF gene family encodes plant-specific transcription factors. In model plants, AP2/ERF genes have been shown to be expressed in response to developmental and environmental stimuli, and many function downstream of the ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress signaling pathways. In citrus, ethylene is effective in regulation citrus fruit quality, such as degreening and aroma. However, information about the citrus AP2/ERF family is limited, and would enhance our understanding of fruit responses to environmental stress, fruit development and quality. CitAP2/ERF genes were isolated using the citrus genome database, and their expression patterns analyzed by real-time PCR using various orange organs and samples from a fruit developmental series. 126 sequences with homologies to AP2/ERF proteins were identified from the citrus genome, and, on the basis of their structure and sequence, assigned to the ERF family (102), AP2 family (18), RAV family (4) and Soloist (2). MEME motif analysis predicted the defining AP2/ERF domain and EAR repressor domains. Analysis of transcript accumulation in Citrus sinensis cv. 'Newhall' indicated that CitAP2/ERF genes show organ-specific and temporal expression, and provided a framework for understanding the transcriptional regulatory roles of AP2/ERF gene family members in citrus. Hierarchical cluster analysis and t tests identified regulators that potentially function during orange fruit growth and development.

  18. Statistical mechanical model of coupled transcription from multiple promoters due to transcription factor titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydenfelt, Mattias; Cox, Robert Sidney, III; Garcia, Hernan; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory action at multiple promoter targets is the rule rather than the exception, with examples ranging from the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in E. coli that regulates hundreds of different genes simultaneously to situations involving multiple copies of the same gene, such as plasmids, retrotransposons, or highly replicated viral DNA. When the number of TFs heavily exceeds the number of binding sites, TF binding to each promoter can be regarded as independent. However, when the number of TF molecules is comparable to the number of binding sites, TF titration will result in correlation (“promoter entanglement”) between transcription of different genes. We develop a statistical mechanical model which takes the TF titration effect into account and use it to predict both the level of gene expression for a general set of promoters and the resulting correlation in transcription rates of different genes. Our results show that the TF titration effect could be important for understanding gene expression in many regulatory settings.

  19. T-box transcription factors in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Wansleben, Sabina; Peres, Jade; Hare, Shannagh; Goding, Colin R; Prince, Sharon

    2014-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved T-box family of transcription factors have critical and well-established roles in embryonic development. More recently, T-box factors have also gained increasing prominence in the field of cancer biology where a wide range of cancers exhibit deregulated expression of T-box factors that possess tumour suppressor and/or tumour promoter functions. Of these the best characterised is TBX2, whose expression is upregulated in cancers including breast, pancreatic, ovarian, liver, endometrial adenocarcinoma, glioblastomas, gastric, uterine cervical and melanoma. Understanding the role and regulation of TBX2, as well as other T-box factors, in contributing directly to tumour progression, and especially in suppression of senescence and control of invasiveness suggests that targeting TBX2 expression or function alone or in combination with currently available chemotherapeutic agents may represent a therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  20. Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming toward hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Wataru; Rossi, Derrick J

    2015-01-01

    De novo generation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from renewable cell types has been a long sought-after but elusive goal in regenerative medicine. Paralleling efforts to guide pluripotent stem cell differentiation by manipulating developmental cues, substantial progress has been made recently toward HSC generation via combinatorial transcription factor (TF)-mediated fate conversion, a paradigm established by Yamanaka's induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by mere four TFs. This review will integrate the recently reported strategies to directly convert a variety of starting cell types toward HSCs in the context of hematopoietic transcriptional regulation and discuss how these findings could be further developed toward the ultimate generation of therapeutic human HSCs. PMID:25712209

  1. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Transcription factor FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Sang-Min; An, Joo-Hee; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kim, Jung-Woong Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2015-08-07

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-mediated death. Although various therapeutic approaches are used for lung cancer treatment, these mainly target the tumor suppressor p53 transcription factor, which is involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, p53-targeted therapies have limited application in lung cancer, since p53 is found to be mutated in more than half of lung cancers. In this study, we propose tumor suppressor FOXA2 as an alternative target protein for therapies against lung cancer and reveal a possible FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network by identifying new target genes and binding partners of FOXA2 by using various screening techniques. The genes encoding Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) were identified as putative target genes of FOXA2. Additionally, the proteins including highly similar to heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (HSP90A), heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A variant (HSPA1A), histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 were identified as novel interacting partners of FOXA2. Moreover, we showed that FOXA2-dependent promoter activation of BAX and p21 genes is significantly reduced via physical interactions between the identified binding partners and FOXA2. These results provide opportunities to understand the FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulation network and novel therapeutic targets to modulate this network in p53-deficient lung cancer. - Highlights: • Identification of new target genes of FOXA2. • Identifications of novel interaction proteins of FOXA2. • Construction of FOXA2-centered transcriptional regulatory network in non-small cell lung cancer.

  3. Engineering phenolics metabolism in the grasses using transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Grotewold, Erich

    2013-07-26

    The economical competitiveness of agriculture-derived biofuels can be significantly enhanced by increasing biomass/acre yields and by furnishing the desired carbon balance for facilitating liquid fuel production (e.g., ethanol) or for high-energy solid waste availability to be used as biopower (e.g., for electricity production). Biomass production and carbon balance are tightly linked to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are found in crops and in agricultural residues either as lignins, as part of the cell wall, or as soluble phenolics which play a variety of functions in the biology of plants. The grasses, in particular maize, provide the single major source of agricultural biomass, offering significant opportunities for increasing renewable fuel production. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of transcription factors for manipulating plant metabolic pathways, an approach that will be applied here towards altering the composition of phenolic compounds in maize. Previously, we identified a small group of ten maize R2R3-MYB transcription factors with all the characteristics of regulators of different aspects of phenolic biosynthesis. Here, we propose to investigate the participation of these R2R3-MYB factors in the regulation of soluble and insoluble maize phenolics, using a combination of over-expression and down-regulation of these transcription factors in transgenic maize cultured cells and in maize plants. Maize cells and plants altered in the activity of these regulatory proteins will be analyzed for phenolic composition by targeted metabolic profiling. Specifically, we will I) Investigate the effect of gain- and loss-of-function of a select group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors on the phenolic composition of maize plants and II) Identify the biosynthetic genes regulated by each of the selected R2R3-MYB factors. While a likely outcome of these studies are transgenic maize plants with altered phenolic composition, this research will significantly

  4. Antiviral response dictated by choreographed cascade of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Elena; Hershberg, Uri; Seto, Jeremy; Pham, Alissa M.; Marquez, Susanna; Duke, Jamie L.; Wetmur, James G.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) is a master regulator of immune responses. Pathogenic viruses subvert normal immune function in DCs through the expression of immune antagonists. Understanding how these antagonists interact with the host immune system requires knowledge of the underlying genetic regulatory network that operates during an uninhibited antiviral response. In order to isolate and identify this network, we studied DCs infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which is able to stimulate innate immunity and DC maturation through activation of RIG-I signaling, but lacks the ability to evade the human interferon response. To analyze this experimental model, we developed a new approach integrating genome-wide expression kinetics and time-dependent promoter analysis. We found that the genetic program underlying the antiviral cell-state transition during the first 18-hours post-infection could be explained by a single convergent regulatory network. Gene expression changes were driven by a step-wise multi-factor cascading control mechanism, where the specific transcription factors controlling expression changed over time. Within this network, most individual genes are regulated by multiple factors, indicating robustness against virus-encoded immune evasion genes. In addition to effectively recapitulating current biological knowledge, we predicted, and validated experimentally, antiviral roles for several novel transcription factors. More generally, our results show how a genetic program can be temporally controlled through a single regulatory network to achieve the large-scale genetic reprogramming characteristic of cell state transitions. PMID:20164420

  5. An expansive human regulatory lexicon encoded in transcription factor footprints

    PubMed Central

    Neph, Shane; Vierstra, Jeff; Stergachis, Andrew B.; Reynolds, Alex P.; Haugen, Eric; Vernot, Benjamin; Thurman, Robert E.; Sandstrom, Richard; Johnson, Audra K.; Maurano, Matthew T.; Humbert, Richard; Rynes, Eric; Wang, Hao; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Diegel, Morgan; Roach, Vaughn; Dunn, Douglas; Neri, Jun; Schafer, Anthony; Hansen, R. Scott; Kutyavin, Tanya; Giste, Erika; Weaver, Molly; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter; Zhang, Miaohua; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; MacCoss, Michael J.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bender, Michael; Groudine, Mark; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNaseI, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNaseI footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million distinct short sequence elements. Here we show that this small genomic sequence compartment, roughly twice the size of the exome, encodes an expansive repertoire of conserved recognition sequences for DNA-binding proteins that nearly doubles the size of the human cis-regulatory lexicon. We find that genetic variants affecting allelic chromatin states are concentrated in footprints, and that these elements are preferentially sheltered from DNA methylation. High-resolution DNaseI cleavage patterns mirror nucleotide-level evolutionary conservation and track the crystallographic topography of protein-DNA interfaces, indicating that transcription factor structure has been evolutionarily imprinted on the human genome sequence. We identify a stereotyped 50 base-pair footprint that precisely defines the site of transcript origination within thousands of human promoters. Finally, we describe a large collection of novel regulatory factor recognition motifs that are highly conserved in both sequence and function, and exhibit cell-selective occupancy patterns that closely parallel major regulators of development, differentiation, and pluripotency. PMID:22955618

  6. Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai N; Chen, Zhengshan; Braas, Daniel; Lee, Jae-Woong; Xiao, Gang; Geng, Huimin; Cosgun, Kadriye Nehir; Hurtz, Christian; Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Cazzaniga, Valeria; Schjerven, Hilde; Ernst, Thomas; Hochhaus, Andreas; Kornblau, Steven M; Konopleva, Marina; Pufall, Miles A; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Liu, Grace J; Milne, Thomas A; Koeffler, H Phillip; Ross, Theodora S; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Borkhardt, Arndt; Yamamoto, Keith R; Dickins, Ross A; Graeber, Thomas G; Müschen, Markus

    2017-02-23

    B-lymphoid transcription factors, such as PAX5 and IKZF1, are critical for early B-cell development, yet lesions of the genes encoding these transcription factors occur in over 80% of cases of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The importance of these lesions in ALL has, until now, remained unclear. Here, by combining studies using chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing and RNA sequencing, we identify a novel B-lymphoid program for transcriptional repression of glucose and energy supply. Our metabolic analyses revealed that PAX5 and IKZF1 enforce a state of chronic energy deprivation, resulting in constitutive activation of the energy-stress sensor AMPK. Dominant-negative mutants of PAX5 and IKZF1, however, relieved this glucose and energy restriction. In a transgenic pre-B ALL mouse model, the heterozygous deletion of Pax5 increased glucose uptake and ATP levels by more than 25-fold. Reconstitution of PAX5 and IKZF1 in samples from patients with pre-B ALL restored a non-permissive state and induced energy crisis and cell death. A CRISPR/Cas9-based screen of PAX5 and IKZF1 transcriptional targets identified the products of NR3C1 (encoding the glucocorticoid receptor), TXNIP (encoding a glucose-feedback sensor) and CNR2 (encoding a cannabinoid receptor) as central effectors of B-lymphoid restriction of glucose and energy supply. Notably, transport-independent lipophilic methyl-conjugates of pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites bypassed the gatekeeper function of PAX5 and IKZF1 and readily enabled leukaemic transformation. Conversely, pharmacological TXNIP and CNR2 agonists and a small-molecule AMPK inhibitor strongly synergized with glucocorticoids, identifying TXNIP, CNR2 and AMPK as potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the empirical finding that glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of B-lymphoid but not myeloid malignancies. Thus, B-lymphoid transcription factors

  7. Glucagon and Insulin Cooperatively Stimulate Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Transcription by Increasing the Expression of Activating Transcription Factor 4.

    PubMed

    Alonge, Kimberly M; Meares, Gordon P; Hillgartner, F Bradley

    2017-03-31

    Previous studies have shown that glucagon cooperatively interacts with insulin to stimulate hepatic FGF21 gene expression. Here we investigated the mechanism by which glucagon and insulin increased FGF21 gene transcription in primary hepatocyte cultures. Transfection analyses demonstrated that glucagon plus insulin induction of FGF21 transcription was conferred by two activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) binding sites in the FGF21 gene. Glucagon plus insulin stimulated a 5-fold increase in ATF4 protein abundance, and knockdown of ATF4 expression suppressed the ability of glucagon plus insulin to increase FGF21 expression. In hepatocytes incubated in the presence of insulin, treatment with a PKA-selective agonist mimicked the ability of glucagon to stimulate ATF4 and FGF21 expression. Inhibition of PKA, PI3K, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) suppressed the ability of glucagon plus insulin to stimulate ATF4 and FGF21 expression. Additional analyses demonstrated that chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) induced a 6-fold increase in ATF4 expression and that knockdown of ATF4 expression suppressed the ability of CDCA to increase FGF21 gene expression. CDCA increased the phosphorylation of eIF2α, and inhibition of eIF2α signaling activity suppressed CDCA regulation of ATF4 and FGF21 expression. These results demonstrate that glucagon plus insulin increases FGF21 transcription by stimulating ATF4 expression and that activation of cAMP/PKA and PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 mediates the effect of glucagon plus insulin on ATF4 expression. These results also demonstrate that CDCA regulation of FGF21 transcription is mediated at least partially by an eIF2α-dependent increase in ATF4 expression. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. GATA-1-mediated transcriptional repression yields persistent transcription factor IIB-chromatin complexes.

    PubMed

    Martowicz, Melissa L; Grass, Jeffrey A; Bresnick, Emery H

    2006-12-08

    The hematopoietic GATA factors GATA-1 and GATA-2, which have distinct and overlapping roles to regulate blood cell development, are reciprocally expressed during erythropoiesis. GATA-1 directly represses Gata2 transcription, and reduced GATA-2 synthesis promotes red blood cell development. Gata2 repression involves "GATA switches" in which GATA-1 displaces GATA-2 from Gata2 regulatory regions. We show that extragenic GATA switch sites occupied by GATA-2 associate with as much RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and basal transcription factors as present at the active Gata2 promoters. Pol II bound to GATA switch sites in the active locus was phosphorylated on serine 5 of the carboxyl-terminal domain, indicative of elongation competence. GATA-1-mediated displacement of GATA-2 from GATA switch sites reduced Pol II recruitment to all sites except the far upstream -77-kb region. Surprisingly, TFIIB occupancy persisted at most sites upon repression. These results indicate that GATA-2-bound extragenic regulatory elements recruit Pol II, GATA-1 binding expels Pol II, and despite the persistent TFIIB-chromatin complexes, Pol II recruitment is blocked.

  9. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations.

  10. The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, Gina M; Pitarresi, Jason R; Balakrishnan, Subhasree; Ostrowski, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Findings over the past decade have identified aberrant activation of the ETS transcription factor family throughout all stages of tumorigenesis. Specifically in solid tumours, gene rearrangement and amplification, feed-forward growth factor signalling loops, formation of gain-of-function co-regulatory complexes and novel cis-acting mutations in ETS target gene promoters can result in increased ETS activity. In turn, pro-oncogenic ETS signalling enhances tumorigenesis through a broad mechanistic toolbox that includes lineage specification and self-renewal, DNA damage and genome instability, epigenetics and metabolism. This Review discusses these different mechanisms of ETS activation and subsequent oncogenic implications, as well as the clinical utility of ETS factors.

  11. A transcriptional cofactor YAP regulates IFNT expression via transcription factor TEAD in bovine conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Kusama, K; Bai, R; Sakurai, T; Bai, H; Ideta, A; Aoyagi, Y; Imakawa, K

    2016-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT) is the pregnancy recognition protein in all ruminants, and its expression is restricted to trophoblast cells. Interferon tau production increases as the conceptus elongates; however, its expression is downregulated soon after the initiation of conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. Our previous study identified that among 8 bovine IFNT genes, only 2 forms of IFNTs, IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1, were expressed by the conceptuses during the periattachment period. To characterize whether Hippo signaling including a transcription cofactor yes-associated protein (YAP) was involved in the IFNT regulation, we examined the expression and effects of YAP and/or TEAD in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 and bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, and in bovine conceptuses obtained from day 17, 20 or 22 pregnant animals (pregnant day 19.5 = day of conceptus attachment to the endometrium). YAP was expressed in bovine conceptuses and transfection of YAP or TEAD4, a transcription factor partner of YAP, expression plasmid increased the luciferase activity of IFNT2 and IFN-tau-c1 reporter plasmids in JEG3 cells. In the presence of YAP expression plasmid, TEAD2 or TEAD4 expression plasmid further upregulated transcriptional activity of IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 constructs, which were substantially reduced in the absence of the TEAD-binding site on IFNT2 or IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in JEG3 cells. In CT-1 cells, treatment with TEAD2, TEAD4, or YAP small-interfering RNA downregulated endogenous IFNT expression. It should be noted that TEAD2 and TEAD4 were predominantly localized in the nuclei of trophectoderm of Day 17 conceptuses, but nuclear localization appeared to be lower in those cells of conceptuses on days 20 and 22 of pregnancy. Moreover, the binding of TEAD4 to the TEAD-binding site of the IFN-tau-c1 promoter region in day 17 conceptuses was less in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. Furthermore, the level of YAP phosphorylation increased in day 20 and 22 conceptuses. These

  12. Identifying combinatorial regulation of transcription factors and binding motifs

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mamoru; Hata, Naoya; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Futcher, Bruce; Zhang, Michael Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Combinatorial interaction of transcription factors (TFs) is important for gene regulation. Although various genomic datasets are relevant to this issue, each dataset provides relatively weak evidence on its own. Developing methods that can integrate different sequence, expression and localization data have become important. Results Here we use a novel method that integrates chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data with microarray expression data and with combinatorial TF-motif analysis. We systematically identify combinations of transcription factors and of motifs. The various combinations of TFs involved multiple binding mechanisms. We reconstruct a new combinatorial regulatory map of the yeast cell cycle in which cell-cycle regulation can be drawn as a chain of extended TF modules. We find that the pairwise combination of a TF for an early cell-cycle phase and a TF for a later phase is often used to control gene expression at intermediate times. Thus the number of distinct times of gene expression is greater than the number of transcription factors. We also see that some TF modules control branch points (cell-cycle entry and exit), and in the presence of appropriate signals they can allow progress along alternative pathways. Conclusions Combining different data sources can increase statistical power as demonstrated by detecting TF interactions and composite TF-binding motifs. The original picture of a chain of simple cell-cycle regulators can be extended to a chain of composite regulatory modules: different modules may share a common TF component in the same pathway or a TF component cross-talking to other pathways. PMID:15287978

  13. Determination and Inference of Eukaryotic Transcription Factor Sequence Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Mihai; Cote, Atina; Montenegro-Montero, Alejandro; Drewe, Philipp; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Lambert, Samuel A.; Mann, Ishminder; Cook, Kate; Zheng, Hong; Goity, Alejandra; van Bakel, Harm; Lozano, Jean-Claude; Galli, Mary; Lewsey, Mathew; Huang, Eryong; Mukherjee, Tuhin; Chen, Xiaoting; Reece-Hoyes, John S.; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Shaulsky, Gad; Walhout, Albertha J.M.; Bouget, François-Yves; Ratsch, Gunnar; Larrondo, Luis F.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription factor (TF) DNA sequence preferences direct their regulatory activity, but are currently known for only ~1% of all eukaryotic TFs. Broadly sampling DNA-binding domain (DBD) types from multiple eukaryotic clades, we determined DNA sequence preferences for >1,000 TFs encompassing 54 different DBD classes from 131 diverse eukaryotes. We find that closely related DBDs almost always have very similar DNA sequence preferences, enabling inference of motifs for ~34% of the ~170,000 known or predicted eukaryotic TFs. Sequences matching both measured and inferred motifs are enriched in ChIP-seq peaks and upstream of transcription start sites in diverse eukaryotic lineages. SNPs defining expression quantitative trait loci in Arabidopsis promoters are also enriched for predicted TF binding sites. Importantly, our motif “library” (http://cisbp.ccbr.utoronto.ca) can be used to identify specific TFs whose binding may be altered by human disease risk alleles. These data present a powerful resource for mapping transcriptional networks across eukaryotes. PMID:25215497

  14. Functional analysis of Thermus thermophilus transcription factor NusG

    PubMed Central

    Sevostyanova, Anastasiya; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Transcription elongation factors from the NusG family are ubiquitous from bacteria to humans and play diverse roles in the regulation of gene expression. These proteins consist of at least two domains. The N-terminal domains directly bind to the largest, β′ in bacteria, subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), whereas the C-terminal domains interact with other cellular components and serve as platforms for the assembly of large nucleoprotein complexes. Escherichia coli NusG and its paralog RfaH modify RNAP into a fast, pause-resistant state but the detailed molecular mechanism of this modification remains unclear since no high-resolution structural data are available for the E. coli system. We wanted to investigate whether Thermus thermophilus (Tth) NusG can be used as a model for structural studies of this family of regulators. Here, we show that Tth NusG slows down rather than facilitates transcript elongation by its cognate RNAP. On the other hand, similarly to the E. coli regulators, Tth NusG apparently binds near the upstream end of the transcription bubble, competes with σA, and favors forward translocation by RNAP. Our data suggest that the mechanism of NusG recruitment to RNAP is universally conserved even though the regulatory outcomes among its homologs may appear distinct. PMID:20639538

