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Sample records for elias katrin laikoja

  1. Status of the neutrino mass experiment KATRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Bornschein, L.; Bornschein, B.; Sturm, M.; Roellig, M.; Priester, F.

    2015-03-15

    The most sensitive way to determine the neutrino mass scale without further assumptions is to measure the shape of a tritium beta spectrum near its kinematic end-point. Tritium is the nucleus of choice because of its low endpoint energy, superallowed decay and simple atomic structure. Within an international collaboration the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently being built up at KIT. KATRIN will allow a model-independent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90% CL). KATRIN will use a source of ultrapure molecular tritium. This contribution presents the status of the KATRIN experiment, thereby focusing on its Calibration and Monitoring System (CMS), which is the last component being subject to research/development. After a brief overview of the KATRIN experiment in Section II the CMS is introduced in Section III. In Section IV the Beta Induced X-Ray Spectroscopy (BIXS) as method of choice to monitor the tritium activity of the KATRIN source is described and first results are presented.

  2. [Pertinence of the Elias approach in history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Wenger, Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Norbert Elias has notably influenced the historiography of the Early Modern Period since the 1970s. In the course of the borrowing of his concepts by different disciplines, the uniqueness of these concepts was nevertheless altered. This article aims to show that Elias' 'Sociology of configurations' proposed an original point of view on Longue Durée in history. It thus suggests: 1) to re-evaluate the historical dimension of Elias' sociology; 2) to question eventual contributions to present-day research to the history of medicine and health.

  3. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ronald H; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-06-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen and Jakob Lange in Denmark. Volumes of color paintings and several exsiccati, most notably one edited by Lundell and Nannfeldt attached fungal portraits and preserved specimens (and often photographs) to Fries names. The result is a massive resource from which to harvest the name-concept relationship with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past. PMID:26203415

  4. [Norbert Elias and a narrative about ageing and death].

    PubMed

    do O, Alarcon Agra

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution made by Norbert Elias (1897-1990) to the problematization of old age by analyzing his text "Envelhecer e morrer". Here, the sociologist is seen as an author of texts which can help build up references that span disciplinary boundaries, or even overcome the polarization between 'health-' and 'social-'related knowledge, making it possible to form the desired field of study on ageing. Though Elias sometimes aligns himself with ideas bordering on an idealization of ageing from a pre-capitalist 'Golden Age', he does offer insights which deserve to be taken into consideration, especially when he relates the contemporary experience of ageing to the invention of modernity itself.

  5. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  6. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  7. Deformation during terrane accretion in the Saint Elias orogen, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruhn, R.L.; Pavlis, T.L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of southern Alaska and adjacent Canada is a complex belt of mountains formed by collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane into the transition zone from transform faulting to subduction in the northeast Pacific. The orogen is an active analog for tectonic processes that formed much of the North American Cordillera, and is also an important site to study (1) the relationships between climate and tectonics, and (2) structures that generate large- to great-magnitude earthquakes. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin of southern Alaska. Interaction between the Yakutat terrane and the North American and Pacific plates causes significant differences in the style of deformation within the terrane. Deformation in the eastern part of the terrane is caused by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by reverse faulting beneath the coastal mountains, but there is little deformation immediately offshore. The central part of the orogen is marked by thrusting of the Yakutat terrane beneath the North American plate along the Chugach-Saint Elias fault and development of a wide, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. Strike-slip faulting in this segment may he localized in the hanging wall of the Chugach-Saint Elias fault, or dissipated by thrust faulting beneath a north-northeast-trending belt of active deformation that cuts obliquely across the eastern end of the fold-and-thrust belt. Superimposed folds with complex shapes and plunging hinge lines accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen, where the sedimentary cover of the Yakutat terrane is accreted into the upper plate of the Aleutian subduction zone. These three structural segments are separated by transverse tectonic boundaries that cut across the Yakutat terrane and also coincide with the courses of piedmont glaciers that flow from

  8. Mar Elias, Arab Christians of Israel, and the Sign of the White Dove

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.; Loller, Marie; Spence, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to relate the formation of a tertiary institution as part of Mar Elias Educational Institutions and to identify the spheres of influence and relevant factors that may lead to its success or demise. It considers the relevance of its founding president, Abuna Elias Chacour, whose installation as Archbishop of the Galilee…

  9. A mobile magnetic sensor unit for the KATRIN main spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipowicz, A.; Seller, W.; Letnev, J.; Marte, P.; Müller, A.; Spengler, A.; Unru, A.

    2012-06-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) aims to measure the electron neutrino mass with an unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2, using β decay electrons from tritium decay. For the control of magnetic field in the main spectrometer area of the KATRIN experiment a mobile magnetic sensor unit is constructed and tested at the KATRIN main spectrometer site. The unit moves on inner rails of the support structures of the low field shaping coils which are arranged along the the main spectrometer. The unit propagates on a caterpillar drive and contains an electro motor, battery pack, board electronics, 2 triaxial flux gate sensors and 2 inclination senors. During operation all relevant data are stored on board and transmitted to the master station after the docking station is reached.

  10. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H.; Bodine, L. I.; Bonn, J.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Dunmore, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F. M.; Furse, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Glück, F.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Hartmann, J.; Howe, M. A.; Kaboth, A.; Kelsey, J.; Knauer, M.; Kopmann, A.; Leber, M. L.; Martin, E. L.; Middleman, K. J.; Myers, A. W.; Oblath, N. S.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Phillips, D. G.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thümmler, T.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wüstling, S.

    2015-04-01

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  11. Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon

    2008-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

  12. Asian dustfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, Christian; Hall, Gwendy; Vaive, Judy; Amelin, Yuri; Percival, Jeanne; Girard, Isabelle; Biscaye, Pierre; Bory, Aloys

    2006-07-01

    In April 2001, a major atmospheric dustfall event occurred in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, Canada. Field samples were collected and analyzed for particle size, mineralogy, chemical composition and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes. Dusts found above ˜3000 m had their source in the Gobi desert region of northern China and Inner Mongolia, and were transported to the Yukon following a series of major dust storms that took place in early April. Dusts found below 3000 m had local (Yukon) or mixed source(s). The Asian dusts had a modal volume diameter of ˜4 μm typical of far-traveled mineral aerosols. However larger (>10 μm) particles were also found at ˜5000 m, suggesting a very rapid trans-Pacific transport in the mid-troposphere. We estimate that the April 2001 event deposited from 5500 to 6335 tons of dust over an area of 21,000 km 2 in the southwestern Yukon, most of which probably fell within a week. Our findings are consistent with instrumental observations and model simulations of the April 2001 event. While the dust cloud was reportedly mixed with volatile pollutants from Asia, we found no evidence of metal pollution associated with the dustfall in the Yukon. Our findings contribute to clarify the dynamics and the geochemical impact of Asian dust long-range transport events, and to better estimate eolian fluxes of dustborne elements (e.g., Fe) to the Ocean associated with such events. They may also assist in identifying past Asian dust events in ice cores drilled from the St. Elias Mountains icefields, to develop a long-term record of their frequency, magnitude and source(s).

  13. Environmental gamma radiation in the KATRIN Spectrometer Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenbrock, Luke; Katrin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment, presently undergoing final assembly in Germany, will use tritium β-decay to probe the electron antineutrino mass down to a sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% confidence level). The experimental apparatus has been designed to limit the effect of known and predicted backgrounds near the beta endpoint energy. However, recent commissioning measurements with the main spectrometer have shown that an elusive background source still remains. In this talk, the interaction of environmental gamma radiation inside the KATRIN main spectrometer is studied as a potential background creation mechanism. Geant4 simulations of the gamma flux, derived from concrete radioassay measurements, are compared with detector background rates collected under multiple gamma radiation conditions. Funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under Grant #DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  14. First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelhardt, F.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-15

    The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

  15. Infrared Observations of Hot Gas and Cold Ice Toward the Low Mass Protostar Elias 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.

  16. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  17. Synoptic variability of extreme snowfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andin, Caroline; Zdanowicz, Christian; Copland, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers in the Wrangell and St. Elias Mountains (Alaska and Yukon) are presently experiencing some of the highest regional wastage rates worldwide. While the effect of regional temperatures on glacier melt rates in this region has been investigated, comparatively little is known about how synoptic climate variations, for example in the position and strength of the Aleutian Low, modulate snow accumulation on these glaciers. Such information is needed to accurately forecast future wastage rates, glacier-water resource availability, and contributions to sea-level rise. Starting in 2000, automated weather stations (AWS) were established in the central St-Elias Mountains (Yukon) at altitudes ranging from 1190 to 5400 m asl, to collect climatological data in support of glaciological research. These data are the longest continuous year-round observations of surface climate ever obtained from this vast glaciated region. Here we present an analysis of snowfall events in the icefields of the St-Elias Mountains based on a decade-long series of AWS observations of snow accumulation. Specifically, we investigated the synoptic patterns and air mass trajectories associated with the largest snowfall events (> 25 cm/12 hours) that occurred between 2002 and 2012. Nearly 80% of these events occurred during the cold season (October-March), and in 74 % of cases the precipitating air masses originated from the North Pacific south of 50°N. Zonal air mass advection over Alaska, or from the Bering Sea or the Arctic Ocean, was comparatively rare (20%). Somewhat counter-intuitively, dominant surface winds in the St. Elias Mountains during high snowfall events were predominantly easterly, probably due to boundary-layer frictional drag and topographic funneling effects. Composite maps of sea-level pressure and 700 mb winds reveal that intense snowfall events between 2002 and 2012 were associated with synoptic situations characterized by a split, eastwardly-shifted or longitudinally

  18. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  19. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  20. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester.

  1. 78 FR 13379 - Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of... of operations to conduct a mining operation on lands embracing the Shamrock (AA026813) and Tony...

  2. Reconsidering Feminisms and the Work of Norbert Elias for Understanding Gender, Sport and Sport-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…

  3. Geologic Map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald R.; Preller, Cindi C.; Labay, Keith A.; Shrew, Nora B.

    2006-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest national park within the U.S. National Park Service system, extends from the northern Pacific Ocean to beyond the eastern Alaska Range into interior Alaska. It features impressively spectacular scenery such as high and craggy mountains, active and ancient volcanoes, expansive ice fields, immense tidewater glaciers, and a myriad of alpine glaciers. The park also includes the famous Kennecott Mine, a world-class copper deposit that was mined from 1911 to 1938, and remnant ghost town, which is now a National Historic Landmark. Geologic investigations encompassing Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve began in 1796, with Dmitriv Tarkhanov, a Russian mining engineer, who unsuccessfully ventured up the Copper River in search of rumored copper. Lieutenant H.T. Allen (1897) of the U.S. Army made a successful epic summer journey with a limited military crew up the Copper River in 1885, across the Alaska Range, and down the Tanana and Yukon Rivers. Allen?s crew was supported by a prospector named John Bremner and local Eyak and Ahtna native guides whose tribes controlled access into the Copper River basin. Allen witnessed the Ahtnas? many uses of the native copper. His stories about the copper prompted prospectors to return to this area in search of the rich copper ore in the years following his journey. The region boasts a rich mining and exploration history prior to becoming a park in 1980. Several U.S. Geological Survey geologists have conducted reconnaissance surveys in the area since Allen?s explorations. This map is the result of their work and is enhanced by more detailed investigations, which began in the late 1950s and are still continuing. For a better understanding of the processes that have shaped the geology of the park and a history of the geologic investigations in the area, we recommend U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1616, ?A Geologic Guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park

  4. Cooperation among tectonic and surface processes in the St. Elias Range, Earth's highest coastal mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Koons, Peter O.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Hallet, Bernard; Barker, Adam; Elliott, Julie; Garver, John I.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Headley, Rachel M.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Ruppert, Natalia; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of tectonic and surface processes have shown a clear relationship between climate-influenced erosion and long-term exhumation of rocks. Numerical models suggest that most orogens are in a transient state, but observational evidence of a spatial shift in mountain building processes due to tectonic-climate interaction is missing. New thermochronology data synthesized with geophysical and surface process data elucidate the evolving interplay of erosion and tectonics of the colliding Yakutat microplate with North America. Focused deformation and rock exhumation occurred in the apex of the colliding plate corner from > 4 to 2 Ma and shifted southward after the 2.6 Ma climate change. The present exhumation maximum coincides with the largest modern shortening rates, highest concentration of seismicity, and the greatest erosive potential. We infer that the high sedimentation caused rheological modification and the emergence of the southern St. Elias, intercepting orographic precipitation and shifting focused erosion and exhumation to the south.

  5. Portrait of an instrument-maker:Wenceslaus Hollar's engraving of Elias Allen.

    PubMed

    Higton, Hester

    2004-06-01

    Among the many engravings of landscapes, buildings, portraits and other illustrations produced by the seventeenth-century artist Wenceslaus Hollar, there are a small number of images of contemporary men of science. Of particular interest is the portrait of the instrument-maker Elias Allen, both because portraits of men of his social status were extremely uncommon at this time, and also because the cluttered mass of instruments shown in the image presents a picture wholly unlike other portraits of the period. The first part of this paper explores the position of portraiture as inherently linked to nobility, and seeks to present an explanation as to why the original oil painting of Allen (made by Hendrik van der Borcht and no longer extant) might have been made. The second part looks at the image itself, and discusses possible reasons for Hollar's production of the engraving some twenty years after the original.

  6. SRComp: short read sequence compression using burstsort and Elias omega coding.

    PubMed

    Selva, Jeremy John; Chen, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies permit the rapid production of vast amounts of data at low cost. Economical data storage and transmission hence becomes an increasingly important challenge for NGS experiments. In this paper, we introduce a new non-reference based read sequence compression tool called SRComp. It works by first employing a fast string-sorting algorithm called burstsort to sort read sequences in lexicographical order and then Elias omega-based integer coding to encode the sorted read sequences. SRComp has been benchmarked on four large NGS datasets, where experimental results show that it can run 5-35 times faster than current state-of-the-art read sequence compression tools such as BEETL and SCALCE, while retaining comparable compression efficiency for large collections of short read sequences. SRComp is a read sequence compression tool that is particularly valuable in certain applications where compression time is of major concern.

  7. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Sean P S; Jaeger, John M; Mix, Alan C; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L; Berbel, Glaucia B B; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Kioka, Arata; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J; März, Christian; Matsuzaki, Kenji M; McClymont, Erin L; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R; Ridgway, Kenneth D; Romero, Oscar E; Slagle, Angela L; Stoner, Joseph S; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D; Worthington, Lindsay L; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼ 2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8-1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼ 100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2-0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50-80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale. PMID:26598689

  8. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, John M.; Mix, Alan C.; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L.; Berbel, Glaucia B. B.; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J.; März, Christian; McClymont, Erin L.; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Romero, Oscar E.; Slagle, Angela L.; Stoner, Joseph S.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8–1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale. PMID:26598689

  9. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Sean P S; Jaeger, John M; Mix, Alan C; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L; Berbel, Glaucia B B; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Kioka, Arata; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J; März, Christian; Matsuzaki, Kenji M; McClymont, Erin L; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R; Ridgway, Kenneth D; Romero, Oscar E; Slagle, Angela L; Stoner, Joseph S; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D; Worthington, Lindsay L; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M

    2015-12-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼ 2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8-1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼ 100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2-0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50-80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale.

  10. Norbert Elias's motion pictures: history, cinema and gestures in the process of civilization.

    PubMed

    Algazi, Gadi

    2008-09-01

    Norbert Elias's project in The process of civilization (1939) involved reconstructing invisible movement--both the slow tempoof long-term historical change and the modification of psychic structures and embodied dispositions. To do this, he resorted to uncommon devices: treating historical texts as constituting a series amenable to a rudimentary discourse analysis, he constructed an imagined 'curve of civilization' serving as an approximation of the hidden process of change. Elias's curve was not supposed to represent single past states, but movement itself, its direction and pace. This novel concept of historical representation was related to the perception of cinema as a new medium making actual movement visible. But beyond making it possible to imagine how one could telescope long-term historical process, cinema also held the promise of serving as a microscope, making the minute movements of the human body, gestures and manners available for close inspection. While anthropologists were devising ways of using the new medium to document fleeting gestures and bodily postures, it was used by popular audiences as a source for remodelling behaviour and acquiring polite manners and body techniques, as noticed by such acute observers as Marcel Mauss and Joseph Roth. Hence, popular appropriation of the cinema gave rise to a heightened awareness of the historicity of gestures and the changing modalities of their transmission. Cinema was itself part of the accelerated motion of history, of a perceived change of pace in the process of civilization, which in its turn shed light on its historical antecedents and played an essential role in rethinking the notion of civilization and culture.

  11. Tests of by-pass diodes at cryogenic temperatures for the KATRIN magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, W.; Bolz, H.; Jansen, A.; Müller, K.; Steidl, M.; Hagedorn, D.

    2014-01-27

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) requires a series of superconducting solenoid magnets for guiding beta-electrons from the source to the detector. By-pass diodes will operate at liquid helium temperatures to protect the superconducting magnets and bus bars in case of quenches. The operation conditions of the by-pass diodes depend on the different magnet systems of KATRIN. Therefore, different diode stacks are designed with adequate copper heat sinks assuming adiabatic conditions. The by-pass diode stacks have been submitted to cold tests both at liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures for checking operation conditions. This report presents the test set up and first results of the diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, as well as of endurance tests of the diode stacks at constant current load at 77 K and 4.2 K.

  12. Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N

    2014-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11, P = 0.019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water.

  13. Electron line shape and transmission function of the KATRIN monitor spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slezák, M.

    2013-12-30

    Knowledge of the neutrino mass is of particular interest in modern neutrino physics. Besides the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological observation information about the neutrino mass is obtained from single beta decay by observing the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. The KATRIN β decay experiment aims to push the limit on the effective electron antineutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. To reach this sensitivity several systematic effects have to be under control. One of them is the fluctuations of the absolute energy scale, which therefore has to be continuously monitored at very high precision. This paper shortly describes KATRIN, the technique for continuous monitoring of the absolute energy scale and recent improvements in analysis of the monitoring data.

  14. 1450 m^3 at 10^-9 Pa: One of the KATRIN Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Christian Day; R. Gumbsheimer; W. Herz; J. Wolf; J. Bonn; R. Reid; G.R. Myneni

    2006-11-12

    The KATRIN project is a challenging experiment to measure the mass of the electron neutrino directly with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. It is a next generation tritium beta-decay experiment scaling up the size and precision of previous experiments by an order of magnitude as well as the intensity of the tritium beta source. Ultrafine spectrometric analysis of the energy distribution of the decay electrons at their very endpoint of 18.57 keV is the key to derive the neutrino mass. This is provided by a high-resolution spectrometer of unique size (10 m in diameter, 22 m in length). To avoid any negative influence from residual gas, the spectrometer vessel is designed to UHV/XHV conditions (an ultimate total pressure of below 10{sup -9} Pa and a wall outgassing rate below 10{sup -13} Pam{sup 3}/scm{sup 2}). The paper shortly describes the experimental idea behind KATRIN. The emphasis will then be given to the pumping concept for how to achieve the target parameters and to the manufacturing of the spectrometer tank. Critical issues will also be discussed (surface treatment, welding, transportation). Finally, a description of the current status and an outlook on the overall KATRIN schedule completes the paper.

  15. Quantifying the spatial distribution of rapid exhumation from glacial detritus, St. Elias Range (Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, D.; Enkelmann, E.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a provenance analysis, zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer cooling ages, and petrologic characterization of exhumation processes active under the Malaspina Glacier, St. Elias Range, Alaska. The collision of the Yakutat Terrane with North America formed the St. Elias Range in southeast Alaska. This region is subject to active faulting, high seismicity, and intense glacial erosion. Recent thermochronology studies document rapid rock exhumation at the Yakutat corner where strike-slip deformation transitions to convergence. Published detrital zircon fission track ages from sand samples of the Seward - Malaspina Glacier yielded a young age population of 2 Ma, suggesting a region of rapid exhumation somewhere in the glacier drainage basin. However, the glaciers cover the area and prevent direct observation and sampling, thereby inhibiting detailed bedrock exhumation studies of the Yakutat corner region. We investigate the lithologies of the bedrock at the Yakutat corner to quantify patterns of rock exhumation using clasts collected from the toe of the Malaspina Glacier. Seven different locations 50 km around the glacier were sampled and lithologies characterized by point counting in the field. In total, 1998 clasts were analyzed. We identified six main lithological groups that are assignable to specific geological units. Most of the detritus is gneiss and granulite (26%), micashist and phyllite (26%), and granite (11%) and are typical lithologies of the Chugach Terrane located at the southern margin of the North American plate. Mafic rocks of amphibolite, gabbro, and basalts (21%), and metapelite, sandstone, quartzite and breccia (14%) were also present and are typical for the colliding Yakutat Terrane. Two percent of the clasts are tightly foliated and mylonitic. These clasts are inferred to originate from the Contact Fault, an old suture zone that has been reactivated during Yakutat Terrane collision. Individual clasts from each sample locality and from all

  16. Mercury in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in

  17. Interim report on the St. Elias, Alaska earthquake of 28 February 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.; Plafker, George; Stephens, C.D.; Foglean, K.A.; Blackford, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    On 28 February 1979 an earthquake with surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 7.7 (W. Person, personal communication, 1979) occurred beneath the Chugach and St. Elias mountains of southern Alaska (fig. 1). This is a region of complex tectonics resulting from northwestward convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. To the east, the northwest-trending Fairweather fault accommodates the movement with dextral slip of about 5.5 cm/yr (Plafker, Hudson, and others, 1978); to the west, the Pacific plate underthrusts Alaska at the Aleutian trench, which trends southwestward (Plafker 1969). The USGS has operated a telemetered seismic network in southern Alaska since 1971 and it was greatly expanded along the eastern Gulf of Alaska in September 1974. The current configuration of stations is shown in Figure 9. Technical details of the network are available in published earthquake catalogs (Lahr, Page, and others, 1974; Fogleman, Stephens, and others, 1978). Preliminary analysis of the data from this network covering the time period September 1, 1978 through March 10, 1979, as well as worldwide data for the main shock will be discussed in this paper.

  18. Testing Models of Modern Glacial Erosion of the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska Using Marine Sediment Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; Loss, D. P.; Bruand, E.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciated coastal St. Elias Range in Alaska is a primary site to examine climate-tectonic interactions. Work has primarily focused on the Bering-Bagley and Malaspina-Seward ice fields, utilizing detrital and bedrock zircon and apatite geochronology to examine local exhumation and glacial erosion (Berger et al., 2008; Enkelmann et al., 2009; Headly et al., 2013). These studies argue for specific regions of tectonically focused or climatically widespread glacial erosion. Analyzed zircon and apatite grains are sand size, however glacial erosion favors the production of finer-grained sediments. This study focuses on the geochemical provenance of the silt-size fraction (15-63μm) of surface sediments collected throughout the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) seaward of the Bering and Malaspina glaciers to test if the exhumation patterns observed in zircon and apatites are also applicable for the silt size fraction. Onshore bedrock Al-normalized elemental data were used to delineate sediment sources, and a subset of provenance-applicable elements was chosen. Detrital thermochronologic data suggest that sediment produced by the Bagley/Bering system is derived from bedrock on the windward side with input from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC) underlying the Bagley only during glacial surge events (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt deposited during the 1994-95 surge event confirm input of CMC sediment (elevated in Cr, Ni, Sc, Sr, depleted in Hf, Pb and Rb relative to Kultieth and Poul Creek formations). We also observe a windward-side sediment source (Kultieth and Poul Creek). It is hypothesized that the sediment carried by the Malaspina is primarily from CMC rock underlying the Seward ice field mixed with Yakataga formation rock that underlies the Seward throat (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt support this hypothesis.

  19. Cooling history of the St. Elias syntaxis, southeast Alaska, revealed by geochronology and thermochronology of cobble-sized glacial detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Drost, Kerstin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Stübner, Konstanze; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of exhumation in the ice-covered St. Elias syntaxis area, southeast Alaska, using multiple thermochronometers and geochronometers from cobble-sized glacial detritus. Multiple thermochronometers reveal the cooling histories from 500 to 60°C of 27 glacially transported cobbles from the two largest catchments of the syntaxis. Cobble lithologies and 21 zircon U-Pb ages (~277-31 Ma) were examined to determine sample provenance. Furthermore, eight amphibole and seven biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages (~276-16 Ma and ~50-42 Ma, respectively), four zircon and six apatite (U-Th)/He ages (~35-4.8 Ma and ~4.2-0.6 Ma, respectively), and four apatite fission track ages (~17-1.6 Ma) were used to reconstruct the individual cobble cooling histories. An additional four bedrock samples from the Fairweather Range yielded three biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages between ~42 and 5 Ma. A compilation of published bedrock and new cobble cooling histories from the St. Elias Mountains and Fairweather Range reveals the regional Cenozoic cooling and exhumation history, emphasizing the position of the St. Elias syntaxis as a transitional zone between transpression and subduction settings. The new cobble and bedrock data indicate an onset of rapid exhumation at ~5 Ma that was limited in duration (2-3 Myr) and amount (~10 km) in the syntaxial region. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of cobbles for revealing thermal histories of otherwise inaccessible regions as cobble analysis combines advantages of bedrock and detrital thermochronology.

  20. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and trace rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study (??? 10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples. ?? 1994.