  15. Redox regulation of FoxO transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Sánchez-Ramos, Cristina; Prieto-Arroyo, Ignacio; Urbánek, Pavel; Steinbrenner, Holger; Monsalve, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors of the forkhead box, class O (FoxO) family are important regulators of the cellular stress response and promote the cellular antioxidant defense. On one hand, FoxOs stimulate the transcription of genes coding for antioxidant proteins located in different subcellular compartments, such as in mitochondria (i.e. superoxide dismutase-2, peroxiredoxins 3 and 5) and peroxisomes (catalase), as well as for antioxidant proteins found extracellularly in plasma (e.g., selenoprotein P and ceruloplasmin). On the other hand, reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as other stressful stimuli that elicit the formation of ROS, may modulate FoxO activity at multiple levels, including posttranslational modifications of FoxOs (such as phosphorylation and acetylation), interaction with coregulators, alterations in FoxO subcellular localization, protein synthesis and stability. Moreover, transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of the expression of genes coding for FoxOs is sensitive to ROS. Here, we review these aspects of FoxO biology focusing on redox regulation of FoxO signaling, and with emphasis on the interplay between ROS and FoxOs under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Of particular interest are the dual role played by FoxOs in cancer development and their key role in whole body nutrient homeostasis, modulating metabolic adaptations and/or disturbances in response to low vs. high nutrient intake. Examples discussed here include calorie restriction and starvation as well as adipogenesis, obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26184557

  16. Transcription factor TBX4 regulates myofibroblast accumulation and lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ting; Liang, Jiurong; Liu, Ningshan; Huan, Caijuan; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Weijia; Kumar, Maya; Xiao, Rui; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Papaioannou, Virginia E.; Stripp, Barry R.; Jiang, Dianhua

    2016-01-01

    Progressive tissue fibrosis is a major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with repeated epithelial injuries and accumulation of myofibroblasts. Successful treatment options are limited by an incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate myofibroblast accumulation. Here, we employed in vivo lineage tracing and real-time gene expression transgenic reporting methods to analyze the early embryonic transcription factor T-box gene 4 (TBX4), and determined that TBX4-lineage mesenchymal progenitors are the predominant source of myofibroblasts in injured adult lung. In a murine model, ablation of TBX4-expressing cells or disruption of TBX4 signaling attenuated lung fibrosis after bleomycin-induced injury. Furthermore, TBX4 regulated hyaluronan synthase 2 production to enable fibroblast invasion of matrix both in murine models and in fibroblasts from patients with severe pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify TBX4 as a mesenchymal transcription factor that drives accumulation of myofibroblasts and the development of lung fibrosis. Targeting TBX4 and downstream factors that regulate fibroblast invasiveness could lead to therapeutic approaches in lung fibrosis. PMID:27400124

  17. Glutamine Metabolism Regulates the Pluripotency Transcription Factor OCT4

    PubMed Central

    Marsboom, Glenn; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Pohl-Avila, Nicole; Zhang, Yanmin; Yuan, Yang; Kang, Hojin; Hao, Bo; Brunengraber, Henri; Malik, Asrar B.; Rehman, Jalees

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of pluripotency by cellular metabolism in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are not fully understood. We found that high levels of glutamine metabolism are essential to prevent degradation of OCT4, a key transcription factor regulating hESC pluripotency. Glutamine withdrawal depletes the endogenous anti-oxidant glutathione, which results in the oxidation of OCT4 cysteine residues required for its DNA binding and enhanced OCT4 degradation. The emergence of the OCT4lo cell population following glutamine withdrawal did not result in greater propensity for cell death. Instead, glutamine withdrawal during vascular differentiation of hESCs generated cells with greater angiogenic capacity, thus indicating that modulating glutamine metabolism enhances the differentiation and functional maturation of cells. These findings demonstrate that the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 can serve as a metabolic-redox sensor in hESCs and that metabolic cues can act in concert with growth factor signaling to orchestrate stem cell differentiation. PMID:27346346

  18. Prevalence of transcription factors in ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene regulation underlies fungal physiology and therefore is a major factor in fungal biodiversity. Analysis of genome sequences has revealed a large number of putative transcription factors in most fungal genomes. The presence of fungal orthologs for individual regulators has been analysed and appears to be highly variable with some regulators widely conserved and others showing narrow distribution. Although genome-scale transcription factor surveys have been performed before, no global study into the prevalence of specific regulators across the fungal kingdom has been presented. Results In this study we have analysed the number of members for 37 regulator classes in 77 ascomycete and 31 basidiomycete fungal genomes and revealed significant differences between ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. In addition, we determined the presence of 64 regulators characterised in ascomycetes across these 108 genomes. This demonstrated that overall the highest presence of orthologs is in the filamentous ascomycetes. A significant number of regulators lacked orthologs in the ascomycete yeasts and the basidiomycetes. Conversely, of seven basidiomycete regulators included in the study, only one had orthologs in ascomycetes. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant difference in the regulatory repertoire of ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, at the level of both regulator class and individual regulator. This suggests that the current regulatory systems of these fungi have been mainly developed after the two phyla diverged. Most regulators detected in both phyla are involved in central functions of fungal physiology and therefore were likely already present in the ancestor of the two phyla. PMID:24650355

  19. Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years. PMID:25501946

  20. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Poon, Gregory M K; Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-05-27

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation.

  1. Transcription factor TFII-I conducts a cytoplasmic orchestra.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda L

    2006-11-21

    In response to extracellular ligands, surface receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors activate isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC) and initiate calcium signaling. PLC can activate expression of surface transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) such as TRPC3, which modulate calcium entry through the plasma membrane. A recent paper shows that competitive binding of cytoplasmic TFII-I, a transcription factor, to PLC-gamma results in inhibition of TRPC3-mediated agonist-induced Ca(2+) entry. These results establish a novel cytoplasmic function for TFII-I.

  2. Variable structure motifs for transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Evans, Kenneth J; Dyer, Nigel; Wernisch, Lorenz; Ott, Sascha

    2010-01-14

    Classically, models of DNA-transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) have been based on relatively few known instances and have treated them as sites of fixed length using position weight matrices (PWMs). Various extensions to this model have been proposed, most of which take account of dependencies between the bases in the binding sites. However, some transcription factors are known to exhibit some flexibility and bind to DNA in more than one possible physical configuration. In some cases this variation is known to affect the function of binding sites. With the increasing volume of ChIP-seq data available it is now possible to investigate models that incorporate this flexibility. Previous work on variable length models has been constrained by: a focus on specific zinc finger proteins in yeast using restrictive models; a reliance on hand-crafted models for just one transcription factor at a time; and a lack of evaluation on realistically sized data sets. We re-analysed binding sites from the TRANSFAC database and found motivating examples where our new variable length model provides a better fit. We analysed several ChIP-seq data sets with a novel motif search algorithm and compared the results to one of the best standard PWM finders and a recently developed alternative method for finding motifs of variable structure. All the methods performed comparably in held-out cross validation tests. Known motifs of variable structure were recovered for p53, Stat5a and Stat5b. In addition our method recovered a novel generalised version of an existing PWM for Sp1 that allows for variable length binding. This motif improved classification performance. We have presented a new gapped PWM model for variable length DNA binding sites that is not too restrictive nor over-parameterised. Our comparison with existing tools shows that on average it does not have better predictive accuracy than existing methods. However, it does provide more interpretable models of motifs of variable

  3. Computational identification of site-specific transcription factors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Adryan, Boris; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2007-01-01

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) recognise their target genes in a sequence- or conformation-dependent manor. In contrast to the basal TFs that are the general facilitators of gene expression, their site-specific interaction partners are tissue- or condition-specific. Thus, site-specific TFs constitute the major prerequisite for the modular expression programmes that drive metazoan development. This article deals with the computational identification of TFs (how to find them in genomes) and with online resources such as the FlyTF database of Drosophila site-specific TFs (how to find them online).

  4. Transcription factor-induced enhancer modulations during cell fate conversions.

    PubMed

    van Oevelen, C; Kallin, E M; Graf, T

    2013-10-01

    The activity of transcription factors (TFs) has empowered the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and alternative lineages. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes has expanded our understanding of how novel gene expression programs become activated while old ones are silenced. How TFs modify chromatin and activate requisite enzymes during these processes has recently been discussed in several excellent reviews. Here we discuss the questions of how ectopically expressed TFs access chromatin to modulate enhancers and establish a novel transcriptome during cell reprogramming, lineage conversions and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. E2F transcription factor 1 regulates cellular and organismal senescence by inhibiting Forkhead box O transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Peng, Shengyi; Tao, Li; Ruan, Haihe; Yang, Yanglu; Li, Tie-Mei; Adams, Ursula; Meng, Songshu; Bi, Xiaolin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2014-12-05

    E2F1 and FOXO3 are two transcription factors that have been shown to participate in cellular senescence. Previous report reveals that E2F1 enhanced cellular senescence in human fibroblast cells, while FOXO transcription factors play against senescence by regulation reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins. However, their functional interplay has been unclear. Here we use E2F1 knock-out murine Embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), knockdown RNAi constructs, and ectopic expression of E2F1 to show that it functions by negatively regulating FOXO3. E2F1 attenuates FOXO3-mediated expression of MnSOD and Catalase without affecting FOXO3 protein stability, subcellular localization, or phosphorylation by Akt. We mapped the interaction between E2F1 and FOXO3 to a region including the DNA binding domain of E2F1 and the C-terminal transcription-activation domain of FOXO3. We propose that E2F1 inhibits FOXO3-dependent transcription by directly binding FOXO3 in the nucleus and preventing activation of its target genes. Moreover, knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans E2F1 ortholog efl-1 significantly extends lifespan in a manner that requires the activity of the C. elegans FOXO gene daf-16. We conclude that there is an evolutionarily conserved signaling connection between E2F1 and FOXO3, which regulates cellular senescence and aging by regulating the activity of FOXO3. We speculate that drugs and/or therapies that inhibit this physical interaction might be good candidates for reducing cellular senescence and increasing longevity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  7. Structural characterization of human general transcription factor TFIIF in solution

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Satoko; Nagakura, Shinjiro; Yamamoto, Seiji; Okuda, Masahiko; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2008-01-01

    Human general transcription factor IIF (TFIIF), a component of the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II), was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and chemical cross-linking. Recombinant TFIIF, composed of an equimolar ratio of α and β subunits, was bacterially expressed, purified to homogeneity, and found to have a transcription activity similar to a natural one in the human in vitro transcription system. SEC of purified TFIIF, as previously reported, suggested that this protein has a size >200 kDa. In contrast, ESI-MS of the purified sample gave a molecular size of 87 kDa, indicating that TFIIF is an αβ heterodimer, which was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS of the cross-linked TFIIF components. Recent electron microscopy (EM) and photo-cross-linking studies showed that the yeast TFIIF homolog containing Tfg1 and Tfg2, corresponding to the human α and β subunits, exists as a heterodimer in the PIC, so the human TFIIF is also likely to exist as a heterodimer even in the PIC. In the yeast PIC, EM and photo-cross-linking studies showed different results for the mutual location of TFIIE and TFIIF along DNA. We have examined the direct interaction between human TFIIF and TFIIE by ESI-MS, SEC, and chemical cross-linking; however, no direct interaction was observed, at least in solution. This is consistent with the previous photo-cross-linking observation that TFIIF and TFIIE flank DNA separately on both sides of the Pol II central cleft in the yeast PIC. PMID:18218714

  8. CBP/p300 as a co-factor for the Microphthalmia transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Roberts, K; Gambino, G; Cook, A; Kouzarides, T; Goding, C R

    1997-06-26

    The Microphthalmia basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-Leucine Zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor (Mi) plays a crucial role in the genesis of melanocytes; mice deficient for a functional (Microphthalmia) gene product lack all pigment cells. We show here that the Mi activation domain resides N-terminal to the DNA-binding domain and that as little as 18 amino acids are sufficient to mediate transcription activation. The minimal activation region of Mi is highly conserved in the related transcription factor TFE3 and is predicted to adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation. This region of Mi is also highly conserved with a region of E1A known to be essential for binding the CBP/p300 transcription cofactor. Consistent with these observations, the Mi activation domain can interact in vitro with CBP specifically through a region of CBP required for complex formation with E1A, P/CAF and c-Fos, and anti p300 antibodies can co-immunoprecipitate Mi from both melanocyte and melanoma cell lines. In addition, co-transfection of a vector expressing CBP2 (aas 1621-1891) fused to the VP16 activation domain potentiated the ability of Mi to activate transcription, confirming the significance of the CBP-Mi interaction observed in vitro. These data suggest that transcription activation by Mi is achieved at least in part by recruitment of CBP. The parallels between transcription regulation by Microphthalmia in melanocytes and MyoD in muscle cells are discussed.

  9. Transcription Factors in the Cellular Response to Charged Particle Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles, such as carbon ions, bear the promise of a more effective cancer therapy. In human spaceflight, exposure to charged particles represents an important risk factor for chronic and late effects such as cancer. Biological effects elicited by charged particle exposure depend on their characteristics, e.g., on linear energy transfer (LET). For diverse outcomes (cell death, mutation, transformation, and cell-cycle arrest), an LET dependency of the effect size was observed. These outcomes result from activation of a complex network of signaling pathways in the DNA damage response, which result in cell-protective (DNA repair and cell-cycle arrest) or cell-destructive (cell death) reactions. Triggering of these pathways converges among others in the activation of transcription factors, such as p53, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), activated protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). Depending on dose, radiation quality, and tissue, p53 induces apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. In low LET radiation therapy, p53 mutations are often associated with therapy resistance, while the outcome of carbon ion therapy seems to be independent of the tumor’s p53 status. NF-κB is a central transcription factor in the immune system and exhibits pro-survival effects. Both p53 and NF-κB are activated after ionizing radiation exposure in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner. The NF-κB activation was shown to strongly depend on charged particles’ LET, with a maximal activation in the LET range of 90–300 keV/μm. AP-1 controls proliferation, senescence, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nrf2 can induce cellular antioxidant defense systems, CREB might also be involved in survival responses. The extent of activation of these transcription factors by charged particles and their interaction in the cellular radiation response greatly influences the destiny of the irradiated and also

  10. The Next Generation of Transcription Factor Binding Site Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Mathelier, Anthony; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2013-01-01

    Finding where transcription factors (TFs) bind to the DNA is of key importance to decipher gene regulation at a transcriptional level. Classically, computational prediction of TF binding sites (TFBSs) is based on basic position weight matrices (PWMs) which quantitatively score binding motifs based on the observed nucleotide patterns in a set of TFBSs for the corresponding TF. Such models make the strong assumption that each nucleotide participates independently in the corresponding DNA-protein interaction and do not account for flexible length motifs. We introduce transcription factor flexible models (TFFMs) to represent TF binding properties. Based on hidden Markov models, TFFMs are flexible, and can model both position interdependence within TFBSs and variable length motifs within a single dedicated framework. The availability of thousands of experimentally validated DNA-TF interaction sequences from ChIP-seq allows for the generation of models that perform as well as PWMs for stereotypical TFs and can improve performance for TFs with flexible binding characteristics. We present a new graphical representation of the motifs that convey properties of position interdependence. TFFMs have been assessed on ChIP-seq data sets coming from the ENCODE project, revealing that they can perform better than both PWMs and the dinucleotide weight matrix extension in discriminating ChIP-seq from background sequences. Under the assumption that ChIP-seq signal values are correlated with the affinity of the TF-DNA binding, we find that TFFM scores correlate with ChIP-seq peak signals. Moreover, using available TF-DNA affinity measurements for the Max TF, we demonstrate that TFFMs constructed from ChIP-seq data correlate with published experimentally measured DNA-binding affinities. Finally, TFFMs allow for the straightforward computation of an integrated TF occupancy score across a sequence. These results demonstrate the capacity of TFFMs to accurately model DNA

  11. TEMPLE: analysing population genetic variation at transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Litovchenko, Maria; Laurent, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genetic variation occurring at the level of regulatory sequences can affect phenotypes and fitness in natural populations. This variation can be analysed in a population genetic framework to study how genetic drift and selection affect the evolution of these functional elements. However, doing this requires a good understanding of the location and nature of regulatory regions and has long been a major hurdle. The current proliferation of genomewide profiling experiments of transcription factor occupancies greatly improves our ability to identify genomic regions involved in specific DNA-protein interactions. Although software exists for predicting transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), and the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity, there are no tools currently available for inferring this information jointly with the genetic variation at TFBS in natural populations. We developed the software Transcription Elements Mapping at the Population LEvel (TEMPLE), which predicts TFBS, evaluates the effects of genetic variants on TFBS specificity and summarizes the genetic variation occurring at TFBS in intraspecific sequence alignments. We demonstrate that TEMPLE's TFBS prediction algorithms gives identical results to PATSER, a software distribution commonly used in the field. We also illustrate the unique features of TEMPLE by analysing TFBS diversity for the TF Senseless (SENS) in one ancestral and one cosmopolitan population of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. TEMPLE can be used to localize TFBS that are characterized by strong genetic differentiation across natural populations. This will be particularly useful for studies aiming to identify adaptive mutations. TEMPLE is a java-based cross-platform software that easily maps the genetic diversity at predicted TFBSs using a graphical interface, or from the Unix command line.

  12. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R.; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-01-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  13. Targeting HOX and PBX transcription factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Richard; Plowright, Lynn; Harrington, Kevin J; Michael, Agnieszka; Pandha, Hardev S

    2010-03-10

    Ovarian cancer still has a relatively poor prognosis due to the frequent occurrence of drug resistance, making the identification of new therapeutic targets an important goal. We have studied the role of HOX genes in the survival and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. These are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identity in the early embryo, and have an anti-apoptotic role in a number of malignancies including lung and renal cancer. We used QPCR to determine HOX gene expression in normal ovary and in the ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV3 and OV-90. We used a short peptide, HXR9, to disrupt the formation of HOX/PBX dimers and alter transcriptional regulation by HOX proteins. In this study we show that the ovarian cancer derived line SK-OV3, but not OV-90, exhibits highly dysregulated expression of members of the HOX gene family. Disrupting the interaction between HOX proteins and their co-factor PBX induces apoptosis in SK-OV3 cells and retards tumour growth in vivo. HOX/PBX binding is a potential target in ovarian cancer.

  14. Gibbs Recursive Sampler: finding transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William; Rouchka, Eric C; Lawrence, Charles E

    2003-07-01

    The Gibbs Motif Sampler is a software package for locating common elements in collections of biopolymer sequences. In this paper we describe a new variation of the Gibbs Motif Sampler, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler, which has been developed specifically for locating multiple transcription factor binding sites for multiple transcription factors simultaneously in unaligned DNA sequences that may be heterogeneous in DNA composition. Here we describe the basic operation of the web-based version of this sampler. The sampler may be acces-sed at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/gibbs.html. An online user guide is available at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/bernoulli.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/manual/bernoulli.html. Solaris, Solaris.x86 and Linux versions of the sampler are available as stand-alone programs for academic and not-for-profit users. Commercial licenses are also available. The Gibbs Recursive Sampler is distributed in accordance with the ISCB level 0 guidelines and a requirement for citation of use in scientific publications.

  15. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, José R; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C; Arrabal, María D; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-02-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.

  16. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, José R.; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M.; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C.; Arrabal, María D.; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  17. Fission Yeast CSL Proteins Function as Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oravcová, Martina; Teska, Mikoláš; Půta, František; Folk, Petr; Převorovský, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcription factors of the CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jk/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family are key regulators of metazoan development and function as the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway implicated in various cell fate decisions. CSL proteins recognize specifically the GTG[G/A]AA sequence motif and several mutants compromised in their ability to bind DNA have been reported. In our previous studies we have identified a number of novel putative CSL family members in fungi, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. It is not clear whether these represent genuine CSL family members. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we characterized the DNA binding properties of Cbf11 and Cbf12, the antagonistic CSL paralogs from the fission yeast, important for the proper coordination of cell cycle events and the regulation of cell adhesion. We have shown that a mutation of a conserved arginine residue abolishes DNA binding in both CSL paralogs, similar to the situation in mouse. We have also demonstrated the ability of Cbf11 and Cbf12 to activate gene expression in an autologous fission yeast reporter system. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the fission yeast CSL proteins are indeed genuine family members capable of functioning as transcription factors, and provide support for the ancient evolutionary origin of this important protein family. PMID:23555033

  18. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4%) of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding. PMID:28234893

  19. FOXO Transcription Factors: Their Clinical Significance and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO) have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli. PMID:24864265

  20. Transcription Factor GFI1B in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Eduardo; Candel, Francisco J.; Chaparro, Alberto; Roldán-Etcheverry, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Many human diseases arise through dysregulation of genes that control key cell fate pathways. Transcription factors (TFs) are major cell fate regulators frequently involved in cancer, particularly in leukemia. The GFI1B gene, coding a TF, was identified by sequence homology with the oncogene growth factor independence 1 (GFI1). Both GFI1 and GFI1B have six C-terminal C2H2 zinc fingers and an N-terminal SNAG (SNAIL/GFI1) transcriptional repression domain. Gfi1 is essential for neutrophil differentiation in mice. In humans, GFI1 mutations are associated with severe congenital neutropenia. Gfi1 is also required for B and T lymphopoiesis. However, knockout mice have demonstrated that Gfi1b is required for development of both erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Consistent with this, human mutations of GFI1B produce bleeding disorders with low platelet count and abnormal function. Loss of Gfi1b in adult mice increases the absolute numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are less quiescent than wild-type HSCs. In keeping with this key role in cell fate, GFI1B is emerging as a gene involved in cancer, which also includes solid tumors. In fact, abnormal activation of GFI1B and GFI1 has been related to human medulloblastoma and is also likely to be relevant in blood malignancies. Several pieces of evidence supporting this statement will be detailed in this mini review. PMID:28401061

  1. Imputation for transcription factor binding predictions based on deep learning.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qian; Feng, Jianxing

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the cell-specific binding patterns of transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to studying gene regulatory networks in biological systems, for which ChIP-seq not only provides valuable data but is also considered as the gold standard. Despite tremendous efforts from the scientific community to conduct TF ChIP-seq experiments, the available data represent only a limited percentage of ChIP-seq experiments, considering all possible combinations of TFs and cell lines. In this study, we demonstrate a method for accurately predicting cell-specific TF binding for TF-cell line combinations based on only a small fraction (4%) of the combinations using available ChIP-seq data. The proposed model, termed TFImpute, is based on a deep neural network with a multi-task learning setting to borrow information across transcription factors and cell lines. Compared with existing methods, TFImpute achieves comparable accuracy on TF-cell line combinations with ChIP-seq data; moreover, TFImpute achieves better accuracy on TF-cell line combinations without ChIP-seq data. This approach can predict cell line specific enhancer activities in K562 and HepG2 cell lines, as measured by massively parallel reporter assays, and predicts the impact of SNPs on TF binding.