  1. Offshore Tectonics of the St. Elias Mountains: Insights from Ocean Drilling and Seismic Stratigraphy on the Yakutat Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, L. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Montelli, A.; Jaeger, J. M.; Zellers, S.; Walczak, M. H.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing collision of the Yakutat (YAK) microplate with North America (NA) in southern Alaska has driven orogenesis of the St. Elias Mountains and the advance of the offshore deformation front to the southeast. The offshore St. Elias fold-thrust belt records the complex interaction between collisional tectonics and glacial climate variability, providing insight for models of orogenesis and the evolution of glacial depocenters. Glacial erosion and deposition have provided sediment that constructed the upper continental shelf, much of which has been reincorporated into the orogenic wedge through offshore faulting and folding. We integrate core and downhole logging data from IODP Expedition 341 (Sites U1420 and U1421) drilled on the Yakutat shelf and slope with high-resolution and regional seismic profiles to investigate the coupled structural and stratigraphic evolution of the St. Elias margin. Site U1420 lies on the Yakutat shelf within the Bering Trough, a shelf-crossing trough that is within primary depocenter for Bering Glacier sediments. Two faults underlie the glacial packages and have been rendered inactive as the depositional environment has evolved, while faulting elsewhere on the shelf has initiated. Site U1421 lies on the current continental slope, within the backlimb of an active thrust that forms part of the modern YAK-NA deformation front. At each of these sites, we recovered glacigenic diamict (at depths up to ~1015 m at Site U1420), much of which is younger than 0.3 Ma. Age models within the trough indicated that initiation of active deformation away from the Bering Trough depocenter likely occurred since 0.3 Ma, suggesting that possible tectonic reorganization due to mass redistribution by glacial processes can occur at time scales on the order of 100kyr-1Myr.

  2. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkley, Todd K.

    1994-08-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and trace rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study (≈ 10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples.

  3. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  4. Tectonic processes during oblique collision: Insights from the St. Elias orogen, northern North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlis, T.L.; Picornell, C.; Serpa, L.; Bruhn, R.L.; Plafker, G.

    2004-01-01

    Oblique convergence in the St. Elias orogen of southern Alaska and northwestern Canada has constructed the world's highest coastal mountain range and is the principal driver constructing all of the high topography in northern North America. The orogen originated when the Yakutat terrane was excised from the Cordilleran margin and was transported along margin-parallel strike-slip faults into the subduction-transform transition at the eastern end of the Aleutian trench. We examine the last 3 m.y. of this collision through an analysis of Euler poles for motion of the Yakutat microplate with respect to North America and the Pacific. This analysis indicates a Yakutat-Pacific pole near the present southern triple junction of the microplate and' predicts convergence to dextral-oblique convergence across the offshore Transition fault, onland structures adjacent to the Yakutat foreland, or both, with plate speeds increasing from 10 to 30 mm/yr from southeast to northwest. Reconstructions based on these poles show that NNW transport of the collided block into the NE trending subduction zone forced contraction of EW line elements as the collided block was driven into the subduction-transform transition. This suggests the collided block was constricted as it was driven into the transition. Constriction provides an explanation for observed vertical axis refolding of both earlier formed fold-thrust systems and the collisional suture at the top of the fold-thrust stack. We also suggest that this motion was partially accommodated by lateral extrusion of the western portion of the orogen toward the Aleutian trench. Important questions remain regarding which structures accommodated parts of this motion. The Transition fault may have accommodated much of the Yakutat-Pacific convergence on the basis of our analysis and previous interpretations of GPS-based geodetic data. Nonetheless, it is locally overlapped by up to 800 m of undeformed sediment, yet elsewhere shows evidence of young

  5. Simulation of background from low-level tritium and radon emanation in the KATRIN spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Leiber, B.; Collaboration: KATRIN Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment for the model independent determination of the mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium beta decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum at 18.6 keV. To achieve a good signal to background ratio at the endpoint, a low background rate below 10{sup −2} counts per second is required. The KATRIN setup thus consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), a magnetic electron transport system with differential and cryogenic pumping for tritium retention, and electro-static retarding spectrometers (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a segmented detector system for counting transmitted beta-electrons. A major source of background comes from magnetically trapped electrons in the main spectrometer (vacuum vessel: 1240 m{sup 3}, 10{sup −11} mbar) produced by nuclear decays in the magnetic flux tube of the spectrometer. Major contributions are expected from short-lived radon isotopes and tritium. Primary electrons, originating from these decays, can be trapped for hours, until having lost almost all their energy through inelastic scattering on residual gas particles. Depending on the initial energy of the primary electron, up to hundreds of low energetic secondary electrons can be produced. Leaving the spectrometer, these electrons will contribute to the background rate. This contribution describes results from simulations for the various background sources. Decays of {sup 219}Rn, emanating from the main vacuum pump, and tritium from the WGTS that reaches the spectrometers are expected to account for most of the background. As a result of the radon alpha decay, electrons are emitted through various processes, such as shake-off, internal conversion and the Auger deexcitations. The corresponding simulations were done using the KASSIOPEIA

  6. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  7. Electron localizability indicators ELI-D and ELIA for highly correlated wavefunctions of homonuclear dimers. II. N2, O2, F2, and Ne2.

    PubMed

    Bezugly, Viktor; Wielgus, Pawel; Kohout, Miroslav; Wagner, Frank R

    2010-09-01

    Electron localizability indicators based on the electron pair density ELI-D and ELIA Electron localizability indicators ELI-D and ELIA based on the electron pair density are studied for the correlated ground-state wavefunctions of N(2), O(2), F(2), and Ne(2) diatomics. Different basis sets and reference spaces are used for the multireference configuration interaction method following the complete active space calculations to investigate the local effect of electron correlation on the extent of electron localizability in position space determined by the two indicators. The results are complemented by calculations of effective bond order, vibrational frequency, and Laplacian of the electron density at the bond midpoint. It turns out that for O(2) and F(2), the reliable topology of ELI-D is obtained only at the correlated level of theory.

  8. Multi-method geo- and thermochronology of glacially transported cobbles reveals the tectonic and exhumation history of the St. Elias Mountains (Alaska/Yukon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Drost, Kerstin; Pfänder, Jörg; Stübner, Konstanze; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Multi-method dating is a powerful tool to understand tectonic processes and mountain building. In the case of inaccessible mountain regions, e.g., due to extensive glaciation, the dating of detrital material and bedrock samples from rare outcrops with geo- and thermochronologic methods is often the only applicable approach to study the timing and rates of tectonic processes. The St. Elias Mountains of southeast Alaska and southwest Yukon are an example of a heavily glaciated orogen. With the help of detrital thermochronology of sand-sized material, exhumation patterns could be mapped, though with a low spatial resolution. In contrast, geo- and thermochronology applied to glacially derived cobbles yields provenance information from cobble lithology, zircon U-Pb dating, and the entire cooling history from multiple mineral phases. Multi-grain and multi-aliquot analyses yield high-precision crystallization and cooling ages, while sand-sized detritus requires analysis of single minerals particularly resistant to weathering. We present a reconstruction of the Cenozoic tectonic and exhumation history of the St. Elias Mountains that was obtained from the analysis of 27 carefully selected and prepared cobble samples taken from two of the largest glacial catchments of the St. Elias Mountains. A total of 21 zircon U-Pb data sets as well as eight amphibole and seven biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages constrain the (maximum) formation and cooling ages, respectively, of the rocks in the source area. In addition, four zircon and six apatite (U-Th)/He ages as well as four apatite fission-track ages reveal the exhumation history of these source rocks. Integration of the cobble results with an additional three bedrock biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages and published geo- and thermochronologic data from along the St. Elias Mountains reveals details on the timing and rates of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the North American margin in southeast Alaska. Documented are the earliest Eocene spreading

  9. Cenozoic evolution of the Yakutat-North American collision zone and structural accommodation of St. Elias syntaxis exhumation, Alaska/Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Active convergent margins potentially pose multiple natural hazards to human life and infrastructure. Tectonic strain may be further focused where convergent margins are warped into broad syntaxes. However, the processes responsible for upper plate deformation in these settings are not well understood. The St. Elias syntaxis in southeast Alaska and southwest Yukon is located at the eastern corner of the Yakutat microplate, which indents into the North American Plate and subducts at a flat angle beneath Alaska. High rates of long-term glacial erosion and exhumation (>2 mm/yr) are found on the southern, coastal flanks of the St. Elias orogen, but the deepest and most rapid exhumation is focused at the St. Elias syntaxis. In this location, transform motion transitions into subduction of the wedge-shaped, oceanic plateau of the Yakutat microplate. In order to map the spatio-temporal pattern of exhumation in the Yakutat-North American collision zone, we conducted zircon and apatite fission-track analyses of predominantly detrital, sand-sized material and five bedrock samples from 47 different glacio-fluvial catchments covering an area of ~45,000 km2 around the St. Elias syntaxis. Integration of the new thermochronologic data with prior work and other geologic and geophysical observations yielded information on past terrane accretion events at the North American margin since the late Mesozoic and the evolution of exhumation at the St. Elias syntaxis in the context of the ongoing Yakutat-North American plate collision. Our results indicate a migrating focus of the most rapid exhumation from north to south and from the upper (North American Plate) to the lower (Yakutat microplate) plate in the syntaxis area over the past ~10 Myr. This migration occurred in response to a change in plate motions, increasingly thicker crust of the subducting Yakutat microplate, and changes in surface processes after glaciation began that resulted in modification of the rheology. We propose a

  10. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional‐scale glacier‐generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  11. 1. Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and groundwater in alpine glacierized watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine glacierized watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine glacierized catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the glacier-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of glacier meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.

  12. Offshore Stratigraphic Relationships in the Southern Alaska Syntaxis and Physical Properties of the Neogene Sedimentary Cover Offshore ST. Elias Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. N.; Worthington, L. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Ridgway, K.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Alaska is home to one of the most actively deforming continental margins in the world, and temperate glaciers covering the area contribute to high rates of erosion and offshore sedimentation, making the Neogene sediment covering the offshore Yakutat Block an ideal location to study interactions between climate and tectonics. In 2008, data that includes ~115 km of multichannel seismic reflection and ocean-bottom seismometer wide-angle reflection and refraction data was collected across the central Yakutat shelf in the Gulf of Alaska. We present a high-resolution two-dimensional P-wave velocity model of the glaciomarine sediment and underlying Yakutat basement in the area and compare to coincident seismic reflection profiles in order to determine lithologic boundaries and correlate with stratigraphic units observed onshore and in offshore boreholes. Detailed subsurface mapping of the offshore sedimentary units in and near Yakutat Bay is essential to understanding the long-term development of the central and northern Yakutat shelf as a depocenter, where more of the facies that record St. Elias orogenesis are preserved than onshore. The depositional environment transitions from a wide shelf incised by sea valleys that deliver sediment to slope aprons in the east to a narrow shelf across which sediment is transported to the Aleutian trench in the west. Our velocity profile used in conjunction with seismic reflection data shows transitions in dominant depositional processes over time in the central portion of the block. In Yakutat Bay, sediment velocities are high (~ 4 km/s) compared to velocities farther offshore (< 3 km/s), possibly indicating greater compaction of the sediments in the bay. In the central portion of the shelf, three distinct refractions from sedimentary layers are observed and are interpreted as the Yakataga, Poul Creek, and Kulthieth Formations. In the north, only two refractions from sedimentary layers are observed. Basement refractions

  13. Glacial climate driven sedimentation overwhelms tectonics in the battle for control of margin architecture: Southeast Alaska, St. Elias Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Willems, B.; Powell, R. D.; Lowe, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    The interplay of tectonic and climatic processes is fundamental to the development of mountain belts and the ensuing patterns of deformation and erosion. Of equal significance is the interaction of tectonic and climatic processes in the development of orogenic sedimentary basins, or in the case of a coastal mountain belt, in the growth of a continental margin. The Chugach-St. Elias Orogeny, which is driven by the collision of the Yakutat microplate with North America in southeast Alaska, has generated the highest coastal relief in the world. The combined forces of tectonic uplift and glacial erosion have resulted in the accumulation of over 5 km of sediment to form the continental shelf and the creation of the Surveyor Fan that is over 2 km thick proximally. High-resolution GI-gun seismic data allow for detailed examination of the margin architecture off the Bering Glacier within the leading edge of the Yakutat block. The deformation and growth of the margin appears to have first undergone a tectonically dominated phase followed more recently by a glacially dominated phase. During the tectonically dominated period a broad anticline-syncline system helped create accommodation space and the margin both shallowed and widened to its current 50 km width. Based on ties with industry well cuttings, the dominance switched sometime between 0.75 and 1.25 Ma to being completely controlled by glacial advance-retreat patterns. The mappable glacial sequences are undeformed by the underlying anticlines and display several notable features: 1) erosional bases that can often be mapped across the entire shelf, terminating at the shelf edge, 2) little evidence for terminal or retreat moraines on the shelf suggesting very rapid and single phase retreat of the glacier, 3) incomplete glacial sequences due to erosion by later advances, and 4) minimal creation of accommodation space. We investigate the cause of the switch to glacial dominance, the mechanisms and causes of the potentially

  14. Hydrologic conditions and hazards in the Kennicott River basin, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.; Rosenkrans, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    McCarthy, Alaska, is on the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Most visitors to McCarthy and the park cross the West Fork Kennicott River using a hand-pulled tram and cross the East Fork Kennicott River on a temporary footbridge. Outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes result in channel erosion, aggradation, and migration of the Kennicott River, which disrupt transportation links, destroy property, and threaten life. Hidden Creek Lake, the largest of six glacier-dammed lakes in the Kennicott River Basin, has annual outbursts that cause the largest floods on the Kennicott River. Outbursts from Hidden Creek Lake occur from early fall to mid-summer, and lake levels at the onset of the outbursts have declined between 1909 and 1995. Criteria for impending outbursts for Hidden Creek Lake include lake stage near or above 3,000 to 3,020 feet, stationary or declining lake stage, evidence of recent calving of large ice blocks from the ice margin, slush ice and small icebergs stranded on the lakeshore, and fresh fractures in the ice-margin region. The lower Kennicott Glacier has thinned and retreated since about 1860. The East and West Fork Kennicott River channels migrated in response to changes in the lower Kennicott Glacier. The largest channel changes occur during outburst floods from Hidden Creek Lake, whereas channel changes from the other glacier-dammed lake outbursts are small. Each year, the West Fork Kennicott River conveys a larger percentage of the Kennicott Glacier drainage than it did the previous year. Outburst floods on the Kennicott River cause the river stage to rise over a period of several hours. Smaller spike peaks have a very rapid stage rise. Potential flood magnitude was estimated by combining known maximum discharges from Hidden Creek Lake and Lake Erie outburst floods with a theoretical large regional flood. Flood hazard areas at the transportation corridor were

  15. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high source luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.

  16. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    DOE PAGES

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high sourcemore » luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.« less

  17. Electron localizability indicators ELI-D and ELIA for highly correlated wavefunctions of homonuclear dimers. I. Li2, Be2, B2, and C2.

    PubMed

    Bezugly, Viktor; Wielgus, Pawel; Kohout, Miroslav; Wagner, Frank R

    2010-05-01

    Electron localizability indicators based on the parallel-spin electron pair density (ELI-D) and the antiparallel-spin electron pair density (ELIA) are studied for the correlated ground-state wavefunctions of Li(2), Be(2), B(2), and C(2) diatomic molecules. Different basis sets and reference spaces are used for the multireference configuration interaction method following the complete active space calculations to investigate the local effect of electron correlation on the extent of electron localizability in position space determined by the two functionals. The results are complemented by calculations of effective bond order, vibrational frequency, and Laplacian of the electron density at the bond midpoint. It turns out that for Li(2), B(2), and C(2) the reliable topology of ELI-D is obtained only at the correlated level of theory.

  18. Spatial and temporal development of exhumation at the St. Elias syntaxis in the Yakutat-North American subduction-collision zone, SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Pfänder, Jörg; Drost, Kerstin; Stübner, Konstanze; Ehlers, Todd

    2015-04-01

    Since the Mesozoic, the western North American margin has been built by the subduction-collision of several terranes. Currently, the 15-30 km thick, wedge-shaped oceanic plateau of the Yakutat microplate collides obliquely with North America at the bend of the southern Alaskan margin forming the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains. Glaciation of this orogen started 6-5 Ma and efficient glacial erosion has been reported over different timescales. Particularly rapid and deep exhumation occurs at the St. Elias syntaxis, where the plate boundary bends and the tectonic regime transitions from transpression to convergence and flat-slab subduction. This region comprises the highest topography and is almost completely covered by the Seward-Malaspina and Hubbard-Valerie glacial systems. Very young detrital zircon fission-track exhumation ages (<5 Ma, closure temperature of 250±40 °C) from glacial outwash sand led to speculations about the underlying geodynamic mechanisms and comparisons to processes occurring at the Himalayan syntaxes. The comparison of bedrock and detrital thermochronology shows that the youngest cooling ages, and hence the highest exhumation rates, only occur in low-elevation, ice-covered valleys in the St. Elias syntaxis area. We now further investigate this area concerning its spatial and temporal development. Zircon fission-track age distributions derived from 46 glacio-fluvial sand samples confine the area of rapid and deep exhumation on the resolution of catchments to an ~4800 km2 area on the North American Plate around the St. Elias syntaxis. To overcome the shortcoming of a decreased resolution of the provenance signal of sand, we present 22 new crystallization ages of cobble-sized detritus from the Seward-Malaspina Glacier. Zircon U-Th/He ages of the cobbles demonstrate that they originate from below the ice and their provenance is analyzed based on their petrographic information and zircon U/Pb data (30.8±0.8 to 277.1±7 Ma, 2σ). Furthermore, we

  19. Analyzing the impacts of off-road vehicle (ORV) trails on watershed processes in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Arp, Christopher D; Simmons, Trey

    2012-03-01

    Trails created by off-road vehicles (ORV) in boreal lowlands are known to cause local impacts, such as denuded vegetation, soil erosion, and permafrost thaw, but impacts on stream and watershed processes are less certain. In Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, ORV trails have caused local resource damage in intermountain lowlands with permafrost soils and abundant wetlands and there is a need to know whether these impacts are more extensive. Comparison of aerial photography from 1957, 1981, and 2004 coupled with ground surveys in 2009 reveal an increase in trail length and number and show an upslope expansion of a trail system around points of stream channel initiation. We hypothesized that these impacts could also cause premature initiation and headward expansion of channels because of lowered soil resistance and greater runoff accumulation as trails migrate upslope. Soil monitoring showed earlier and deeper thaw of the active layer in and adjacent to trails compared to reference sites. Several rainfall-runoff events during the summer of 2009 showed increased and sustained flow accumulation below trail crossings and channel shear forces sufficient to cause headward erosion of silt and peat soils. These observations of trail evolution relative to stream and wetland crossings together with process studies suggest that ORV trails are altering watershed processes. These changes in watershed processes appear to result in increasing drainage density and may also alter downstream flow regimes, water quality, and aquatic habitat. Addressing local land-use disturbances in boreal and arctic parklands with permafrost soils, such as WRST, where responses to climate change may be causing concurrent shifts in watershed processes, represents an important challenge facing resource managers.

  20. Using Bed Conditions of the Seward/Malaspina Glacier System to Investigate Erosional and Tectonic Interplays in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, R.; Hallet, B.; Waddington, E. D.

    2008-12-01

    The St. Elias range in southeastern Alaska is a unique area with ideal characteristics for examining interactions between glacial and tectonic processes. Extensive observational data sets, both glaciological and tectonic, exist for the Seward/Malaspina Glacier system. Geodetic, structural, and thermochronological data suggest that considerable crustal strain is focused in this region, especially around the Seward throat directly upglacier from the Malaspina piedmont lobe. The massive discharge of ice funneling through this narrow valley and its high velocities suggest that this area is eroding exceptionally rapidly. Surface velocities of Seward Glacier through this constricted channel are available from high-resolution InSAR data, supplemented by field measurements. In contrast, the position of the glacier bed, its properties, including effective basal roughness, and the sliding velocity, remain poorly defined, yet they are central to understanding erosion patterns. To characterize the glacier bed and to constrain the sliding velocity, we use a numerical model and available data on the glacier, including surface velocities, radar-based depth measurements, and SRTM DEM elevation data. We first use the surface-velocity azimuth data to define a flowband, within which we calculate the flow field using a full-stress finite-volume ice-deformation model with prescribed basal conditions that represent sliding. From an initial profile determined from the sparse thickness data and conservation of mass principles, the bed profile is varied to minimize the deviations of the modeled vertical velocities, to ensure the stability of the known ice surface. Once near steady-state velocities are obtained, both the bed and the sliding properties are varied to define basal conditions as precisely as possible to provide a basis for calculating erosion rates, in Seward Glacier. The intersections of the glacier and active thrust features, which are difficult to determine in the field due

  1. High-resolution Near-surface Permafrost Modeling for the 21st Century, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost within most part of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST) is discontinuous and warm i.e. within a few degrees of thawing. It is the physical foundation on which the ecosystems in the park rest. Thawing of permafrost alters this foundation, and can alter ecosystems and landscapes. Nonetheless, the data on permafrost condition and extent within WRST is limited. The current and future permafrost distribution and thickness of active layer can be modeled, given sufficient data about ground properties, vegetation, topography, and climate. We used GIPL 1.0 (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska) model; and downscaled climate forcing from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCM) that work best for Alaska and high-resolution soil landscape and ecotype maps from National Park Service (NPS) as model inputs to develop high-resolution permafrost maps for the recent past (2001-10) and the future decades (2050s and 2090s). The soil landscape and ecotype maps were derived from Landsat TM scenes (Jorgenson et al. 2008). The modeling effort resulted in recent and future permafrost maps of WRST at a spatial resolution of 28.5 m, the best resolution permafrost maps available for any part of Alaska. The model mapped 80% of WRST as underlain by near-surface permafrost during the decade of 2001-10 (Fig. 1) and predicted 50% decrease in the near-surface permafrost extent by 2050s owing to a 2 °C increase in the mean decadal air temperature and slightly higher precipitation. According to the 5 GCM projections, the decadal air temperature will increase by another 2 °C between 2050s and 2090s which will likely cause further increase in the ground temperature and decrease in the permafrost extent. The model predicts a meager 15% of WRST would still remain underlain by near-surface permafrost toward the end of the 21st century. Comparison of the modeled permafrost distribution with in situ observation of permafrost presence/absence at 430 sites

  2. Water quality of the Chokosna, Gilahina, Lakina Rivers, and Long Lake watershed along McCarthy Road, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2007–08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chokosna, Gilahina, and Lakina River basins, and the Long Lake watershed are located along McCarthy Road in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The rivers and lake support a large run of sockeye (red) salmon that is important to the commercial and recreational fisheries in the larger Copper River. To gain a better understanding of the water quality conditions of these watersheds, these basins were studied as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service during the open water periods in 2007 and 2008. Water type of the rivers and Long Lake is calcium bicarbonate with the exception of that in the Chokosna River, which is calcium bicarbonate sulfate water. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 63 to 222 milligrams per liter, indicating a high buffering capacity in these waters. Analyses of streambed sediments indicated that concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, chromium, and nickel exceed levels that might be toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, these concentrations reflect local geology rather than anthropogenic sources in this nearly pristine area. Benthic macroinvertebrate qualitative multi-habitat and richest targeted habitat samples collected from six stream sites along McCarthy Road indicated a total of 125 taxa. Insects made up the largest percentage of macroinvertebrates, totaling 83 percent of the families found. Dipterans (flies and midges) accounted for 43 percent of all macroinvertebrates found. Analysis of the macroinvertebrate data by non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated differences between (1) sites at Long Lake and other stream sites along McCarthy Road, likely due to different basin characteristics, (2) the 2007 and 2008 data, probably from the higher rainfall in 2008, and (3) macroinvertebrate data collected in south-central Alaska, which represents a different climate zone. The richness, abundance, and community composition of periphytic algae taxa was variable between sampling sites

  3. Electron localizability indicators ELI and ELIA: the case of highly correlated wavefunctions for the argon atom.

    PubMed

    Bezugly, Viktor; Wielgus, Pawel; Wagner, Frank R; Kohout, Miroslav; Grin, Yuri

    2008-06-01

    Electron localizability indicators based on the same-spin electron pair density and the opposite-spin electron pair density are studied for correlated wavefunctions of the argon atom. Different basis sets and reference spaces are used for the multireference configuration interaction method following the complete active space calculations aiming at the understanding of the effect of local electron correlation when approaching the exact wavefunction. The populations of the three atomic shells of Ar atom in real space are calculated for each case.

  4. 77 FR 22800 - Wilderness Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... reclassification as part of the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS... be ineligible. ADDRESSES: Hard copies of the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/ Final... was described in the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polarimetric measures of selected variable stars (Elias+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, N. M. Ii; Koch, R. H.; Pfeiffer, R. J.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize and interpret unpublished optical polarimetry for numerous program stars that were observed over the past decades at the Flower and Cook Observatory (FCO), University of Pennsylvania. We also make the individual calibrated measures available for long-term comparisons with new data. We employ three techniques to search for intrinsic variability within each dataset. First, when the observations for a given star and filter are numerous enough and when a period has been determined previously via photometry or spectroscopy, the polarimetric measures are plotted versus phase. If a statistically significant pattern appears, we attribute it to intrinsic variability. Second, we compare means of the FCO data to means from other workers. If they are statistically different, we conclude that the object exhibits long-term intrinsic variability. Third, we calculate the standard deviation for each program star and filter and compare it to the standard deviation estimated from comparable polarimetric standards. If the standard deviation of the program star is at least three times the value estimated from the polarimetric standards, the former is considered intrinsically variable. All of these statements are strengthened when variability appears in multiple filters. (3 data files).

  6. Partial melting of amphibolite to trondhjemite at Nunatak Fiord, St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F.; McLellan, E.L.; Plafker, G.

    1985-01-01

    At Nunatak Fiord, 55km NE of Yakutat, Alaska, a uniform layer of Cretaceous basalt ca. 3km thick was metamorphosed ca. 67 million years ago to amphibolite and locally partially melted to pegmatitic trondhjemite. Segregations of plagioclase-quartz+/-biotite rock, leucosomes in amphibolite matrix, range from stringers 5-10mm thick to blunt pods as thick as 6m. They tend to be parallel to foliation of the amphibolite, but crosscutting is common. The assemblage aluminous hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-sphene-quartz gave a hydrous melt that crystallized to plagioclase-quartz+/-biotite pegmatitic trondhjemite. 5-10% of the rock melted. Eu at 2x chondrites is positively anomalous. REE partitioning in melt/residum was controlled largely by hornblende and sphene. Though the mineralogical variability precludes quantitative modeling, partial melting of garnet-free amphibolite to heavy-REE-depleted trondhjemitic melt is a viable process.