  2. Mutations and Binding Sites of Human Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Jankovic, Boris R.; Archer, John A. C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in any genome may lead to phenotype characteristics that determine ability of an individual to cope with adaptation to environmental challenges. In studies of human biology, among the most interesting ones are phenotype characteristics that determine responses to drug treatments, response to infections, or predisposition to specific inherited diseases. Most of the research in this field has been focused on the studies of mutation effects on the final gene products, peptides, and their alterations. Considerably less attention was given to the mutations that may affect regulatory mechanism(s) of gene expression, although these may also affect the phenotype characteristics. In this study we make a pilot analysis of mutations observed in the regulatory regions of 24,667 human RefSeq genes. Our study reveals that out of eight studied mutation types, “insertions” are the only one that in a statistically significant manner alters predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We also find that 25 families of TFBSs have been altered by mutations in a statistically significant manner in the promoter regions we considered. Moreover, we find that the related transcription factors are, for example, prominent in processes related to intracellular signaling; cell fate; morphogenesis of organs and epithelium; development of urogenital system, epithelium, and tube; neuron fate commitment. Our study highlights the significance of studying mutations within the genes regulatory regions and opens way for further detailed investigations on this topic, particularly on the downstream affected pathways. PMID:22670148

  3. Transcription factor induction of human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Pol, Suyog U.; Haberman, Alexa K.; Wang, Chunming; O’Bara, Melanie A.; Sim, Fraser J.

    2014-01-01

    Human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) specification and differentiation occurs slowly and limits the potential for cell-based treatment of demyelinating disease. In this study, using FACS-based isolation and microarray analysis, we identified a set of transcription factors expressed by human primary CD140a+O4+ OPCs relative to CD133+CD140a− neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Among these, lentiviral overexpression of transcription factors ASCL1, SOX10, and NKX2.2 in NPCs was sufficient to induce Sox10 enhancer activity, OPC mRNA, and protein expression consistent with OPC fate; however, unlike ASCL1 and NKX2.2, only the transcriptome of SOX10-infected NPCs was induced to a human OPC gene expression signature. Furthermore, only SOX10 promoted oligodendrocyte commitment, and did so at quantitatively equivalent levels to native OPCs. In xenografts of shiverer/rag2 animals, SOX10 increased the rate of mature oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment. Thus, SOX10 appears to be the principle and rate-limiting regulator of myelinogenic fate from human NPCs. PMID:24982138

  4. A Novel Nuclear Import Pathway for the Transcription Factor TFIIS

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Markus; Pemberton, Lucy F.; Rosenblum, Jonathan S.; Blobel, Günter

    1998-01-01

    We have identified a novel pathway for protein import into the nucleus. We have shown that the previously identified but uncharacterized yeast protein Nmd5p functions as a karyopherin. It was therefore designated Kap119p (karyopherin with Mr of 119 kD). We localized Kap119p to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We identified the transcription elongation factor TFIIS as its major cognate import substrate. The cytoplasmic Kap119p exists as an approximately stoichiometric complex with TFIIS. RanGTP, not RanGDP, dissociated the isolated Kap119p/TFIIS complex and bound to Kap119p. Kap119p also bound directly to a number of peptide repeat containing nucleoporins in overlay assays. In wild-type cells, TFIIS was primarily localized to the nucleus. In a strain where KAP119 has been deleted, TFIIS was mislocalized to the cytoplasm indicating that TFIIS is imported into the nucleus by Kap119p. The transport of various substrates that use other karyopherin-mediated import or export pathways was not affected in a kap119Δ strain. Hence Kap119p is a novel karyopherin that is responsible for the import of the transcription elongation factor TFIIS. PMID:9852143

  5. Zinc regulates a key transcriptional pathway for epileptogenesis via metal-regulatory transcription factor 1

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, Karen M. J.; Schaub, Christina; Pitsch, Julika; Kulbida, Rebecca; Opitz, Thoralf; Ekstein, Dana; Dalal, Adam; Urbach, Horst; Beck, Heinz; Yaari, Yoel; Schoch, Susanne; Becker, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common focal seizure disorder in adults. In many patients, transient brain insults, including status epilepticus (SE), are followed by a latent period of epileptogenesis, preceding the emergence of clinical seizures. In experimental animals, transcriptional upregulation of CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+-channels, resulting in an increased propensity for burst discharges of hippocampal neurons, is an important trigger for epileptogenesis. Here we provide evidence that the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the increase of CaV3.2 mRNA and intrinsic excitability consequent to a rise in intracellular Zn2+ that is associated with SE. Adeno-associated viral (rAAV) transfer of MTF1 into murine hippocampi leads to increased CaV3.2 mRNA. Conversely, rAAV-mediated expression of a dominant-negative MTF1 abolishes SE-induced CaV3.2 mRNA upregulation and attenuates epileptogenesis. Finally, data from resected human hippocampi surgically treated for pharmacoresistant TLE support the Zn2+-MTF1-CaV3.2 cascade, thus providing new vistas for preventing and treating TLE. PMID:26498180

  6. Constrained transcription factor spacing is prevalent and important for transcriptional control of mouse blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Felicia S L; Schütte, Judith; Ruau, David; Diamanti, Evangelia; Hannah, Rebecca; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold

    2014-12-16

    Combinatorial transcription factor (TF) binding is essential for cell-type-specific gene regulation. However, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of TF interactions, including to what extent constrained spacing and orientation of interacting TFs are critical for regulatory element activity. To examine the relative prevalence of the 'enhanceosome' versus the 'TF collective' model of combinatorial TF binding, a comprehensive analysis of TF binding site sequences in large scale datasets is necessary. We developed a motif-pair discovery pipeline to identify motif co-occurrences with preferential distance(s) between motifs in TF-bound regions. Utilizing a compendium of 289 mouse haematopoietic TF ChIP-seq datasets, we demonstrate that haematopoietic-related motif-pairs commonly occur with highly conserved constrained spacing and orientation between motifs. Furthermore, motif clustering revealed specific associations for both heterotypic and homotypic motif-pairs with particular haematopoietic cell types. We also showed that disrupting the spacing between motif-pairs significantly affects transcriptional activity in a well-known motif-pair-E-box and GATA, and in two previously unknown motif-pairs with constrained spacing-Ets and Homeobox as well as Ets and E-box. In this study, we provide evidence for widespread sequence-specific TF pair interaction with DNA that conforms to the 'enhanceosome' model, and furthermore identify associations between specific haematopoietic cell-types and motif-pairs. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Compartmentalization of vertebrate optic neuroephithelium: external cues and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Tai; Kim, Jin Woo

    2012-04-01

    The vertebrate eye is a laterally extended structure of the forebrain. It develops through a series of events, including specification and regionalization of the anterior neural plate, evagination of the optic vesicle (OV), and development of three distinct optic structures: the neural retina (NR), optic stalk (OS), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Various external signals that act on the optic neuroepithelium in a spatial- and temporal-specific manner control the fates of OV subdomains by inducing localized expression of key transcription factors. Investigating the mechanisms underlying compartmentalization of these distinct optic neuroepithelium-derived tissues is therefore not only important from the standpoint of accounting for vertebrate eye morphogenesis, it is also helpful for understanding the fundamental basis of fate determination of other neuroectoderm- derived tissues. This review focuses on the molecular signatures of OV subdomains and the external factors that direct the development of tissues originating from the OV.

  8. Differential induction of HNF-3 transcription factors during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A; Budhiraja, S; Reichel, R R

    1997-08-01

    We have investigated the regulation of transcription factors HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta during the retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of mouse P19 cells. Retinoic acid treatment converts P19 stem cells into neurons and astrocytes and we have clearly shown that gene expression of both HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta is activated during this process. HNF-3alpha transcription was detected 2 h after addition of retinoic acid and took place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. This suggests that HNF-3alpha is a primary target for retinoic acid action. HNF-3alpha induction displays a biphasic profile and HNF-3alpha mRNA reaches maximal levels at 2 and 6 days postdifferentiation. Additional experiments strongly suggest that the second peak is due to HNF-3alpha induction in postmitotic neurons. P19 stem cells, on the other hand, do not contain any detectable HNF-3alpha mRNA. According to our studies, the retinoic acid-mediated induction of HNF-3alpha occurs at the level of transcriptional initiation and is conferred by distal promoter sequences. In comparison to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta induction is a subsequent event and detectable levels of HNF-3beta mRNA materialize approximately 1 day after addition of retinoic acid to P19 stem cells. Time course studies firmly demonstrate that HNF-3beta mRNA peaks at about 2 days postdifferentiation and then declines to virtually unreadable levels. This temporal pattern is consistent with HNF-3beta being a secondary target for retinoic acid. In analogy to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta activation also takes place at the level of transcriptional initiation. Recent studies implicate HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta in early mammalian neurogenesis. The detection of HNF-3alpha/beta activation during P19 cell differentiation provides us with a convenient cell culture system to elucidate the induction mechanism and the precise role of both transcriptional regulators in the formation of neuronal cells.

  9. Anti-Transcription Factor RNA Aptamers as Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins that play critical roles in regulating gene expression. These proteins control all major cellular processes, including growth, development, and homeostasis. Because of their pivotal role, cells depend on proper TF function. It is, therefore, not surprising that TF deregulation is linked to disease. The therapeutic drug targeting of TFs has been proposed as a frontier in medicine. RNA aptamers make interesting candidates for TF modulation because of their unique characteristics. The products of in vitro selection, aptamers are short nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that bind their targets with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can be expressed on demand from transgenes and are intrinsically amenable to recognition by nucleic acid-binding proteins such as TFs. In this study, we review several natural prokaryotic and eukaryotic examples of RNAs that modulate the activity of TFs. These examples include 5S RNA, 6S RNA, 7SK, hepatitis delta virus-RNA (HDV-RNA), neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE)-RNA, growth arrest-specific 5 (Gas5), steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), trophoblast STAT utron (TSU), the 3′ untranslated region of caudal mRNA, and heat shock RNA-1 (HSR1). We then review examples of unnatural RNA aptamers selected to inhibit TFs nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), TATA-binding protein (TBP), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). The field of RNA aptamers for DNA-binding proteins continues to show promise. PMID:26509637

  10. Enhanceosome transcription factors preferentially dimerize with high mobility group proteins.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Aleksander; Obara, Paulina; Mathur, Utsav; Tiuryn, Jerzy

    2016-02-04

    The enhanceosome is an enhancer located upstream of the human interferon β gene, bound by transcription factor (TF) complex of extremely rigid structure. Within these rigid constraints, even a slight change of distances between transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) results in loss of functionality of the enhanceosome. We hypothesized that smaller subunits of the enhanceosome may entail TF complex formation in other regulatory regions. In order to verify this hypothesis we systematically searched for dimerization preferences of the TFs that have TFBS in the enhanceosome. For this we utilized our recently developed tool, TACO. We performed this computational experiment in a cell-type-specific manner by utilizing cell-type-specific DNase-seq data for 105 human cell types. We also used 20 TRANSFAC motifs comprising not only the usual TFs constituting the enhanceosome but also the architectural proteins of High Mobility Group I(Y) (HMG I). A similar experiment used 42 DNase-seq data sets for mouse cell types. We found 137 statistically significant dimer predictions in the human genome, and 37 predictions in the mouse genome, that matched the positioning on the enhanceosome with ±2 bp tolerance. To characterize these predicted TF dimers, we performed functional analysis (Gene Ontology enrichment) for sets of genes which were in the neighbourhood of predicted dimer instances. A notable feature of these instances is that (1) most of them are located in introns of genes, (2) they are enriched in regulatory states, and (3) those instances that are located near transcription start sites are enriched for inclusion in computationally predicted enhancers. We also investigated similarity of dimer predictions between human and mouse. It follows from our experiments that, except for homodimer formed by IRF proteins, the rest of the dimers were formed exclusively between one of the transcriptional activators (ATF-2/c-Jun and IRF) and a HMG I protein. NF- κB did not

  11. Identification of Post-Transcriptional Modulators of Breast Cancer Transcription Factor Activity Using MINDy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas M.; Castro, Mauro A. A.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently identified transcription factors (TFs) that are key drivers of breast cancer risk. To better understand the pathways or sub-networks in which these TFs mediate their function we sought to identify upstream modulators of their activity. We applied the MINDy (Modulator Inference by Network Dynamics) algorithm to four TFs (ESR1, FOXA1, GATA3 and SPDEF) that are key drivers of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk, as well as cancer progression. Our computational analysis identified over 500 potential modulators. We assayed 189 of these and identified 55 genes with functional characteristics that were consistent with a role as TF modulators. In the future, the identified modulators may be tested as potential therapeutic targets, able to alter the activity of TFs that are critical in the development of breast cancer. PMID:27997592

  12. Mechanisms of Unphosphorylated STAT3 Transcription Factor Binding to DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga A.; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Lonskaya, Irina; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Zhang, Xueping; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R.; Cheema, Amrita; Zhang, Lihua; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on a single tyrosine residue in response to growth factors, cytokines, interferons, and oncogenes activates its dimerization, translocation to the nucleus, binding to the interferon γ (gamma)-activated sequence (GAS) DNA-binding site and activation of transcription of target genes. STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated in various cancers and drives gene expression from GAS-containing promoters to promote tumorigenesis. Recently, roles for unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) have been described in response to cytokine stimulation, in cancers, and in maintenance of heterochromatin stability. However, the mechanisms underlying U-STAT3 binding to DNA has not been fully investigated. Here, we explore STAT3-DNA interactions by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. We observed that U-STAT3 molecules bind to the GAS DNA-binding site as dimers and monomers. In addition, we observed that U-STAT3 binds to AT-rich DNA sequence sites and recognizes specific DNA structures, such as 4-way junctions and DNA nodes, within negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA. These structures are important for chromatin organization and our data suggest a role for U-STAT3 as a chromatin/genome organizer. Unexpectedly, we found that a C-terminal truncated 67.5-kDa STAT3 isoform recognizes single-stranded spacers within cruciform structures that also have a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. This isoform appears to be abundant in the nuclei of cancer cells and, therefore, may have a role in regulation of gene expression. Taken together, our data highlight novel mechanisms by which U-STAT3 binds to DNA and supports U-STAT3 function as a transcriptional activator and a chromatin/genomic organizer. PMID:22378781

  13. A family of chromatin remodeling factors related to Williams syndrome transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Bochar, Daniel A.; Savard, Julie; Wang, Weidong; Lafleur, David W.; Moore, Paul; Côté, Jacques; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes have been implicated in the disruption or reformation of nucleosomal arrays resulting in modulation of transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Here we report the isolation of WCRF, a new chromatin-remodeling complex from HeLa cells. WCRF is composed of two subunits, WCRF135, the human homolog of Drosophila ISWI, and WCRF180, a protein related to the Williams syndrome transcription factor. WCRF180 is a member of a family of proteins sharing a putative heterochromatin localization domain, a PHD finger, and a bromodomain, prevalent in factors involved in regulation of chromatin structure. PMID:10655480

  14. A family of chromatin remodeling factors related to Williams syndrome transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bochar, D A; Savard, J; Wang, W; Lafleur, D W; Moore, P; Côté, J; Shiekhattar, R

    2000-02-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes have been implicated in the disruption or reformation of nucleosomal arrays resulting in modulation of transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Here we report the isolation of WCRF, a new chromatin-remodeling complex from HeLa cells. WCRF is composed of two subunits, WCRF135, the human homolog of Drosophila ISWI, and WCRF180, a protein related to the Williams syndrome transcription factor. WCRF180 is a member of a family of proteins sharing a putative heterochromatin localization domain, a PHD finger, and a bromodomain, prevalent in factors involved in regulation of chromatin structure.

  15. Expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which is critical for melanoma progression, is inhibited by both transcription factor GLI2 and transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Marie-Jeanne; Marsaud, Véronique; Mauviel, Alain; Javelaud, Delphine

    2012-05-25

    The melanocyte-specific transcription factor M-MITF is involved in numerous aspects of melanoblast lineage biology including pigmentation, survival, and migration. It plays complex roles at all stages of melanoma progression and metastasis. We established previously that GLI2, a Kruppel-like transcription factor that acts downstream of Hedgehog signaling, is a direct transcriptional target of the TGF-β/SMAD pathway and contributes to melanoma progression, exerting antagonistic activities against M-MITF to control melanoma cell invasiveness. Herein, we dissected the molecular mechanisms underlying both TGF-β and GLI2-driven M-MITF gene repression. Using transient cell transfection experiments with M-MITF promoter constructs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified a GLI2 binding site within the -334/-296 region of the M-MITF promoter, critical for GLI2-driven transcriptional repression. This region is, however, not needed for inhibition of M-MITF promoter activity by TGF-β. We determined that TGF-β rapidly repressed protein kinase A activity, thus reducing both phospho-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) levels and CREB-dependent transcription of the M-MITF promoter. Increased GLI2 binding to its cognate cis-element, associated with reduced CREB-dependent transcription, allowed maximal inhibition of the M-MITF promoter via two distinct mechanisms.

  16. Pathophysiological relevance of forkhead transcription factors in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Kohji; Shioda, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor, class 0 (FOXO) is a mammalian homologue of DAF-16, which is known to regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and includes subfamiies of forkhead transcription factors such as FOXO1 (FKHR). FOXO3 (FKHRL1), FOXO4 (AFX) and FOXO6. All these FOXO members are expressed in the brain with different spatial patterns. FOXO1 is phosphorylated on three sites (Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-319) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt-dependenr manner, thereby inhibiting apoptosis signals. We here documented dephosphorylation of FOXO1, FOXO3 and FOXO4 following transient forebrain ischemia with its concomitant translocation into the nucleus in neurons in the gerbil and mouse brains. The dephosphorylarion of FOXO1 following brain ischemia is in part mediated by constirutively active calcineurin in the mouse hippocampus. The activation of FOXOs preceded delayed neuronal death in the vulnerable hippocampal regions following ischemic brain injury. The FOXOl activation is accompanied by an increase in DNA binding activity for FOXO1-responsive element on the Fas ligand promoter. Thus, downstream targets induced by FOXOl include Fas ligand and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in the brain ischemia. Accumulating evidence documented how FOXO activation is involved in the mechanisms of ischemic cell death. In this chapter, we document the activation mechanism of FOXO factors following brain ischemia and deline their downstream targets underlying neuronal death. The pathophysiological relevance of crosstalk between FOXOs and calcineurmn pathways is also discussed. Finally, we propose therapeutic perspectives to rescue neurons from delayed neuronal death by promoting the Akt signaling. Vanadium compounds, protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, up-regulates Akt activity in the brain and thereby rescues neurons from delayed neuronal death by inhibiting FOXO-dependent and -independent death signals in neurons.

  17. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks.