  7. 78 FR 50106 - Aniakchak National Monument Subsistence Resource Commission and the Wrangell-St. Elias National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ..., contact Designated Federal Official Diane Chung, Superintendent, at (907) 246-3305; Mary McBurney at (907... applying for Aniakchak National Monument SRC membership, contact the Superintendent at P.O. Box 7, King Salmon, AK 99613, or visit the park Web site at: http://www.nps.gov.ania/contacts.htm ....

  8. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  9. Predicting Mothers’ Reports of Children’s Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrin

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Godoy, Leandra; Rhodes, Jean E.; Carter, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time 3, respectively). Mothers rated their children’s behavior problems at Time 3 only (n = 251 children; 53.0% male; Mean age: 10.19 years, SD = 1.68 years). A path analytic model indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with increased maternal psychological distress and school mobility in the first post-disaster year, which were associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing symptoms three years post-disaster. Mediation analysis indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with child symptoms indirectly, through their impact on maternal psychological distress. Findings underscore the importance of interventions that boost maternal and child mental health and support children through post-disaster school transitions. PMID:23471125

  10. Predicting Mothers' Reports of Children's Mental Health Three Years after Hurricane Katrin.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Godoy, Leandra; Rhodes, Jean E; Carter, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    This study explored pathways through which hurricane-related stressors affected the psychological functioning of elementary school aged children who survived Hurricane Katrina. Participants included 184 mothers from the New Orleans area who completed assessments one year pre-disaster (Time 1), and one and three years post-disaster (Time 2 and Time 3, respectively). Mothers rated their children's behavior problems at Time 3 only (n = 251 children; 53.0% male; Mean age: 10.19 years, SD = 1.68 years). A path analytic model indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with increased maternal psychological distress and school mobility in the first post-disaster year, which were associated with higher child internalizing and externalizing symptoms three years post-disaster. Mediation analysis indicated that hurricane-related stressors were associated with child symptoms indirectly, through their impact on maternal psychological distress. Findings underscore the importance of interventions that boost maternal and child mental health and support children through post-disaster school transitions. PMID:23471125

  11. Plate Margin Deformation and Active Tectonics Along the Northern Edge of the Yakutat Terrane in the Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Sauber, Jeanne; Cotton, Michele M.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Burgess, Evan; Ruppert, Natalia; Forster, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    The northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane into the cusp of southern Alaska. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds is poorly constrained, however, due to pervasive glaciation. In this study we used high-resolution topography, geodetic imaging, seismic, and geologic data to advance understanding of the transition from strike-slip motion on the Fairweather fault to plate margin deformation on the Bagley fault, which cuts through the upper plate of the collisional suture above the subduction megathrust. The Fairweather fault terminates by oblique-extensional splay faulting within a structural syntaxis, allowing rapid tectonic upwelling of rocks driven by thrust faulting and crustal contraction. Plate motion is partly transferred from the Fairweather to the Bagley fault, which extends 125 km farther west as a dextral shear zone that is partly reactivated by reverse faulting. The Bagley fault dips steeply through the upper plate to intersect the subduction megathrust at depth, forming a narrow fault-bounded crustal sliver in the obliquely convergent plate margin. Since . 20 Ma the Bagley fault has accommodated more than 50 km of dextral shearing and several kilometers of reverse motion along its southern flank during terrane accretion. The fault is considered capable of generating earthquakes because it is linked to faults that generated large historic earthquakes, suitably oriented for reactivation in the contemporary stress field, and locally marked by seismicity. The fault may generate earthquakes of Mw <= 7.5.

  12. 75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... requested from Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439...-delivered to Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439,...

  13. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  14. [Comparison of tests for SS-A/Ro, Ro52 and Ro60 in predicting congenital heart block].

    PubMed

    Miyano, Akira; Nakayama, Masahiro; Waguri, Masako; Nakanishi, Isao

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a rare syndrome caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies. Anti SS-A antibodies of a mother with Sjögren syndrome are associated with congenital heart block (CHB) in the newborns with NLE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of maternal antibody titers for SS-A, Ro52 and Ro60 in mothers of newborns with CHB. The study involved a total of 304 cases, 25 from mothers of newborns with CHB, 104 from mothers of newborns without and 175 from mothers suspected to have connective tissue diseases. All sera were tested with the EliA SS-A, EliA Ro52, EliA Ro60, MESACUP Ro52 and MESACUP Ro60. The concordance rate of Ro52 assays was 93.4%, whereas Ro60 assays showed a lower concordance rate (74.7%). The areas under the curve (AUC) of the EliA assays were higher than those of the MESACUP assays. The optimal cut-off values for EliA SS-A/Ro and EliA Ro60 as derived from the ROC analysis were 2027 U/mL and 2446 U/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for EliA SS-A using optimal cut-off values were 96.0% and 92.3%, respectively. A titer of 90% positive predictive value for EliA SS-A was reached at a cut-off of 9897.1 U/mL, corresponding to sensitivity and specificity values of 36.0% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the optimal cut-off value for EliA SS-A is likely to be useful for application in clinical practice for the EliA SS-A measurements in mothers to evaluate the risk of NLE for their newborns.

  15. Detector-related backgrounds in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leber, Michelle; Katrin Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment, or KATRIN, is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment to directly measure neutrino mass with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV [KATRIN Design Report 2004 see http://www-ik.fzk.de/~katrin/]. Neutrino mass does not fit into the Standard Model, and determining this mass may set the scale of new physics. To achieve this level of sensitivity, backgrounds in the experiment must be minimized. A complete Geant4 [Agostinelli S et al. 2003 Nuclear Instr. Methods A 506 250-303 Allison J et al. 2006 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science53 No. 1 270-8] simulation of KATRIN's focal plane detector and surrounding region is being developed. These simulations will help guide the design and selection of shielding and detector construction materials to reduce backgrounds from cosmic rays and natural radioactivity.

  16. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias... by Bonanza Creek to the north, the Kennicott Glacier to the west, the 2,200 foot contour line to...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias... by Bonanza Creek to the north, the Kennicott Glacier to the west, the 2,200 foot contour line to...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias... by Bonanza Creek to the north, the Kennicott Glacier to the west, the 2,200 foot contour line to...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias... by Bonanza Creek to the north, the Kennicott Glacier to the west, the 2,200 foot contour line to...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1904 - Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark (KNHL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Wrangell-St. Elias... by Bonanza Creek to the north, the Kennicott Glacier to the west, the 2,200 foot contour line to...

  1. In Praise of Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... singer of the band Alabama, (with his wife Kelly) received the Paul G. Rogers Public Service Award. ... singer of the band Alabama, (with his wife Kelly). Photo courtesy of NIH NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, ...

  2. From the NIH Director: A Global Health System

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. During his recent visit to India, NIH Director Dr. Elias Zerhouni (left) met with Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, to discuss NIH's substantial medical research collaborations with ...

  3. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  4. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  5. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  6. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  7. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  8. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  9. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  10. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  11. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  12. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  13. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  14. A GLIMPSE INTO THE EYE OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AT EPA KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was given at the Texas Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting in Round Rock, TX on October 12, 2005. The keynote address was focused on the conditions after Katrins, organizing response, field response, EPA's role in emergency response, what is EPA doi...

  15. Karlsruhe Tritium Experiment: Detector System Commissioning and In-Situ PIN-Diode Array Dead-Layer Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Brandon Lee

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experimental goal is to measure the neutrino mass to 0.2 eV sensitivity at the 90 percent confidence level. This is an order of magnitude more sensitive than the two most recent direct neutrino mass measurements. The primary sensitivity of the KATRIN experiment is determined by the source strength and the main spectrometer resolution, but a confluence of focal plane detector parameters contribute to the uncertainty in the measured neutrino mass including the detector backgrounds and the detector electron response function. The detector system group developed a figure of demerit, F, to quantify the effect of the detector system on neutrino mass uncertainty. F, essentially a signal to noise ratio, weights the focal plane detector response function against the total background based upon their influence of the m2n uncertainty. During commissioning of the detector system at the University of Washington, we determined a figure of demerit value of 1.12 +/- .01, which nearly meets the tritium data taking goal for KATRIN. A critical parameter that effects the detector response is the focal plane detector's dead layer. The KATRIN detector system's design constraints needed a novel approach to measure the dead-layer thickness not outlined in standard texts. We used a method of making measurements with an electron source over a range of incident energies, and then fit these monoenergetic electron source spectra to simulated spectra to determine the dead-layer thickness of the KATRIN focal plane detector. The standard model of a monolithic dead layer yielded poor overall fits, while a model that allowed the energy deposited into the dead layer to diffuse back into the active region, gave an improved fit, with a preferred value of 46%. Using this model, the final detector dead layer thickness of the focal plane detector is 1554 +/- 5+18.8-12.4 A.

  16. Identifying Configurations of Higher Education: Reflections on Concepts That Compare Complex Cultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheit, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the idea of qualitative comparing in order to create a "heuristic concept" that will enable relational structures to be examined, drawing on the sociological tradition founded by Norbert Elias. Subsequently, an empirical research example -- the comparison of three "mentality spaces" in post-socialist…

  17. Questioning the Homogenization of Irregular Migrants in Educational Policy: From (Il)Legal Residence to Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelsoet, Elias

    2011-01-01

    In this article Elias Hemelsoet questions the way irregular migrants are approached in educational policymaking. In most cases, estimations of the number of irregular migrants serve--despite large methodological problems--as a starting point for policymaking. Given the very diverse composition of this group of people, the question is whether…

  18. The Provision of School Assemblies as a Primary Prevention Psycho-Educational Strategy, for Early Adolescents in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley-Scott, Janis

    2012-01-01

    School psychologists are becoming more and more involved in helping our youth to learn better coping strategies, decision making skills, and develop tolerance with others. According to Elias (2002), school psychologists are valuable resources for early adolescents to learn skills necessary to avoid high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug…

  19. Biopower and the "Civilisation" of Children's Bodies in a Preschool Bathroom: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ken; Millei, Zsuzsa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore a vital, if rarely focused upon, space in early childhood settings (0-5 years): the bathroom. In bathrooms, more or less fundamental biological, self-care, and "civilising" (Elias 1978) processes are performed by children, such as those related to personal hygiene, the management of bodily discharges, the…

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.

  1. Sustaining Professional Learning Communities. The Soul of Educational Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M., Ed.; Houston, Paul D., Ed.; Cole, Robert W., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The third volume of "The Soul of Educational Leadership" series offers key concepts and strategies for sustaining the critically important work of professional learning communities. With contributions from Shirley Hord, Maurice Elias, Karen Seashore Louis, Andy Hargreaves, and other nationally known educators, this essential reading for all school…

  2. Continuity and Change in the Experiences of Transition from School to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2007-01-01

    Using previously unanalysed data from Norbert Elias's lost study of young workers in Leicester--the "Adjustment of Young Workers to Work Situations and Adult Roles" (1962-1964), and data from a subsequent restudy of the same respondents in 2003-2005, this paper focuses on three main themes. First, we critically examine the concept of transition as…

  3. The Effects of a Strength-Based Model of Behavioral Consultation on Student Behavior, Teachers' Use of Praise Statements, and Measures of Social Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    The growing strength-based approach to the assessment and intervention of students' social and emotional learning competencies has significant implications for the practice of behavioral consultation in school settings (Zins & Elias, 2007). The current research study utilized four separate multiple baseline case studies across students in…

  4. 76 FR 52690 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan... (FEIS) on Off-Road Vehicle Management in the Nabesna District of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and... alternatives for management of off-road vehicles in the Nabesna District. The purpose is to...

  5. Education for Social Change: Highlander Education in the Appalachian Mountains and Study Circles in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The article explores how education promotes social change. Using the philosophical foundations of adult education outlined by Elias and Merriam (2001, "Philosophical foundations of adult education" (3rd ed.), Krieger) as an analytical framework, the article compares the similarities and differences between popular education forms in two…

  6. Credit and civilization.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  7. Issues in Education: Emotional Intelligences--A Missing Link in Educating Our Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Shirley W.; Wadlington, Elizabeth; Enloe, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of education is to provide individuals with the emotional and academic skills necessary for academic and workplace success, as well as to develop informed and responsible community members (Elias, Arnold, & Hussey, 2003). Recent years have seen an explosion of deep interest, debate, and even controversy regarding concepts related…

  8. What's Happening in July?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet provides brief information on eight July events: Independence Day; The Patron Saint Festivals and the Festival of Loiza, celebrated by Puerto Ricans; and the birthdays of P. T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar. Information is provided on the Declaration of…

  9. A New Source of Research Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    These are especially difficult times for researchers who depend on government money. Their "anxiety is palpable," Elias A. Zerhouni, director of the National Institutes of Health, wrote last 2006. Moreover, Leo Furcht, president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, warned Congress that "we are, quite simply, losing our…

  10. Delta Pi Epsilon National Research Conference Proceedings (Indianapolis, Indiana, November 14-16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Robert B., Ed.

    The following are among the 34 papers included: "An Assessment of Support Staff Training in Public Two-Year Colleges" (Kuceyeski); "Attitude and Motivation of Vocational Student Teachers toward Teaching Commerce and Entrepreneurship" (Pihie, Elias); "Barriers Adult Office Education Students Encounter in Pursuit of Educational Goals" (Reusch);…

  11. Configurations of Activity: From the Coupling of Individual Actions to the Emergence of Collective Activity. A Study of Mathematics Teaching Situation in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrunes, Philippe; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie; Durand, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and uses the notion of configuration of activity, which extends the Norbert Elias's original concept of social configuration based on the study and analysis of individual and collective activity. Although this concept embraces all types of social activities, in the present study the authors used it to describe and analyse…

  12. Preventing School Problems--Promoting School Success: Strategies and Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minke, Kathleen M., Ed.; Bear, George C., Ed.

    This book discusses the prevention of problems and the promotion of success for school children today. Chapters include: (1) "Preventing Aggression and Violence" (George G. Bear, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Michael J. Furlong, and Sabrina Rhee); (2) "Promoting Social and Emotional Competence in Children" (Joseph E. Zins, Maurice J. Elias, Mark T.…

  13. 75 FR 9946 - United States v. Keyspan Corporation; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ..., new electricity generation plants were slated to come on line in 2006 (with no exit expected until at... of Operations. Jade Alice Eaton, J. Richard Doidge, John W. Elias, Trial Attorneys. U.S. Department...., Suite 8000, Washington, DC 20530, Telephone: (202) 353-1560, Facismilie (202) 616-2441,...

  14. Internationalization, Globalization and Relationship Networks as an Epistemological Framework Based on Comparative Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Amelia Molina; Lara, José Luis Horacio Andrade

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present some thoughts on the epistemological framework of comparative studies in education. We present some concepts on the internationalization, globalization and inter-relation networks, based on Jürgen Schriewer, Immanuel Wallerstein, and Norbert Elias's theoretical concepts. These reflections were built within the framework of…

  15. Eventos de Julio (July Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 July events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: United States Declaration of Independence; the birthdays of P.T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar; Marisol Malaret (first puerto Rican to be "Miss Universe"); Puerto Rican Constitution; Las Fiestas…

  16. A Correction for Recruitment Bias in Norms Derived from Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Michael; Cottle, Cindy C.

    2011-01-01

    Normative comparisons are an integral component of neuropsychological test interpretation and provide the basis for an inference of abnormal function and impairment. In order to remedy a deficit of normative standards for a large number of neuropsychology tests, Mitrushina, Boone, Razani, and D'Elia (2005) used the meta-analysis of studies that…

  17. The Film. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarris, Andrew, Ed.

    Prefaced by a brief discussion of early films and film criticism, 10 essays treat selected modern directors and their works. Essays on Stanley Kubrick's "Lolita," the early works of Elia Kazan, and the response of French critics to Jerry Lewis explore the American scene, while Francois Truffaut's "Jules and Jim," the early work of Robert Bressen,…

  18. Children at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelievich, Elias, Ed.

    The aim of this book is to examine the problem of child labor in various parts of the world: to make the phenomenon known, to analyze its causes, and to propose possible solutions. In Part I (by Elias Mendelievich), an introduction first outlines the problem. Chapter 2 examines pertinent international and national legislation and the International…

  19. 77 FR 58868 - Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Park Service Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meetings. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Wrangell-St. Elias...

  20. New upper bounds on the rate of a code via the Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H., Jr.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    An upper bound on the rate of a binary code as a function of minimum code distance (using a Hamming code metric) is arrived at from Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities. The upper bound so found is asymptotically less than Levenshtein's bound, and a fortiori less than Elias' bound. Appendices review properties of Krawtchouk polynomials and Q-polynomials utilized in the rigorous proofs.

  1. 78 FR 21603 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Santiago Clariond Reyes and Alejandra Rangel Hinojosa both of Nuevo Leon, Mexico; ETH Trigo Holding, S.A... Mexico City, Mexico; MBI Holding, LP, Mexico City, Mexico and Fernando Gerardo Chico Pardo, Mexico City..., Elias Abadi Cherem, all of Mexico City, Mexico; Tenedora FAMVA, S.A. de C.V., Fernando Manuel del...

  2. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  3. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.; Bodine, L. I.; Myers, A. W.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Howe, M. A.; Leber, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium β-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-μm-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  4. Exact relativistic {beta} decay endpoint spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, S. S.; Nasri, S.; Schechter, J.; Tortola, M. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-10-15

    The exact relativistic form for the {beta} decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN Collaboration. We also discuss the three-neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future {beta} decay endpoint experiments.

  5. Towards a Precision Measurement of the Tritium Helium-3 Mass Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Edmund; Rana, Raman; Wesson, Bridget; Erickson, Austin

    2012-03-01

    Fitting a low-energy beta-decay spectrum near its endpoint is a direct method for determining the absolute mass scale of electron neutrinos. This is the subject of the large-scale tritium beta-decay experiment KATRIN. Besides a value (or a limit) for a sum of squares of neutrino mass eigenvalues, the fit to KATRIN data, with absolute energy calibration, will also produce a value for ``the electron endpoint for zero neutrino mass'' which is closely related to the Q-value for the beta-decay. Hence, an independent value for the tritium beta-decay Q-value, derived from the 3T - 3He mass difference, can provide a strong test of the systematics of KATRIN. The Florida State University precision Penning trap mass spectrometer has previously produced the most precise values of more than 26 atomic masses, many of which have application to neutrinoless double-beta-decay and to determining fundamental constants. The system is currently being modified for measurements of ions with small m/q ratio, and that are radioactive, to enable a precise measurement of the tritium helium-3 mass difference.

  6. Night transport in Port-au-Prince.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    The author leaves a rural clinic in Fort Morgan, CO, to briefly join a medical relief team responding to the Haitian January 2010 earthquake. While transporting an ill newborn, he reflects on similarities between the Haitians' displacement and resulting vulnerability and that of his patients back home. "Jeff! Jeff! Get up!" Elias' headlamp pierces the thin tent and catches me in the eyes, blinding me. "There's a sick baby at the hospital they want to transport…they need someone to go."

  7. Novel fiber lasers and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenteno, Luis A.; Walton, Donnell T.

    2003-07-01

    Glass fiber lasers were invented in the 60's by Elias Snitzer at Americal Optical, soon after the invention of the first solid-state glass laser. However, it was not until the 80's when these waveguide devices were deployed in industrial applications, driven largely by the technological success of the semiconductor laser diode, which provided practical and efficient pumps, and by the advent of low loss rare-earth-doped optical fiber.

  8. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  9. 77 FR 9961 - Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that pursuant to the provisions of Section 2 of the Act of Sept 28, 1976, 16 U.S.C. 1901, and in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR 9.17, Randy Elliott has filed a proposed plan of operations to conduct mining operations on lands embracing Mineral Survey No. 923, patented mineral property within Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Public Availability:......

  10. Radio continuum from FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, L.F.; Hartmann, L.W.; Chavira, E. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla )

    1990-12-01

    Using the very large array a sensitive search is conducted for 3.6-cm continuum emission toward four FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, and Elias 1-12. V1057 Cyg and Elias 1-12 at the level of about 0.1 mJy is detected. The association of radio continuum emission with these FU Ori objects strengthens a possible relation between FU Ori stars and objects like L 1551 IRS 5 and Z CMa that are also sources of radio continuum emission and have been proposed as post-FU Ori objects. Whether the radio continuum emission is caused by free-free emission from ionized ejecta or if it is optically thin emission from a dusty disk is discussed. It was determined that, in the archives of the Tonantzintla Observatory, a plate taken in 1957 does not show Elias 1-12. This result significantly narrows the time range for the epoch of the outburst of this source to between 1957 and 1965. 38 refs.

  11. Moho Depth of the Yakutat Terrane, Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Gulick, S. P.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hansen, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat terrane, a thickened oceanic plateau, is currently colliding with southern Alaska forming the Chugach-St. Elias orogen. Two-dimensional marine seismic profiles acquired during the STEEP project map the Moho of the terrane at a constant depth of 30-32 km over a distance >300 km from the Bering Glacier east to the Dangerous River Zone, and over a distance of >100 km from the Transition fault north towards Yakutat Bay. However, Moho depth of the terrane is poorly constrained to the north beneath the Chugach-St. Elias mountains. Fortunately, good Moho reflections are observed by land-based seismometers recording the marine shots of the STEEP project over source-receiver offsets up to 200 km. We will use these data to invert for Yakutat terrane Moho depth. We will first use all first-arriving energy to do a three-dimensional tomographic inversion for crustal velocity structure, and then will invert all interpreted Moho reflections for Moho depth. The results should give us new insights into the tectonic processes associated with the Chugach-St. Elias orogen.

  12. MARE: 187Re beta spectrum analysis with bolometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisti, M.; MARE Collaboration

    2007-06-01

    A large worldwide collaboration is growing around the project of Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment (MARE) for a direct calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of about 0.2 eV. Many groups are joining their experiences and technical expertises in a common effort towards this challenging experiment which will use the most recent and advanced developments of the thermal detection technique. The expected impact of MARE as a complement of the KATRIN experiment will also be discussed.

  13. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  14. DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE HF/H{sub 2} ABUNDANCE RATIO IN INTERSTELLAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A.; Seifahrt, A.; Richter, M. J.

    2013-02-20

    We report the first detection of the v = 1-0, R(0) ro-vibrational transition of HF at 2.499385 {mu}m arising from interstellar gas. The line is seen in absorption toward three background sources-HD 154368, Elias 29, and AFGL 2136 IRS 1-all of which have reported H{sub 2} column densities determined from observations of H{sub 2}. This allows for the first direct determination of the HF/H{sub 2} abundance ratio. We find values of N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = 1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and 0.69 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} for HD 154368 and Elias 29, respectively. The sight line toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1 also shows absorption from the v = 1-0, R(1) transition of HF, indicating warm, dense (n {sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) gas, likely very close to the central protostar. Ascribing portions of the HF absorption to warm and cold gas, we find N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = (1.7-2.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and (0.33-0.58) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} for the two components, respectively. Except for the warm component toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1, all observed HF/H{sub 2} ratios are well below N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, the value predicted if nearly all gas phase fluorine is in the form of HF. Models of fluorine chemistry that account for depletion onto grains are able to reproduce the results toward HD 154368, but not in the cold, dense gas toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1 and Elias 29. Most likely, some combinations of simplifying assumptions made in the chemical models are responsible for these discrepancies.

  15. Linking Quaternary Climate Changes to Mountain Building in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Allen, W. K.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chugach-St. Elias Mountains in southeastern Alaska exhibit extreme topography as a result of the subduction and collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North American plate. Extensive glaciation in the area, coupled with the active tectonics, makes the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains the ideal site to investigate the resulting spatial and temporal variations in exhumation. The St. Elias Mountains have experienced three major climate changes including the start of regional glaciation at ~5.5 Ma, the onset of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere during the Plio-Pleistocene Transition to colder temperatures at 2.5 Ma, and a change in global climate cyclicity during the mid-Pleistocene Transition from 1.2-0.7 Ma. Our goal is to determine whether these climate changes result in shifts in the rates and patterns of regional exhumation due to the intensification of glacial erosion. We investigate the late Cenozoic sediments from five boreholes that were drilled by IODP Expedition 341 along a transect crossing the Yakutat shelf (offshore Bering glacier) and into the deep-sea Surveyor Fan in the Gulf of Alaska. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy on these sediments establish an up to 10 Ma depositional history in the boreholes. To study rock exhumation of the sediment source over time, 17 detrital samples from various depths in the cores were dated using zircon fission track thermochronology. Single grain cooling ages range from 302.8 Ma to 0.2 Ma, and contain composite age populations with peaks coinciding with major regional tectonic events providing information on sediment provenance and exhumation. All single grains were also double dated using U-Pb dating to identify and eliminate volcanic grains from the sample. Common U-Pb age populations are 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. These ages are being used to better constrain sediment provenance and reconstruct past glacial catchments.

  16. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, M.D.; Abookire, A.A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  17. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  18. The Employee Diversity Team Wants to Take You around the World in Film | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer The NCI at Frederick Employee Diversity Team (EDT) has prepared a new display that features a sample of the foreign films from the team’s collection in the Scientific Library. “Foreign films really help stimulate an awareness of different cultures and countries. I think it is a great celebration of diversity to have the Employee Diversity Team promote films from across the globe and make them available to our employees,” said Amber Elia, program analyst, NCI at Frederick Office of Scientific Operations, and member of the EDT.

  19. Dynamic behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley icefield system during a surge, and other measurements of Alaskan glaciers with ERS SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, Craig S.; Fatland, Dennis R.; Voronina, Vera A.; Ahlnaes, Kristina; Troshina, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was employed for the measurement of the dynamics of the Bagley icefield during a major surge in 1993-1994, the measurement of ice velocities on the Malaspina piedmont glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for mapping the snow lines and the position of the terminus of Nabesna glacier on Mount Wrangell (a 4317 m andesitic shield volcano) in the heavily glacierized Saint Elias and Wrangell Mountains of Alaska. An overview and summary of results is given. The methods used include interferometry, cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery.