  18. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks. PMID:25565413

  19. A WRKY Transcription Factor Regulates Fe Translocation under Fe Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Chun Xiao; Sun, Li; Ren, Jiang Yuan; Li, Gui Xin; Ding, Zhong Jie; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2016-07-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency affects plant growth and development, leading to reduction of crop yields and quality. Although the regulation of Fe uptake under Fe deficiency has been well studied in the past decade, the regulatory mechanism of Fe translocation inside the plants remains unknown. Here, we show that a WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 is involved in response to Fe deficiency. Lack of WRKY46 (wrky46-1 and wrky46-2 loss-of-function mutants) significantly affects Fe translocation from root to shoot and thus causes obvious chlorosis on the new leaves under Fe deficiency. Gene expression analysis reveals that expression of a nodulin-like gene (VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1-LIKE1 [VITL1]) is dramatically increased in wrky46-1 mutant. VITL1 expression is inhibited by Fe deficiency, while the expression of WRKY46 is induced in the root stele. Moreover, down-regulation of VITL1 expression can restore the chlorosis phenotype on wrky46-1 under Fe deficiency. Further yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that WRKY46 is capable of binding to the specific W-boxes present in the VITL1 promoter. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY46 plays an important role in the control of root-to-shoot Fe translocation under Fe deficiency condition via direct regulation of VITL1 transcript levels. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. The effects of cytosine methylation on general transcription factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianshi; Lian, Tengfei; Gu, Chan; Yu, Kai; Gao, Yi Qin; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation on CpG sites is the most common epigenetic modification. Recently, methylation in a non-CpG context was found to occur widely on genomic DNA. Moreover, methylation of non-CpG sites is a highly controlled process, and its level may vary during cellular development. To study non-CpG methylation effects on DNA/protein interactions, we have chosen three human transcription factors (TFs): glucocorticoid receptor (GR), brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 (BMAL1) - circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and estrogen receptor (ER) with methylated or unmethylated DNA binding sequences, using single-molecule and isothermal titration calorimetry assays. The results demonstrated that these TFs interact with methylated DNA with different effects compared with their cognate DNA sequences. The effects of non-CpG methylation on transcriptional regulation were validated by cell-based luciferase assay at protein level. The mechanisms of non-CpG methylation influencing DNA-protein interactions were investigated by crystallographic analyses and molecular dynamics simulation. With BisChIP-seq assays in HEK-293T cells, we found that GR can recognize highly methylated sites within chromatin in cells. Therefore, we conclude that non-CpG methylation of DNA can provide a mechanism for regulating gene expression through directly affecting the binding of TFs.

  1. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun; ...

    2016-12-13

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberin butmore » not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.« less

  2. The MYB107 Transcription Factor Positively Regulates Suberin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Mingyue; Hou, Guichuan; Yang, Huijun; Zhang, Xuebin; Cai, Yuanheng; Kai, Guoyin; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2016-12-13

    Suberin, a lipophilic polymer deposited in the outer integument of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat, represents an essential sealing component controlling water and solute movement and protecting seed from pathogenic infection. Although many genes responsible for suberin synthesis are identified, the regulatory components controlling its biosynthesis have not been definitively determined. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis MYB107 transcription factor acts as a positive regulator controlling suberin biosynthetic gene expression in the seed coat. MYB107 coexpresses with suberin biosynthetic genes in a temporal manner during seed development. Disrupting MYB107 particularly suppresses the expression of genes involved in suberin but not cutin biosynthesis, lowers seed coat suberin accumulation, alters suberin lamellar structure, and consequently renders higher seed coat permeability and susceptibility to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, MYB107 directly binds to the promoters of suberin biosynthetic genes, verifying its primary role in regulating their expression. Identifying MYB107 as a positive regulator for seed coat suberin synthesis offers a basis for discovering the potential transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.

  3. Systematic functional profiling of transcription factor networks in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Maeng, Shinae; Lee, Kyung-Tae; So, Yee-Seul; Hong, Joohyeon; Choi, Jaeyoung; Byun, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Hyelim; Bang, Soohyun; Song, Min-Hee; Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Seo-Young; Ji, Je-Hyun; Park, Goun; Kwon, Hyojeong; Cha, Suyeon; Meyers, Gena Lee; Wang, Li Li; Jang, Jooyoung; Janbon, Guilhem; Adedoyin, Gloria; Kim, Taeyup; Averette, Anna K.; Heitman, Joseph; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in humans, but its overall biological and pathogenic regulatory circuits remain elusive, particularly due to the presence of an evolutionarily divergent set of transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report the construction of a high-quality library of 322 signature-tagged gene-deletion strains for 155 putative TF genes previously predicted using the DNA-binding domain TF database, and examine their in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits under 32 distinct growth conditions. At least one phenotypic trait is exhibited by 145 out of 155 TF mutants (93%) and ∼85% of them (132/155) are functionally characterized for the first time in this study. The genotypic and phenotypic data for each TF are available in the C. neoformans TF phenome database (http://tf.cryptococcus.org). In conclusion, our phenome-based functional analysis of the C. neoformans TF mutant library provides key insights into transcriptional networks of basidiomycetous fungi and human fungal pathogens. PMID:25849373

  4. Xenopus transcription factor IIIA-dependent DNA renaturation.

    PubMed

    Fiser-Littell, R M; Hanas, J S

    1988-11-15

    Kinetic and titration analyses are used to elucidate the mechanism by which Xenopus transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a protein required for 5 S RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase III, promotes DNA renaturation. TFIIIA promotes 50% renaturation of complementary strands (303 bases) in 45 s. Analyses of the renaturation kinetics indicate the rate-limiting step in this TFIIIA-dependent reaction is first order. TFIIIA-dependent DNA renaturation is a stoichiometric rather than a catalytic process. The renaturation rates for specific and nonspecific DNA are very similar, indicating lack of sequence specificity in this TFIIIA-dependent process. In the nanomolar concentration range of protein and DNA, renaturation occurs at a ratio of about one TFIIIA molecule/single strand (303 bases). Elevated reaction temperatures strongly stimulate TFIIIA-dependent DNA renaturation; at 45 degrees C, renaturation of the 303-base pair fragment nears completion in about 5 s. The ability of TFIIIA to rapidly promote DNA renaturation is unique when compared with Escherichia coli recA protein, single-stranded DNA binding protein, or bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein. This mechanism by which TFIIIA promotes DNA renaturation is compatible with features of 5 S RNA gene transcription.

  5. Expression of Drosophila forkhead transcription factors during kidney development.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-03-28

    The Drosophila forkhead (Dfkh) family of transcription factors has over 40 family members. One Dfkh family member, BF2 (aka FoxD1), has been shown, by targeted disruption, to be essential for kidney development. In order to determine if other Dfkh family members were involved in kidney development and to search for new members of this family, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using degenerate primers of the consensus sequence of the DNA binding domain of this family and developing rat kidney RNA. The RT-PCR product was used to probe RNA from a developing rat kidney (neonatal), from a 20-day old kidney, and from an adult kidney. The RT-PCR product hybridized only to a developing kidney RNA transcript of ∼2.3 kb (the size of BF2). A lambda gt10 mouse neonatal kidney library was then screened, using the above-described RT-PCR product as a probe. Three lambda phage clones were isolated that strongly hybridized to the RT-PCR probe. Sequencing of the RT-PCR product and the lambda phage clones isolated from the developing kidney library revealed Dfkh BF2. In summary, only Dfkh family member BF2, which has already been shown to be essential for nephrogenesis, was identified in our screen and no other candidate Dfkh family members were identified. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Tackling Cancer Stem Cells via Inhibition of EMT Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mladinich, Megan; Ruan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) has become recognized for its role in both tumorigenesis and poor patient prognosis in recent years. Traditional therapeutics are unable to effectively eliminate this group of cells from the bulk population of cancer cells, allowing CSCs to persist posttreatment and thus propagate into secondary tumors. The therapeutic potential of eliminating CSCs, to decrease tumor relapse, has created a demand for identifying mechanisms that directly target and eliminate cancer stem cells. Molecular profiling has shown that cancer cells and tumors that exhibit the CSC phenotype also express genes associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) feature. Ample evidence has demonstrated that upregulation of master transcription factors (TFs) accounting for the EMT process such as Snail/Slug and Twist can reprogram cancer cells from differentiated to stem-like status. Despite being appealing therapeutic targets for tackling CSCs, pharmacological approaches that directly target EMT-TFs remain impossible. In this review, we will summarize recent advances in the regulation of Snail/Slug and Twist at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels and discuss the clinical implication and application for EMT blockade as a promising strategy for CSC targeting. PMID:27840647

  7. NemR is a bleach-sensing transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael J; Wholey, Wei-Yun; Parker, Benjamin W; Kim, Minwook; Jakob, Ursula

    2013-05-10

    Little is known about how bacteria sense or respond to reactive chlorine species, such as bleach. NemR is a redox-regulated transcription factor which senses bleach. NemR controls expression of genes encoding electrophile detoxification enzymes, which increase bleach resistance. We demonstrate a bleach-sensing bacterial response system and a new mechanism contributing to bacterial bleach survival. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active component of household bleach, also functions as a powerful antimicrobial during the innate immune response. Despite its widespread use, surprisingly little is known about how cells sense or respond to HOCl. We now demonstrate that Escherichia coli NemR is a redox-regulated transcriptional repressor, which uses the oxidation status of HOCl-sensitive cysteine residues to respond to bleach and related reactive chlorine species. NemR controls bleach-mediated expression of two enzymes required for detoxification of reactive electrophiles: glyoxalase I and N-ethylmaleimide reductase. Both enzymes contribute to bacterial bleach survival. These results provide evidence that bleach resistance relies on the capacity of organisms to specifically sense reactive chlorine species and respond with the up-regulation of enzymes dedicated to detoxification of methylglyoxal and other reactive electrophiles.

  8. Variable Glutamine-Rich Repeats Modulate Transcription Factor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gemayel, Rita; Chavali, Sreenivas; Pougach, Ksenia; Legendre, Matthieu; Zhu, Bo; Boeynaems, Steven; van der Zande, Elisa; Gevaert, Kris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Babu, M. Madan; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Excessive expansions of glutamine (Q)-rich repeats in various human proteins are known to result in severe neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease and several ataxias. However, the physiological role of these repeats and the consequences of more moderate repeat variation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Q-rich domains are highly enriched in eukaryotic transcription factors where they act as functional modulators. Incremental changes in the number of repeats in the yeast transcriptional regulator Ssn6 (Cyc8) result in systematic, repeat-length-dependent variation in expression of target genes that result in direct phenotypic changes. The function of Ssn6 increases with its repeat number until a certain threshold where further expansion leads to aggregation. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that the Ssn6 repeats affect its solubility and interactions with Tup1 and other regulators. Thus, Q-rich repeats are dynamic functional domains that modulate a regulator’s innate function, with the inherent risk of pathogenic repeat expansions. PMID:26257283

  9. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Ujjal J.; Jeena, Gajendra S.; Shukla, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological, and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational, and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research. PMID:27375634

  10. Role of DNA Methylation in Modulating Transcription Factor Occupancy.

    PubMed

    Maurano, Matthew T; Wang, Hao; John, Sam; Shafer, Anthony; Canfield, Theresa; Lee, Kristen; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-08-18

    Although DNA methylation is commonly invoked as a mechanism for transcriptional repression, the extent to which it actively silences transcription factor (TF) occupancy sites in vivo is unknown. To study the role of DNA methylation in the active modulation of TF binding, we quantified the effect of DNA methylation depletion on the genomic occupancy patterns of CTCF, an abundant TF with known methylation sensitivity that is capable of autonomous binding to its target sites in chromatin. Here, we show that the vast majority (>98.5%) of the tens of thousands of unoccupied, methylated CTCF recognition sequences remain unbound upon abrogation of DNA methylation. The small fraction of sites that show methylation-dependent binding in vivo are in turn characterized by highly variable CTCF occupancy across cell types. Our results suggest that DNA methylation is not a primary groundskeeper of genomic TF landscapes, but rather a specialized mechanism for stabilizing intrinsically labile sites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The roles of mitochondrial transcription termination factors (MTERFs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Stress such as salinity, cold, heat or drought affect plant growth and development, and frequently result in diminished productivity. Unlike animals, plants are sedentary organisms that must withstand and cope with environmental stresses. During evolution, plants have developed strategies to successfully adapt to or tolerate such stresses, which might have led to the expansion and functional diversification of gene families. Some new genes may have acquired functions that could differ from those of their animal homologues, e.g. in response to abiotic stress. The mitochondrial transcription termination factor (MTERF) family could be a good example of this. Originally identified and characterized in metazoans, MTERFs regulate transcription, translation and DNA replication in vertebrate mitochondria. Plant genomes harbor a considerably larger number of MTERFs than animals. Nonetheless, only eight plant MTERFs have been characterized, which encode chloroplast or mitochondrial proteins. Mutations in MTERFs alter the expression of organelle genes and impair chloroplast or mitochondria development. This information is transmitted to the nucleus, probably through retrograde signaling, because mterf plants often exhibit changes in nuclear gene expression. This study summarizes the recent findings, mainly from the analysis of mterf mutants, which support an emerging role for plant MTERFs in response to abiotic stress. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Expression of Drosophila Forkhead Transcription Factors During Kidney Development

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila forkhead (Dfkh) family of transcription factors has over 40 family members. One Dfkh family member, BF2 (aka FoxD1), has been shown, by targeted disruption, to be essential for kidney development. In order to determine if other Dfkh family members were involved in kidney development and to search for new members of this family, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using degenerate primers of the consensus sequence of the DNA binding domain of this family and developing rat kidney RNA. The RT-PCR product was used to probe RNA from a developing rat kidney (neonatal), from a 20-day old kidney, and from an adult kidney. The RT-PCR product hybridized only to a developing kidney RNA transcript of ~2.3 kb (the size of BF2). A lambda gt10 mouse neonatal kidney library was then screened, using the above-described RT-PCR product as a probe. Three lambda phage clones were isolated that strongly hybridized to the RT-PCR probe. Sequencing of the RT-PCR product and the lambda phage clones isolated from the developing kidney library revealed Dfkh BF2. In summary, only Dfkh family member BF2, which has already been shown to be essential for nephrogenesis, was identified in our screen and no other candidate Dfkh family members were identified. PMID:24491558

  13. RFX transcription factors are essential for hearing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Elkon, Ran; Milon, Beatrice; Morrison, Laura; Shah, Manan; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Racherla, Manoj; Leitch, Carmen C.; Silipino, Lorna; Hadi, Shadan; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Barras, Emmanuèle; Schmid, Christoph D.; Ait-Lounis, Aouatef; Barnes, Ashley; Song, Yang; Eisenman, David J.; Eliyahu, Efrat; Frolenkov, Gregory I.; Strome, Scott E.; Durand, Bénédicte; Zaghloul, Norann A.; Jones, Sherri M.; Reith, Walter; Hertzano, Ronna

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common and currently irreversible disorder, because mammalian hair cells (HCs) do not regenerate and current stem cell and gene delivery protocols result only in immature HC-like cells. Importantly, although the transcriptional regulators of embryonic HC development have been described, little is known about the postnatal regulators of maturating HCs. Here we apply a cell type-specific functional genomic analysis to the transcriptomes of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia from early postnatal mice. We identify RFX transcription factors as essential and evolutionarily conserved regulators of the HC-specific transcriptomes, and detect Rfx1,2,3,5 and 7 in the developing HCs. To understand the role of RFX in hearing, we generate Rfx1/3 conditional knockout mice. We show that these mice are deaf secondary to rapid loss of initially well-formed outer HCs. These data identify an essential role for RFX in hearing and survival of the terminally differentiating outer HCs. PMID:26469318

  14. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1.

  15. Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Garapati, Prashanth; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward; Van Dijck, Patrick; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to low carbon supply by massive reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome. We show here that the carbon starvation-induced NAC (for NO APICAL MERISTEM/ARABIDOPSIS TRANSCRIPTION ACTIVATION FACTOR/CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Transcription Activation Factor1 (ATAF1) plays an important role in this physiological process. We identified TREHALASE1, the only trehalase-encoding gene in Arabidopsis, as a direct downstream target of ATAF1. Overexpression of ATAF1 activates TREHALASE1 expression and leads to reduced trehalose-6-phosphate levels and a sugar starvation metabolome. In accordance with changes in expression of starch biosynthesis- and breakdown-related genes, starch levels are generally reduced in ATAF1 overexpressors but elevated in ataf1 knockout plants. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by ATAF1 are broadly associated with energy and carbon starvation responses. Furthermore, transcriptional responses triggered by ATAF1 largely overlap with expression patterns observed in plants starved for carbon or energy supply. Collectively, our data highlight the existence of a positively acting feedforward loop between ATAF1 expression, which is induced by carbon starvation, and the depletion of cellular carbon/energy pools that is triggered by the transcriptional regulation of downstream gene regulatory networks by ATAF1. PMID:26149570

  16. The transcription factor NF-E2-related Factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene?

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Phillip; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 is responsible for regulating a battery of antioxidant and cellular protective genes, primarily in response to oxidative stress. A member of the cap 'n' collar family of transcription factors, Nrf2 activation is tightly controlled by a series of signaling events. These events can be separated into the basal state, a preinduction response, gene induction, and finally a postinduction response, culminating in the restoration of redox homeostasis. However, despite the immensely intricate level of control the cellular environment imposes on Nrf2 activity, there are many opportunities for perturbations to arise in the signaling events that favor carcinogenesis and, therefore, implicate Nrf2 as both a tumor suppressor and a protooncogene. Herein, we highlight the ways in which Nrf2 is regulated, and discuss some of the Nrf2-inducible antioxidant (NQO1, NQO2, HO-1, GCLC), antiapoptotic (Bcl-2), metabolic (G6PD, TKT, PPARγ), and drug efflux transporter (ABCG2, MRP3, MRP4) genes. In addition, we focus on how Nrf2 functions as a tumor suppressor under normal conditions and how its ability to detoxify the cellular environment makes it an attractive target for other oncogenes either via stabilization or degradation of the transcription factor. Finally, we discuss some of the ways in which Nrf2 is being considered as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment.—Shelton, P., Jaiswal, A. K. The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2): a protooncogene? PMID:23109674

  17. Dynamic regulation of transcription factors by nucleosome remodeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Hada, Arjan; Sen, Payel; Olufemi, Lola; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Benjamin Y; Forth, Scott; McKnight, Jeffrey N; Patel, Ashok; Bowman, Gregory D; Bartholomew, Blaine; Wang, Michelle D

    2015-06-05

    The chromatin landscape and promoter architecture are dominated by the interplay of nucleosome and transcription factor (TF) binding to crucial DNA sequence elements. However, it remains unclear whether nucleosomes mobilized by chromatin remodelers can influence TFs that are already present on the DNA template. In this study, we investigated the interplay between nucleosome remodeling, by either yeast ISW1a or SWI/SNF, and a bound TF. We found that a TF serves as a major barrier to ISW1a remodeling, and acts as a boundary for nucleosome repositioning. In contrast, SWI/SNF was able to slide a nucleosome past a TF, with concurrent eviction of the TF from the DNA, and the TF did not significantly impact the nucleosome positioning. Our results provide direct evidence for a novel mechanism for both nucleosome positioning regulation by bound TFs and TF regulation via dynamic repositioning of nucleosomes.

  18. Object oriented Transcription Factors Database (ooTFD).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, D

    1999-01-01

    ooTFD is an object-oriented database for the representation of information pertaining to transcription factors, the proteins and biochemical entities which play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Given the recent explosion of genome sequence information, and that a large percentage of proteins encoded by fully sequenced genomes fall into this category, information pertaining to this class of molecules may become an essential aspect of biology and of genomics in the 21st century. In the past year, there was a small increase in the size of this database, and a number of new tools to facilitate data access and analysis have been added at the MIRAGE (Molecular Informatics Resource for the Analysis of Gene Expression) web site. ooTFD and associated tools and resources can be accessed at http://www.ifti.org/

  19. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  20. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  1. Neural Transcription Factors: from Embryos to Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Moody, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    The early steps of neural development in the vertebrate embryo are regulated by sets of transcription factors that control the induction of proliferative, pluripotent neural precursors, the expansion of neural plate stem cells, and their transition to differentiating neural progenitors. These early events are critical for producing a pool of multipotent cells capable of giving rise to the multitude of neurons and glia that form the central nervous system. In this review we summarize findings from gain- and loss-of-function studies in embryos that detail the gene regulatory network responsible for these early events. We discuss whether this information is likely to be similar in mammalian embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells that are cultured according to protocols designed to produce neurons. The similarities and differences between the embryo and stem cells may provide important guidance to stem cell protocols designed to create immature neural cells for therapeutic uses. PMID:25234468

  2. Calcineurin regulates phosphorylation status of transcription factor osterix.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hirohiko; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; Wang, Jie; Yoshida, Kaya; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2009-02-06

    Osterix is an osteoblast-specific transcriptional factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Calcineurin regulates bone formation through modulating osteoblast differentiation. However, post-translational modification of osterix such as phosphorylation and interactions between osterix and calcineurin remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that calcineurin interacted with osterix determined by immunoprecipitation assay and Western analysis. Immunocytochemical study also revealed that osterix and calcineurin were co-localized in nucleus. Deletion of calcineurin binding motif on osterix molecule disrupted osterix-calcineurin interaction. Phosphorylation status of osterix was augmented by treatment with phosphatase inhibitors, FK506 and calyculin A. In contrast, treatment of recombinant calcineurin reduced phosphorylation status of osterix. Our present study suggests that calcineurin has an important role in the function of osterix through its modification of phosphorylation.

  3. Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming: epigenetics and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Firas, Jaber; Liu, Xiaodong; Lim, Sue Mei; Polo, Jose M

    2015-03-01

    Cellular reprogramming refers to the conversion of one cell type into another by altering its epigenetic marks. This can be achieved by three different methods: somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming. TF-mediated reprogramming can occur through several means, either reverting backwards to a pluripotent state before redifferentiating to a new cell type (otherwise known as induced pluripotency), by transdifferentiating directly into a new cell type (bypassing the intermediate pluripotent stage), or, by using the induced pluripotency pathway without reaching the pluripotent state. The possibility of reprogramming any cell type of interest not only sheds new insights on cellular plasticity, but also provides a novel use of this technology across several platforms, most notably in cellular replacement therapies, disease modelling and drug screening. This review will focus on the different ways of implementing TF-mediated reprogramming, their associated epigenetic changes and its therapeutic potential.