  20. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  1. Wildlife resources in creating the new Alaskan Parks and preserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. Gerald

    1984-03-01

    Legislation settling the Alaska Native Lands Claims also resulted in the establishment of ten new parks and preserves in Alaska. This settlement was the result of a long and often bitter legislative struggle between pro- and antidevelopment groups. The planning history of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve is used as a case example of this debate. One particular source of conflict was the curtailment of sport hunting that would result under national park classification. A preserve classification was introduced to resolve this conflict. Data on wildlife resources and sport hunting were instrumental in defining the areas so classified.

  2. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  3. Kinetic ballooning modes at the tokamak transport barrier with negative magnetic shear

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagiwa, M.; Hirose, A.; Elia, M.

    1997-11-01

    Stability of the kinetic ballooning modes is investigated for plasma parameters at the internal transport barrier in tokamak discharges with negative magnetic shear employing a kinetic shooting code with long shooting distance. It is found that the second stability regime with respect to the pressure gradient parameter, which was predicted for negative shear [A. Hirose and M. Elia, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 628 (1996)], can possibly disappear. The mode with comparatively low toroidal mode number and mode frequency below 100 kHz is found to be destabilized marginally only around the transport barrier characterized by steep pressure and density gradients. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Historical biogeography of the North American glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae).

    PubMed

    Roman Dial, C; Dial, Roman J; Saunders, Ralph; Lang, Shirley A; Lee, Ben; Wimberger, Peter; Dinapoli, Megan S; Egiazarov, Alexander S; Gipple, Shannon L; Maghirang, Melanie R; Swartley-McArdle, Daniel J; Yudkovitz, Stephanie R; Shain, Daniel H

    2012-06-01

    North American ice worms are the largest glacially-obligate metazoans, inhabiting coastal, temperate glaciers between southcentral Alaska and Oregon. We have collected ice worm specimens from 10 new populations, completing a broad survey throughout their geographic range. Phylogenetic analyses of 87 individuals using fragments of nuclear 18S rRNA, and mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cyctochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) identified 18 CO1 haplotypes with divergence values up to ~10%. Phylogeographic interpretations suggest a St. Elias Range, Alaskan ancestry from an aquatic mesenchytraeid oligochaete during the early-Pliocene. A gradual, northward expansion by active dispersal from the central St. Elias clade characterizes a northern clade that is confined to Alaska (with one exception on Vancouver Island, British Columbia), while a distinct southern clade representing worms from British Columbia, Washington and Oregon was likely founded by a passive dispersal event originating from a northern ancestor. The geographic boundary between central and southern clades coincides with an ice worm distribution gap located in southern Alaska, which appears to have restricted active gene flow throughout the species' evolutionary history.

  5. Ice Nucleation by High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, W.

    2003-12-01

    Deep convection in the tropics is frequently associated with biomass burning. Recent work has suggested that the size of ice crystals in the anvils of tropical cumulonimbus clouds may be affected by biomass burning, though the mechanism for such an effect is uncertain (Sherwood, 2002). We will present results of an investigation of the role that high molecular weight organic compounds, known to be produced in biomass burning (Elias et al., 1999), may play in tropical cirrus anvils through heterogeneous nucleation of ice. In particular, we examine the mechanisms underlying heterogeneous nucleation of ice by films of long chain alcohols by studying the interaction of the alcohols and water/ice using temperature controlled, Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The mechanisms are interpreted in the context of recent criticisms of some aspects of classical nucleation theory (Seeley and Seidler, 2001; Oxtoby, 1998). References V. Elias, B. Simoneit, A. Pereira, J. Cabral, and J. Cardoso, Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Tecnol., 33, 2369-2376, 1999. D. Oxtoby, Nucleation of first-order phase transitions. Acc. Chem. Res., 31, 91-97, 1998. L. Seeley and G. Seidler, Preactivation in the nucleation of ice by Langmuir films of aliphatic alcohols. J. Chem. Phys., 114, 10464-10470, 2001. S. Sherwood, Aerosols and ice particle size in tropical cumulonimbus. J. Climate, 15, 1051-1063, 2002.

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983, the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu`u `O`o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

  7. Kamstrup's wow-effect: re-examined and expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-03-01

    This review examines Anna Katrine Kamstrup's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrup's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is followed by our discussion of aspects of her study within the context of a basic understanding that entry-level pre-service teachers need to fully understand both the process of learning and scientific principles as these are important foundational factors in determining whether or not the wow-effect will occur as expected. Finally, our review team presents multiple areas in Kamstrup's article as potential points for further elaboration.

  8. Changes to Irradiation Conditions of VVER-1000 Surveillance Specimens Resulting from Fuel Assemblies with Greater Fuel Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, Pavel; Kochkin, Viacheslav; Erak, Dmitry; Makhotin, Denis; Reshetnikov, Alexandr; Timofeev, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the work was to obtain experimental data on the influence of newtype fuel assemblies with higher fuel rods on the irradiation conditions of surveillance specimens installed on the baffe of VVER-1000. For this purpose, two surveillance sets with container assemblies of the same design irradiated in reactors with different fuel assemblies in the core were investigated. Measurements of neutron dosimeters from these sets and retrospective measurements of 54Mn activity accumulated in each irradiated specimen allow a detailed distribution of the fast neutron flux in the containers to be obtained. Neutron calculations have been done using 3D discrete ordinate code KATRIN. On the basis of the obtained results, a change of the lead factor due to newtype fuel assemblies was evaluated for all types of VVER-1000 container assemblies.

  9. SDAV Viz July Progress Update: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer

    2012-07-30

    SDAV Viz July Progress Update: (1) VPIC (Vector Particle in Cell) Kinetic Plasma Simulation Code - (a) Implemented first version of an in-situ adapter based on Paraview CoProcessing Library, (b) Three pipelines: vtkDataSetMapper, vtkContourFilter, vtkPistonContour, (c) Next, resolve issue at boundaries of processor domains; add more advanced viz/analysis pipelines; (2) Halo finding/merger trees - (a) Summer student Wathsala W. from University of Utah is working on data-parallel halo finder algorithm using PISTON, (b) Timo Bremer (LLNL), Valerio Pascucci (Utah), George Zagaris (Kitware), and LANL people are interested in using merger trees for tracking the evolution of halos in cosmo simulations; discussed possible overlap with work by Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann (Argonne) during their visit to LANL 7/11; (3) PISTON integration in ParaView - Now available from ParaView github.

  10. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background.

  11. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  12. Post service examination of turbomolecular pumps after stress testing with Kg-scale tritium throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, F.; Roelling, M.

    2015-03-15

    Turbomolecular pumps (TMP) will be used with large amounts of tritium in future fusion machines like ITER, DEMO and in the KATRIN Experiment. In this work, a stress test of a large, magnetically levitated TMP (Leybold MAG W2800) with a tritium throughput of 1.1 kg over 384 days of operation was performed at TLK. After this, the pump was dismantled and the tritium uptake in several parts was deter-mined. Especially the non-metallic parts of the pump have absorbed large amounts of tritium and are most likely responsible for the observed pollution of the process gas. The total tritium uptake of the TMP was estimated with 0.1-1.1 TBq. No radiation-induced damages were found on the inner parts of the pump. The TMP showed no signs of functional limitations during the 384 days of operation. (authors)

  13. Investigation of durability of optical coatings in highly purified tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Schoenung, K.; Bornschein, B.; Rolli, R.; Schaefer, V.; Sturm, M.

    2015-03-15

    Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of expo-sure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated. Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy. (authors)

  14. Anharmonicity of internal atomic oscillation and effective antineutrino mass evaluation from gaseous molecular tritium β-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhov, Alexey V.; Titov, Nikita A.

    2016-07-01

    Data analysis of the next-generation effective antineutrino mass measurement experiment KATRIN requires reliable knowledge of systematic corrections. In particular, the width of the daughter molecular ion excitation spectrum rovibrational band should be known with better than 1% precision. Very precise ab initio quantum calculations exist, and we compare them with the well-known tritium molecule parameters within the framework of a phenomenological model. The rovibrational band width with accuracy of a few percent is interpreted as a result of the zero-point atomic oscillation in the harmonic potential. The Morse interatomic potential is used to investigate the impact of anharmonic atomic oscillations. The calculated corrections cannot account for the difference between the ab initio quantum calculations and the phenomenological model.

  15. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-15

    The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.

  16. Geodetic Imaging of Glacio-Seismotectonic Processes in Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J.; Bruhn, R.; Forster, R.; Hofton, M.

    2008-12-01

    Across southern Alaska the northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin. Over the last couple of decades the rate of ongoing deformation associated with subduction and a locked main thrust zone has been estimated by geodetic measurements. In the last five years more extensive geodetic measurements, structural and tectonic field studies, thermochronolgy, and high-resolution lidar have been acquired and analyzed as part of the STEEP project [Pavlis et al., 2006]. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds remains uncertain, however, due to complex variations in the style of tectonic deformation, pervasive and changing glaciation, and the logistical challenges of conducting field studies in formidable topography. In this study, we analyze new high-resolution lidar data to extract locations, geometry, and heights of seismogenic faults and zones of active folding across the Malaspina-Seward-Bagley region of the southern Alaska plate boundary that is hypothesized to accommodate upper crustal shortening and right-lateral slip. Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar swath data acquired by Krabill et al. in the summer of 2005 and ICESat data (1993-present) cross a number of proposed faults and folds partially masked by glaciation, including the Malaspina thrust, Esker Creek, Chugach-St.Elias thrust, and Contact. Focal mechanisms from this region indicate mostly shallow (0-30 km) thrust and oblique strike-slip faulting. Similarly, rupture in the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) started as a shallow, north-dipping thrust that later changed to more steeply NE dipping with a large right-lateral strike-slip component. Additionally, we are using the morphology and dynamics of glaciers derived from L-Band SAR ice

  17. Updated Physical Parameters of SN 2012cg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Mandel, K.; Meyer, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Foley, R. J.; Friedman, A.; Irwin, J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Rines, K.; Wilhelmy, S.; Macri, L.

    2012-06-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Supernova Group reports photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012cg (ATEL #4115, #4159). We find that SN 2012cg has a slow decline rate and low expansion velocities. BayeSN fits to the data show that SN 2012cg has significant dust extinction (A_v ~ 0.67 mag). We find R_v = 2.7 +/- 0.5, which is consistent with the Milky Way value of 3.1 and mildly inconsistent with the extremely low values reported for some highly reddened SN (e.g., R_v = 1.59 +/- 0.07 for SN 2002cv; Elias-Rosa et al.

  18. Felt stigma and obesity: introducing the generalized other.

    PubMed

    Barlösius, Eva; Philipps, Axel

    2015-04-01

    People with a big body are tainted in western societies. Although most research on obesity occurs in the medical context, few studies investigate characteristics and effects of feelings and fears related to the fat stigma in the absence of overt discrimination. By linking Norbert Elias's and George H. Mead's theoretical frameworks, this paper offers a different approach to understanding and investigating felt stigma. The study is based on secondary data (25 semistructured interviews with children and adolescents). It explores internalized societal perspectives on overweight and obesity and inquires into the way in which interviewees handle the blame frame of personal responsibility during their interview. The preliminary findings suggest that specific forms of managing one's self-presentation in interviews indicate felt stigma. Consequently, the paper argues for an analytical approach that extends the focus on the content of interviews to include its dynamics.

  19. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FU ORIONIS STAR V1735 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.

    2009-05-01

    The variable star V1735 Cyg (=Elias 1-12) lies in the IC 5146 dark cloud and is a member of the class of FU Orionis objects whose dramatic optical brightenings are thought to be linked to episodic accretion. We report the first X-ray detections of V1735 Cyg and a deeply embedded class I protostar lying 24'' to its northeast. X-ray spectra obtained with EPIC on XMM-Newton reveal very high-temperature plasma (kT > 5 keV) in both objects, but no large flares. Such hard X-ray emission is not anticipated from accretion shocks and is a signature of magnetic processes. We place these new results into the context of what is presently known about the X-ray properties of FU Orionis stars and other accreting young stellar objects.

  20. Cell sources and support programs for stem cell research and cell-based therapy in the USA.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John W

    2004-01-01

    In August 2002, the Health & Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Elias Zerhouni announced the creation of a new NIH Task Force to advance stem cell research. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), with a long history of sponsored research programs for stem cell biology, is participating in the NIH Stem Cell Task Force to facilitate stem cell and embryonic stem (ES) cell research including programs to improve access to cell sources. Programs being implemented include infrastructure enhancement awards to develop eligible human ES cell lines into distribution-quality cell lines, grant supplements for human ES cell line research, an educational program to provide laboratory courses on human ES cell culture techniques, and a new training program to assist investigators wishing to re-direct their laboratories into stem cell research.

  1. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: understanding the origin of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołegowska, Sabina; Crock, James G; Lamothe, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas.

  2. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I.; Wilner, David J.; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T.; Chandler, Claire J.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S.; Harris, Robert J.; Mundy, Lee G.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  3. The Ars alchemie: the first Latin text on practical alchemy.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Antony

    2009-03-01

    The Ars alchemie is a collection of alchemical recipes associated with the names of the Arabic-Latin translator Michael Scot and the major general of the Friars Minor, Elias Cortona, of the first half of the thirteenth century. This articles investigates the various forms in which this text appears in the four manuscripts that contain it. It shows the dependence of one of its prologues on the work of an earlier translator, Hugo of Santalla, and the overlap of its contents with other alchemical treatises: Liber luminis luminum, Liber Dedali, Liber de aluminibus et salibus and Liber Hermetis de blchkmkb. Its mention of the alum of Aleppo corresponds with references to trade in this material in the thirteenth century. Its main characteristics are its compilatory nature and its emphasis on practical applications. PMID:19831260

  4. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  5. The roles of cutaneous lipids in host defense.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Carol L; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Dawson, Deborah V; Drake, David R; Hill, Jennifer R; Wertz, Philip W

    2014-03-01

    Lauric acid (C12:0) and sapienic acid (C16:1Δ6) derived from human sebaceous triglycerides are potent antimicrobials found at the human skin surface. Long-chain bases (sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine and 6-hydroxysphingosine) are also potent and broad-acting antimicrobials normally present at the skin surface. These antimicrobials are generated through the action of ceramidases on ceramides from the stratum corneum. These natural antimicrobials are thought to be part of the innate immune system of the skin. Exogenously providing these lipids to the skin may provide a new therapeutic option, or could potentially provide prophylaxis in people at risk of infection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:23994607

  6. Felt stigma and obesity: introducing the generalized other.

    PubMed

    Barlösius, Eva; Philipps, Axel

    2015-04-01

    People with a big body are tainted in western societies. Although most research on obesity occurs in the medical context, few studies investigate characteristics and effects of feelings and fears related to the fat stigma in the absence of overt discrimination. By linking Norbert Elias's and George H. Mead's theoretical frameworks, this paper offers a different approach to understanding and investigating felt stigma. The study is based on secondary data (25 semistructured interviews with children and adolescents). It explores internalized societal perspectives on overweight and obesity and inquires into the way in which interviewees handle the blame frame of personal responsibility during their interview. The preliminary findings suggest that specific forms of managing one's self-presentation in interviews indicate felt stigma. Consequently, the paper argues for an analytical approach that extends the focus on the content of interviews to include its dynamics. PMID:25658623

  7. An Approximation to the Periodic Solution of a Differential Equation of Abel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    2011-10-01

    The Abel equation, in canonical form, is y^' = sint- y^3 (*) and corresponds to the singular (ɛ --> 0) limit of the nonlinear, forced oscillator ɛy^'' + y^' + y^3 = sint, ɛ-> 0. (**) Equation (*) has the property that it has a unique periodic solution defined on (-∞,∞). Further, as t increases, all solutions are attracted into the strip |y| < 1 and any two different solutions y1(t) and y2(t) satisfy the condition Lim [y1(t) - y2(t)] = 0, (***) t --> ∞ and for t negatively decreasing, each solution, except for the periodic solution, becomes unbounded.ootnotetextU. Elias, American Mathematical Monthly, vol.115, (Feb. 2008), pps. 147-149. Our purpose is to calculate an approximation to the unique periodic solution of Eq. (*) using the method of harmonic balance. We also determine an estimation for the blow-up time of the non-periodic solutions.

  8. Asymptotic bound for heat-bath algorithmic cooling.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Mosca, Michele

    2015-03-13

    The purity of quantum states is a key requirement for many quantum applications. Improving the purity is limited by fundamental laws of thermodynamics. Here, we are probing the fundamental limits for a natural approach to this problem, namely, heat-bath algorithmic cooling (HBAC). The existence of the cooling limit for HBAC techniques was proved by Schulman, Mor, and Weinstein. A bound for this value was found by Elias et al. and numerical testing supported the hypothesis that their bound may be the actual limit. A proof or disproof of whether their bound was the actual limit remained open for the past decade. Here, for the first time, we prove this limit. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, this corresponds to the maximum extractable work from the quantum system. We also establish, in the case of higher dimensional reset systems, how the performance of HBAC depends on the energy spectrum of the reset system. PMID:25815911

  9. Empirical description of the hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interaction at the accelerator energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubiak, G.; Szabelski, J.; Wdowczyk, J.; Kempa, J.; Piotrowska, A.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account several assumptions, a formula is transformed into two expressions for kaon and baryon plus antibaryon production in proton interaction and for pion production in pion interactions. Combining both formulae, expression are obtained for the spectrum of kaons and baryons plus antibaryons produced in the meson interactions. For analysis of the cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere in actual fact, instead of the formulae for interactions of protons and mesons with protons, formulae appropriate for interactions with air nuclei was used. Using the method outlined among others by Elias et al. (1980) simple corrections were introduced to the derived expressions to account for the fact that the target is an air nucleus.

  10. The Ars alchemie: the first Latin text on practical alchemy.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Antony

    2009-03-01

    The Ars alchemie is a collection of alchemical recipes associated with the names of the Arabic-Latin translator Michael Scot and the major general of the Friars Minor, Elias Cortona, of the first half of the thirteenth century. This articles investigates the various forms in which this text appears in the four manuscripts that contain it. It shows the dependence of one of its prologues on the work of an earlier translator, Hugo of Santalla, and the overlap of its contents with other alchemical treatises: Liber luminis luminum, Liber Dedali, Liber de aluminibus et salibus and Liber Hermetis de blchkmkb. Its mention of the alum of Aleppo corresponds with references to trade in this material in the thirteenth century. Its main characteristics are its compilatory nature and its emphasis on practical applications.

  11. Roberge-Weiss endpoint in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Claudio; Cossu, Guido; D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for N{sub f}=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D'Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. D 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

  12. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: understanding the origin of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołegowska, Sabina; Crock, James G; Lamothe, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. PMID:20638128

  13. Putting the Second Law to Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmer, Thomas F.

    2008-08-01

    Thermo Electron Corporation was founded in 1956 by Dr. George Hatsopoulos with the goal of applying thermodynamics to the solution of energy problems throughout society. As the company grew from a small research laboratory to a multi-billion dollar Fortune 500 enterprise, the Second Law of thermodynamics played a pivotal role in creating a diversified portfolio of products and services. George and his staff also employed thermodynamics, particularly availability analyses of energy processes, to help guide changes in National policy arising from the 1973 oil embargo. As directors of the company, Professors Joseph Keenan and Elias Gyftopoulos made key contributions to the strategy of applying the Second Law to real-world engineering challenges.

  14. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: Understanding the origin of pollution sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Dole, ogonekgowska S.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. PMID:27444132

  16. Social scientists in public health: a fuzzy approach.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Juliana Luporini; Stephan, Celso; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze the presence of social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the field of public health. A survey by the Lattes Curriculum and sites of Medical Colleges, Institutes of Health Research Collective, seeking professionals who work in healthcare and have done some stage of their training in the areas of social sciences. In confluence with Norbert Elias' concepts of social networks and configuration of interdependence it was used fuzzy logic, and the tool free statistical software R version 2.12.0 which enabled a graphic representation of social scientists interdependence in the field of social sciences-health-social sciences. A total of 238 professionals were ready in 6 distinct clusters according to the distance or closer of each professional in relation to public health and social sciences. The work was shown with great analytical and graphical representation possibilities for social sciences of health, in using this innovative quantitative methodology.

  17. [Laparoscopic ultrasound in biliary diseases].

    PubMed

    Cociorvei, A; Calu, V

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasound is an intraoperative exploration of the abdominal viscera using ultrasounds. The aim of this work is to obviate this new method of exploration and to underline its advantages and limits. In this study were enroled 65 pacients with gallbladder stones, admitted in The Surgical Clinic, "Elias" Emergency Hospital, from October 2005 until December 2006. The measured parameters were CBD size and the presence of stones or sludge within CBD, and various methods were compared: abdominal ultrasound, laparoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopic cholangiography. The results allowed us to consider that laparoscopic ultrasound is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocolithiasis. When compared to laparoscopic cholangiography, our study revealed the same specificity and positive predictive value, and a sensitivity of 0.93.

  18. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  19. Deformation in the Yakataga seismic gap, Southern Alaska, 1980- 1986 ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 60-by-40-km trilateration network in the Yakataga seismic gap was surveyed in 1980, 1982, 1984, and 1986 with precise electro-optical distance-measuring equipment to measure strain accumulation. The overall deformation is roughly approximated by a 0.24+ or -0.03 mu strain/yr N32oW+ or -2.4o uniaxial contraction that is uniform in time. However, the spatial distribution of deformation shows some concentration of convergence in the neighbourhood of the Chugach-St. Elias fault and of right-lateral shear across the Contact fault. A simple dislocation model of the plate interaction in the Yakataga gap fits the observed deformation reasonably well but seems to require that the motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate be directed more nearly N36oW than N15oW, the generally accepted direction of relative motion for this location. However, the direction of plate motion inferred from the dislocation model depends upon details of the interaction at the plate boundary that may not have been modeled accurately. A nearby but smaller trilateration network at Icy Bay was surveyed in 1982, 1984, and 1986. This network spans the SW corner of the rupture zone of the 1979 St. Elias earthquake. The deformation at Icy Bay consists of left-lateral shear across a NE trending zone. The relation of this deformation to strain accumulation in the Yakataga gap, postseismic relaxation associated with the 1979 earthquake, or rebound from the unloading associated with the rapid recession of the Guyot glacier is not understood.-Authors

  20. Evidence for Chemical Processing of Precometary Icy Grains In Circumstellar Environments of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teglier, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166 cm-1 in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud source Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166 cm-1 absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C=-N containing compound [called X(C=-N)] that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components, We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in non- polar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H20 are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C=-N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main- sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  1. A Study of the Physics of the Interstellar Medium using the Herschel-SPIRE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiwa, Gibion

    2014-10-01

    Stars form in cold and dense regions of the interstellar medium where Rayleigh scattering heavily attenuates short wavelength radiation but allows long wavelength radiation to escape. Long-wavelength radiation from star forming regions, after travelling many lightyears to reach us, is absorbed by the water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere before it can reach ground-based telescopes. Thus, prior to the far-infrared space telescope, Herschel, our view of the submillimeter universe was through very narrow spectral windows that are only accessible from high mountain sites. Herschel, with its three instruments, was designed to operate in the far-infrared and observe radiation from star forming regions. Unlike ground based telescopes, Herschel has provided the first unfettered access to the entire far-infrared electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, I have analyzed Herschel observations of three starless cores (L1521E, L1521F and L1689B), one Class 0 protostar (IRAS16293-2422) and one Class I protostar (Elias 29). These observations were obtained with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer and spectrometer. The measured low-spectral resolution spectra of starless cores have been used to obtain more accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) which have enabled the calculation of dust temperatures, emissivity spectral indices, and masses associated with these cores. The map-making capability of the SPIRE instrument provided fully sampled spectral maps of IRAS16293-2422 and Elias 29. A wealth of molecular line emission was detected from both protostars. These include 12CO, 13CO, C18O, Ci, H2O, HCO+ and CS. Integrated line intensity maps show that both line and continuum emission from IRAS16293-2422 originate from a compact region surrounding the protobinary system. An SED constructed from flux density points obtained with various instruments has been fitted with radiative transfer models to obtain physical parameters associated with IRAS16293

  2. Progress at the Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer ``THe-Trap''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus; van Dyck, Robert S.

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, the ``University of Washington Penning-Trap Mass Spectrometer'' (UW-PTMS), originally designed and built by the Van Dyck group, was moved to the Max-Planck-Insitute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. It was set up in a dedicated laboratory that meets both the radiation-safety requirements, and the environment-stabilization demands for a high-precision measurement of the tritium/helium-3 mass ratio. Our goal is to measure this mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of 10-11, which would be more than an order of magnitude better than the previous best measurement. It would decrease the uncertainty in the tritium beta decay Q-value (an important parameter in the ongoing search for the neutrino mass by experiments such as KATRIN) by the same factor. In order to emphasize the specialization of our experiment with regard to Tritium and ^3Helium, it was renamed to ``THe-Trap''. THe-Trap features a double Penning-trap for rapid ion exchange, an external ion source to minimize trap contamination, a novel Zener-based voltage source, and active as well as passive stabilization of temperature, pressure and the magnetic field of the superconducting magnet. An overview of the project and a report on the recent progress will be given.

  3. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  4. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Wüstling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrino-mass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by diffusion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  5. Towards high-precision measurement of the Tritium - He-3 mass difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Redshaw, Matthew; Victoria, Juliette; Myers, Edmund

    2004-05-01

    An independent measurement of the mass difference of ^3He-^3T provides an important check of systematic errors in tritium beta-decay experiments that set limits to the electron anti-neutrino mass [1]. Using the precision Penning trap system developed at MIT but recently relocated to Florida State University [2], and the simultaneous two-ion cyclotron frequency measurement technique recently developed at MIT [3], we aim to measure this mass difference to better than 30 meV/c^2, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements [4,5]. Problems being addressed include producing single T^+ ions in the trap without spoiling the vacuum with ^3He, and the extension of the MIT techniques to ions of lighter mass. [1] KATRIN: http://iklau1.fzk.de/tritium [2] See abstract by Redshaw et al. [3] S. Rainville, J.K. Thompson, and D.E. Pritchard, Science 303, 334 (2004). [4] R.S. Van Dyck, D.L. Farnham, and P.B. Schwinberg, PRL 70, 2888 (1993). [5] G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, and C. Thibault, Nuclear Physics A729, 337 (2003).

  6. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  7. Beyond low beta-decay Q values

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, M. T.; Suhonen, J.

    2010-11-24

    Beta decays with low Q values can be utilized in the quest to determine the neutrino mass scale. This is being realized in two experiments, KATRIN and MARE, using tritium and {sup 187}Re, respectively. The beta-decay of {sup 187}Re had the lowest known Q value until 2005, when the beta decay of {sup 115}In to the first excited state of {sup 115}Sn was discovered in Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Last year two independent ion trap measurements confirmed that this decay breaks the former record by an order of magnitude.Our theoretical study on this tiny decay channel complemented the experimental effort by the JYFLTRAP group in Finland and HADES underground laboratory in Belgium. A significant discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results was found. This might be explained by various atomic contributions known to grow larger as the Q value decreases. However, the traditional recipes for taking these effects into account break down on this new ultra-low Q value regime, providing new challenges for theorists on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics.

  8. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection.

  9. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity of 163Ho experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastaldo, L.; Giunti, C.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the sensitivity of 163Ho electron capture experiments to neutrino masses in the standard framework of three-neutrino mixing and in the framework of 3+1 neutrino mixing with a sterile neutrino which mixes with the three standard active neutrinos, as indicated by the anomalies found in short-baseline neutrino oscillations experiments. We calculate the sensitivity to neutrino masses and mixing for different values of the energy resolution of the detectors, of the unresolved pileup fraction and of the total statistics of events, considering the expected values of these parameters in the two planned stages of the ECHo project (ECHo-1k and ECHo-1M). We show that an extension of the ECHo-1M experiment with the possibility to collect 1016 events will be competitive with the KATRIN experiment. This statistics will allow to explore part of the 3+1 mixing parameter space indicated by the global analysis of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. In order to cover all the allowed region, a statistics of about 1017 events will be needed.

  10. Advanced data extraction infrastructure: Web based system for management of time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingaryan, S.; Beglarian, A.; Kopmann, A.; Vöcking, S.

    2010-04-01

    During operation of high energy physics experiments a big amount of slow control data is recorded. It is necessary to examine all collected data checking the integrity and validity of measurements. With growing maturity of AJAX technologies it becomes possible to construct sophisticated interfaces using web technologies only. Our solution for handling time series, generally slow control data, has a modular architecture: backend system for data analysis and preparation, a web service interface for data access and a fast AJAX web display. In order to provide fast interactive access the time series are aggregated over time slices of few predefined lengths. The aggregated values are stored in the temporary caching database and, then, are used to create generalizing data plots. These plots may include indication of data quality and are generated within few hundreds of milliseconds even if very high data rates are involved. The extensible export subsystem provides data in multiple formats including CSV, Excel, ROOT, and TDMS. The search engine can be used to find periods of time where indications of selected sensors are falling into the specified ranges. Utilization of the caching database allows performing most of such lookups within a second. Based on this functionality a web interface facilitating fast (Google-maps style) navigation through the data has been implemented. The solution is at the moment used by several slow control systems at Test Facility for Fusion Magnets (TOSKA) and Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN).

  11. Surface enhanced exchange reactions of hydrogen isotopes with water and fomblin oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, J.; Eckart, M.; Fink, M.

    2008-07-15

    Maintaining isotopic purity of tritium is one of the major tasks in several new large facilities such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), KATRIN (Karlsruhe Tritium Experiment) and NEXTEX (Texas Neutrino Mass Experiment). Working with multiple isotopes and isotopomers is always accompanied by isotope exchanges, which are accelerated by catalysts. These are provided by surfaces of various materials, which are used in the recycling systems. Here new results are reported of the solubility of hydrogen in Fomblin oil and kinetics for reactions between D{sub 2}O, HDO, H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}, HD and H{sub 2} taking place at the surface of a stainless steel (SS304) vessel at pressures of about 350 Pa. The kinetics of hydrogen isotopes were measured by Raman spectrometer. The water isotopomers were monitored by mass spectrometry. The solubility of hydrogen in Fomblin oil was determined at several H{sub 2} pressures using NMR spectroscopy. The results can be extended to lower pressures using Henry's law. (authors)

  12. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  13. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection. PMID:20867754

  14. Forbidden unique beta-decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-30

    The measurement of the electron spectrum in beta-decays provides a robust direct determination of the values of neutrino masses. The planned rhenium beta-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which is expected to collect data in a near future. In this contribution we discuss the spectrum of emitted electrons close to the end point in the case of the first unique forbidden beta-decay of {sup 79}Se, {sup 107}Pd and {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p{sub 3/2}-wave emission dominates over the s{sub 1/2}-wave. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed beta-decay of {sup 3}H.

  15. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions. PMID:20530821

  16. Unraveling tectonics and climate forcing in the late-Neogene exhumation history of South Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Shuster, David; Herman, Frédéric; Giuditta Fellin, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The southern Alaska range presents an ideal setting to study the complex interactions between tectonics, climate and surface processes in landscape evolution. It exhibits active tectonics with the ongoing subduction/collision between Pacific and North America, and major active seismogenic reverse and strike-slip faults. The alpine landscape, rugged topography and the important ice-coverage at present reveal a strong glacial imprint associated with high erosion and sediment transport rates. Therefore, the relative importance of climatically-driven glacial erosion and tectonics for the observed late-exhumation history appears to be quite complex to decipher. Here, we first perform a formal inversion of an extensive bedrock thermochronological dataset from the literature to quantify the large-scale 20-Myr exhumation history over the entire southern Alaska. We show that almost half of the variability within the thermochronological record can be explained by modern annual precipitations spatial distribution, the residuals clearly evidencing localized exhumation along major tectonic structures of the frontal fold and thrust belt. Our results confirm high exhumation rates in the St Elias "syntaxis" and frontal zones for the last 0-2 Myr, where major ice fields and high precipitation rates likely sustained high exhumation rates; however the impact of late Cenozoic glaciations is difficult to constrain because of the low resolution on the exhumation history older than ~2 Myr. On the contrary, our inversion outcomes highlight that north of the Bagley Icefield the long-term exhumation has remained quite slow and continuous over the last ~20 Myr, with no late-stage signal of exhumation change since the onset of glaciations despite a clear glacial imprint on the landscape. We thus focus on the Granite Range (Wrangell-St Elias National Park, Alaska), an area presenting a strong glacial imprint but minor tectonic activity with only localized brittle deformation. We sampled four

  17. Untypical even-to-odd predominance in the low-molecular n-alkanes of water, suspended matter, and bottom sediments in some regions of the Arctic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdova, Anastasia; Belyaev, Nikolay; Ponyaev, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Over the years, several studies have shown an unusual predominance of even-carbon number n-alkanes in dissolved and particulate phase samples and sediment samples from various regions of the World Ocean [Nachman, 1985; Nishimura and Baker, 1985; Elias et al., 1997]. Different possible sources were proposed such as diagenesis (diagenetic origin from co-occurring fatty acids and alcohols), direct microbial input, microbial degradation of algal detritus, etc. Some researchers, however, are incredulous about this phenomenon and consider relatively high content of even-carbon number n-alkanes as contamination during the experiments. We report here the results of GC and GC-MS analysis of water, suspended particulate matter and sediment samples collected during 7 marine and coastal scientific expeditions to the White and Kara Seas, and to the central Arctic Basin (2004-2013). Many of the above samples (more than 30) present n-alkane distribution with a strong even-carbon number predominance of n-C14H30, and n-C16H34. Maximum enrichment was observed in some suspended matter samples with predominance of n-C16H34. The origin of even-carbon number n-alkanes in marine ecosystems is still not clear. In Antarctic region n-C16 and n-C18 and other even chain n-alkanes were reported to be dominant in the samples of the sea-ice algae, zooplankton and fish [Green et al. 1997] however in the Arctic region this phenomenon has not been demonstrated yet. Increasing of bacteria number and δ13C values observed in course of the accompanying studies [Lein et al., 2013] suggest existence of mechanism of phytoplankton bacterial destruction in the Arctic ecosystems, leading to formation of even-carbon number n-alkanes. R.J. Nachman - Lipids, Vol. 20, No 9, pp. 629-633 (1985). M. Nishimura, E.W. Baker - Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 50, pp. 299-305 (1986). V.O. Elias, B.R.T. Simoneit, J.N. Cardoso - Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 84, pp. 415-420 (1997). G. Green et al. - Marine Pollution

  18. The Evolution of the Surveyor Fan and Channel System, Gulf of Alaska based on Core-Log-Seismic Integration at IODP Site U1417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Walton, M. A. L.; Swartz, J. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The transition to quasi-periodic ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2 Ma) saw an acceleration of sediment delivery from the St. Elias orogen. Eroded sediment from the St. Elias Mountains is transferred to the deep sea via glacially carved shelf troughs and eventually to the Aleutian Trench via the Surveyor Channel and Fan system. By analyzing the submarine sediments in this Fan, we can evaluate the source-to-sink relationship between the erosion of an orogen and deep-sea deposition and inform our understanding of the impact of climate on local tectonics. Our work seeks to update depositional models of the unique sedimentary sequences, architecture, and origins of the glacially-fed Surveyor Fan using well-log-seismic correlation and new data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341. Exp. 341 results question proposed ages of major fan stratigraphic packages, necessitating this update. We created an integrated velocity model using discrete core-based p-wave velocities acquired at site U1417 from 100-152m, down-hole sonic log velocities from 152m-476m, and then projected the trend of the sonic log velocity from 476m to the base of the borehole. Previous work has interpreted the Sequence I/II boundary (~300 mbsf at U1417) to correspond with the start of the Surveyor Fan and the onset of tidewater glaciation in the late Miocene and the Sequence II/III boundary (~160 mbsf at U1417) to coincide with the intensification of glaciation and subsequent increase in sediment flux at the MPT. Our updated velocity model places these major sequence boundaries at the correct depths in borehole site U1417. We can use the revised velocity model to correlate lithologic, biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and logging data from the borehole/cores to seismic data, allowing for construction of a temporal model for the evolution of the Surveyor fan. We can then examine the relationship between glacial-interglacial cycle duration and

  19. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauber, J.M.; Molnia, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes (ML???2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes (Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M s=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  20. Southern Alaska as an Example of the Long-Term Consequences of Mountain Building Under the Influence of Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meigs, Andrew; Sauber, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Southern Alaska is a continent-scale region of ongoing crustal deformation within the Pacific-North American plate boundary zone. Glaciers and glacial erosion have dictated patterns of denudation in the orogen over the last approx. 5 My. The orogen comprises three discrete topographic domains from south to north, respectively: (1) the Chugach/St. Elias Range; (2) the Wrangell Mountains; and (3) the eastern Alaska Range. Although present deformation is distributed across the orogen, much of the shortening and uplift are concentrated in the Chugach/St. Elias Range. A systematic increase in topographic wavelength of the range from east to west reflects east-to-west increases in the width of a shallowly-dipping segment of the plate interface, separation of major upper plate structures, and a decrease in the obliquity of plate motion relative to the plate boundary. Mean elevation decays exponentially from approx. 2500 m to approx. 1100 m from east to west, respectively. Topographic control on the present and past distribution of glaciers is indicated by close correspondence along the range between mean elevation and the modern equilibrium line altitude of glaciers (ELA) and differences in the modern ELA, mean annual precipitation and temperature across the range between the windward, southern and leeward, northern flanks. Net, range- scale erosion is the sum of: (1) primary bedrock erosion by glaciers and (2) erosion in areas of the landscape that are ice-marginal and are deglaciated at glacial minima. Oscillations between glacial and interglacial climates controls ice height and distribution, which, in turn, modulates the locus and mode of erosion in the landscape. Mean topography and the mean position of the ELA are coupled because of the competition between rock uplift, which tends to raise the ELA, and enhanced orographic precipitation accompanying mountain building, which tends to lower the ELA. Mean topography is controlled both by the 60 deg latitude and maritime

  1. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  2. Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices

  3. Measurements of relative binding of cohesin and dockerin mutants using an advanced ELISA technique for high-affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Slutzki, Michal; Barak, Yoav; Reshef, Dan; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    The cellulosome is a large bacterial extracellular multienzyme complex able to degrade crystalline cellulosic substrates. The complex contains catalytic and noncatalytic subunits, interconnected by high-affinity cohesin-dockerin interactions. In this chapter, we introduce an optimized method for comparative binding among different cohesins or cohesin mutants to the dockerin partner. This assay offers advantages over other methods (such as ELISA, cELIA, SPR, and ITC) for particularly high-affinity binding interactions. In this approach, the high-affinity interaction of interest occurs in the liquid phase during the equilibrated binding step, whereas the interaction with the immobilized phase is used only for detection of the unbound dockerins that remain in the solution phase. Once equilibrium conditions are reached, the change in free energy of binding (ΔΔG(binding)), as well as the affinity constant of mutants, can be estimated against the known affinity constant of the wild-type interaction. In light of the above, we propose this method as a preferred alternative for the relative quantification of high-affinity protein interactions. PMID:22608739

  4. Influence of Subducting Plate Geometry on Upper Plate Deformation at Orogen Syntaxes: A Thermomechanical Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    Syntaxes are short, convex bends in the otherwise slightly concave plate boundaries of subduction zones. These regions are of scientific interest because some syntaxes (e.g., the Himalaya or St. Elias region in Alaska) exhibit exceptionally rapid, focused rock uplift. These areas have led to a hypothesized connection between erosional and tectonic processes (top-down control), but have so far neglected the unique 3D geometry of the subducting plates at these locations. In this study, we contribute to this discussion by exploring the idea that subduction geometry may be sufficient to trigger focused tectonic uplift in the overriding plate (a bottom-up control). For this, we use a fully coupled 3D thermomechanical model that includes thermochronometric age prediction. The downgoing plate is approximated as spherical indenter of high rigidity, whereas both viscous and visco-plastic material properties are used to model deformation in the overriding plate. We also consider the influence of the curvature of the subduction zone and the ratio of subduction velocity to subduction zone advance. We evaluate these models with respect to their effect on the upper plate exhumation rates and localization. Results indicate that increasing curvature of the indenter and a stronger upper crust lead to more focused tectonic uplift, whereas slab advance causes the uplift focus to migrate and thus may hinder the emergence of a positive feedback.

  5. A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction.

  6. Contributions of Contingencies in Modern Societies to “Privacy” in the Behavioral Relations of Cognition and Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury; Borba, Aécio; Vichi, Christian; Leite, Felipe Lustosa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine specific features of modern individualistic societies that contribute to “emotions” and “cognitions” becoming a matter of privacy. Although some behavior analysts identify emotions and cognitions as “private events,” we argue with Skinner (1945) that cognitions and emotions are relations among events and that their origin is in public events in the contingencies of reinforcement maintained by other people. Guided by Elias (1939/1996), we suggest that the shift from feudal economies to market economies involved the increasing individualization of society's members. This individualizing process includes the socially maintained contingencies that bring some verbal responses under control of private stimulation and reduce the magnitude of some verbal responses to a covert level. Behavioral relations in which either stimuli or responses (or both) cannot be observed by others set the stage for a concept of “privacy.” Changes in societal contingencies that gave rise to individualization and the attribution of privacy to cognitions and emotions are suggested to include the following: (a) increasing frequency of individual consequences that have no apparent or direct relevance to the group; (b) increasing numbers of concurrent contingencies and choice requirements; (c) conflicts between immediate and delayed consequences for the individual; and (d) conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group. PMID:22532738

  7. Analysis and Measurement of the Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation of White and Brown Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well. PMID:24480348

  8. Contributions of contingencies in modern societies to "privacy" in the behavioral relations of cognition and emotion.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury; Borba, Aécio; Vichi, Christian; Leite, Felipe Lustosa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine specific features of modern individualistic societies that contribute to "emotions" and "cognitions" becoming a matter of privacy. Although some behavior analysts identify emotions and cognitions as "private events," we argue with Skinner (1945) that cognitions and emotions are relations among events and that their origin is in public events in the contingencies of reinforcement maintained by other people. Guided by Elias (1939/1996), we suggest that the shift from feudal economies to market economies involved the increasing individualization of society's members. This individualizing process includes the socially maintained contingencies that bring some verbal responses under control of private stimulation and reduce the magnitude of some verbal responses to a covert level. Behavioral relations in which either stimuli or responses (or both) cannot be observed by others set the stage for a concept of "privacy." Changes in societal contingencies that gave rise to individualization and the attribution of privacy to cognitions and emotions are suggested to include the following: (a) increasing frequency of individual consequences that have no apparent or direct relevance to the group; (b) increasing numbers of concurrent contingencies and choice requirements; (c) conflicts between immediate and delayed consequences for the individual; and (d) conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group. PMID:22532738

  9. Collared Pikas as a Model Species for Studying the Biological Impacts of Climate Change in Alpine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, K. S.; Hik, D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models suggest that global temperatures could rise between 1.4° C and 5.8° C over the next 100 years, and that these effects will be most extreme in northern mountain regions. Pikas (Ochotona, Lagomorpha) are widespread small mammals in the alpine environments of Asia and North America. They are cold adapted and consequently sensitive to warming global temperatures. Considerable research has shown a poleward migration of many species as a result of rising temperatures, but high alpine dwelling species, like the pika, may already be trapped at the top of mountains. Little is known about the threshold values of environmental conditions under which pikas either persist or disappear. Collared pikas (Ochotona collaris) inhabit alpine meadows in the Kluane region of the southwest Yukon. Sites located along an environmental gradient from nunataks in the St Elias Icefields to the Ruby Range Mountains have experienced different climatic and glacial histories. Using baseline data from the long-term study in the Ruby Ranges, we report on differences in the ecological and climatic conditions of sites along this gradient and how this translates into differences in the behavioural and population ecology of the pikas living there. By looking at these differences we can infer the potential impacts of a warming climate, and the subsequent ecological changes on collared pika populations in order to clarify the causes of local extinction and allow us to develop models for predicting ecological responses as conditions change under future climate regimes.

  10. Characterizing Executive Functioning in Older Special Populations: From Cognitively Elite to Cognitively Impaired

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Strauss, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LIS-REL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

  11. Global perspective of nitrate flux in ice cores

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, O.; Mayewski, P.A.; Whitlow, S.

    1995-03-20

    The relationships between the concentration and the flux of chemical species (Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Mg{sub 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) versus snow accumulation rate were examined at GISP2 and 20D in Greenland, Mount Logan from the St. Elias Range, Yukon Territory, Canada, and Sentik Glacier from the northwest end of the Zanskar Range in the Indian Himalayas. At all sites, only nitrate flux is significantly ({alpha}=0.05) related to snow accumulation rate. Of all the chemical series, only nitrate concentration data are normally distributed. Therefore the authors suggest that nitrate concentration in snow is affected by postdepositional exchange with the atmosphere over a broad range of environmental conditions. The persistant summer maxima in nitrate observed in Greenland snow over the entire range of record studied (the last 800 years) may be mainly due to NO{sub x} released from peroxyacetyl nitrate by thermal decomposition in the presence of higher OH concentrations in summer. The late winter/early spring nitrate peak observed in modern Greenland snow may be related to the buildup of anthropogenically derived NO{sub y} in the Arctic troposphere during the long polar winter. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    PubMed

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis. PMID:1440772

  14. The earliest telescope preserved in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

  15. Calculated Properties of Fully Hydrogenated Single Layers of BN, BC2N, and Graphene: Graphane and Its BN-Containing Analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Averill, Frank; Morris, James R; Cooper, Valentino R

    2009-01-01

    Carbon is an attractive material for hydrogen adsorption, due to its light weight, variety of structures, and ability to both physisorb and chemisorb hydrogen. Recently, fully hydrogenated graphene layers ( graphane ) have been predicted to exist [J.O. Sofo et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 15340 (2007)], and experimentally observed [D.C. Elias et al., Science 323, 610 (2009)]. In this work, we examine analogues of graphane, in particular BNH2 and BC2NH4. Unlike graphene, these materials have a band gap without hydrogenation. Our results indicate that the hydrogenation product of BN is metastable: the fully hydrogenated compound BNH2 is higher in energy than hexagonal BN sheets plus H2 molecules, in sharp contrast with graphane. We find that BC2NH4 is energetically very close to hexagonal BC2N+2H2 molecules. Furthermore our examination of the relative binding strengths of rows of symmetry related hydrogen atoms on BC2NH4shows that this compound is marginally higher in energy than BC2NH2 plus an H2 molecule, with the hydrogen atoms in BC2NH2 absorbed on the carbon sites. These remaining hydrogen atoms are not as strongly bound as in graphane, indicating that the average hydrogen chemisorption energy is controllable by changing the carbon content in the B-C-N layer.

  16. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  17. Extent of endocrine disruption in fish of western and Alaskan National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 2009, 998 fish were collected from 43 water bodies across 11 western Alaskan national parks and analyzed for reproductive abnormalities. Exposure to estrogenic substances such as pesticides can induce abnormalities like intersex. Results suggest there is a greater propensity for male intersex fish collected from parks located in the Rocky Mountains, and specifically in Rocky Mountain NP. Individual male intersex fish were also identified at Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and WrangellSt. Elias NPs. The preliminary finding of female intersex was determined to be a false positive. The overall goal of this project was to assess the general health of fish from eleven western national parks to infer whether health impacts may be linked to contaminant health thresholds for animal andor human health. This was accomplished by evaluating the presence of intersex fish with eggs developing in male gonads or sperm developing in female gonads using histology. In addition, endocrine disrupting compounds and other contaminants were quantified in select specimens. General histologic appearance of the gonadal tissue and spleen were observed to assess health.

  18. Exhumation along the Fairweather fault, southeastern Alaska, based on low-temperature thermochronometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAleer, R.J.; Spotila, J.A.; Enkelmann, E.; Berger, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The southern Alaskan syntaxis marks the spectacular junction between the >1000-km-long Pacific-North America transform margin and the Chugach-St. Elias belt, where subduction and terrane accretion drive rapid convergent deformation and rock uplift. New low-temperature thermochronometry reveals that intense orogenic deformation is not restricted to one side of the syntaxis but extends nearly 300 km south along the dextral Fairweather fault. Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages as young as 0.9 and 2.0 Ma suggest maximum exhumation rates of nearly 2 mm/a in close proximity (0.5 mm/a along the entire plate margin. We estimate that long-term rock uplift accommodates ???3 mm/a of fault-normal convergence in this area. This suggests that the Fairweather fault is slightly transpressive and highly partitioned, analogous to the central San Andreas fault. This convergence only accounts for ???1/5 of the obliquity between Pacific plate motion and the continental margin, however, implying the deficit is taken up by 1-2 cm/a thrust-sinistral motion along the offshore Transition fault. Additionally, thermochronometry shows a marked increase in bedrock cooling coincident with onset of heavy glaciation, similar to what has been observed in other parts of the Pacific Northwest. The tectonically active Fairweather corridor is distinguished, however, by the magnitude of the acceleration and the depth of exhumation since Pliocene climate change. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. X-ray Observations of the Variable Star V1735 Cygni and the IC 5146 Dark Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Steve L.; Briggs, K. R.; Guedel, M.; Sokal, K. R.

    2008-09-01

    The variable star V1735 Cyg (= Elias 1-12) is located in the IC 5146 dark cloud, a region of active low-mass star formation that has been extensively studied in the optical and infrared. We present results of an X-ray observation of IC 5146 with XMM-Newton, centered on V1735 Cyg. This star is a member of the class of FU Orionis variables that undergo strong optical outbursts thought to be linked to episodic accretion. Hard X-ray emission was detected from V1735 Cyg at a characteristic temperature kT > 5 keV, in some respects similar to that recently detected in the prototype FU Ori (Skinner et al. 2006, ApJ, 643, 995). We compare the X-ray properties of V1735 Cyg and FU Ori and discuss possible emission mechanisms in the framework of a complex physical environment that likely involves accretion, strong winds, magnetic fields, and possible binarity. We also report the discovery of a second X-ray source located 24 arc-secs northeast of V1735 Cyg that may be associated with a deeply embedded young star previously detected in sub-mm observations. This research is supported by NASA/GSFC grant NNX06AE93G.

  20. Improved False Discovery Rate Estimation Procedure for Shotgun Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Keich, Uri; Kertesz-Farkas, Attila; Noble, William Stafford

    2015-08-01

    Interpreting the potentially vast number of hypotheses generated by a shotgun proteomics experiment requires a valid and accurate procedure for assigning statistical confidence estimates to identified tandem mass spectra. Despite the crucial role such procedures play in most high-throughput proteomics experiments, the scientific literature has not reached a consensus about the best confidence estimation methodology. In this work, we evaluate, using theoretical and empirical analysis, four previously proposed protocols for estimating the false discovery rate (FDR) associated with a set of identified tandem mass spectra: two variants of the target-decoy competition protocol (TDC) of Elias and Gygi and two variants of the separate target-decoy search protocol of Käll et al. Our analysis reveals significant biases in the two separate target-decoy search protocols. Moreover, the one TDC protocol that provides an unbiased FDR estimate among the target PSMs does so at the cost of forfeiting a random subset of high-scoring spectrum identifications. We therefore propose the mix-max procedure to provide unbiased, accurate FDR estimates in the presence of well-calibrated scores. The method avoids biases associated with the two separate target-decoy search protocols and also avoids the propensity for target-decoy competition to discard a random subset of high-scoring target identifications.