  4. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-08-09

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  5. Isolation and mass spectrometry of transcription factor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sebastiaan Winkler, G; Lacomis, Lynne; Philip, John; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Svejstrup, Jesper Q; Tempst, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Protocols are described that enable the isolation of novel proteins associated with a known protein and the subsequent identification of these proteins by mass spectrometry. We review the basics of nanosample handling and of two complementary approaches to mass analysis, and provide protocols for the entire process. The protein isolation procedure is rapid and based on two high-affinity chromatography steps. The method does not require previous knowledge of complex composition or activity and permits subsequent biochemical characterization of the isolated factor. As an example, we provide the procedures used to isolate and analyze yeast Elongator, a histone acetyltransferase complex important for transcript elongation, which led to the identification of three novel subunits.

  6. Brassinosteroid signal transduction from receptor kinases to transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wuk; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones in plants. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis illustrated the essential roles of BRs in a wide range of developmental processes and helped identify many genes involved in BR biosynthesis and signal transduction. Recently, proteomic studies identified missing links. Together, these approaches established the BR signal transduction cascade, which includes BR perception by the BRI1 receptor kinase at the cell surface, activation of BRI1/BAK1 kinase complex by transphosphorylation, subsequent phosphorylation of the BSK kinases, activation of the BSU1 phosphatase, dephosphorylation and inactivation of the BIN2 kinase, and accumulation of unphosphorylated BZR transcription factors in the nucleus. Mass spectrometric analyses are providing detailed information on the phosphorylation events involved in each step of signal relay. Thus, the BR signaling pathway provides a paradigm for understanding receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction as well as tools for the genetic improvement of the productivity of crop plants.

  7. Transcription factors and target genes of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose; Berga-Bolaños, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Almost 30 years ago pioneering work by the laboratories of Harald von Boehmer and Susumo Tonegawa provided the first indications that developing thymocytes could assemble a functional TCRβ chain-containing receptor complex, the pre-TCR, before TCRα expression. The discovery and study of the pre-TCR complex revealed paradigms of signaling pathways in control of cell survival and proliferation, and culminated in the recognition of the multifunctional nature of this receptor. As a receptor integrated in a dynamic developmental process, the pre-TCR must be viewed not only in the light of the biological outcomes it promotes, but also in context with those molecular processes that drive its expression in thymocytes. This review article focuses on transcription factors and target genes activated by the pre-TCR to drive its different outcomes.

  8. Evaluation of methods for modeling transcription-factor sequence specificity

    PubMed Central

    Weirauch, Matthew T.; Cote, Atina; Norel, Raquel; Annala, Matti; Zhao, Yue; Riley, Todd R.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Cokelaer, Thomas; Vedenko, Anastasia; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Morris, Quaid D.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic analyses often involve scanning for potential transcription-factor (TF) binding sites using models of the sequence specificity of DNA binding proteins. Many approaches have been developed to model and learn a protein’s binding specificity, but these methods have not been systematically compared. Here we applied 26 such approaches to in vitro protein binding microarray data for 66 mouse TFs belonging to various families. For 9 TFs, we also scored the resulting motif models on in vivo data, and found that the best in vitro–derived motifs performed similarly to motifs derived from in vivo data. Our results indicate that simple models based on mononucleotide position weight matrices learned by the best methods perform similarly to more complex models for most TFs examined, but fall short in specific cases (<10%). In addition, the best-performing motifs typically have relatively low information content, consistent with widespread degeneracy in eukaryotic TF sequence preferences. PMID:23354101

  9. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2012-10-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins.

  10. MADS and more: transcription factors that shape the plant.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter

    2011-01-01

    All major processes of life depend on differential gene expression, which is largely controlled by the activity of transcription factors (TFs). In plants many TFs are encoded by members of multigene families that expanded much more dramatically during land plant evolution than during the evolution of animals and fungi. Here we review typical features such as domain structure, DNA binding, and protein interactions of TFs from some families that have contributed to the development and evolution of plant-specific structures in especially important ways. Our survey includes the MADS-domain protein family involved in specifying meristem and organ identity; YABBY proteins controlling lamina outgrowth; TCP proteins controlling floral zygomorphy and apical dominance; and finally homeodomain proteins involved in stem-cell maintenance and many other processes. Common themes as well as interesting differences between these "molecular architects of plant body plans" will become apparent.

  11. Human Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Regulation through GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha (GABPa)

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Nowick, Katja; Piccini, Ilaria; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Querfurth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of phenotypic differences between closely related species are likely caused by differences in gene regulation. While this has already been postulated over 30 years ago, only few examples of evolutionary changes in gene regulation have been verified. Here, we identified and investigated binding sites of the transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPa) aiming to discover cis-regulatory adaptations on the human lineage. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing experiments in a human cell line, we found 11,619 putative GABPa binding sites. Through sequence comparisons of the human GABPa binding regions with orthologous sequences from 34 mammals, we identified substitutions that have resulted in 224 putative human-specific GABPa binding sites. To experimentally assess the transcriptional impact of those substitutions, we selected four promoters for promoter-reporter gene assays using human and African green monkey cells. We compared the activities of wild-type promoters to mutated forms, where we have introduced one or more substitutions to mimic the ancestral state devoid of the GABPa consensus binding sequence. Similarly, we introduced the human-specific substitutions into chimpanzee and macaque promoter backgrounds. Our results demonstrate that the identified substitutions are functional, both in human and nonhuman promoters. In addition, we performed GABPa knock-down experiments and found 1,215 genes as strong candidates for primary targets. Further analyses of our data sets link GABPa to cognitive disorders, diabetes, KRAB zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF), and human-specific genes. Thus, we propose that differences in GABPa binding sites played important roles in the evolution of human-specific phenotypes. PMID:26814189

  12. Water deficit-induced changes in transcription factor expression in maize seedlings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants tolerate water deficits by regulating gene networks controlling cellular and physiological traits to modify growth and development. Transcription factor (TFs) directed regulation of transcription within these gene networks is key to eliciting appropriate responses. In this study, reverse tran...

  13. Transcriptional regulation of gilthead seabream bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 gene by bone- and cartilage-related transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cátia L; Cancela, M Leonor; Laizé, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of cytokines and growth factors. While it plays important roles in embryo morphogenesis and organogenesis, BMP2 is also critical to bone and cartilage formation. Protein structure and function have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution and BMP2 transcription has been proposed to be tightly regulated, although few data is available. In this work we report the cloning and functional analysis of gilthead seabream BMP2 promoter. As in other vertebrates, seabream BMP2 gene has a 5′ non-coding exon, a feature already present in DPP gene, the fruit fly ortholog of vertebrate BMP2 gene, and maintained throughout evolution. In silico analysis of seabream BMP2 promoter revealed several binding sites for bone and cartilage related transcription factors (TFs) and their functionality was evaluated using promoter-luciferase constructions and TF-expressing vectors. Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) was shown to negatively regulate BMP2 transcription and combination with the core binding factor β (CBFβ) further reduced transcriptional activity of the promoter. Although to a lesser extent, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) had also a negative effect on the regulation of BMP2 gene transcription, when associated with SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9b). Finally, v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1) was able to slightly enhance BMP2 transcription. Data reported here provides new insights toward the better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of BMP2 gene in a bone and cartilage context.

  14. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  15. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement. PMID:25972895

  16. Evolutionary Analyses of GRAS Transcription Factors in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Alberto; Rouard, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in plant growth and development such as gibberellin and mycorrhizal signaling. Proteins belonging to this gene family contain a typical GRAS domain in the C-terminal sequence, whereas the N-terminal region is highly variable. Although, GRAS genes have been characterized in a number of plant species, their classification is still not completely resolved. Based on a panel of eight representative species of angiosperms, we identified 29 orthologous groups or orthogroups (OGs) for the GRAS gene family, suggesting that at least 29 ancestor genes were present in the angiosperm lineage before the “Amborella” evolutionary split. Interestingly, some taxonomic groups were missing members of one or more OGs. The gene number expansion usually observed in transcription factors was not observed in GRAS while the genome triplication ancestral to the eudicots (γ hexaploidization event) was detectable in a limited number of GRAS orthogroups. We also found conserved OG-specific motifs in the variable N-terminal region. Finally, we could regroup OGs in 17 subfamilies for which names were homogenized based on a literature review and described 5 new subfamilies (DLT, RAD1, RAM1, SCLA, and SCLB). This study establishes a consistent framework for the classification of GRAS members in angiosperm species, and thereby a tool to correctly establish the orthologous relationships of GRAS genes in most of the food crops in order to facilitate any subsequent functional analyses in the GRAS gene family. The multi-fasta file containing all the sequences used in our study could be used as database to perform diagnostic BLASTp to classify GRAS genes from other non-model species. PMID:28303145

  17. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Mariko; Ogura, Tae; Matsuzaki, Ayako; Nakano, Haruo; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5(-/-)) mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5(-/-) mice were less aggressive than ATF5(+/+) mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5(-/-) mice and wild type littermates. ATF5(-/-) mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5(-/-) mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley's social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5(-/-) mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5(-/-) mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5(-/-) mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5(-/-) mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  18. The transcription factor GATA-6 regulates pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    van Berlo, Jop H.; Elrod, John W.; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M.G.; York, Allen J.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The transcriptional code that programs maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy involves the zinc finger-containing DNA binding factor GATA-4. The highly related transcription factor GATA-6 is also expressed in the adult heart, although its role in controlling the hypertrophic program is unknown. Objective To determine the role of GATA-6 in cardiac hypertrophy and homeostasis. Methods and Results Here we performed a cardiomyocyte-specific conditional gene targeting approach for Gata6, as well as a transgenic approach to overexpress GATA-6 in the mouse heart. Deletion of Gata6-loxP with Nkx2.5-cre produced late embryonic lethality with heart defects, while deletion with β-myosin heavy chain-cre (βMHC-cre) produced viable adults with greater than 95% loss of GATA-6 protein in the heart. These later mice were subjected to pressure overload induced hypertrophy for 2 and 6 weeks, which showed a significant reduction in cardiac hypertrophy similar to that observed Gata4 heart-specific deleted mice. Gata6-deleted mice subjected to pressure overload also developed heart failure while control mice maintained proper cardiac function. Gata6-deleted mice also developed less cardiac hypertrophy following 2 weeks of angiotensin II/phenylephrine infusion. Controlled GATA-6 overexpression in the heart induced hypertrophy with aging and predisposed to greater hypertrophy with pressure overload stimulation. Combinatorial deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 from the adult heart resulted in dilated cardiomyopathy and lethality by 16 weeks of age. Mechanistically, deletion of Gata6 from the heart resulted in fundamental changes in the levels of key regulatory genes and myocyte differentiation-specific genes. Conclusions These results indicate that GATA-6 is both necessary and sufficient for regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response and differentiated gene expression, both alone and in coordination with GATA-4. PMID:20705924

  19. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan; Horng, Jim-Tong; Lau, Kean Seng

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of OLIG2 transcription factor in brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Nathan; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays a pivotal role in glioma development. Here we conducted a comprehensive study of the critical gene regulatory networks involving OLIG2. These include the networks responsible for OLIG2 expression, its translocation to nucleus, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, and Rho-pathway interactions. We described positive feedback loops including OLIG2: loops of epigenetic regulation and loops involving receptor tyrosine kinases. These loops may be responsible for the prolonged oncogenic activity of OLIG2. The proposed schemes for epigenetic regulation of the gene networks involving OLIG2 are confirmed by patient survival (Kaplan–Meier) curves based on the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) datasets. Finally, we elucidate the Coherent-Gene Modules (CGMs) networks—framework of OLIG2 involvement in cancer. We showed that genes interacting with OLIG2 formed eight CGMs having a set of intermodular connections. We showed also that among the genes involved in these modules the most connected hub is EGFR, then, on lower level, HSP90 and CALM1, followed by three lower levels including epigenetic genes KDM1A and NCOR1. The genes on the six upper levels of the hierarchy are involved in interconnections of all eight CGMs and organize functionally defined gene-signaling subnetworks having specific functions. For example, CGM1 is involved in epigenetic control. CGM2 is significantly related to cell proliferation and differentiation. CGM3 includes a number of interconnected helix–loop–helix transcription factors (bHLH) including OLIG2. Many of these TFs are partially controlled by OLIG2. The CGM4 is involved in PDGF-related: angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. These analyses provide testable hypotheses and approaches to inhibit OLIG2 pathway and relevant feed-forward and feedback loops to be interrogated. This broad approach can be applied to other TFs. PMID:27447975

  1. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Umemura, Mariko; Ogura, Tae; Matsuzaki, Ayako; Nakano, Haruo; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/-) mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders. PMID:28744205

  2. Evolutionary Analyses of GRAS Transcription Factors in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Alberto; Rouard, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors (TFs) play critical roles in plant growth and development such as gibberellin and mycorrhizal signaling. Proteins belonging to this gene family contain a typical GRAS domain in the C-terminal sequence, whereas the N-terminal region is highly variable. Although, GRAS genes have been characterized in a number of plant species, their classification is still not completely resolved. Based on a panel of eight representative species of angiosperms, we identified 29 orthologous groups or orthogroups (OGs) for the GRAS gene family, suggesting that at least 29 ancestor genes were present in the angiosperm lineage before the "Amborella" evolutionary split. Interestingly, some taxonomic groups were missing members of one or more OGs. The gene number expansion usually observed in transcription factors was not observed in GRAS while the genome triplication ancestral to the eudicots (γ hexaploidization event) was detectable in a limited number of GRAS orthogroups. We also found conserved OG-specific motifs in the variable N-terminal region. Finally, we could regroup OGs in 17 subfamilies for which names were homogenized based on a literature review and described 5 new subfamilies (DLT, RAD1, RAM1, SCLA, and SCLB). This study establishes a consistent framework for the classification of GRAS members in angiosperm species, and thereby a tool to correctly establish the orthologous relationships of GRAS genes in most of the food crops in order to facilitate any subsequent functional analyses in the GRAS gene family. The multi-fasta file containing all the sequences used in our study could be used as database to perform diagnostic BLASTp to classify GRAS genes from other non-model species.

  3. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the stimulator of interferon genes by transcription factors CREB and c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Jin, Rui; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Xu, Hua-Guo

    2016-12-20

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays an important role in host defense, autoimmune disease, osteoclast differentiation and anti-tumor response. Although many downstream targets have been studied in depth, the regulation of STING gene expression remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc maintain the transcriptional activity of STING. By 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, we identified the transcriptional start site (TSS) of STING. We illustrated that the region -124/+1 relative to TSS was sufficient for full promoter activity by a series of 5' deletion promoter constructs. Transcriptional activity of the STING minimal promoter was dependent on CREB and c-Myc binding motifs and was abolished after mutation of these two DNA elements. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc bind to STING promoter in vivo. Overexpression of CREB and c-Myc increased the STING promoter activity. Meanwhile, knocking-down of CREB and c-Myc by a small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategy markedly reduced endogenous STING expression. In summary, these results demonstrated that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc are involved in the regulation of STING transcription.

  4. Regulation of Memory Formation by the Transcription Factor XBP1.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gabriela; Vidal, René L; Mardones, Pablo; Serrano, Felipe G; Ardiles, Alvaro O; Wirth, Craig; Valdés, Pamela; Thielen, Peter; Schneider, Bernard L; Kerr, Bredford; Valdés, Jose L; Palacios, Adrian G; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Glimcher, Laurie H; Hetz, Claudio

    2016-02-16

    Contextual memory formation relies on the induction of new genes in the hippocampus. A polymorphism in the promoter of the transcription factor XBP1 was identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders. XBP1 is a major regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), mediating adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Using a phenotypic screen, we uncovered an unexpected function of XBP1 in cognition and behavior. Mice lacking XBP1 in the nervous system showed specific impairment of contextual memory formation and long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas neuronal XBP1s overexpression improved performance in memory tasks. Gene expression analysis revealed that XBP1 regulates a group of memory-related genes, highlighting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key component in memory consolidation. Overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus reversed the XBP1-deficient phenotype. Our study revealed an unanticipated function of XBP1 in cognitive processes that is apparently unrelated to its role in ER stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. OCTAMER-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS: GENOMICS AND FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2015-01-01

    The Octamer-binding proteins (Oct) are a group of highly conserved transcription factors that specifically bind to the octamer motif (ATGCAAAT) and closely related sequences that are found in promoters and enhancers of a wide variety of both ubiquitously expressed and cell type-specific genes. Oct factors belong to the larger family of POU domain factors that are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved bipartite DNA binding domain, consisting of an amino-terminal specific subdomain (POUS) and a carboxyl-terminal homeo-subdomain (POUH). Eleven Oct proteins have been named (Oct1-11), and currently, eight genes encoding Oct proteins (Oct1, Oct2, Oct3/4, Oct6, Oct7, Oct8, Oct9, and Oct11) have been cloned and characterized. Oct1 and Oct2 are widely expressed in adult tissues, while other Oct proteins are much more restricted in their expression patterns. Oct proteins are implicated in crucial and versatile biological events, such as embryogenesis, neurogenesis, immunity, and body glucose and amino acid metabolism. The aberrant expression and null function of Oct proteins have also been linked to various diseases, including deafness, diabetes and cancer. In this review, I will report both the genomic structure and major functions of individual Oct proteins in physiological and pathological processes. PMID:23747866

  6. Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jing; Jing, Gongchao; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Nannochloropsis spp. are a group of oleaginous microalgae that harbor an expanded array of lipid-synthesis related genes, yet how they are transcriptionally regulated remains unknown. Here a phylogenomic approach was employed to identify and functionally annotate the transcriptional factors (TFs) and TF binding-sites (TFBSs) in N. oceanica IMET1. Among 36 microalgae and higher plants genomes, a two-fold reduction in the number of TF families plus a seven-fold decrease of average family-size in Nannochloropsis, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta were observed. The degree of similarity in TF-family profiles is indicative of the phylogenetic relationship among the species, suggesting co-evolution of TF-family profiles and species. Furthermore, comparative analysis of six Nannochloropsis genomes revealed 68 “most-conserved” TFBS motifs, with 11 of which predicted to be related to lipid accumulation or photosynthesis. Mapping the IMET1 TFs and TFBS motifs to the reference plant TF-“TFBS motif” relationships in TRANSFAC enabled the prediction of 78 TF-“TFBS motif” interaction pairs, which consisted of 34 TFs (with 11 TFs potentially involved in the TAG biosynthesis pathway), 30 TFBS motifs and 2,368 regulatory connections between TFs and target genes. Our results form the basis of further experiments to validate and engineer the regulatory network of Nannochloropsis spp. for enhanced biofuel production. PMID:24965723

  7. Two recently duplicated maize NAC transcription factor paralogs are induced in response to Colletotrichum graminicola infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background NAC transcription factors belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors with more than 100 family members in monocot and dicot species. To date, the majority of the studied NAC proteins are involved in the response to abiotic stress, to biotic stress and in the regulation of developmental processes. Maize NAC transcription factors involved in the biotic stress response have not yet been identified. Results We have found that two NAC transcription factors, ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, are transcriptionally induced both during the initial biotrophic as well as the ensuing necrotrophic colonization of maize leaves by the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus C. graminicola. ZmNAC41 transcripts were also induced upon infection with C. graminicola mutants that are defective in host penetration, while the induction of ZmNAC100 did not occur in such interactions. While ZmNAC41 transcripts accumulated specifically in response to jasmonate (JA), ZmNAC100 transcripts were also induced by the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA). To assess the phylogenetic relation of ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, we studied the family of maize NAC transcription factors based on the recently annotated B73 genome information. We identified 116 maize NAC transcription factor genes that clustered into 12 clades. ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100 both belong to clade G and appear to have arisen by a recent gene duplication event. Including four other defence-related NAC transcription factors of maize and functionally characterized Arabidopsis and rice NAC transcription factors, we observed an enrichment of NAC transcription factors involved in host defense regulation in clade G. In silico analyses identified putative binding elements for the defence-induced ERF, Myc2, TGA and WRKY transcription factors in the promoters of four out of the six defence-related maize NAC transcription factors, while one of the analysed maize NAC did not contain any of these potential binding sites

  8. Two recently duplicated maize NAC transcription factor paralogs are induced in response to Colletotrichum graminicola infection.