  1. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  2. Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The major function of the skin is to form a barrier between the internal milieu and the hostile external environment. A permeability barrier that prevents the loss of water and electrolytes is essential for life on land. The permeability barrier is mediated primarily by lipid enriched lamellar membranes that are localized to the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. These lipid enriched membranes have a unique structure and contain approximately 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids with very little phospholipid. Lamellar bodies, which are formed during the differentiation of keratinocytes, play a key role in delivering the lipids from the stratum granulosum cells into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. Lamellar bodies contain predominantly glucosylceramides, phospholipids, and cholesterol and following the exocytosis of lamellar lipids into the extracellular space of the stratum corneum these precursor lipids are converted by beta glucocerebrosidase and phospholipases into the ceramides and fatty acids, which comprise the lamellar membranes. The lipids required for lamellar body formation are derived from de novo synthesis by keratinocytes and from extra-cutaneous sources. The lipid synthetic pathways and the regulation of these pathways are described in this review. In addition, the pathways for the uptake of extra-cutaneous lipids into keratinocytes are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    PubMed

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis.

  4. Hepatic SILAC proteomic data from PANDER transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Athanason, Mark G; Stevens, Stanley M; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2016-12-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Hepatic Lipogenesis and Liver X Receptor Activation in the PANDER Transgenic Model" (M.G. Athanason, W.A. Ratliff, D. Chaput, C.B. MarElia, M.N. Kuehl, S.M., Jr. Stevens, B.R. Burkhardt (2016)) [1], and was generated by "spike-in" SILAC-based proteomic analysis of livers obtained from the PANcreatic-Derived factor (PANDER) transgenic mouse (PANTG) under various metabolic conditions [1]. The mass spectrometry output of the PANTG and wild-type B6SJLF mice liver tissue and resulting proteome search from MaxQuant 1.2.2.5 employing the Andromeda search algorithm against the UniprotKB reference database for Mus musculus has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://www.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with dataset identifiers PRIDE: PXD004171 and doi:10.6019/PXD004171. Protein ratio values representing PANTG/wild-type obtained by MaxQuant analysis were input into the Perseus processing suite to determine statistical significance using the Significance A outlier test (p<0.05). Differentially expressed proteins using this approach were input into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to determined altered pathways and upstream regulators that were altered in PANTG mice.

  5. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  6. [Konrad Birkhaug and the BCG vaccine].

    PubMed

    Laerum, O D

    2001-03-20

    Konrad Elias Birkhaug (1892-1980) was born in Bergen to Elisa Marie Skorge and Karl Anders Birkhaug, a policeman, as the sixth of their ten children. After a period as a laboratory assistant at Bergen Municipal Hospital, he emigrated to USA in 1911. He graduated from the medical school of Johns Hopkins University in 1924. After residency in bacteriology, he became professor at Rochester University in 1927 and head of its laboratory of bacteriology. From 1932 to 1935 he worked as a senior scientist at the Institute Pasteur in Paris and from 1935 to 1945 as a fellow of the Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen. From 1937 he also headed the National Laboratory for production of BCG vaccine. After active involvement in the resistance movement against the Nazis during the Second World War, he returned to the USA in 1946 as head of the BCG laboratory of the State of New York in Albany. He retired in 1953 and settled in Bergen, where he died in 1980. Birkhaug is one of the pioneers in the research on immunity reactions to tuberculosis infection and BCG vaccination. He is also known for producing the first antiserum against erysipelas, which was used from 1927 until sulphonamides were discovered. In addition to his international scientific publications, he wrote two books in Norwegian, his autobiography and a book about the German eradication of a small fishermen's village in Western Norway during the Second World War.

  7. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C. Wisconsin Univ., Madison Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-11-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs.

  8. Public-private partnerships in translational medicine: concepts and practical examples.

    PubMed

    Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2012-07-20

    The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery.

  9. Ideas for Use of an IPad in Introductory Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile devices such as an IPad, tablet computers and smartphones offer an opportunity to collect information to facilitate physics teaching and learning. The data collected with built-in sensors, such as a video camera, may be analyzed on the mobile device itself or on a desktop computer. In this work, first, the circular motion of a steel ball rolling in a cereal bowl was analyzed to show that it consisted of two simple harmonic motions, in perpendicular directions. Secondly, motion of two balls-one dropped vertically down, and the other one launched as a projectile - was analyzed. Data was analyzed with Logger Pro software, and value of g was determined graphically. Details of the work, its limitations and additional examples will be described. The material so obtained may be used as a demonstration, in a classroom, to clarify physics concepts. In a school, where students are required to have such portable devices, one may assign such activities as homework, to enhance student engagement in learning physics. The author is thankful to USciences for the IPad; and Rich Cosgriff, Phyllis Blumberg and Elia Eschenazi for useful discussions.

  10. Hepatic SILAC proteomic data from PANDER transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Athanason, Mark G; Stevens, Stanley M; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2016-12-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Hepatic Lipogenesis and Liver X Receptor Activation in the PANDER Transgenic Model" (M.G. Athanason, W.A. Ratliff, D. Chaput, C.B. MarElia, M.N. Kuehl, S.M., Jr. Stevens, B.R. Burkhardt (2016)) [1], and was generated by "spike-in" SILAC-based proteomic analysis of livers obtained from the PANcreatic-Derived factor (PANDER) transgenic mouse (PANTG) under various metabolic conditions [1]. The mass spectrometry output of the PANTG and wild-type B6SJLF mice liver tissue and resulting proteome search from MaxQuant 1.2.2.5 employing the Andromeda search algorithm against the UniprotKB reference database for Mus musculus has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://www.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with dataset identifiers PRIDE: PXD004171 and doi:10.6019/PXD004171. Protein ratio values representing PANTG/wild-type obtained by MaxQuant analysis were input into the Perseus processing suite to determine statistical significance using the Significance A outlier test (p<0.05). Differentially expressed proteins using this approach were input into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to determined altered pathways and upstream regulators that were altered in PANTG mice. PMID:27642623

  11. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time. PMID:26487146

  13. Identification of geostructures of continental crust, particularly as they relate to mineral resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryc, G. (Principal Investigator); Lathram, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The southeastward continuation of a fault that has been mapped in the vicinity of Dan Creek, Alaska, shows up as a lineament on ERTS-1 image 1043-20163 that can be traced for more than 50 miles southeastward to beyond the Alaska-Canada boundary. The lineament probably reflects a major fault that is significant in understanding the complicated tectonics of the Wrangell Mountains-Saint Elias Mountains complex. From a study of the ERTS-1 image, low level vertical photography, and limited field work in the largely unmapped region, E.M. Mackevett, Jr., speculates that the eastern part of the fault may mark the southern boundary of a mild-Paleozoic metamorphic terrane that constitutes the westernmost known extent of the Alexander terrane of Berg, Jones, and Richter (1972) and correlates with the Kaskawulsh Group in Canada. This terrane, which consists dominantly of marble, was recognized during 1972 reconnaissance mapping in the eastcentral part of the McCarthy quadrangle by MacKevett, D.L. Jones, and D.H. Richter and contrasts strongly with the dominantly volcanic and volcanoclastic terrane of Pennsylvanian and Permian age that forms the basement in most of the McCarthy quadrangle.

  14. Structure of lamellar lipid domains and corneocyte envelopes of murine stratum corneum. An X-ray diffraction study.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Mirejovsky, D; King, G I

    1988-05-17

    The lipid of the outermost layer of the skin is confined largely to the extracellular spaces surrounding the corneocytes of the stratum corneum where it forms a multilamellar adhesive matrix to act as the major permeability barrier of the skin. Knowledge of the molecular architecture of these intercellular domains is important for understanding various skin pathologies and their treatment, percutaneous drug delivery, and the cosmetic maintenance of the skin. We have surveyed by X-ray diffraction the structure of the intercellular domains and the extracted lipids of murine stratum corneum (SC) at 25, 45, and 70 degrees C which are temperatures in the vicinity of known thermal phase transitions [Rehfeld, S. J., & Elias, P. M. (1982) J. Invest. Dermatol. 79, 1-3]. The intercellular domains produce lamellar diffraction patterns with a Bragg spacing of 131 +/- 2 A. Lipid extracted from the SC and dispersed in excess water does not produce a simple lamellar diffraction pattern at any temperature studied, however. This and other facts suggest that another component, probably a protein, must be present to control the architecture of the intercellular lipid domains. We have also obtained diffraction patterns attributable to the protein envelopes of the corneocytes. The patterns suggest a beta-pleated sheet organizational scheme. No diffraction patterns were observed that could be attributed to keratin.

  15. An 18 million year record of vegetation and climate change in northwestern Canada and Alaska: Tectonic and global climatic correlates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.M.; Ager, T.A.; Adam, D.P.; Leopold, E.B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jette, H.; Schweger, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    We reconstruct long-term vegetation/paleoclimatic trends, spanning the last 18 million years, in Alaska. Yukon and far western Northwest Territories. Twenty-one average percentage spectra for pollen and spores are assembled from eight surface/subsurface sections. The sections are dated independently or by correlation. Pollen and spore ratios indicate the direction of change in vegetation and climatic parameters growing season temperature (T(est)), tree canopy density (C(est)) and paludification at study sites (P(est)). A global warm peak ca. 15 Ma is shown by the abundance of thermophilous taxa, including Fagus and Quercus. A temperature decline immediately following 15 Ma parallels climatic reconstructions based on marine oxygen isotopes. Subsequent declines correlate to the Messinian event and the onset of late Pliocene Pleistocene glaciation. After 7 Ma herbs and shrubs become more important elements of the palynological assemblages, suggesting a more continental, colder/drier climate. However, a late Pliocene warm interval is evident. Vegetation/climatic changes during the early to late Miocene show synchrony with, and are most economically attributable to, global events. After 7 Ma, vegetation/climate change is attributed primarily to latest Miocene-to-Pleistocene uplift of the Alaska Range and St. Elias Mrs. The continuing influence of global climatic patterns is shown in the late Pliocene warm interval, despite uplift to the south. The opening of the Bering Strait ca. 3 Ma may have moderated the climate in the study area.

  16. Molluscan evidence for early middle Miocene marine glaciation in southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Profound cooling of Miocene marine climates in southern Alaska culminated in early middle Miocene coastal marine glaciation in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. This climatic change resulted from interaction of the Yakutat terrane with southern Alaska beginning in late Oligocene time. The ensuing extreme uplift of the coastal Chugach and St. Elias Mountains resulted in progressive regional cooling that culminated in coastal marine glaciation beginning in the early middle Miocene (15-16 Ma) and continuing to the present. The counterclockwise flow of surface water from the frigid northeastern Gulf of Alaska resulted in a cold-temperate shallow-marine environment in the western Gulf of Alaska, as it does today. Ironically, dating of Gulf of Alaska marine glaciation as early middle Miocene is strongly reinforced by the presence of a few tropical and subtropical mollusks in western Gulf of Alaska faunas. Shallow-marine waters throughout the Gulf of Alaska were cold-temperate to cold in the early middle Miocene, when the world ocean was undergoing peak Neogene warming. -Author

  17. Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.

    2010-12-01

    wind tunnel investigations and the outcomes from test flights planned for September 2010 at a marine location are discussed. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the significant contributions to this system made by the late Katrin Lehmann whose life was tragically cut short by a hiking accident. Katrin was responsible for the initial design, construction and programming of the UAS elements, and in doing so laid solid foundations for the system. We are indebted to NOAA, for funding this project through the research grant NOAA NA17RJ1231. Thank you also to Mike Marston of NASA, the BAE systems crew Phillip Corcoran and Rafael Gaytan, and Mike Rizen of UCSD Physics workshop for their mission roles. We would also like to thank NSF for long term support of the C4 UAS Program.

  18. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    Project Manager Henrik Dalgaard for his excellent editorial services and to stud.mag. Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund for her practical assistance with the proceedings. The European Commission under the Regional Development Fund has funded the conference and the publication of the proceedings.

  19. Small neutrino masses from gravitational θ -term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Funcke, Lena

    2016-06-01

    We present how a neutrino condensate and small neutrino masses emerge from a topological formulation of gravitational anomaly. We first recapitulate how a gravitational θ -term leads to the emergence of a new bound neutrino state analogous to the η' meson of QCD. Then we show the consequent formation of a neutrino vacuum condensate, which effectively generates small neutrino masses. Afterwards we outline numerous phenomenological consequences of our neutrino mass generation model. The cosmological neutrino mass bound vanishes since we predict the neutrinos to be massless until the phase transition in the late Universe, T ˜meV . Coherent radiation of new light particles in the neutrino sector can be detected in prospective precision experiments. Deviations from an equal flavor rate due to enhanced neutrino decays in extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be observed in future IceCube data. These neutrino decays may also necessitate modified analyses of the original neutrino spectra of the supernova SN 1987A. The current cosmological neutrino background only consists of the lightest neutrinos, which, due to enhanced neutrino-neutrino interactions, either bind up, form a superfluid, or completely annihilate into massless bosons. Strongly coupled relic neutrinos could provide a contribution to cold dark matter in the late Universe, together with the new proposed particles and topological defects, which may have formed during neutrino condensation. These enhanced interactions could also be a source of relic neutrino clustering in our Galaxy, which possibly makes the overdense cosmic neutrino background detectable in the KATRIN experiment. The neutrino condensate provides a mass for the hypothetical B -L gauge boson, leading to a gravity-competing force detectable in short-distance measurements. Prospective measurements of the polarization intensities of gravitational waves can falsify our neutrino mass generation model.

  20. Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, A.; Hodak, R.; Kovalenko, S.; Simkovic, F.

    2015-02-01

    One expects three Cosmic Backgrounds: (1) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) originated 380000 years after the Big Bang (BB). (2) The Neutrino Background decoupled about one second after the BB, while (3) the Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background created by the inflationary expansion decoupled directly after the BB. Only the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected and is well studied. Its spectrum follows Planck's black body radiation formula and shows a remarkable constant temperature of T0γ ≈ 2.7 K independent of the direction. The present photon density is about 370 photons per cm3. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 380 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T0γ = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe and form the CMB. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 380 000 years after the Big Bang. The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CνB) decoupled from matter already one second after the BB at a temperature of about 1010 K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos and the total density of all neutrinos about 336 per cm3. Measurement of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key elements of the Big Bang Cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe. The search for the CνB with the induced beta decay νe+3H → 3He + e- using KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is the topic of this contribution.

  1. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid

  2. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid

  3. Towards untangling the changing tectonic and climatic influence on deposition on the Surveyor Fan, Gulf of Alaska: A single grain geochemical and geochronological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Barbara; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Drewer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The Surveyor Fan depositional system, Gulf of Alaska, serves as a recorder of onshore processes in the evolving St. Elias orogen, the highest coastal mountain range on earth. Here, the relative contribution of tectonics and climate to clast production and denudation are controversial and need to be determined in detail. Absence of major onshore sediment traps allows fast transport of orogenic sediment to the ocean, minimising modifications of the sediment during transport. Exhumation and climatically controlled variations in glacier type and extent influence denudation rates and the characteristics of the sediments. We apply diverse tools of single grain geochemical provenance analysis to Neogene sediments from IODP 341 expedition sites U1417 (distal Surveyor Fan), U1418 (proximal Surveyor Fan), U1419 (continental slope) and U1420 (continental shelf). This will allow for deriving information about the relative contributions of tectonics and climate on rates and locations of exhumation and denudation as well as their temporal and spatial interplay in the evolving St. Elias orogen. Target of the sampling were sands and silts, covering the Miocene to Pleistocene stratigraphy of the four sites. We apply microprobe analysis for main element geochemistry on different heavy minerals; cathodoluminescence imaging, U/Pb dating and REE and trace element measuring on zircons as well as 40Ar/39Ar dating of hornblende and mica. First analyses point towards dominant sediment sources in the area of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). U/Pb dating of zircons of samples in different stratigraphic positions from sites U1417 and U1418 shows peaks in age spectra between ca. 50 and 60 Ma, the youngest being 25.3 Ma ± 0.6 Ma, the oldest 1305.8 ± 38.1 Ma of age. Additional analyses of REE and trace elements from the same zircons imply granitoid sources, mainly granodiorites and tonalites, for most zircons measured. REE and trace element spectra of the 50 to 60 Ma zircons strongly

  4. Spatial distribution of exhumation at the Yakutat plate corner and the role of glacial erosion, southeast Alaska/southwest Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, S.; Enkelmann, E.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Our study investigates the spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation along the northernmost part of the transpressive Fairweather Fault in the St. Elias Mountains, southeast Alaska/southwest Yukon. The dextral Fairweather transform fault forms the eastern boundary between the obliquely colliding Yakutat Terrane and the North American Plate. The subduction-collision of the Yakutat Terrane created the St. Elias orogen, which became a prime example to study climate-tectonics interactions. For the past 5-6 myr glacial erosion and mountain building processes coevolved and seem to have become interdependent. We focus on the plate corner region, where the Fairweather Fault bends and tectonics transitions into convergence style. The plate corner is the region of the highest topography (up to 5959 m), extreme relief (up to 5000 m), high seismicity (M>7), and thick, extensive glacial systems (Seward/Bagley and Hubbard glaciers) that erode and transport sediment into the Pacific Ocean. A shortcoming of previous thermochronologic exhumation studies has been that bedrock sampling is restricted to high elevations due to the ice coverage. Using a detrital sampling approach discovered an area of recent, deep exhumation beneath the Seward Glacier by means of detrital zircon fission-track analyses (~3-2 Ma age populations, closure temperature of 250×40 °C). Throughout the rest of the mountains exhumation has been found to be rapid, too, but shallow, resulting in much older zircon cooling ages. To complement previous detrital studies, we collected 26 samples from modern glacio-fluvial sand deposits to gain a better spatial coverage for the cooling signals of the glaciated region of the northernmost Fairweather Fault and the plate corner region. To investigate the long-term exhumation history we conducted zircon fission-track analyses, which yielded 2718 new single grain ages that range between 0.2 Ma and 293 Ma. Each detrital sample contains three to five age populations with

  5. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  6. The flooding of Beringia and North Pacific Intermediate Water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Stoner, J. S.; Southon, J. R.; Cheseby, M.; Xuan, C.

    2011-12-01

    We reconstruct Northeast Pacific paleoventilation over the last 17,000 ybp from radiocarbon dates in a sediment core (EW0408-85JC) 682 m deep on the Southeast Alaska margin, evaluating the implications of three standard chronologies: 1) calibrated planktonic foraminiferal 14C dates assuming a constant reservoir correction, 2) calibrated benthic foraminiferal 14C dates assuming a constant reservoir correction, and 3) correlation of δ18O in planktonic foraminifera (N. pachyderma sinistral) to δ18O in a layer-counted Greenland ice core (NGRIP). The assumption of constant benthic reservoir age implies negative reservoir ages for coexisting planktonic foraminifera during deglaciation, and is rejected. The δ18O-tuned age model reproduces two episodes of extremely old intermediate water, similar to those inferred during Termination 1 off Baja California (Marchitto et al., 2007), but predicts co-varying reservoir ages for planktonic foraminifera of >2,500 years. Such very high planktonic reservoir ages, on a predominantly downwelling margin, may imply the apparent subsurface ventilation anomalies are an artifact of the age model tuning. The age model based on calibrated planktonic dates indicates a modest increase in intermediate water reservoir age to 2,670 ± 180 during Termination 1, implying reduced ventilation prior to the Holocene. A shift to lower ventilation ages at ~10,500 cal ybp is coeval with flooding of Beringia (Elias et al., 1996), suggesting that flooded shelves and net northward export of low-salinity surface waters through Bering Strait enhanced ventilation of the North Pacific in the early Holocene.

  7. Glacier melt-model parameter sensitivity and transferability in the dry subarctic environment of the southwest Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, A. H.; Flowers, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Regional hydrology and eustatic sea-level are expected to change as a consequence of climate warming. Accurate projection of these changes requires glacier melt-models with high parameter transferability in space and time. We have assessed the parameter transferability and sensitivity of a suite of glacier melt-models for two glaciers 10 km apart in the dry subarctic environment of the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada. The melt models range in complexity from a classical temperature-index model to a simplified energy balance model. Two experiments are conducted: (1) the models are tuned to the output of a full energy balance model forced under idealized conditions to assess the sensitivity of model parameters to variations in glacier geometric attributes, surface conditions, and meteorological conditions; (2) the models are tuned to real ablation stake data from our two study glaciers over two melt seasons, and the parameter transferability between the two sites and the two melt seasons is evaluated. The parameters of the temperature-index models demonstrate high sensitivity to glacier aspect, mean surface elevation, albedo, wind speed, mean annual temperature, and temperature lapse rate. The simplified energy balance model is sensitive to snow albedo. The simplified energy balance model more often than not (in seven of twelve tests) produces the highest model transferability. In the remaining five tests the classical temperature-index model produces the highest transferability twice, and a temperature-index model, where the degree-day factor is a function of potential shortwave radiation, produces the highest transferability three times. The full energy balance model when forced with real data inputs produces higher model parameter transferability than the empirical melt models in nine out of twelve tests. These results suggest that caution should be observed when extending the use of melt models beyond the locations where they were developed and tested.

  8. Rapid Ice Mass Loss: Does It Have an Influence on Earthquake Occurrence in Southern Alaska?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    The glaciers of southern Alaska are extensive, and many of them have undergone gigatons of ice wastage on time scales on the order of the seismic cycle. Since the ice loss occurs directly above a shallow main thrust zone associated with subduction of the Pacific-Yakutat plate beneath continental Alaska, the region between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers is an excellent test site for evaluating the importance of recent ice wastage on earthquake faulting potential. We demonstrate the influence of cumulative glacial mass loss following the 1899 Yakataga earthquake (M=8.1) by using a two dimensional finite element model with a simple representation of ice fluctuations to calculate the incremental stresses and change in the fault stability margin (FSM) along the main thrust zone (MTZ) and on the surface. Along the MTZ, our results indicate a decrease in FSM between 1899 and the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) of 0.2 - 1.2 MPa over an 80 km region between the coast and the 1979 aftershock zone; at the surface, the estimated FSM was larger but more localized to the lower reaches of glacial ablation zones. The ice-induced stresses were large enough, in theory, to promote the occurrence of shallow thrust earthquakes. To empirically test the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared the seismic rate from a reference background time period (1988-1992) against other time periods (1993-2006) with variable ice or tectonic change characteristics. We found that the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region increased in 2002-2006 relative to the background seismic rate. We hypothesize that this was due to a significant increase in the rate of ice wastage in 2002-2006 instead of the M=7.9, 2002 Denali earthquake, located more than 100km away.

  9. Comparison of different test systems for simultaneous autoantibody detection in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Eissfeller, Petra; Sticherling, Michael; Scholz, Dietmar; Hennig, Kirsten; Lüttich, Tanja; Motz, Manfred; Kromminga, Arno

    2005-06-01

    The serological diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is based on the analysis of circulating autoantibodies to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins (extractable nuclear antigens [ENAs]). The determination of autoantibody specificities supports the clinical diagnosis of the type of CTD and also often the prognosis of the disease. The former indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) technique still provides a useful screening method that currently is supplemented by a range of different techniques allowing the exact determination of single autoantibody specificities. These ENA profiling techniques include ELISA, immunoblotting, line-blot assays, and flow cytometric bead-based multiplex assays. The novel line immunoassay (LIA) from Mikrogen has been introduced in a recent study as a suitable technique for the simultaneous detection of autoantibodies in a routine clinical laboratory, providing comparable results as ELISA and ELiA (both from Pharmacia Diagnostics) (see Damoiseaux et al., this volume). In this study, LIAs from three different manufacturers were performed in 30 serum samples from patients with dermatological manifestations and 27 samples from SLE patients with renal involvement. The line assays from Mikrogen (recomLine ANA/ENA), Innogenetics (Inno-Lia ANA Update), and Imtec (ANA-LIA) were compared for antigen composition, handling, and statistical analysis including sensitivity and concordance. Autoantibody frequencies detected by the Mikrogen, Innogenetics, and Imtec line assays were 14.0%, 19.3%, and 15.8% for RNP; 14.0%, 22.8%, and 14.0% for Sm; 26.3%, 31.6%, and 40.3% for SSA; 3.5%, 12.3%, and 14.0% for SSB; and 3.5%, 14.0%, and 10.5% for histones. Our studies show that the line assay format is an easy-to-use, sensitive, and specific method for ENA antibody detection in human sera.

  10. The role of sphingolipid metabolism in cutaneous permeability barrier formation.

    PubMed

    Breiden, Bernadette; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-03-01

    Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  11. Demography and decline of the Mentasta Caribou Herd, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Barten, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated population trends in the Mentasta caribou (Rangifer tarandus (L., 1758)) herd in Wrangell a?? St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, from 1990 to 1997 and determined factors contributing to its decline. We postulated that predation-related mortality of adult females and juveniles was the proximate cause of the decline, and that survival of juvenile caribou reflected interactions with winter severity, calving distribution, timing of births, density of caribou, and physical condition of neonates at birth. The population declined at its greatest rate from 1990 to 1993 (r = a??0.32) and at a lower rate from 1994 to 1997 (r = a??0.09). Recruitment (number of calves/100 females during September) averaged 4/100 during the rapid population decline from 1990 to 1993 and 13/100 from 1994 to 1997. Parturition rate of adult females ranged from 65% to 97%. Survival of adult females and juveniles ranged from 0.77 to 0.86 and from 0.00 to 0.22, respectively. Approximately 43%, 59%, and 79% of all juvenile mortality occurred by 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age, respectively. We confirmed predation-related mortality as the primary proximate cause of population decline, with gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758), bears (species of the genus Ursus L., 1758), and other predators accounting for 57%, 38%, and 5%, respectively, of all juvenile mortality, and bears causing disproportionate mortality among 0- to 1-week-old neonates. We supported the hypotheses that timing of birth and habitat conditions at the birth site, particularly mottled snow patterns, affected vulnerability and survival of neonates, and birth mass affected survival of juveniles through summer. We speculate that the population will continue to decline before reaching a low-density equilibrium that is sustained by density-dependent changes in the functional responses of predators.