    PubMed

    Voitsik, Anna-Maria; Muench, Steffen; Deising, Holger B; Voll, Lars M

    2013-05-29

    NAC transcription factors belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors with more than 100 family members in monocot and dicot species. To date, the majority of the studied NAC proteins are involved in the response to abiotic stress, to biotic stress and in the regulation of developmental processes. Maize NAC transcription factors involved in the biotic stress response have not yet been identified. We have found that two NAC transcription factors, ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, are transcriptionally induced both during the initial biotrophic as well as the ensuing necrotrophic colonization of maize leaves by the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus C. graminicola. ZmNAC41 transcripts were also induced upon infection with C. graminicola mutants that are defective in host penetration, while the induction of ZmNAC100 did not occur in such interactions. While ZmNAC41 transcripts accumulated specifically in response to jasmonate (JA), ZmNAC100 transcripts were also induced by the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA).To assess the phylogenetic relation of ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, we studied the family of maize NAC transcription factors based on the recently annotated B73 genome information. We identified 116 maize NAC transcription factor genes that clustered into 12 clades. ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100 both belong to clade G and appear to have arisen by a recent gene duplication event. Including four other defence-related NAC transcription factors of maize and functionally characterized Arabidopsis and rice NAC transcription factors, we observed an enrichment of NAC transcription factors involved in host defense regulation in clade G. In silico analyses identified putative binding elements for the defence-induced ERF, Myc2, TGA and WRKY transcription factors in the promoters of four out of the six defence-related maize NAC transcription factors, while one of the analysed maize NAC did not contain any of these potential binding sites. Our study provides a

  9. Ubiquitin signals proteolysis-independent stripping of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ndoja, Ada; Cohen, Robert E; Yao, Tingting

    2014-03-20

    Ubiquitination of transcription activators has been reported to regulate transcription via both proteolytic and nonproteolytic routes, yet the function of the ubiquitin (Ub) signal in the nonproteolytic process is poorly understood. By use of the heterologous transcription activator LexA-VP16 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that monoubiquitin fusion of the activator prevents stable interactions between the activator and DNA, leading to transcription inhibition without activator degradation. We identify the AAA(+) ATPase Cdc48 and its cofactors as the Ub receptor responsible for extracting the monoubiquitinated activator from DNA. Our results suggest that deubiquitination of the activator is critical for transcription activation. These findings with LexA-VP16 extend in both yeast and mammalian cells to native transcription activators Met4 and R-Smads, respectively, that are known to be oligo-ubiquitinated. The results illustrate a role for Ub and Cdc48 in transcriptional regulation and gene expression that is independent of proteolysis.

  10. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  11. The effects of transcription factor competition on gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Adryan, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) molecules translocate by facilitated diffusion (a combination of 3D diffusion around and 1D random walk on the DNA). Despite the attention this mechanism received in the last 40 years, only a few studies investigated the influence of the cellular environment on the facilitated diffusion mechanism and, in particular, the influence of “other” DNA binding proteins competing with the TF molecules for DNA space. Molecular crowding on the DNA is likely to influence the association rate of TFs to their target site and the steady state occupancy of those sites, but it is still not clear how it influences the search in a genome-wide context, when the model includes biologically relevant parameters (such as: TF abundance, TF affinity for DNA and TF dynamics on the DNA). We performed stochastic simulations of TFs performing the facilitated diffusion mechanism, and considered various abundances of cognate and non-cognate TFs. We show that, for both obstacles that move on the DNA and obstacles that are fixed on the DNA, changes in search time are not statistically significant in case of biologically relevant crowding levels on the DNA. In the case of non-cognate proteins that slide on the DNA, molecular crowding on the DNA always leads to statistically significant lower levels of occupancy, which may confer a general mechanism to control gene activity levels globally. When the “other” molecules are immobile on the DNA, we found a completely different behavior, namely: the occupancy of the target site is always increased by higher molecular crowding on the DNA. Finally, we show that crowding on the DNA may increase transcriptional noise through increased variability of the occupancy time of the target sites. PMID:24109486

  12. The effects of transcription factor competition on gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Adryan, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) molecules translocate by facilitated diffusion (a combination of 3D diffusion around and 1D random walk on the DNA). Despite the attention this mechanism received in the last 40 years, only a few studies investigated the influence of the cellular environment on the facilitated diffusion mechanism and, in particular, the influence of "other" DNA binding proteins competing with the TF molecules for DNA space. Molecular crowding on the DNA is likely to influence the association rate of TFs to their target site and the steady state occupancy of those sites, but it is still not clear how it influences the search in a genome-wide context, when the model includes biologically relevant parameters (such as: TF abundance, TF affinity for DNA and TF dynamics on the DNA). We performed stochastic simulations of TFs performing the facilitated diffusion mechanism, and considered various abundances of cognate and non-cognate TFs. We show that, for both obstacles that move on the DNA and obstacles that are fixed on the DNA, changes in search time are not statistically significant in case of biologically relevant crowding levels on the DNA. In the case of non-cognate proteins that slide on the DNA, molecular crowding on the DNA always leads to statistically significant lower levels of occupancy, which may confer a general mechanism to control gene activity levels globally. When the "other" molecules are immobile on the DNA, we found a completely different behavior, namely: the occupancy of the target site is always increased by higher molecular crowding on the DNA. Finally, we show that crowding on the DNA may increase transcriptional noise through increased variability of the occupancy time of the target sites.

  13. Involvement of CBF transcription factors in winter hardiness in birch.

    PubMed

    Welling, Annikki; Palva, E Tapio

    2008-07-01

    Cold acclimation of plants involves extensive reprogramming of gene expression. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), three cold-inducible transcriptional activators designated CBF1 to -3/DREB1a to -c have been shown to play an important regulatory role in this acclimation process. Similarly to Arabidopsis, boreal zone trees can increase their freezing tolerance (FT) in response to low temperature during the growing season. However, maximal FT of these trees requires short daylength-induced dormancy development followed by exposure to both low and freezing temperatures. To elucidate the molecular basis of FT in overwintering trees, we characterized the role of birch (Betula pendula) CBF transcription factors in the cold acclimation process. We identified four putative CBF orthologs in a birch expressed sequence tag collection designated BpCBF1 to -4. Ectopic expression of birch CBFs in Arabidopsis resulted in constitutive expression of endogenous CBF target genes and increased FT of nonacclimated transgenic plants. In addition, these plants showed stunted growth and delayed flowering, typical features for CBF-overexpressing plants. Expression analysis in birch showed that BpCBF1 to -4 are low temperature responsive but differentially regulated in dormant and growing plants, the expression being delayed in dormant tissues. Freeze-thaw treatment, simulating wintertime conditions in nature, resulted in strong induction of BpCBF genes during thawing, followed by induction of a CBF target gene, BpLTI36. These results suggest that in addition to their role in cold acclimation during the growing season, birch CBFs appear to contribute to control of winter hardiness in birch.

  14. The Transcription Factor p53 Influences Microglial Activation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Nesser, Nicole K.; Hopkins, Stephanie; Myers, Scott J.; Case, Amanda; Lee, Rona J.; Seaburg, Luke A.; Uo, Takuma; Murphy, Sean P.; Morrison, Richard S.; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, have pro-inflammatory and subsequently neurotoxic actions as well as anti-inflammatory functions that promote recovery and repair. Very little is known about the transcriptional control of these specific microglial behaviors. We have previously shown that in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the transcription factor p53 accumulates in microglia and that microglial p53 expression is required for the in vitro neurotoxicity of the HIV coat glycoprotein gp120. These findings suggested a novel function for p53 in regulating microglial activation. Here we report that in the absence of p53, microglia demonstrate a blunted response to interferon-γ, failing to increase expression of genes associated with classical macrophage activation or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles revealed increased expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory functions, phagocytosis and tissue repair in p53 knockout (p53−/−) microglia compared with those cultured from strain matched p53 expressing (p53+/+) mice. We further observed that p53−/− microglia demonstrate increased phagocytic activity in vitro and expression of markers for alternative macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In HAND brain tissue, the alternative activation marker CD163 was expressed in a separate subset of microglia than those demonstrating p53 accumulation. These data suggest that p53 influences microglial behavior, supporting the adoption of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, while p53 deficiency promotes phagocytosis and gene expression associated with alternative activation and anti-inflammatory functions. PMID:21598312

  15. The transcription factor SOX17 is involved in the transcriptional control of the uteroglobin gene in rabbit endometrium.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos; Calvo, Enrique; Nieto, Antonio

    2007-10-15

    The transcription of the uteroglobin gene (ug) is induced by progesterone in the rabbit endometrium, primarily through the binding of the progesterone receptor to the distal region of the ug promoter. However, other transcription factors participate in the progesterone action. The proximal ug promoter contains several putative consensus sequences for the binding of various progesterone-dependent endometrial nuclear factors (Perez Martinez et al. [1996] Arch Biochem Biophys 333: 12-18), suggesting that several transcription factors might be implicated in the hormonal induction of ug. We report here that one of these progesterone-dependent factors specifically binds to the sequence CACAATG (-183/-177) of the rabbit ug promoter. This sequence (hereafter called element G') is very similar to the consensus sequence for binding of the SOX family of transcription factors. Mutation of the element G' reduced transcription from the ug promoter in transient expression experiments. The endometrial factor was purified and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography and ion trap coupled mass spectrometry yielding two partial amino acid sequences corresponding to a region of SOX17 that is highly conserved inter-species. This identification was confirmed by immunological techniques using a specific anti-SOX17 antibody. In agreement with the above findings, overexpression of SOX17 in transfected endometrial cells increased transcription from the ug promoter. SOX17 gradually accumulated in the nucleus in vivo concomitant with the induction of ug expression by progesterone in the endometrium. Thus, these findings implicate, for the first time, SOX17 in the transcriptional control of rabbit ug.

  16. Retinoic Acid Regulates the Expression of Photoreceptor Transcription Factor NRL*

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Hemant; Akimoto, Masayuki; Siffroi-Fernandez, Sandrine; Friedman, James S.; Hicks, David; Swaroop, Anand

    2006-01-01

    NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a key basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, which orchestrates rod photoreceptor differentiation by activating the expression of rod-specific genes. The deletion of Nrl in mice results in functional cones that are derived from rod precursors. However, signaling pathways modulating the expression or activity of NRL have not been elucidated. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA), a diffusible factor implicated in rod development, activates the expression of NRL in serum-deprived Y79 human retinoblastoma cells and in primary cultures of rat and porcine photoreceptors. The effect of RA is mimicked by TTNPB, a RA receptor agonist, and requires new protein synthesis. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using bovine retinal nuclear extract demonstrate that RA response elements (RAREs) identified within the Nrl promoter bind to RA receptors. Furthermore, in transiently transfected Y79 and HEK293 cells the activity of Nrl-promoter driving a luciferase reporter gene is induced by RA, and this activation is mediated by RAREs. Our data suggest that signaling by RA via RA receptors regulates the expression of NRL, providing a framework for delineating early steps in photoreceptor cell fate determination. PMID:16854989

  17. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Jolma, Arttu; Yan, Jian; Whitington, Thomas; Toivonen, Jarkko; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Rastas, Pasi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Wei, Gonghong; Palin, Kimmo; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Vincentelli, Renaud; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Hughes, Timothy R; Lemaire, Patrick; Ukkonen, Esko; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi

    2013-01-17

    Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly different binding specificities. The models represent the majority of human TFs, approximately doubling the coverage compared to existing systematic studies. Our results reveal additional specificity determinants for a large number of factors for which a partial specificity was known, including a commonly observed A- or T-rich stretch that flanks the core motifs. Global analysis of the data revealed that homodimer orientation and spacing preferences, and base-stacking interactions, have a larger role in TF-DNA binding than previously appreciated. We further describe a binding model incorporating these features that is required to understand binding of TFs to DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-27

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species.

  19. Retinoic acid regulates the expression of photoreceptor transcription factor NRL.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Hemant; Akimoto, Masayuki; Siffroi-Fernandez, Sandrine; Friedman, James S; Hicks, David; Swaroop, Anand

    2006-09-15

    NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a key basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, which orchestrates rod photoreceptor differentiation by activating the expression of rod-specific genes. The deletion of Nrl in mice results in functional cones that are derived from rod precursors. However, signaling pathways modulating the expression or activity of NRL have not been elucidated. Here, we show that retinoic acid (RA), a diffusible factor implicated in rod development, activates the expression of NRL in serum-deprived Y79 human retinoblastoma cells and in primary cultures of rat and porcine photoreceptors. The effect of RA is mimicked by TTNPB, a RA receptor agonist, and requires new protein synthesis. DNaseI footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) using bovine retinal nuclear extract demonstrate that RA response elements (RAREs) identified within the Nrl promoter bind to RA receptors. Furthermore, in transiently transfected Y79 and HEK293 cells the activity of Nrl-promoter driving a luciferase reporter gene is induced by RA, and this activation is mediated by RAREs. Our data suggest that signaling by RA via RA receptors regulates the expression of NRL, providing a framework for delineating early steps in photoreceptor cell fate determination.

  20. Differential sensitivity of transcription factors to mustard-damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Gray, P J; Cullinane, C; Phillips, D R

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) methylamine, HN2) inhibited the binding of upstream factors Sp1 and AP2 to their consensus sequences. At concentrations where 50% of the consensus sequence DNA contained at least one lesion, HN2 inhibited formation of the Sp1 complex by 37% (40 microM HN2) and the AP2 complex by 40% (50 microM HN2). The binding of the TATA binding protein (TBP) to the TATA element was also inhibited by HN2, whereas sulphur mustard and the monofunctional sulphur mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) resulted in a disproportional extent of inhibition with respect to the level of alkylation. The level of alkylation of the TBP oligonucleotide varied significantly at 100 microM drug, with 80, 42 and 15% of HN2, sulphur mustard and CEES, respectively. However, this level of alkylation inhibited formation of the TBP-DNA complex by 70, 70 and 45%, respectively. This differential sensitivity of transcription factors to mustard-induced DNA damage therefore appears to reside dominantly in the stereochemical differences between the specific mustard lesions.

  1. Regulation of archicortical arealization by the transcription factor Zbtb20.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Eva H; Tonchev, Anton B; Stoykova, Anastassia; Chowdhury, Kamal

    2012-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms of regionalization of the medial pallium (MP), the anlage of the hippocampus, and transitional (cingulate and retrosplenial) cortices are largely unknown. Previous analyses have outlined an important role of the transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 for hippocampal CA1 field specification (Nielsen et al. (2007) Development 134:1133-1140; Nielsen et al. (2010) Cereb Cortex 20:1904-1914; Xie et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:6510-6515). Here, we present novel data showing that Zbtb20 exhibits a ventral(high)-to-dorsal(low) gradient of expression in MP progenitors as well as an expression in postmitotic cells at the transitional cortex/neocortex border. Our detailed pattern analysis revealed that in Zbtb20 loss-of-function the molecular borders between neocortical, transitional, and hippocampal fields are progressively shifted ventrally, leading to an ectopic positioning of all dorsal fields into the neighboring ventrally located areas. Thus, in addition to its known importance for the specification of the hippocampal CA1 sector, the graded expression of TF Zbtb20 in ventricular zone of MP appears to translate early positional information for establishment of all developing MP fields. Our data also suggest that the signaling factor Wnt3a is a putative molecular partner of TF Zbtb20 in this patterning process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  3. Complex Interdependence Regulates Heterotypic Transcription Factor Distribution and Coordinates Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Zurita, Luis; Stirnimann, Christian U.; Glatt, Sebastian; Kaynak, Bogac L.; Thomas, Sean; Baudin, Florence; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; He, Daniel; Small, Eric M.; Mileikovsky, Maria; Nagy, Andras; Holloway, Alisha K.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Müller, Christoph W.; Bruneau, Benoit G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription factors (TFs) are thought to function with partners to achieve specificity and precise quantitative outputs. In the developing heart, heterotypic TF interactions, such as between the T-box TF TBX5 and the homeodomain TF NKX2-5, have been proposed as a mechanism for human congenital heart defects. We report extensive and complex interdependent genomic occupancy of TBX5, NKX2-5, and the zinc finger TF GATA4, coordinately controlling cardiac gene expression, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Interdependent binding serves not only to co-regulate gene expression, but also to prevent TFs from distributing to ectopic loci and activate lineage-inappropriate genes. We define preferential motif arrangements for TBX5 and NKX2-5 cooperative binding sites, supported at the atomic level by their co-crystal structure bound to DNA, revealing direct interaction between the two factors, and induced DNA bending. Complex interdependent binding mechanisms reveal tightly regulated TF genomic distribution and define a combinatorial logic for heterotypic TF regulation of differentiation. PMID:26875865

  4. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species. PMID:26812961

  5. [Association of schizophrenia with variations in genes encoding transcription factors].

    PubMed

    Boyajyan, A S; Atshemyan, S A; Zakharyan, R V

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in neuronal plasticity and immune system play a key role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Identification of genetic factors contributing to these alterations will significantly encourage elucidation of molecular etiopathomechanisms of this disorder. Transcription factors c-Fos, c-Jun, and Ier5 are the important regulators of neuronal plasticity and immune response. In the present work we investigated a potential association of schizophrenia with a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms of c-Fos-,c-Jun and Ier5 encoding genes (FOS, JUN, and IER5 respectively). Genotyping of DNA samples of patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals was performed using polymerase chain reaction with allele specific primers. The results obtained demonstrated association between schizophrenia and FOS rs1063169, FOS rs7101, JUN rs11688, and IER5 rs6425663 polymorphisms. Namely, it was found that the inheritance of FOS rs1063169*T, JUN rs11688*A, and IER5 rs6425663*T minor variants decreases risk for development of schizophrenia whereas the inheritance of FOS rs7101*T minor variant, especially its homozygous form, increases risk for development of this disorder.

  6. Beyond Transcription Factors: The Role of Chromatin Modifying Enzymes in Regulating Transcription Required for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ruth M.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the alluring aspects of examining chromatin modifications in the role of modulating transcription required for long-term memory processes is that these modifications may provide transient and potentially stable epigenetic marks in the service of activating and/or maintaining transcriptional processes. These, in turn, may ultimately…

  7. Identification of the Transformational Properties and Transcriptional Targets of the Oncogenic SRY Transcription Factor SOX4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Scharer, C.D. McCabe, M. Ali-Seyed, M.F. Berger, M.L. Bulyk, and C.S. Moreno. Genome-wide Location Analysis of the SOX4 Transcriptional Network in...analysis showing the biological function of SOX4 target genes. (B) Ingenuity Pathway Assist analysis showing SOX4�s transcriptional network . Christopher

  8. Beyond Transcription Factors: The Role of Chromatin Modifying Enzymes in Regulating Transcription Required for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Ruth M.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the alluring aspects of examining chromatin modifications in the role of modulating transcription required for long-term memory processes is that these modifications may provide transient and potentially stable epigenetic marks in the service of activating and/or maintaining transcriptional processes. These, in turn, may ultimately…

  9. Chromatin-dependent transcription factor accessibility rather than nucleosome remodeling predominates during global transcriptional restructuring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Karl A; Morozov, Alexandre V; Broach, James R

    2009-08-01

    Several well-studied promoters in yeast lose nucleosomes upon transcriptional activation and gain them upon repression, an observation that has prompted the model that transcriptional activation and repression requires nucleosome remodeling of regulated promoters. We have examined global nucleosome positioning before and after glucose-induced transcriptional reprogramming, a condition under which more than half of all yeast genes significantly change expression. The majority of induced and repressed genes exhibit no change in promoter nucleosome arrangement, although promoters that do undergo nucleosome remodeling tend to contain a TATA box. Rather, we found multiple examples where the pre-existing accessibility of putative transcription factor binding sites before glucose addition determined whether the corresponding gene would change expression in response to glucose addition. These results suggest that selection of appropriate transcription factor binding sites may be dictated to a large extent by nucleosome prepositioning but that regulation of expression through these sites is dictated not by nucleosome repositioning but by changes in transcription factor activity.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in nectarine (Prunus persica) by a set of R2R3 MYB transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavonols and proanthocyanidins, play a central role in fruit colour, flavour and health attributes. In peach and nectarine (Prunus persica) these compounds vary during fruit growth and ripening. Flavonoids are produced by a well studied pathway which is transcriptionally regulated by members of the MYB and bHLH transcription factor families. We have isolated nectarine flavonoid regulating genes and examined their expression patterns, which suggests a critical role in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. Results In nectarine, expression of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway correlated with the concentration of proanthocyanidins, which strongly increases at mid-development. In contrast, the only gene which showed a similar pattern to anthocyanin concentration was UDP-glucose-flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), which was high at the beginning and end of fruit growth, remaining low during the other developmental stages. Expression of flavonol synthase (FLS1) correlated with flavonol levels, both temporally and in a tissue specific manner. The pattern of UFGT gene expression may be explained by the involvement of different transcription factors, which up-regulate flavonoid biosynthesis (MYB10, MYB123, and bHLH3), or repress (MYB111 and MYB16) the transcription of the biosynthetic genes. The expression of a potential proanthocyanidin-regulating transcription factor, MYBPA1, corresponded with proanthocyanidin levels. Functional assays of these transcription factors were used to test the specificity for flavonoid regulation. Conclusions MYB10 positively regulates the promoters of UFGT and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) but not leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). In contrast, MYBPA1 trans-activates the promoters of DFR and LAR, but not UFGT. This suggests exclusive roles of anthocyanin regulation by MYB10 and proanthocyanidin regulation by MYBPA1. Further, these transcription factors appeared to be

  11. Transcription factor AP2 beta involved in severe female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Niklas; Göktürk, Camilla; Comasco, Erika; Nilsson, Kent W; Oreland, Lars; Hallman, Jarmila

    2009-12-11

    Susceptibility to alcoholism and antisocial behavior exhibits an evident link to monoaminergic neurotransmission. The serotonin system in particular, which is associated with regulation of mood and behavior, has an influence on personality characters that are firmly connected to risk of developing alcoholism and antisocial behavior, such as impulsiveness, and aggression. The transcription factor TFAP2b has repeatedly been shown to be involved in monoaminergic transmission, likely due to a regulatory effect on genes that are fundamental to this system, e.g. monoamine oxidase type A, and the serotonin transporter. Recent research has identified a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding TFAP2B that regulates its level of expression. In the present study we have compared a sample of female alcoholics (n=107), sentenced to institutional care for their severe addiction, contrasted against a control sample of adolescent females (n=875). The results showed that parental alcohol misuse was significantly more common among the alcoholic females, and also that parental alcohol misuse was associated with a reduction in age of alcohol debut. We also addressed the question of whether a functional TFAP2b polymorphism was associated with alcoholism. Results showed that the high-functioning allele was significantly more common among the female alcoholics, compared to the non-alcoholic controls. Furthermore, the results also indicated that psychosocial factors, in terms of parental alcohol misuse, depression or psychiatric disorder, had an influence on the association. It was observed that the genetic association was restricted to the subset of cases that had not experienced these negative psychosocial factors.