  12. Latitudinal variations (18°-23°S) in denudation rates of western Andean Syntaxis, Chile, South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.; Schaller, Mirjam

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Cosmogenic nuclides, denudation rates, channel steepness, Chi, syntax, North Chile, South Peru Syntaxial regions of orogens (e.g. the western and eastern Himalayan Syntaxes, St. Elias Mountains Alaska) are regions where curved segments of subducting plates meet and the subducting plate is bent forms a rigid indentor. Previous studies of syntaxial regions in the Himalaya and Alaska document localized and rapid deformation and denudation due to vigorous fluvial or glacial erosional processes. In this study we investigate denudation around an arid end-member syntaxial orogen in South America to understand the interactions between climate and tectonic processes in localizing denudation. We present 35 new cosmogenic 10Be analyses of river sediments to quantify spatial variations in erosion along the Andean Coastal Cordillera and Western Cordillera. The sizes of the drainage basin vary from 5 - 5000 square kilometers. These measurements are linked to analysis of digital topography, variations in fluvial steepness indices and Chi- plots. Cosmogenic derived denudation rates range from 2.5 - 130 mm/kyr. Denudation rates decrease generally from the syntaxis (near Arica, Chile) towards the south (near Antofagasta, Chile) and from the Western Cordillera to the Coastal Cordillera. Topographic analysis of channel steepness variations and Chi-plots also document spatial variations in fluvial erosion and are consistent with spatial pattern in cosmogenic derived denudation rates. In summary the results document both a north to south and east to west variation in denudation around the western Andean margin. The spatial pattern of denudation is consistent with recently proposed patterns of syntaxial deformation driven by the geometry of the bent subducting plate. Denudation rates are also likely influenced to a lesser degree by a latitudinal variation in climate along the Andean margin.

  13. Sedimentary Records of Shelf Edge Glaciation: A Young Trough-Mouth Fan on the Gulf of Alaska Yakutat Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The St. Elias Mountains in Southeastern Alaska are an active orogen that host temperate marine glaciers. Here, ice streams advancing across the continental shelf during glacial periods create wide shelf-crossing troughs and deliver large sediment volumes directly to the shelf edge, and from there to the continental slope and the deep sea Surveyor Fan. The continental slope exhibits steep morphology (~10°-30°), controlled by the Transition Fault, a transform boundary between the Yakutat micro-plate and the Pacific plate. Prior statistical analysis of continental slope morphology indicates that these steep initial slope conditions have been modified by proximal sedimentation during repeated glacial advances. Downslope of the Yakutat Sea Valley an incipient trough-mouth fan exists while between the troughs and downslope of the Alsek Sea Valley sediment slope-bypass dominates. Seismic analysis indicates that the Yakutat margin has seen significant slope sedimentation since the intensification of northern hemisphere glaciation ~2.6 Ma, but it is only recently that sufficient sediment supply has existed to overwhelm the steep margin topography and form the young trough-mouth fan. The mid-Pleistocene climate transition at ~1 Ma, and its associated shift from 41Kyr to 100Kyr glacial-interglacial climate cycles, could have potentially allowed sustained ice stream advances to the shelf edge and associated high proximal sedimentation on the continental slope. Integration of seismic data and newly obtained age constraints from recent IODP cores allows for investigation into the timing of Yakutat trough-mouth fan sedimentation and its relation to climate transitions.

  14. Margin Architecture and Sediment Flux as Controls on Submarine Fan Development: Tectonic-Climate Interactions in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, S. P. S.; Montelli, A.; Swartz, J. M.; Morey, S.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Worthington, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    The oblique collision of the Yakutat microplate into southeast Alaska generates the St. Elias Mountains, a coastal orogen with significant moisture from the Gulf of Alaska resulting in large, temperate glacial systems that expand to and eventually cross the continental shelf during glacial maxima. We present an overview of the evolution of sediment routing on this margin from integration of seismic images, updated age models and core-log-seismic correlations from IODP Expedition 341 drilling sites, and mapping efforts from shelf, slope, and fan. We focus on the three dominant glacial systems during the climatically important intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at the Plio-Pleistocene transition and the further intensification of glaciation since the mid-Pleistocene transition. Along strike, sediment delivery to deepwater from the three glacial systems varied according to Pleistocene shelf accommodation space. The Alsek crossed a narrower shelf with a bedrock high near the shelf edge; the Malaspina-Hubbard system crossed an undeformed, ~1 km deep shelf; the Bering-Bagley system crossed a several km deep shelf deforming as an active fold and thrust belt. The Malaspina and Bering catchments exhibit high exhumation rates onshore due to the Yakutat collision and upon reaching the shelf edge these glaciers generate trough mouth fans (TMFs) on the adjacent continental slope but only after first filling the available accommodation with glacigenic sediment and lowering the slope gradient through progradation. The Alsek crosses the shelf earliest but never with sufficient sediment flux to generate a TMF. An east-west transition in adjacent deepwater submarine channels that feed and generate the Surveyor Fan suggests that shelf accommodation and sediment flux are primary controls on sediment routing from orogen to submarine fan. Both of these parameters are in turn a function of initial tectonic architecture and ongoing orogen dynamics.

  15. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children’s literature

    PubMed Central

    Flevares, Lucia M.; Schiff, Jamie R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training. PMID:24904475

  16. Reaction path modelling used to explore the relationship between secondary mineral precipitation and low Si content in the meltwaters of a polythermal surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.; Kirste, D. M.; Hagedorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The subglacial chemical weathering environment is characterized by low temperatures and the hydrolysis and carbonation of freshly comminuted mineral surfaces. Such conditions motivate the hypothesis that relatively low silica fluxes should be found in glacierized basins. Additionally, it is often assumed that glacier meltwaters are far from saturation and that the water chemistry is controlled solely by the dissolution of primary silicates and trace quantities of sulphide and carbonate minerals. Alternatively, we propose that the formation of secondary minerals and precipitates in the delayed drainage system play an important role in controlling the low silica fluxes observed in subglacial envrionments. Borehole and proglacial meltwater samples were collected from a polythermal surge-type glacier overlying granodiorite bedrock in the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. The meltwater chemistry, along with the mineralogy of the bedrock and suspended sediments indicate the presence of mineral precipitation accompanied by substantial basal freeze-on. This is supported by field evidence of debris rich basal ice at the terminus and at the base of a borehole. The surplus of Cl- above the supraglacial input is used to calculate the amount of basal freeze-on in the delayed drainage system, and the amount of mixing between the delayed and fast drainage systems. We use Geochemist's Workbench for reaction path modelling with a focus on the silica composition to simulate the chemical evolution of glacial meltwater from (1) the initial water rock contact, (2) basal freeze on, and (3) mixing and post mixing reactions. Unless there is a substantial degree of non-stoichiometric dissolution, we find that the observed proglacial water chemistry at the terminus is largely controlled by the hydrochemistry of water in the delayed drainage system. Lastly, we use this model to explore the relationship between the proglacial water chemistry and the daily glacier surface velocities for

  17. Comparative phylogeography highlights the double-edged sword of climate change faced by arctic- and alpine-adapted mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Gunderson, Aren M; Weksler, Marcelo; Fedorov, Vadim B; Olson, Link E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e.g., cold tolerance and nunatak survival) that might result in concordant responses to Pleistocene glaciations. All five species contain a similar phylogeographic disjunction separating eastern and Beringian lineages, which we show to be the result of simultaneous divergence. Genetic diversity is similar within each haplogroup for each species, and there is no support for a post-Pleistocene population expansion in eastern lineages relative to those from Beringia. Bayesian skyline plots for four of the five species do not support Pleistocene population contraction. Brown Lemmings show evidence of late Quaternary demographic expansion without subsequent population decline. The Wrangell-St. Elias region of eastern Alaska appears to be an important zone of recent secondary contact for nearctic alpine mammals. Despite differences in natural history and ecology, similar phylogeographic histories are supported for all species, suggesting that these, and likely other, alpine- and arctic-adapted taxa are already experiencing population and/or range declines that are likely to synergistically accelerate in the face of rapid climate change. Climate change may therefore be acting as a double-edged sword that erodes genetic diversity within populations but promotes divergence and the generation of

  18. Preliminary comments about beam loss

    SciTech Connect

    Groom, D.

    1985-10-01

    A variety of beam loss questions are being investigated. They affect several design issues, ranging from machine-associated background in the detectors to the radiation lifetime of the main-ring magnets: (1) Muons. Oppositely directed muon beams from prompt muon production, primary meson decay, and a variety of other processes radiate from each IR. If they were not fanned by the insertion dipoles, the beams would be sufficiently intense and energetic that they would present a radiation hazard even after penetrating 2 km of soil or rock. (2) Machine-associated background in the IR`s. About 30 mb of the total cross section is elastic or quasi-elastic, and most of the protons are in a Gaussian spot with sigma = 9 mr. These particles are well within the machine acceptance, but there is a grey area in the tail of the distributions in which the scattered particles `almost` remain in orbit - they continue for some distance but eventually hit a wall. (3) Cryogenic load. This problem has been addressed to some degree in the RDS, but considerably more detail is needed. It appears that a very large fraction of the inelastic particle energy will be deposited here. (4) Radiation damage in the ring. The lifetime of both magnets and electronics in the tunnel might be limited by radiation due to particle loss. Early results are not reassuring. Tevatron measurements, reported to the authors by John Elias, indicate that most of the tunnel background comes from particle loss due to beam-gas collisions.

  19. [Detection of anti-ENA autoantibodies in patients with systemic connective tissue diseases. Analytical variability and diagnostic sensitivity of 4 methods].

    PubMed

    Villalta, D; Bizzaro, N; Tonutti, E; Visentin, D; Manoni, F; Piazza, A; Toffolo, L; Rizzotti, P; Clemen, P; Pradella, M; Bassetti, D; Tozzoli, R

    1999-11-01

    This study was designed to assess the analytical sensitivity and rate of agreement between commercial methods and reagents, among the most used in Italy for the detection of autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). Sixty-eight serum samples from patients with clinically diagnosed systemic rheumatic diseases were aliquoted and distributed to 4 hospital laboratories; three ELISA (Elias, Shield, Inova) and 1 immunoblot method (Euroimmun) were used. Overall agreement between the test reagents, for each anti-ENA specificity, was 69.1% for Ro/SSA, 83.3% for La/SSB, 70.6% for RNP, 73.5% for Sm, 91.1% for Jo1, and 82.3% for Scl70. Lack of specificity (i.e., false positive reactions) was the most important cause of low concordance. When the data were analysed according to the clinical diagnosis, total agreement and specificity improved. However, a significant difference in terms of sensitivity was observed in the SLE group (30 sera) for RNP (positivity ranged from 20% to 43%) and for Sm (from 7% to 37%), and in the Sjögren's syndrome group (13 sera) for anti-La/SSB (from 8% to 38%). Comparable data were obtained for anti-Ro/SSA (from 70% to 77%) both in the SLE and the Sjögren's syndrome group. Sensitivity of all 4 reagents was good in detecting anti-Scl70 autoantibodies in the 8 patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis, as well as anti-Jo1 autoantibody in the 5 polymyositis patients, with a 100% and a 95% agreement, respectively. These data suggest the need of a better standardization of commercial reagents and analytical procedures, and the opportunity that every laboratory should perform anti-ENA determination by at least two different methods, since none of the methods tested was completely reliable in detecting all anti-ENA autoantibody specificities.

  20. IFESS 2005 Special Session 5 Artifical Vision. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, James D.

    2005-07-05

    A special session on visual prostheses was held during the Annual Meeting of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS), in Montreal, Canada, July 5-9, 2005. IFESS is a meeting that typically attracts researchers in implantable nerve stimulators, functional electrical stimulation, and rehabilitation. All of these areas have significant overlap with the retinal prosthesis, but these areas have decades of research behind them. The special session provided a forum for researchers with vast experience in nerve stimulation to interact with leading research in retinal and cortical visual prostheses. The grant paid for the travel and conference costs of the presenters in the session. The session was chaired by James Weiland (the PI on this grant). The session co-chair was Phil Troyk, Ph.D., from the Illinois Institute of Technology. The Department of Energy was acknowledged at the start of the session as the sponsor. The following talks were delivered: Clinical Trial of a Prototype Retinal Prosthesis James Weiland, Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California The U.S. Department of Energy's Artificial Sight Program Elias Greenbaum, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee A 16-Channel stimulator ASIC for use in an intracortical visual prosthesis Phillip R. Troyk, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois Two approaches to the Optic Nerve Visual Prosthesis Jean Delbeke, M.D. University Cath de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium Design and Implementation of High Power Efficiency Modules for a Cortical Visual Stimulator Mohammad Sawan, Ph.D. Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Canada Remaining funds from the grant were used to support Dr. Weiland's travel to the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology in May 2006, with DOE approval, where several projects, supported by the DOE artificial retina program, were presented.

  1. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; De Luca, Massimo; Elia, Davide; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Massi, Fabrizio; Martin, Peter G.; Strafella, Francesco E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2010-11-10

    The Vela-D region, according to the nomenclature given by Murphy and May, of the star-forming complex known as the Vela molecular ridge (VMR), has recently been analyzed in detail by Olmi, who studied the physical properties of 141 pre- and proto-stellar cold dust cores, detected by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during a much larger (55 deg{sup 2}) Galactic plane survey encompassing the whole VMR. This survey's primary goal was to identify the coldest dense dust cores possibly associated with the earliest phases of star formation. In this work, the dynamical state of the Vela-D cores is analyzed. Comparison to dynamical masses of a sub-sample of the Vela-D cores estimated from the {sup 13}CO survey of Elia is complicated by the fact that the {sup 13}CO linewidths are likely to trace the lower density intercore material, in addition to the dense gas associated with the compact cores observed by BLAST. In fact, the total internal pressure of these cores, if estimated using the {sup 13}CO linewidths, appears to be higher than the cloud ambient pressure. If this were the case, then self-gravity and surface pressure would be insufficient to bind these cores and an additional source of external confinement (e.g., magnetic field pressure) would be required. However, if one attempts to scale down the {sup 13}CO linewidths, according to the observations of high-density tracers in a small sample of sources, then most proto-stellar cores would be effectively gravitationally bound.

  2. Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect and continental evolution involving subduction underplating and synchronous foreland thrusting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.; Brocher, T.M.; Fisher, M.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Page, R.A.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Christensen, N.I.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Saltus, R.W.; Ruppert, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the North American continent in Alaska, where the continent has grown through magmatism, accretion, and tectonic underplating. In the 1980s and early 1990s, we conducted a geological and geophysical investigation, known as the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT), along a 1350-km-long corridor from the Aleutian Trench to the Arctic coast. The most distinctive crustal structures and the deepest Moho along the transect are located near the Pacific and Arctic margins. Near the Pacific margin, we infer a stack of tectonically underplated oceanic layers interpreted as remnants of the extinct Kula (or Resurrection) plate. Continental Moho just north of this underplated stack is more than 55 km deep. Near the Arctic margin, the Brooks Range is underlain by large-scale duplex structures that overlie a tectonic wedge of North Slope crust and mantle. There, the Moho has been depressed to nearly 50 km depth. In contrast, the Moho of central Alaska is on average 32 km deep. In the Paleogene, tectonic underplating of Kula (or Resurrection) plate fragments overlapped in time with duplexing in the Brooks Range. Possible tectonic models linking these two regions include flat-slab subduction and an orogenic-float model. In the Neogene, the tectonics of the accreting Yakutat terrane have differed across a newly interpreted tear in the subducting Pacific oceanic lithosphere. East of the tear, Pacific oceanic lithosphere subducts steeply and alone beneath the Wrangell volcanoes, because the overlying Yakutat terrane has been left behind as underplated rocks beneath the rising St. Elias Range, in the coastal region. West of the tear, the Yakutat terrane and Pacific oceanic lithosphere subduct together at a gentle angle, and this thickened package inhibits volcanism. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  4. Data structures and compression algorithms for genomic sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Marty C.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Baldi, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The continuing exponential accumulation of full genome data, including full diploid human genomes, creates new challenges not only for understanding genomic structure, function and evolution, but also for the storage, navigation and privacy of genomic data. Here, we develop data structures and algorithms for the efficient storage of genomic and other sequence data that may also facilitate querying and protecting the data. Results: The general idea is to encode only the differences between a genome sequence and a reference sequence, using absolute or relative coordinates for the location of the differences. These locations and the corresponding differential variants can be encoded into binary strings using various entropy coding methods, from fixed codes such as Golomb and Elias codes, to variables codes, such as Huffman codes. We demonstrate the approach and various tradeoffs using highly variables human mitochondrial genome sequences as a testbed. With only a partial level of optimization, 3615 genome sequences occupying 56 MB in GenBank are compressed down to only 167 KB, achieving a 345-fold compression rate, using the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence as the reference sequence. Using the consensus sequence as the reference sequence, the data can be stored using only 133 KB, corresponding to a 433-fold level of compression, roughly a 23% improvement. Extensions to nuclear genomes and high-throughput sequencing data are discussed. Availability: Data are publicly available from GenBank, the HapMap web site, and the MITOMAP database. Supplementary materials with additional results, statistics, and software implementations are available from http://mammag.web.uci.edu/bin/view/Mitowiki/ProjectDNACompression. Contact: pfbaldi@ics.uci.edu PMID:19447783

  5. Crustal And Lithospheric Thickness Variation Across Alaska In Advance Of Earthscope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, L.; Miller, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaskan northern Cordillera is situated at the nexus of a major Pacific-North America plate boundary transition, characterized by the geometric complexity of a highly curved strike-slip fault system and ongoing shallow angle subduction. Existing seismic data from stations throughout southern Alaska and northward across the Dalton Highway are analyzed. Preliminary P wave receiver functions are presented to identify lateral variations in crustal thickness. S wave receiver functions reveal velocity discontinuities within the upper mantle, and we identify novel lithospheric structures. In the northern interior below the Brooks Range, 130 km thick lithosphere contrasts with the interior region that has shallow negative conversions (80 km), marking thinner lithosphere in the greater backarc region where heat flow is observed to be high. In the southeast Coastal Ranges, we interpret a thinner (80-90 km) North American lithosphere above a deeper interface that represents the base of the colliding Yakutat microplate. These imaging results provide context for the distribution of strain throughout the Alaskan Orocline. The presence of thick lithosphere below the Brooks Range may indicate strong lithosphere that deflects strain into central and southwestern Alaska. Thin lithosphere in east Alaska and adjacent Yukon Territory coincides with the occurrence of inboard crustal seismicity, and may be indicative of transmitted compression caused by the collision of the Yakutat microplate. The spatial distribution of the subducted portion of the Yakutat is found to lie below the Wrangell Volcanic Field and St. Elias Mountains. We establish new tectonic elements within a complex lithospheric system, and produce hypotheses that will be suitable for testing with upcoming seismic installations.

  6. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  7. A tornado and waterspout climatology for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.

    2011-06-01

    The results of a systematic investigation and recording of tornado and waterspout occurrence in Greece for the 10-year period 2000-2009 are presented. This is the first database developed in Greece in an attempt to collect and record comprehensive information about tornadoes, waterspouts, funnel clouds, dust devils and other whirlwind phenomena. The primary research purpose of this database is to search, diagnose and record tornado and waterspout occurrences and identify their morphological and climatological features. Based on the 10-year data, a mean annual number of 1.1 tornadoes per unit area of 10 4 km 2, is depicted for Greece. The seasonality appears differently for various parts, with winter most active tornado season for western Greece and summer for northern Greece. Spatial distribution showed that tornadoes are more frequent over western Greece and the Ionian coasts with a local maximum over northwest Peloponnese. Waterspouts occur in both the Aegean and the Ionian Sea mostly in summer and autumn, with a peak in September, while a considerable geographical maximum is located over north off the shore of Iraklion, Crete Island. A preliminary estimate of probability of tornado occurrence for each of the 51 Greek prefectures plus the Mount Athos area, showed highest values for Kerkyra Island and Elias prefectures, western Greece. Analysis based on intensities as assessed by damage data, indicated that the majority of tornadoes reached T4 of the T-scale or F2 of the F-scale. Short wave trough is found as the most relevant synoptic circulation pattern to tornadic activity. Thermodynamic and wind parameters showed a wide range of values, suggesting that threat levels should be adjusted for various areas since tornadoes and waterspouts can occur in different environments.

  8. Sleep Duration and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P.; D'Elia, Lanfranco; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Miller, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests an association between both short and long duration of habitual sleep with adverse health outcomes. Objectives: To assess whether the population longitudinal evidence supports the presence of a relationship between duration of sleep and all-cause mortality, to investigate both short and long sleep duration and to obtain an estimate of the risk. Methods: We performed a systematic search of publications using MEDLINE (1966-2009), EMBASE (from 1980), the Cochrane Library, and manual searches without language restrictions. We included studies if they were prospective, had follow-up >3 years, had duration of sleep at baseline, and all-cause mortality prospectively. We extracted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and pooled them using a random effect model. We carried out sensitivity analyses and assessed heterogeneity and publication bias. Results: Overall, the 16 studies analyzed provided 27 independent cohort samples. They included 1,382,999 male and female participants (follow-up range 4 to 25 years), and 112,566 deaths. Sleep duration was assessed by questionnaire and outcome through death certification. In the pooled analysis, short duration of sleep was associated with a greater risk of death (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18; P < 0. 01) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.74) but heterogeneity between studies (P = 0.02). Long duration of sleep was also associated with a greater risk of death (1.30; [1.22 to 1.38]; P < 0.0001) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.18) but significant heterogeneity between studies (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Both short and long duration of sleep are significant predictors of death in prospective population studies. Citation: Cappuccio FP; D'Elia L; Strazzullo P; Miller MA. Sleep duration and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. SLEEP 2010;33(5):585-592. PMID:20469800

  9. Comparative Phylogeography Highlights the Double-Edged Sword of Climate Change Faced by Arctic- and Alpine-Adapted Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Hayley C.; Gunderson, Aren M.; Weksler, Marcelo; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Olson, Link E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e.g., cold tolerance and nunatak survival) that might result in concordant responses to Pleistocene glaciations. All five species contain a similar phylogeographic disjunction separating eastern and Beringian lineages, which we show to be the result of simultaneous divergence. Genetic diversity is similar within each haplogroup for each species, and there is no support for a post-Pleistocene population expansion in eastern lineages relative to those from Beringia. Bayesian skyline plots for four of the five species do not support Pleistocene population contraction. Brown Lemmings show evidence of late Quaternary demographic expansion without subsequent population decline. The Wrangell-St. Elias region of eastern Alaska appears to be an important zone of recent secondary contact for nearctic alpine mammals. Despite differences in natural history and ecology, similar phylogeographic histories are supported for all species, suggesting that these, and likely other, alpine- and arctic-adapted taxa are already experiencing population and/or range declines that are likely to synergistically accelerate in the face of rapid climate change. Climate change may therefore be acting as a double-edged sword that erodes genetic diversity within populations but promotes divergence and the generation of

  10. Comparative phylogeography highlights the double-edged sword of climate change faced by arctic- and alpine-adapted mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Gunderson, Aren M; Weksler, Marcelo; Fedorov, Vadim B; Olson, Link E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e.g., cold tolerance and nunatak survival) that might result in concordant responses to Pleistocene glaciations. All five species contain a similar phylogeographic disjunction separating eastern and Beringian lineages, which we show to be the result of simultaneous divergence. Genetic diversity is similar within each haplogroup for each species, and there is no support for a post-Pleistocene population expansion in eastern lineages relative to those from Beringia. Bayesian skyline plots for four of the five species do not support Pleistocene population contraction. Brown Lemmings show evidence of late Quaternary demographic expansion without subsequent population decline. The Wrangell-St. Elias region of eastern Alaska appears to be an important zone of recent secondary contact for nearctic alpine mammals. Despite differences in natural history and ecology, similar phylogeographic histories are supported for all species, suggesting that these, and likely other, alpine- and arctic-adapted taxa are already experiencing population and/or range declines that are likely to synergistically accelerate in the face of rapid climate change. Climate change may therefore be acting as a double-edged sword that erodes genetic diversity within populations but promotes divergence and the generation of

  11. Impact of the Yakutat indentor corner on present-day tectonics and fault activity in SE Alaska - SW Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an active tectonic model of the SE Alaska - SW Yukon region based principally on the integration of recent GPS velocity data and new fault-slip rates derived from geomorphology. In this region, the Yakutat collision results in complex tectonics with patterns of strain localization and strain partitioning that strongly vary across the various mountain ranges and active faults. We propose that deformation and fault activity in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains are primarily controlled by the eastern syntaxis of the Yakutat collision, which produces a semi-radial tectonic pattern: Velocities, principal horizontal shortening rates, and maximum horizontal stress orientations rotate by 60 - 80 ° around the syntaxis, from roughly parallel to the relative Pacific - North America motion at the front of the collision to roughly orthogonal southeast of the syntaxis. The interaction between this strain pattern and major inherited tectonic structures inland of the collision zone (i.e., Denali and Duke River Faults) results in various reactivation modes of these structures. Specifically, the Denali Fault shows a very pronounced lateral variations of activity from ~12 mm/a of dextral slip rate in its central section to ~1 mm/a of mostly shortening slip rate along its southern section. This marked change of activity is associated with a possible relay system where the Duke River and Totschunda Faults accommodate a major part (8 - 12 mm/a) of the inland strain transfer directly in front of the syntaxis. This new tectonic model retains some questions, in particular regarding the mechanisms of deformation and strain transfer (1) from the syntaxis to the Duke River - Totschunda system and (2) at the junction between Totschunda and Denali Faults. Numerical models of present-day deformation may help address these issues and provide information about relative strength of the various crustal and inherited fault elements of this system.

  12. Quantifying the Flow Kinematics of Debris-Covered Glaciers with Repeat Airborne LiDAR and Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. W.; Larsen, C. F.; Levy, J. S.; Petersen, E. I.