  12. Transcription Factors PvERF15 and PvMTF-1 Form a Cadmium Stress Transcriptional Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tingting; Yang, Wanning; Lu, Wen; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In plants, cadmium (Cd)-responsive transcription factors are key downstream effectors of Cd stress transcriptional pathways, which are capable of converging Cd stress signals through triggering the expression of Cd detoxification genes. However, the upstream transcriptional regulatory pathways that modulate their responses to Cd are less clear. Previously, we identified the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) METAL RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (PvMTF-1) that responds to Cd and confers Cd tolerance in planta. Here, we demonstrate an upstream transcriptional regulation of the PvMTF-1 response to Cd. Using a yeast one-hybrid system, we cloned the bean ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR15 (PvERF15) that binds to the PvMTF-1 promoter. PvERF15 was strongly induced by Cd stress, and its overexpression resulted in the up-regulation of PvMTF-1. DNA-protein interaction assays further revealed that PvERF15 binds directly to a 19-bp AC-rich element in the PvMTF-1 promoter. The AC-rich element serves as a positive element bound by PvERF15 to activate gene expression. More importantly, knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference resulted in reduced Cd-induced expression of PvMTF-1. PvERF15 seems to be involved in Cd tolerance, since knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference in bean leaf discs decreased Cd tolerance in a transient assay. Since PvERF15 is a component of the Cd stress transcriptional pathway in beans and PvMTF-1 is one of its downstream targets, our findings provide a PvERF15/PvMTF-1 transcriptional pathway and thereby contribute to the understanding of Cd stress transcriptional regulatory pathways in plants. PMID:28073984

  13. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  14. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Transcription Termination by the Rho Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Transcription termination comes in two forms in "E. coli" cells. Rho-dependent termination requires the binding of a termination protein called Rho factor to the transcriptional machinery at the terminator region, whereas Rho-independent termination is achieved by conformational changes in the transcript itself. This article presents a test…

  15. ATF2, a paradigm of the multifaceted regulation of transcription factors in biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory; Ronai, Ze'ev; Lau, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Stringent transcriptional regulation is crucial for normal cellular biology and organismal development. Perturbations in the proper regulation of transcription factors can result in numerous pathologies, including cancer. Thus, understanding how transcription factors are regulated and how they are dysregulated in disease states is key to the therapeutic targeting of these factors and/or the pathways that they regulate. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) has been studied in a number of developmental and pathological conditions. Recent findings have shed light on the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulatory mechanisms that influence ATF2 function, and thus, the transcriptional programs coordinated by ATF2. Given our current knowledge of its multiple levels of regulation and function, ATF2 represents a paradigm for the mechanistic complexity that can regulate transcription factor function. Thus, increasing our understanding of the regulation and function of ATF2 will provide insights into fundamental regulatory mechanisms that influence how cells integrate extracellular and intracellular signals into a genomic response through transcription factors. Characterization of ATF2 dysfunction in the context of pathological conditions, particularly in cancer biology and response to therapy, will be important in understanding how pathways controlled by ATF2 or other transcription factors might be therapeutically exploited. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently known upstream regulators and downstream targets of ATF2.

  16. [Identification and analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in Triticum urartu].

    PubMed

    Jianhui, Ma; Doudou, Tong; Wenli, Zhang; Daijing, Zhang; Yun, Shao; Yun, Yang; Lina, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are one of plant-specific gene families with diverse functions, and they regulate plant development, organ formation and stress responses. Currently, the researches about NAC transcription factors mainly focus on model plants, Arabidopsis and rice, whereas such studies are hardly reported in wheat and other plants. In this study, the full-length coding sequences (CDS) of NAC transcription factors from Triticum urartu (TuNAC) were identified through bioinformatic analysis. Their biological function, evolutionary relationship, gene duplication and chromosomal locations were further predicted and analyzed. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to verify the expression pattern of abiotic-related TuNAC transcription factors. A total of 87 TuNAC transcription factors with full-length CDS were identified, which were divided into seven subgroups through phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-nine TuNAC transcription factors were located on seven chromosomes, and five pairs of TuNAC transcription factors were duplicated. The expression of four TuNAC transcription factors was consistently increased under diverse abiotic stress by qRT-PCR assay. Our study thus provides basis for further functional investigations of TuNAC transcription factors.

  17. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  18. Transcription factors involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of pancreatic beta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Shiying; Fang, Zhong; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Muxun

    2009-07-10

    GSIS, the most important function of pancreatic beta cell, is essential for maintaining the glucose homeostasis. Transcription factors are known to control different biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In pancreas, some transcription factors are involved in regulating the function of beta cells. In this review, the role of these transcription factors including Pdx-1, FoxO1, SREBP-1c, and MafA in GSIS is highlighted. The related molecular mechanisms are analyzed as well. Furthermore, the association between the role of transcription factors in GSIS and the development of T2DM is discussed.

  19. [Transcription Factors in Developmental Genetics and the Evolution of Higher Plants].

    PubMed

    Lutova, L A; Dodueva, I E; Lebedeva, M A; Tvorogova, V E

    2015-05-01

    Transcription factors play an essential role in controlling various developmental programs in plants, coordinating the action of any genetic network. Among the most important groups of plant transcription factors are the homeodomain-containing transcription factors, in particular, those belonging to the KNOX and WOX families, the functions of which are associated with regulation of the meristem activity, development of the aboveground and underground parts of plants, and control of embryogenesis. This review examines the role of KNOX and WOX transcription factors in various developmental programs, as well as in the evolutionary complication of the body plan in terrestrial plants.

  20. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  1. VEGF promotes the transcription of the human PRL-3 gene in HUVEC through transcription factor MEF2C.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianliang; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Lu; Xu, Rui; Chen, Gong; Xu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is known to be overexpressed in many tumors, and its transcript level is high in the vasculature and endothelial cells of malignant tumor tissue. However, the mechanism(s) underlying its enhanced expression and its function in endothelial cells remain unknown. Here, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can induce PRL-3 transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). An analysis of its 5'UTR revealed that PRL-3 transcription is initiated from two distinct sites, which results in the formation of the two transcripts, PRL-3-iso1 and PRL-3-iso2, but only the latter is up-regulated in HUVEC by VEGF. The PRL-3-iso2 promoter region includes two functional MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor2) binding sites. The over-expression of the constitutively active form of MEF2C promotes the abundance of the PRL-3-iso2 transcript in a number of human cell lines. The siRNA-induced knockdown of MEF2C abolished the stimulative effect of VEGF on PRL-3 transcript in HUVEC, indicating that the VEGF-induced promotion of PRL-3 expression requires the presence of MEF2C. Finally, blocking PRL-3 activity or expression suppresses tube formation by HUVEC. We suggest that PRL-3 functions downstream of the VEGF/MEF2C pathway in endothelial cells and may play an important role in tumor angiogenesis.

  2. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I-III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved.

  3. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  4. The WRKY Transcription Factor Genes in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Xingjun

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factor genes play critical roles in plant growth and development, as well as stress responses. WRKY genes have been examined in various higher plants, but they have not been characterized in Lotus japonicus. The recent release of the L. japonicus whole genome sequence provides an opportunity for a genome wide analysis of WRKY genes in this species. In this study, we identified 61 WRKY genes in the L. japonicus genome. Based on the WRKY protein structure, L. japonicus WRKY (LjWRKY) genes can be classified into three groups (I–III). Investigations of gene copy number and gene clusters indicate that only one gene duplication event occurred on chromosome 4 and no clustered genes were detected on chromosomes 3 or 6. Researchers previously believed that group II and III WRKY domains were derived from the C-terminal WRKY domain of group I. Our results suggest that some WRKY genes in group II originated from the N-terminal domain of group I WRKY genes. Additional evidence to support this hypothesis was obtained by Medicago truncatula WRKY (MtWRKY) protein motif analysis. We found that LjWRKY and MtWRKY group III genes are under purifying selection, suggesting that WRKY genes will become increasingly structured and functionally conserved. PMID:24745006

  5. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  6. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes.

  7. Assigning roles to protein mentions: the case of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Keane, John; Bergman, Casey M; Nenadic, Goran

    2009-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play a crucial role in gene regulation, and providing structured and curated information about them is important for genome biology. Manual curation of TF related data is time-consuming and always lags behind the actual knowledge available in the biomedical literature. Here we present a machine-learning text mining approach for identification and tagging of protein mentions that play a TF role in a given context to support the curation process. More precisely, the method explicitly identifies those protein mentions in text that refer to their potential TF functions. The prediction features are engineered from the results of shallow parsing and domain-specific processing (recognition of relevant appearing in phrases) and a phrase-based Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model is used to capture the content and context information of candidate entities. The proposed approach for the identification of TF mentions has been tested on a set of evidence sentences from the TRANSFAC and FlyTF databases. It achieved an F-measure of around 51.5% with a precision of 62.5% using 5-fold cross-validation evaluation. The experimental results suggest that the phrase-based CRF model benefits from the flexibility to use correlated domain-specific features that describe the dependencies between TFs and other entities. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts to apply text-mining techniques to the task of assigning semantic roles to protein mentions.

  8. Oncogenicity of the developmental transcription factor Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Collado, Manuel; Wise, Clare; Manterola, Lorea; Cekaite, Lina; Tye, Angela J.; Canamero, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Schedl, Andreas; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; de Munain, Adolfo López; Briscoe, James; Serrano, Manuel; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2012-01-01

    SOX9, a high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary MEFs and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whilst its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb protein Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:22246670

  9. Regulation of transcription factors on sexual dimorphism of fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fa; Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Ling-Yi; Niu, Li-Hua; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Peng; He, Shunmin; Huang, Da-Wei

    2015-06-02

    Fig wasps exhibit extreme intraspecific morphological divergence in the wings, compound eyes, antennae, body color, and size. Corresponding to this, behaviors and lifestyles between two sexes are also different: females can emerge from fig and fly to other fig tree to oviposit and pollinate, while males live inside fig for all their lifetime. Genetic regulation may drive these extreme intraspecific morphological and behavioral divergence. Transcription factors (TFs) involved in morphological development and physiological activity may exhibit sex-specific expressions. Herein, we detect 865 TFs by using genomic and transcriptomic data of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Analyses of transcriptomic data indicated that up-regulated TFs in females show significant enrichment in development of the wing, eye and antenna in all stages, from larva to adult. Meanwhile, TFs related to the development of a variety of organs display sex-specific patterns of expression in the adults and these may contribute significantly to their sexual dimorphism. In addition, up-regulated TFs in adult males exhibit enrichment in genitalia development and circadian rhythm, which correspond with mating and protandry. This finding is consistent with their sex-specific behaviors. In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that TFs play important roles in the sexual dimorphism of fig wasps.

  10. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Noah D.; Garruss, Alexander S.; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A.; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K.; Isaacs, Farren J.; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M.; Raman, Srivatsan

    2015-12-21

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. In this paper, we engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Finally, the ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.

  11. Transcription factor TEAD2 is involved in neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kotaro J; Kohn, Matthew J; Liu, Chengyu; DePamphilis, Melvin L

    2007-09-01

    TEAD2, one of the first transcription factors expressed at the beginning of mammalian development, appears to be required during neural development. For example, Tead2 expression is greatest in the dorsal neural crest where it appears to regulate expression of Pax3, a gene essential for brain development. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inactivation of the Tead2 gene in mice significantly increased the risk of exencephaly (a defect in neural tube closure). However, none of the embryos exhibited spina bifida, the major phenotype of Pax3 nullizygous embryos, and expression of Pax3 in E11.5 Tead2 nullizygous embryos was normal. Thus, Tead2 plays a role in neural tube closure that is independent of its putative role in Pax3 regulation. In addition, the risk of exencephaly was greatest with Tead2 nullizygous females, and could be suppressed either by folic acid or pifithrin-alpha. These results reveal a maternal genetic contribution to neural tube closure, and suggest that Tead2-deficient mice provide a model for anencephaly, a common human birth defect that can be prevented by folic acid.

  12. Transcription Factor TEAD2 Is Involved in Neural Tube Closure

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kotaro J.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Liu, Chengyu; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary TEAD2, one of the first transcription factors expressed at the beginning of mammalian development, appears to be required during neural development. For example, Tead2 expression is greatest in the dorsal neural crest where it appears to regulate expression of Pax3, a gene essential for brain development. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that inactivation of the Tead2 gene in mice significantly increased the risk of exencephaly (a defect in neural tube closure). However, none of the embryos exhibited spina bifida, the major phenotype of Pax3 nullizygous embryos, and expression of Pax3 in E11.5 Tead2 nullizygous embryos was normal. Thus, Tead2 plays a role in neural tube closure that is independent of its putative role in Pax3 regulation. In addition, the risk of exencephaly was greatest with Tead2 nullizygous females, and could be suppressed either by folic acid or pifithrin-α. These results reveal a maternal genetic contribution to neural tube closure, and suggest that Tead2-deficient mice provide a model for anencephaly, a common human birth defect that can be prevented by folic acid. genesis 45:577–587, 2007. PMID:17868131

  13. Transcription factor-based biosensors enlightened by the analyte

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-López, Raul; Ruiz, Raul; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Whole cell biosensors (WCBs) have multiple applications for environmental monitoring, detecting a wide range of pollutants. WCBs depend critically on the sensitivity and specificity of the transcription factor (TF) used to detect the analyte. We describe the mechanism of regulation and the structural and biochemical properties of TF families that are used, or could be used, for the development of environmental WCBs. Focusing on the chemical nature of the analyte, we review TFs that respond to aromatic compounds (XylS-AraC, XylR-NtrC, and LysR), metal ions (MerR, ArsR, DtxR, Fur, and NikR) or antibiotics (TetR and MarR). Analyzing the structural domains involved in DNA recognition, we highlight the similitudes in the DNA binding domains (DBDs) of these TF families. Opposite to DBDs, the wide range of analytes detected by TFs results in a diversity of structures at the effector binding domain. The modular architecture of TFs opens the possibility of engineering TFs with hybrid DNA and effector specificities. Yet, the lack of a crisp correlation between structural domains and specific functions makes this a challenging task. PMID:26191047

  14. Nanopore sensing of individual transcription factors bound to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Allison; Atas, Evrim; Meller, Amit

    2015-06-01

    Transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions are the primary control point in regulation of gene expression. Characterization of these interactions is essential for understanding genetic regulation of biological systems and developing novel therapies to treat cellular malfunctions. Solid-state nanopores are a highly versatile class of single-molecule sensors that can provide rich information about local properties of long charged biopolymers using the current blockage patterns generated during analyte translocation, and provide a novel platform for characterization of TF-DNA interactions. The DNA-binding domain of the TF Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1), a prototypical zinc finger protein known as zif268, is used as a model system for this study. zif268 adopts two distinct bound conformations corresponding to specific and nonspecific binding, according to the local DNA sequence. Here we implement a solid-state nanopore platform for direct, label- and tether-free single-molecule detection of zif268 bound to DNA. We demonstrate detection of single zif268 TFs bound to DNA according to current blockage sublevels and duration of translocation through the nanopore. We further show that the nanopore can detect and discriminate both specific and nonspecific binding conformations of zif268 on DNA via the distinct current blockage patterns corresponding to each of these two known binding modes.

  15. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release.

    PubMed

    Poovaiah, Charleson R; Bewg, William P; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plant height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. This study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.

  16. Computational discovery of transcription factors associated with drug response

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, C; Cairns, J; Wang, L; Sinha, S

    2016-01-01

    This study integrates gene expression, genotype and drug response data in lymphoblastoid cell lines with transcription factor (TF)-binding sites from ENCODE (Encyclopedia of Genomic Elements) in a novel methodology that elucidates regulatory contexts associated with cytotoxicity. The method, GENMi (Gene Expression iN the Middle), postulates that single-nucleotide polymorphisms within TF-binding sites putatively modulate its regulatory activity, and the resulting variation in gene expression leads to variation in drug response. Analysis of 161 TFs and 24 treatments revealed 334 significantly associated TF–treatment pairs. Investigation of 20 selected pairs yielded literature support for 13 of these associations, often from studies where perturbation of the TF expression changes drug response. Experimental validation of significant GENMi associations in taxanes and anthracyclines across two triple-negative breast cancer cell lines corroborates our findings. The method is shown to be more sensitive than an alternative, genome-wide association study-based approach that does not use gene expression. These results demonstrate the utility of GENMi in identifying TFs that influence drug response and provide a number of candidates for further testing. PMID:26503816

  17. Stochastic model of transcription factor-regulated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh; Bose, Indrani

    2006-09-01

    We consider a stochastic model of transcription factor (TF)-regulated gene expression. The model describes two genes, gene A and gene B, which synthesize the TFs and the target gene proteins, respectively. We show through analytic calculations that the TF fluctuations have a significant effect on the distribution of the target gene protein levels when the mean TF level falls in the highest sensitive region of the dose-response curve. We further study the effect of reducing the copy number of gene A from two to one. The enhanced TF fluctuations yield results different from those in the deterministic case. The probability that the target gene protein level exceeds a threshold value is calculated with the knowledge of the probability density functions associated with the TF and target gene protein levels. Numerical simulation results for a more detailed stochastic model are shown to be in agreement with those obtained through analytic calculations. The relevance of these results in the context of the genetic disorder haploinsufficiency is pointed out. Some experimental observations on the haploinsufficiency of the tumour suppressor gene, Nkx 3.1, are explained with the help of the stochastic model of TF-regulated gene expression.

  18. Predicting DNA-Binding Specificities of Eukaryotic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Adrian; Eichner, Johannes; Supper, Jochen; Eichner, Jonas; Wanke, Dierk; Henneges, Carsten; Zell, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Today, annotated amino acid sequences of more and more transcription factors (TFs) are readily available. Quantitative information about their DNA-binding specificities, however, are hard to obtain. Position frequency matrices (PFMs), the most widely used models to represent binding specificities, are experimentally characterized only for a small fraction of all TFs. Even for some of the most intensively studied eukaryotic organisms (i.e., human, rat and mouse), roughly one-sixth of all proteins with annotated DNA-binding domain have been characterized experimentally. Here, we present a new method based on support vector regression for predicting quantitative DNA-binding specificities of TFs in different eukaryotic species. This approach estimates a quantitative measure for the PFM similarity of two proteins, based on various features derived from their protein sequences. The method is trained and tested on a dataset containing 1 239 TFs with known DNA-binding specificity, and used to predict specific DNA target motifs for 645 TFs with high accuracy. PMID:21152420

  19. Resurrecting the role of transcription factor change in developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Vincent J; Wagner, Günter P

    2008-09-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary and developmental biology concerns the relative contribution of cis-regulatory and protein changes to developmental evolution. Central to this argument is which mutations generate evolutionarily relevant phenotypic variation? A review of the growing body of evolutionary and developmental literature supports the notion that many developmentally relevant differences occur in the cis-regulatory regions of protein-coding genes, generally to the exclusion of changes in the protein-coding region of genes. However, accumulating experimental evidence demonstrates that many of the arguments against a role for proteins in the evolution of gene regulation, and the developmental evolution in general, are no longer supported and there is an increasing number of cases in which transcription factor protein changes have been demonstrated in evolution. Here, we review the evidence that cis-regulatory evolution is an important driver of phenotypic evolution and provide examples of protein-mediated developmental evolution. Finally, we present an argument that the evolution of proteins may play a more substantial, but thus far underestimated, role in developmental evolution.

  20. Erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factors associated with hereditary anemia.

    PubMed

    Crispino, John D; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-05-15

    Most heritable anemias are caused by mutations in genes encoding globins, red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins, or enzymes in the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate shunt pathways. A less common class of genetic anemia is caused by mutations that alter the functions of erythroid transcription factors (TFs). Many TF mutations associated with heritable anemia cause truncations or amino acid substitutions, resulting in the production of functionally altered proteins. Characterization of these mutant proteins has provided insights into mechanisms of gene expression, hematopoietic development, and human disease. Mutations within promoter or enhancer regions that disrupt TF binding to essential erythroid genes also cause anemia and heritable variations in RBC traits, such as fetal hemoglobin content. Defining the latter may have important clinical implications for de-repressing fetal hemoglobin synthesis to treat sickle cell anemia and β thalassemia. Functionally important alterations in genes encoding TFs or their cognate cis elements are likely to occur more frequently than currently appreciated, a hypothesis that will soon be tested through ongoing genome-wide association studies and the rapidly expanding use of global genome sequencing for human diagnostics. Findings obtained through such studies of RBCs and associated diseases are likely generalizable to many human diseases and quantitative traits.

  1. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  2. Endothelial Gata5 transcription factor regulates blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Smail; He, Ying; Gutsol, Alex; Wight, Andrew; Hébert, Richard L.; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Makrigiannis, Andrew P.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; McPherson, Ruth; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Nemer, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence and economic burden, the aetiology of human hypertension remains incompletely understood. Here we identify the transcription factor GATA5, as a new regulator of blood pressure (BP). GATA5 is expressed in microvascular endothelial cells and its genetic inactivation in mice (Gata5-null) leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Endothelial-specific inactivation of Gata5 mimics the hypertensive phenotype of the Gata5-null mice, suggestive of an important role for GATA5 in endothelial homeostasis. Transcriptomic analysis of human microvascular endothelial cells with GATA5 knockdown reveals that GATA5 affects several genes and pathways critical for proper endothelial function, such as PKA and nitric oxide pathways. Consistent with a role in human hypertension, we report genetic association of variants at the GATA5 locus with hypertension traits in two large independent cohorts. Our results unveil an unsuspected link between GATA5 and a prominent human condition, and provide a new animal model for hypertension. PMID:26617239

  3. Transcription Factor T-bet Regulates Intraepithelial Lymphocyte Functional Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Bernardo S.; van Konijnenburg, David P. Hoytema; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Mucida, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal epithelium harbors large populations of activated and memory lymphocytes, yet these cells do not cause tissue damage in the steady state. We investigated how intestinal T cell effector differentiation is regulated upon migration to the intestinal epithelium. Using gene loss- and gain-of-function strategies, as well as reporter approaches, we showed that cooperation between the transcription factors T-bet and Runx3 resulted in suppression of conventional CD4+ T helper functions and induction of an intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) program that included expression of IEL markers such as CD8αα homodimers. Interferon-γ sensing and T-bet expression by CD4+ T cells were both required for this program, which was distinct from conventional T helper differentiation but shared by other IEL populations, including TCRαβ+CD8αα+ IELs. We conclude that the gut environment provides cues for IEL maturation through the interplay between T-bet and Runx3, allowing tissue-specific adaptation of mature T lymphocytes. PMID:25148025

  4. The developmental expression dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Adryan, Boris; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) are coordinators of developmental and physiological gene expression programs. Their binding to cis-regulatory modules of target genes mediates the precise cell- and context-specific activation and repression of genes. The expression of TFs should therefore reflect the core expression program of each cell. We studied the expression dynamics of about 750 TFs using the available genomics resources in Drosophila melanogaster. We find that 95% of these TFs are expressed at some point during embryonic development, with a peak roughly between 10 and 12 hours after egg laying, the core stages of organogenesis. We address the differential utilization of DNA-binding domains in different developmental programs systematically in a spatio-temporal context, and show that the zinc finger class of TFs is predominantly early expressed, while Homeobox TFs exhibit later expression in embryogenesis. Previous work, dissecting cis-regulatory modules during Drosophila development, suggests that TFs are deployed in groups acting in a cooperative manner. In contrast, we find that there is rapid exchange of co-expressed partners amongst the fly TFs, at rates similar to the genome-wide dynamics of co-expression clusters. This suggests there may also be a high level of combinatorial complexity of TFs at cis-regulatory modules.

  5. The developmental expression dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) are coordinators of developmental and physiological gene expression programs. Their binding to cis-regulatory modules of target genes mediates the precise cell- and context-specific activation and repression of genes. The expression of TFs should therefore reflect the core expression program of each cell. Results We studied the expression dynamics of about 750 TFs using the available genomics resources in Drosophila melanogaster. We find that 95% of these TFs are expressed at some point during embryonic development, with a peak roughly between 10 and 12 hours after egg laying, the core stages of organogenesis. We address the differential utilization of DNA-binding domains in different developmental programs systematically in a spatio-temporal context, and show that the zinc finger class of TFs is predominantly early expressed, while Homeobox TFs exhibit later expression in embryogenesis. Conclusions Previous work, dissecting cis-regulatory modules during Drosophila development, suggests that TFs are deployed in groups acting in a cooperative manner. In contrast, we find that there is rapid exchange of co-expressed partners amongst the fly TFs, at rates similar to the genome-wide dynamics of co-expression clusters. This suggests there may also be a high level of combinatorial complexity of TFs at cis-regulatory modules. PMID:20384991

  6. Spatial expression of transcription factors in Drosophila embryonic organ development.

    PubMed

    Hammonds, Ann S; Bristow, Christopher A; Fisher, William W; Weiszmann, Richard; Wu, Siqi; Hartenstein, Volker; Kellis, Manolis; Yu, Bin; Frise, Erwin; Celniker, Susan E

    2013-12-20

    Site-specific transcription factors (TFs) bind DNA regulatory elements to control expression of target genes, forming the core of gene regulatory networks. Despite decades of research, most studies focus on only a small number of TFs and the roles of many remain unknown. We present a systematic characterization of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns for all known or predicted Drosophila TFs throughout embryogenesis, the first such comprehensive study for any metazoan animal. We generated RNA expression patterns for all 708 TFs by in situ hybridization, annotated the patterns using an anatomical controlled vocabulary, and analyzed TF expression in the context of organ system development. Nearly all TFs are expressed during embryogenesis and more than half are specifically expressed in the central nervous system. Compared to other genes, TFs are enriched early in the development of most organ systems, and throughout the development of the nervous system. Of the 535 TFs with spatially restricted expression, 79% are dynamically expressed in multiple organ systems while 21% show single-organ specificity. Of those expressed in multiple organ systems, 77 TFs are restricted to a single organ system either early or late in development. Expression patterns for 354 TFs are characterized for the first time in this study. We produced a reference TF dataset for the investigation of gene regulatory networks in embryogenesis, and gained insight into the expression dynamics of the full complement of TFs controlling the development of each organ system.

  7. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Noah D.; Garruss, Alexander S.; Moretti, Rocco; ...

    2015-12-21

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. In this paper, we engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along withmore » multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Finally, the ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits.« less

  8. The transcription factor FOXL2 in ovarian function and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    De Baere, Elfride; Fellous, Marc; Veitia, Reiner A

    2009-01-01

    The Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus-inversus Syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by complex eyelid malformations often associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). BPES is basically an autosomal dominant disease, due to mutations in the FOXL2 gene, which encodes a forkhead transcription factor. More than one hundred mutations of FOXL2 have been described to date. In agreement with the BPES phenotype, FOXL2 is expressed (though not exclusively) in the developing eyelids and in fetal and adult ovaries. Two mouse knock-out models have been produced. They recapitulate the BPES phenotype and have provided insights into the pathology. Loss-of-function mutations in FOXL2 are predicted to lead to BPES and POF, while hypomorphic mutations might lead to BPES without ovarian dysfunction. However, exceptions to the genotype-phenotype correlation have been described. To better understand the pathogenic effect of these mutations it is crucial to study the normal regulation of FOXL2 and its targets. We briefly address these aspects in this review and hope that basic research around FOXL2 will eventually lead to uncover new therapeutic avenues.

  9. The NTT transcription factor promotes replum development in Arabidopsis fruits.

    PubMed

    Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Zúñiga-Mayo, Víctor M; Herrera-Ubaldo, Humberto; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Pablo-Villa, Jeanneth; Lozano-Sotomayor, Paulina; Greco, Raffaella; Ballester, Patricia; Balanzá, Vicente; Kuijt, Suzanne J H; Meijer, Annemarie H; Pereira, Andy; Ferrándiz, Cristina; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Fruits are complex plant structures that nurture seeds and facilitate their dispersal. The Arabidopsis fruit is termed silique. It develops from the gynoecium, which has a stigma, a style, an ovary containing the ovules, and a gynophore. Externally, the ovary consists of two valves, and their margins lay adjacent to the replum, which is connected to the septum that internally divides the ovary. In this work we describe the role for the zinc-finger transcription factor NO TRANSMITTING TRACT (NTT) in replum development. NTT loss of function leads to reduced replum width and cell number, whereas increased expression promotes replum enlargement. NTT activates the homeobox gene BP, which, together with RPL, is important for replum development. In addition, the NTT protein is able to bind the BP promoter in yeast, and when this binding region is not present, NTT fails to activate BP in the replum. Furthermore, NTT interacts with itself and different proteins involved in fruit development: RPL, STM, FUL, SHP1 and SHP2 in yeast and in planta. Moreover, its genetic interactions provide further evidence about its biological relevance in replum development.

  10. Transcription factors that defend bacteria against reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Imlay, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria live in a toxic world in which their competitors excrete hydrogen peroxide or superoxide-generating redox-cycling compounds. They protect themselves by activating regulons controlled by the OxyR, PerR, and SoxR transcription factors. OxyR and PerR sense peroxide when it oxidizes key thiolate or iron moieties, respectively; they then induce overlapping sets of proteins that defend their vulnerable metalloenzymes. An additional role for OxyR in detecting electrophilic compounds is possible. In some non-enteric bacteria SoxR appears to control the synthesis and export of redox-cycling compounds, whereas in the enteric bacteria it defends the cell against the same agents. When these compounds oxidize its iron-sulfur cluster, SoxR induces proteins that exclude, excrete, or modify them. It also induces enzymes that defend the cell against the superoxide that such compounds make. Recent work has brought new insight to the biochemistry and physiology of these responses, and comparative studies have clarified their evolutionary histories. PMID:26070785

  11. Transcription Regulation of HYPK by Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Srijit; Bhattacharyya, Nitai Pada

    2014-01-01

    HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast Partner K) was originally identified by yeast two-hybrid assay as an interactor of Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease. HYPK was characterized earlier as an intrinsically unstructured protein having chaperone-like activity in vitro and in vivo. HYPK has the ability of reducing rate of aggregate formation and subsequent toxicity caused by mutant Huntingtin. Further investigation revealed that HYPK is involved in diverse cellular processes and required for normal functioning of cells. In this study we observed that hyperthermia increases HYPK expression in human and mouse cells in culture. Expression of exogenous Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1), upon heat treatment could induce HYPK expression, whereas HSF1 knockdown reduced endogenous as well as heat-induced HYPK expression. Putative HSF1-binding site present in the promoter of human HYPK gene was identified and validated by reporter assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed in vivo interaction of HSF1 and RNA polymerase II with HYPK promoter sequence. Additionally, acetylation of histone H4, a known epigenetic marker of inducible HSF1 binding, was observed in response to heat shock in HYPK gene promoter. Overexpression of HYPK inhibited cells from lethal heat-induced death whereas knockdown of HYPK made the cells susceptible to lethal heat shock-induced death. Apart from elevated temperature, HYPK was also upregulated by hypoxia and proteasome inhibition, two other forms of cellular stress. We concluded that chaperone-like protein HYPK is induced by cellular stress and under transcriptional regulation of HSF1. PMID:24465598

  12. Nuclear import of a lipid-modified transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhaber, Birgit; Sammer, Michaela; Lua, Wai Heng; Benetka, Wolfgang; Liew, Lai Ling; Yu, Weimiao; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Koranda, Manfred; Adhikari, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Lipid-modified transcription factors (TFs) are biomolecular oddities, since their reduced mobility and membrane attachment appear to contradict nuclear import required for their gene-regulatory function. NFAT5 isoform a (selected from an in silico screen for predicted lipid-modified TFs) is shown to contribute about half of all endogenous expression of human NFAT5 isoforms in the isotonic state. Wild-type NFAT5a protein is, indeed, myristoylated and palmitoylated on its transport to the plasmalemma via the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. In contrast, its lipid anchor-deficient mutants as well as isoforms NFAT5b/c are diffusely localized in the cytoplasm without preference to vesicular structures. Quantitative/live microscopy shows the plasma membrane-bound fraction of NFAT5a moving into the nucleus upon osmotic stress despite the lipid anchoring. The mobilization mechanism is not based on proteolytic processing of the lipid-anchored N terminus but appears to involve reversible palmitoylation. Thus, NFAT5a is an example of TFs immobilized with lipid anchors at cyotoplasmic membranes in the resting state and that, nevertheless, can translocate into the nucleus upon signal induction. PMID:22071693

  13. Pluripotent stem cell transcription factors during human odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Juliana Malta; da Costa-Neves, Adriana; Kerkis, Irina; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Stem cells are capable of generating various cell lines and can be obtained from adult or embryonic tissues for clinical therapies. Stem cells from deciduous dental pulp are among those that are easily obtainable from adult tissues and have been widely studied because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lines in the presence of various chemical mediators. We have analyze the expression of several proteins related to the differentiation and proliferative potential of cell populations that compose the tooth germ of human fetuses. We evaluate 20 human fetuses of both genders. After being paraffin-embedded, cap and bell stages of tooth germ development were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the following markers: Oct-4, Nanog, Stat-3 and Sox-2. The studied antibodies showed nuclear or cytoplasmic immunnostaining within various anatomical structures and with various degrees of expression, indicating the action of these proteins during tooth development. We conclude that the interrelationship between these transcription factors is complex and associated with self-renewal and cell differentiation. Our results suggest that the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Stat-3 are related to differentiation in ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  14. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; ...

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  15. Transcription Factor Networks as Targets for Therapeutic Intervention of Cancer: The Breast Cancer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzis, Michalis V; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2011-01-01

    It has long been shown that many of the presently used anticancer drugs exert their effects partly through modulating the activity of vital transcription factors. The intricacy of transcriptional regulation still represents the main obstacle for the design of transcription factor–directed agents. Systematic mapping of tumor-specific transcriptional networks and application of new molecular tools have reinforced research interest and efforts in this venue. The case of breast cancer is discussed as a representative example. PMID:21912809

  16. Heat shock factor-4 (HSF-4a) represses basal transcription through interaction with TFIIF.

    PubMed

    Frejtag, W; Zhang, Y; Dai, R; Anderson, M G; Mivechi, N F

    2001-05-04

    The heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) regulate the expression of heat shock proteins (hsps), which are critical for normal cellular proliferation and differentiation. One of the HSFs, HSF-4, contains two alternative splice variants, one of which possesses transcriptional repressor properties in vivo. This repressor isoform inhibits basal transcription of hsps 27 and 90 in tissue culture cells. The molecular mechanisms of HSF-4a isoform-mediated transcriptional repression is unknown. Here, we present evidence that HSF-4a inhibits basal transcription in vivo when it is artificially targeted to basal promoters via the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor, GAL4. By using a highly purified, reconstituted in vitro transcription system, we show that HSF-4a represses basal transcription at an early step during preinitiation complex assembly, as pre-assembled preinitiation complexes are refractory to the inhibitory effect on transcription. This repression occurs by the HSF-4a isoform, but not by the HSF-4b isoform, which we show is capable of activating transcription from a heat shock element-driven promoter in vitro. The repression of basal transcription by HSF-4a occurs through interaction with the basal transcription factor TFIIF. TFIIF interacts with a segment of HSF-4a that is required for the trimerization of HSF-4a, and deletion of this segment no longer inhibits basal transcription. These studies suggest that HSF-4a inhibits basal transcription both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, this is the first report identifying an interaction between a transcriptional repressor with the basal transcription factor TFIIF.

  17. Cooperation between myogenic regulatory factors and SIX family transcription factors is important for myoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yubing; Chu, Alphonse; Chakroun, Imane; Islam, Uzma; Blais, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Precise regulation of gene expression is crucial to myogenesis and is thought to require the cooperation of various transcription factors. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis of gene regulatory sequences, we hypothesized that myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), key regulators of skeletal myogenesis, cooperate with members of the SIX family of transcription factors, known to play important roles during embryonic skeletal myogenesis. To this day little is known regarding the exact molecular mechanism by which SIX factors regulate muscle development. We have conducted a functional genomic study of the role played by SIX1 and SIX4 during the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts, a model of adult muscle regeneration. We report that SIX factors cooperate with the members of the MRF family to activate gene expression during myogenic differentiation, and that their function is essential to this process. Our findings also support a model where SIX factors function not only ‘upstream’ of the MRFs during embryogenesis, but also ‘in parallel’ to them during myoblast differentiation. We have identified new essential nodes that depend on SIX factor function, in the myogenesis regulatory network, and have uncovered a novel way by which MRF function is modulated during differentiation. PMID:20601407

  18. The thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2) is a promoter-specific DNA-binding independent transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Perrone, L; Pasca di Magliano, M; Zannini, M; Di Lauro, R

    2000-08-18

    The thyroid transcription factor TTF-2 is a forkhead-containing protein involved in thyroid-specific gene expression and necessary for thyroid morphogenesis. In this paper, we demonstrate that TTF-2 is able to inhibit the activity of the thyroid-specific transcription factors TTF-1 and Pax-8 only on certain promoters. We identified the minimal protein domain responsible for repressor activity, which behaves as an independent functional domain, and we show that repression by TTF-2 is DNA-binding independent. We suggest that TTF-2 is able to interfere with a specific cofactor required for TTF-1 and Pax-8 activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Functional analysis of a growth factor-responsive transcription factor complex.

    PubMed

    Hill, C S; Marais, R; John, S; Wynne, J; Dalton, S; Treisman, R

    1993-04-23

    Serum response factor (SRF) forms a ternary complex at the c-fos serum response element (SRE) with an accessory factor, Elk-1. We constructed altered-binding specificity derivatives of SRF and Elk-1 that form a ternary complex at a mutated, inactive SRE; like Elk-1, the Elk-1 variant only binds its target as part of a ternary complex with SRF. Simultaneous expression of these SRF and Elk-1 derivatives restores serum-regulated activity to the mutated SRE in transfected cells. Efficient transcriptional activation is dependent on the regulated phosphorylation of Elk-1 C-terminal MAP kinase sites and requires the C-terminal sequences of SRF as well as SRF sequences that mediate ternary complex formation. These experiments provide direct evidence that SRF and Elk-1 functionally cooperate in the ternary complex at the SRE to regulate transcription.

  20. Roles and regulation of stat family transcription factors in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Charles V

    2004-11-01

    Stats (for signal transducers and activators of transcription) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Their activity is latent until phosphorylation by receptor-associated kinases. A sizable body of data from cell lines, mouse models, and human tissues now implicates these transcription factors in the oncogenesis of breast cancer. Because Stat activity is modulated by several posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions, these transcription factors are capable of integrating inputs from multiple signaling networks. Given this, the future utilization of Stats as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in human breast cancer appears likely.

  1. Unusually Situated Binding Sites for Bacterial Transcription Factors Can Have Hidden Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Haycocks, James R. J.; Grainger, David C.

    2016-01-01

    A commonly accepted paradigm of molecular biology is that transcription factors control gene expression by binding sites at the 5' end of a gene. However, there is growing evidence that transcription factor targets can occur within genes or between convergent genes. In this work, we have investigated one such target for the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. We show that CRP binds between two convergent genes. When bound, CRP regulates transcription of a small open reading frame, which we term aatS, embedded within one of the adjacent genes. Our work demonstrates that non-canonical sites of transcription factor binding can have hidden functionality. PMID:27258043

  2. Cross-talk between site-specific transcription factors and DNA methylation states.

    PubMed

    Blattler, Adam; Farnham, Peggy J

    2013-11-29

    DNA methylation, which occurs predominantly at CpG dinucleotides, is a potent epigenetic repressor of transcription. Because DNA methylation is reversible, there is much interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it can be regulated by DNA-binding transcription factors. We discuss several models that, by incorporating sequence motifs, CpG density, and methylation levels, attempt to link the binding of a transcription factor with the acquisition or loss of DNA methylation at promoters and distal regulatory elements. Additional in vivo genome-wide characterization of transcription factor binding patterns and high-resolution DNA methylation analyses are clearly required for stronger support of each model.

  3. Transcription factor profiling shows new ways towards new treatment options of cutaneous T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Döbbeling, Udo

    2007-06-01

    Most oncogenes encode activators of transcription factors or transcription factors themselves. Transcription factors that are induced by growth stimuli are, in contrast to transcription factors that regulate house keeping genes, tightly regulated and only active, when a stimulus (e.g. cytokines or other growth factors) is given. Examples of such transcription factors are members of the jun, fos, myc, NFkB and STAT gene families. In cancer cells this regulation is interrupted, resulting in constitutive activities of transcription factors that are normally silent. This in turn results in the increased expression of target genes that are necessary for growth and protection from apoptosis. Since inducible transcription factors are activated by specific pathways, the identification of unusual constitutively active transcription factors also identifies the involved signal transduction pathway. Inhibitors of the components of these pathways may be effective anti-cancer agents, as they interrupt the abnormal signalling and in cancer cells. We applied this strategy for two forms of cutaneous T cell lymphomas and identified several groups of agents that may be the prototypes of new drugs to fight these diseases.

  4. The transcription factor c-Myc enhances KIR gene transcription through direct binding to an upstream distal promoter element

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Frank; Hanson, Rebecca J.; Lenvik, Todd; Pitt, Michelle; McCullar, Valarie; Li, Hongchuan; Anderson, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) repertoire of natural killer (NK) cells determines their ability to detect infected or transformed target cells. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in KIR gene expression, work in the mouse suggests that other regulatory elements may be involved at specific stages of NK-cell development. Here we report the effects of the transcription factor c-Myc on KIR expression. c-Myc directly binds to, and promotes transcription from, a distal element identified upstream of most KIR genes. Binding of endogenous c-Myc to the distal promoter element is significantly enhanced upon interleukin-15 (IL-15) stimulation in peripheral blood NK cells and correlates with an increase in KIR transcription. In addition, the overexpression of c-Myc during NK-cell development promotes transcription from the distal promoter element and contributes to the overall transcription of multiple KIR genes. Our data demonstrate the significance of the 5′ promoter element upstream of the conventional KIR promoter region and s