    2014-12-01

    Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers encompass a range of compositions and activity, including relict glaciers containing ice that has survived long after accumulation has ceased. Hence they are useful paleoclimate indicators in some cases, and if currently active will respond differently to ongoing climate change than glaciers without a protective cover. Their flow dynamics are not well understood, partially due to their typically slow velocities (centimeters per year in many cases); furthermore, their unique surface morphologies, including lobate fronts and arcuate ridges, likely result from viscous flow influenced by a combination of composition, structure, and climatic factors. However, basic connections between flow kinematics and surface morphology have not yet been established, limiting our ability to understand these features and extract paleoclimate information. In order to address this problem, we have acquired repeat, high-resolution topographic maps of debris-covered and rock glaciers in the Wrangell-St. Elias range of Alaska and Sierra Nevada, California. This was accomplished using both scanning LiDAR and photogrammetry to produce digital terrain models (DTMs) with approx. 25 cm resolution. Differencing the DTMs provides full-surface deformation fields that indicate up to meters of annual motion in some cases. The flow field is highly correlated with surface features; in particular, compressional ridges. We are undertaking surface geophysics measurements on Sourdough Rock Glacier in Alaska to relate internal structure and composition to the observed morphology and flow kinematics. Our results demonstrate the utility of repeat topographic mapping and will help provide new insights into the climatic significance of rock and debris-covered glaciers on both Earth and Mars.

  13. Contour Map for the Gravitational Potential of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-12-01

    One usually does not draw a 2D contour plot for the gravitational potential of an astronomical system. It is too boring. For the solar system, the plot of equipotentials is simply a nest of circles about the sun as the center. Replace the sun with a black hole, squash the inner contours towards the x-y plane, and voila, the Milky Way. The situation is entirely different with the non-Newtonian sinusoidal potential. Here φ = -GM cos(2πr/λ)/r, λ =Ro/20, and Ro is the distance from the sun to the center of the Galaxy.[1] Now the contour plot for the Milky Way has an infinite number of minima and maxima. In this poster I show the contours for a disk galaxy having about 20 equal-spaced rings of mass mi = ai exp[-a&i/ 5λ ], ai = (i+1/4) λ, i=0,1,..19. The λ /4 offset is essential if this toy galaxy is to model the Milky Way that has, I predict, a physical bar in its center. (Other choices for the offset can model M31 or M33). Close to the center this model generates a dynamical disk of λ /4 = 100 pc half-thickness that is separate from the bulge. Evidence of this separation is clearly seen in CO (Fukui et al 2006). Near the solar circle, there are strong radial tidal forces. These forces appear in the data on long-period comets (Matese & Whitmire 1996) and on the position and kinematics of stars in the Gould Belt (Elias et al 2006). Finally the model accommodates the 3 evenly spaced stellar arcs at the periphery of the Milky Way (Grillmair 2006). I thank Peter Bender for suggesting this plot and John Cumulat for continual support. [1] D. F. Bartlett, "Analogies between Electricity and Gravity", Metrologia 41, 2004, S115-S124.

  14. sPLA2 and the epidermal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Dusko; Bollinger, James M.; Gelb, Michael; Mauro, Theodora M.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian epidermis provides both an interface and a protective barrier between the organism and its environment. Lipid, processed into water-impermeable bilayers between the outermost layers of the epidermal cells, forms the major barrier that prevents water from exiting the organism, and also prevents toxins and infectious agents from entering. The secretory phospholipase 2 (sPLA2) enzymes control important processes in skin and other organs, including inflammation and differentiation. sPLA2 activity contributes to epidermal barrier formation and homeostasis by generating free fatty acids, which are required both for formation of lamellar membranes and also for acidification of the stratum corneum (SC). sPLA2 is especially important in controlling SC acidification and establishment of an optimum epidermal barrier during the first postnatal week. Several sPLA2 isoforms are present in the epidermis. We find that two of these isoforms, sPLA2 IIA and sPLA2 IIF, localize to the upper stratum granulosum and increase in response to experimental barrier perturbation. sPLA2F−/− mice also demonstrate a more neutral SC pH than do their normal littermates, and their initial recovery from barrier perturbation is delayed. These findings confirm that sPLA2 enzymes perform important roles in epidermal development, and suggest that the sPLA2IIF isoform may be central to SC acidification and barrier function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:24269828

  15. The important role of epidermal triacylglycerol metabolism for maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function.

    PubMed

    Radner, Franz P W; Fischer, Judith

    2014-03-01

    Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:23928127

  16. Late-Type Red Supergiants: Too Cool for the Clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, P.; Olsen, K. A.; Plez, B.

    2006-12-01

    It has long been known that the median spectral types of red supergiants change from M2 I in the Milky Way to M1 I in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and to K5-7 I in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) (Elias et al 1985, Massey & Olsen 2002). This is now understood in terms of the shifting of the evolutionary tracks to warmer temperatures with decreasing metallicity. Stars falling below the temperatures of these tracks would no longer be in hydrostatic equilibrium. This region of the H-R diagram is known as the Hayashi "forbidden zone". Early work identified supergiants no later than M2 I in the SMC, while in the Milky Way supergiants of spectral class M4 I and later abound. However, our work has identified seven red supergiants in the LMC and four red supergiants in the SMC, all of which have spectral types that are considerably later than the average type observed in their parent galaxy. We find that these stars have radial velocities which are consistent with membership in the Clouds. By fitting our moderate-resolution spectrophotometry of these stars with MARCS stellar atmosphere models of the appropriate metallicities, we also determine their physical parameters and place them on the H-R diagram for comparison with the predictions of current stellar evolutionary tracks. We find that these stars are colder and more luminous than allowed by the predictions of stellar evolutionary theory at these low metallicities. Unsurprisingly, these stars also exhibit unusual variability in V. We then suggest that these stars have such unusual properties because they are in an unstable (and short-lived) phase of their evolutionary lives. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through AST-0604569 to PM.

  17. Contemporary fault mechanics in southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbas, James L.; Freed, Andrew M.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.

    Thin-shell finite-element models, constrained by a limited set of geologic slip rates, provide a tool for evaluating the organization of contemporary faulting in southeastern Alaska. The primary structural features considered in our analysis are the Denali, Duke River, Totschunda, Fairweather, Queen Charlotte, and Transition faults. The combination of fault configurations and rheological properties that best explains observed geologic slip rates predicts that the Fairweather and Totschunda faults are joined by an inferred southeast-trending strike-slip fault that crosses the St. Elias Mountains. From a regional perspective, this structure, which our models suggest slips at a rate of ˜8 mm/a, transfers shear from the Queen Charlotte fault in southeastern Alaska and British Columbia northward to the Denali fault in central Alaska. This result supports previous hypotheses that the Fairweather-Totschunda connecting fault constitutes a newly established northward extension of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform system and helps accommodate right-lateral motion (˜49 mm/a) of the Pacific plate and Yakutat microplate relative to stable North America. Model results also imply that the Transition fault separating the Yakutat microplate from the Pacific plate is favorably oriented to accommodate significant thrusting (23 mm/a). Rapid dip-slip displacement on the Transition fault does not, however, draw shear off of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform fault system. Our new modeling results suggest that the Totschunda fault, the proposed Fairweather-Totschunda connecting fault, and the Fairweather fault may represent the youngest stage of southwestward migration of the active strike-slip deformation front in the long-term evolution of this convergent margin.

  18. Simultaneous observations of ice motion, calving and seismicity on the Yahtse Glacier, Alaska. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. F.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; O'Neel, S.; West, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    We observe ice motion, calving and seismicity simultaneously and with high-resolution on an advancing tidewater glacier in Icy Bay, Alaska. Icy Bay’s tidewater glaciers dominate regional glacier-generated seismicity in Alaska. Yahtse emanates from the St. Elias Range near the Bering-Bagley-Seward-Malaspina Icefield system, the most extensive glacier cover outside the polar regions. Rapid rates of change and fast flow (>16 m/d near the terminus) at Yahtse Glacier provide a direct analog to the disintegrating outlet systems in Greenland. Our field experiment co-locates GPS and seismometers on the surface of the glacier, with a greater network of bedrock seismometers surrounding the glacier. Time-lapse photogrammetry, fjord wave height sensors, and optical survey methods monitor iceberg calving and ice velocity near the terminus. This suite of geophysical instrumentation enables us to characterize glacier motion and geometry changes while concurrently listening for seismic energy release. We are performing a close examination of calving as a seismic source, and the associated mechanisms of energy transfer to seismic waves. Detailed observations of ice motion (GPS and optical surveying), glacier geometry and iceberg calving (direct observations and timelapse photogrammetry) have been made in concert with a passive seismic network. Combined, the observations form the basis of a rigorous analysis exploring the relationship between glacier-generated seismic events and motion, glacier-fiord interactions, calving and hydraulics. Our work is designed to demonstrate the applicability and utility of seismology to study the impact of climate forcing on calving glaciers.

  19. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  20. Northern Cordilleran Ice Sheet Dynamics in Coastal Alaska from MIS 3 to the Present: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; LeVay, L.; St-Onge, G.; Mix, A. C.; Bahlburg, H.; Davies-Walczak, M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing the timing of northwestern Cordilleran ice sheet (NCIS) advance-retreat cycles in southern Alaska allows for investigation of global synchronicity in glacial-age climate forcing. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 targeted the glacial dynamics of the NCIS in the coastal St. Elias range. Sediment cores from Site U1419 encompass times of global ice advance and retreat from MIS 3 to the present, based on a preliminary age model with 5-kya resolution developed using oxygen isotopes from benthic and planktonic foraminifera and stratigraphic correlation with a previously C-14 dated site survey core (Davies et al., 2011; doi:10.1029/2010PA002051). CT images of cores were used to identify sedimentary facies and relative ice sheet proximity. Six sedimentary facies were identified in the images; massive mud with and without lonestones, laminations with and without lonestones, massive and stratified diamict (>1 clast/cm). Elemental scanning XRF data were used to delineate possible downcore changes in sediment provenance using provenance-sensitive transition metals. Diamict and gravelly mud are the most common facies, indicative of persistent glacial input interpreted as marine-terminating glacial systems. Stratified diamicts are interpreted as periods of maximum ice extent (~18-20 ka), whereas massive mud (~14 ka-present) suggests terminus retreat. Intervals of laminated mud with and without lonestones are interpreted as periods of reduced ice cover, with the most recent (~14.5 kya) coinciding with the Bølling Interstade of northern Europe/Greenland (Davies et al., 2011). Downcore changes in Al-normalized metal XRF counts vary along with sedimentary lithoficies, suggesting changes in sediment provenance that may be related to the quantity of glacigenic sediment delivery to this location.

  1. SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korona, J.; Berthier, E.; Bernard, M.; Remy, F.; Thouvenot, E.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies) IPY project. SPIRIT allows (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the free delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to November 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ± 5 m (RMSE) of ICESat elevations. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We also demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30 to 40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.

  2. Subservient analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Luiz

    2003-10-01

    'Ought training analysis to be maintained?' This question, posed by Elias da Rocha Barros, chairing the IJP Congress of Training Analysts in 2001, is used by the author as a starting-point from which to present his ideas on the subject. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first the author presents a survey of the principal criticisms directed at training analysis since 1930. He examines a series of papers that have attracted the attention of those who have studied the subject, with the intention of describing the functional organisation of training analysis and its effects. The second part, based on the criticism presented in the first part, deals with the continuous pressure put on training analysis, in order to maintain its 'didactic' character. This transforms it into an autonomous reality, external to the pair, preceding and steering it. The author describes and discusses this structural aspect of its organisation. In the third part he presents two hypotheses about what factors nourish training analysis in spite of the thoroughness of the criticisms aimed at it. He describes training analysis as a fetish and as an ideological construct. As a fetish it is utilised by analysts to deny the limitations of analysis tout court, and as an ideological construct it is used to conceal its symptomatic character, naturalising it through its prescriptive institutional functioning. The author consequently replies to the initial question in the negative, even suggesting that all analysis discriminated as 'training analysis' ought to be abolished, leaving to the analysands the task of taking care of their analyses. This would be a measure that would also assist in the de-ideologisation of the Institution's mode of operation. The third part also contains a discussion and a criticism of a few suggestions addressed to training analysis in order to modify its functioning and character. PMID:14633428

  3. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  4. Summit CO 2 emission rates by the CO 2/SO 2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaíi, during a period of sustained inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, S. A.; Gerlach, T. M.; Wallace, P. J.

    2008-11-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaíi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June-July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO 2 emission rates with synchronous CO 2/SO 2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO 2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995-1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO 2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO 2/SO 2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO 2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO 2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  5. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  6. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    /ENTApP, the Hellenic Ministry for Education and Religion, Athens University and ETHNIKI Insurance Co. that financially supported the Conference. We also thank the members of the Local Organizing Committee and the International Scientific Committee. Editors Theodosios I Christodoulakis Elias C Vagenas International Scientific Committee Kokkotas, K (University of Thessaloniki, Greece) Schäfer, G (University of Jena, Germany) Zanelli, J (CECS, Chile) Local Organizing Committee Christodoulakis, T I (University of Athens) Chairman Apostolatos, T (University of Athens) Stavrinos, P (University of Athens) Grammenos, T (University of Thessaly) Zoupas, A (University of Athens and University of Thessaly) Vagenas, E C (University of Athens)

  7. The Distribution and Abundance of Mercury Methylating Microorganisms in Mid-Atlantic Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. F. U.; Gilmour, C. C.; Schwartz, G.; Christensen, G. A.; King, A. J.; Elias, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the genes responsible for microbial methylmercury production, hgcAB, has led to the identification of novel Hg methylators with diverse metabolisms including Fe and SO42- reducing bacteria, syntrophs, and methanogens. We recently developed DNA probes for hgcA in each group of methylators: Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Archaea [Christensen, 2015]. In this study, we use the probes to determine quantity and distribution of hgcA+ organisms in mid-Atlantic marshes and sediments, and in Hg-contaminated wetland soils. We also analyze hgcA distribution over a 28-day soil slurry experiment designed to evaluate the impact of activated carbon on Hg methylation and demethylation [Gilmour, 2015]. Initial soils show Deltaproteobacteria comprise most hgcA+ organisms. Methanogens encompass >45% of the remaining methylators. The addition of SO42- to induce SO42- reducing conditions in slurries caused the number of hgcA+ Deltaproteobacteria to increase and the number of hgcA+ methanogens to decrease to >32%. In soils and slurries, Firmicutes were below detection, suggesting our Firmicute primers are either unrepresentative in natural samples, or that hgcA+ Firmicutes are rare. This observation is interesting as Firmicutes include organisms with divergent metabolisms, and their role in environmental methylation is still unknown. Slurries also show no correlation between hgcA abundance and Hg concentrations. We now plan to explore how hgcA abundance relates to Hg-methylation and electron acceptor availability. Our results offer initial insights into the natural distribution of hgcA, supporting the idea that the distribution of different methylators is related to electron acceptors and redox chemistry. Christensen, G., Wymore, AM, King, A, Pdar, M, Hurt Jur, RA, Santillan, EFU, Gilmour, CC, Brandt, CC, Brown, SD, Palumbo, AV, Elias, DA (2015), A Study of Mercury Methylation Genetics: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of hgcAB in Pure Culture, paper presented

  8. BOOK REVIEW: String Theory in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas

    2007-11-01

    The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to

  9. IMPROVING SCIENCE EDUCATION AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA:The Synergistic Connection between Educational Outreach Efforts in the Copper Valley, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; McCarthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Education Outreach is to enhance the science education opportunities in the Copper Valley region in Alaska. In the process, we also educate local residents about HAARP and its research. Funded jointly by US Air Force and Navy, HAARP is located at Gakona Alaska, a very rural region of central Alaska with a predominantly Native population. The main instrument at HAARP is a vertically directed, phased array RF transmitter which is primarily an ionospheric research tool, however, its geophysical research applications range from terrestrial to near-space. Research is conducted at HAARP in collaboration with scientists and institutions world-wide. The HAARP Education Outreach Program, run through the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been active for over six years and in that time has become an integral part of science education in the Copper Valley for residents of all ages. HAARP education outreach efforts are through direct involvement in local schools in the Copper River School District (CRSD) and the Prince William Sound Community College (PWSCC), as well as public lectures and workshops, and intern and student research programs. These outreach efforts require cooperation and coordination between the CRSD, PWSCC, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Physics Department and the NSF sponsored Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) and HAARP researchers. The HAARP Outreach program also works with other organizations promoting science education in the region, such as the National Park Service (Wrangell- St. Elias National Park) and the Wrangell Institute for Science and Environment (WISE) a newly formed regional non-profit organization. We work closely with teachers in the schools, adapting to their needs and the particular scientific topic they are covering at the time. Because of time and logistic constraints, outreach visits to schools are episodic, occurring roughly

  10. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  11. Crustal Thickness Across Alaska via Ps Receiver Functions and Gravity Data and Comparison to Lithospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, L.; Saltus, R. W.; Miller, M. S.; Porritt, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic mosaic of terranes, adjacent multi-phase plate boundary, rapid lateral topographic variations, and heterogeneous distribution of strain throughout Alaska all suggest strong heterogeneity of crustal architecture. We present a model of crustal thickness across the state is primarily constrained where seismic instrumentation has been deployed - dense coverage in the south-central region and sparse coverage in the north, west, and arc regions. P receiver functions (PRF) were calculated using an upgraded version of Funclab, a software module that retrieves data, calculates receiver functions, facilitates quality control, and calculates H-k stacking, depth mapping via binned Common Conversion Point stacking, and other backend products. 1,678 events and 262 stations yielded 102,000 preliminary PRF that were culled to 21,000 total RFs. Iterative time-domain deconvolution was performed about a 1 Hz central frequency for ZRT traces. Our model reproduces many of the Moho depth variations previously modeled by receiver functions and gravity. Thick (>60 km) crust below the Chugach and St. Elias Ranges transitions to ~40 km thick crust south of the Denali Fault. Immediately to the north, thin (29-35) crust is observed in central Alaska between the Alaska and Brooks Ranges. The central Brooks Range is observed to have a thick crustal root below its topographic high axis. Stations scattered throughout western Alaska and the Bering Sea regions generally show average (~35 km) thickness crust while displaying inter-station uniqueness in the form of stacked RFs. Below the forearc and central Alaska Range, the Yakutat slab Moho is also observed. To complete coverage for the state we use a gravity Moho model calibrated to our receiver function solutions. The resolution of gravity-derived Moho models is limited and can only produce a smoothed approximation of the actual Moho. Where receiver function results are dense we observe significant complexity to the Moho, consistent

  12. Dynamics and internal structure of an Alaskan debris-covered glacier from repeat airborne photogrammetry and surface geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, John; Levy, Joseph; Petersen, Eric; Larsen, Chris; Fahnestock, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers encompass a range of compositions and activity, and can be useful paleoclimate indicators. They also respond differently to ongoing climate change than glaciers without a protective cover. Their flow dynamics are not well understood, and their unique surface morphologies, including lobate fronts and arcuate ridges, likely result from viscous flow influenced by a combination of composition, structure, and climatic factors. However, basic connections between flow kinematics and surface morphology have not yet been established, limiting our ability to understand these features. In order to begin to address this problem we have undertaken airborne and surface studies of multiple debris-covered glaciers in Alaska and the western U.S. Sourdough Rock Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, is completely debris-covered and exhibits numerous transverse compressional ridges. Its trunk also exhibits highly regular bumps and swales with a wavelength of ~175 m and amplitudes up to 12 m. In the middle trunk, lineations (boulder trains and furrows) bend around a point roughly 200m from the eastern edge. We acquired five high-resolution airborne surveys of Sourdough Rock Glacier between late 2013 and late 2015 using lidar and photogrammetry to assess annual and seasonal change at the sub-meter level. Differencing the DTMs provides vertical change while feature tracking in orthophotos provide horizontal velocities that indicate meters of annual motion. The flow field is highly correlated with surface features; in particular, compressional ridges in the lower lobe. Stranded, formerly active lobes are also apparent. Surface geophysical studies were undertaken to constrain internal structure and composition using a combination of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at 50 and 100 MHz in six transects, and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements at 47 locations, primarily in an along-flow transect and two cross-flow transects. We infer

  13. Nutritional Status in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    TEIUSANU, Adriana; ANDREI, Mihai; ARBANAS, Tudor; NICOLAIE, Tudor; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Malnutrition is prevalent in all forms of liver disease: from 20% in compensated liver disease to more than 80% in those patients with decompensated liver disease. Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) can be identified in all clinical stages but is easier observed in advanced stages of liver disease. The presence of malnutrition is associated with increased number of complications and increased short and long term mortality. Aim: to evaluate the nutritional status using of combination of BMI (Body Mass Index), TST (triceps skinfold thickness) and MAMC (mid-arm muscle circumference). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. The features of subjective global assessment are history, physical evaluation and SGA rating. Based on this evaluation, patients were classified into three groups: well, moderately malnourished and severely malnourished. Material and methods: Our study was designed as a descriptive prospective analysis of patients with cirrhosis, admitted in Elias Emergency Hospital, Gastroenterology Department, during a year, January 2010-January 2011. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on the medical history, physical exa­mination, biochemical findings and imagistic methods (ultrasound and / or computed tomography). A series of 176 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, 114 (65%) male and 62 (35%) female, median age 52 (range 18-68 years). Etiology of liver disease was alcoholic in 98 (56%), hepatitis B virus in 14 (8%), HCV in 43 (24%), HBV and HDV in 10 (7%), 11 patients have other etiology. The evaluation of nutritional status was made by different methods. A detailed history was recorded with appetite, caloric intake, change in body weight. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status was determined for every patient. Conclusions: Malnutrition was correlated with clinical severity of liver disease. The mild-moderate malnourished patients are 88% Child B, over 58% with viral

  14. Surge-like behavior at the non-surge type Matanuska Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal glacier velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of meltwater input. Abe and Furuya (2014) reported winter speed-up signals and their downglacier propagation at a number of glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, based on ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. Here we perform the similar analyses at the Chugach mountain range of South Central Alaska, and report the spatial-temporal evolution of the Matanuska Glacier. Matanuska Glacier is the largest accessible glacier in Alaska with its nearly 40 km length and 5 km width near the terminus. Comparing the winter velocity images in 2007, 2008 and 2010, those in 2010 were about 1.5-2 times faster than those during the previous two years. In addition, comparing the fall and winter velocities, winter velocities were apparently faster at every 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 season. These data indicate winter speed-up or mini-surge signals even at a temperate and non-surgetype Matanuska Glacier. We also examine the spatial-temporal elevation changes, using data from the LiDAR altimeter in the Icebridge mission, and found significant elevation increase near the terminus. Winter speed-up may not be uncommon at Alaskan/Yukon glaciers. Lingle and Fatland (2003) detected faster speed in winter than in fall at non-surging Seward Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains; this is the only published and unambiguous report of winter speed-up, to our knowledge. Combined with earlier glacier hydrological studies, Lingle and Fatland proposed englacial water storage and gravity-driven water flow toward the bed in winter regardless of whether a given glacier is surge-type or not, and considered that the capacity of englacial water storage would control if a given glacier was surge-type or not. We consider that our measurements are complementary to Lingle and Fatland's observations and lend further support for their hypothesis. Basal

  15. A new method for GPS-based wind speed determinations during airborne volcanic plume measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Begun nearly thirty years ago, the measurement of gases in volcanic plumes is today an accepted technique in volcano research. Volcanic plume measurements, whether baseline gas emissions from quiescent volcanoes or more substantial emissions from volcanoes undergoing unrest, provide important information on the amount of gaseous output of a volcano to the atmosphere. Measuring changes in gas emission rates also allows insight into eruptive behavior. Some of the earliest volcanic plume measurements of sulfur dioxide were made using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The COSPEC, developed originally for industrial pollution studies, is an upward-looking optical spectrometer tuned to the ultraviolet absorption wavelength of sulfur dioxide (Millán and Hoff, 1978). In airborne mode, the COSPEC is mounted in a fixed-wing aircraft and flown back and forth just underneath a volcanic plume, perpendicular to the direction of plume travel (Casadevall and others, 1981; Stoiber and others, 1983). Similarly, for plumes close to the ground, the COSPEC can be mounted in an automobile and driven underneath a plume if a suitable road system is available (Elias and others, 1998). The COSPEC can also be mounted on a tripod and used to scan a volcanic plume from a fixed location on the ground, although the effectiveness of this configuration declines with distance from the plume (Kyle and others, 1990). In the 1990’s, newer airborne techniques involving direct sampling of volcanic plumes with infrared spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were developed in order to measure additional gases such as CO2 and H2S (Gerlach and others, 1997; Gerlach and others, 1999; McGee and others, 2001). These methods involve constructing a plume cross-section from several measurement traverses through the plume in a vertical plane. Newer instruments such as open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are now being used to measure the gases in volcanic plumes mostly from fixed

  16. Crustal deformation associated with glacial fluctuations in the eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauber, Jeanne; Plafker, George; Molnia, Bruce F.; Bryant, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    significant in relation to the stress drops in recent earthquakes (≈ 2 to 10 MPa) but small in relation to the estimated tectonic stress magnitude. Therefore the occurrence of an earthquake such as the St. Elias (1979, MS = 7.2) may have been advanced in time; however, most of the ongoing stress accumulation would be primarily due to tectonic forces.

  17. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Permafrost in National Parks of Alaska: Will Permafrost Survive the Climate Warming of 21st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Swanson, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost underlies ~70% of all National Park Service administered land in Alaska and it provides a stable foundation to parks' ecosystems and wildlife habitats. However, the strength of this foundation is waning as its temperature is rising in response to recent climate warming. Consequently, thermokarst activities are on the rise and they are altering the parks' landscape, ecosystems, and wildlife habitats. In order to effectively respond to these changes park managers need up-to-date knowledge of the current permafrost temperature and distribution, and how they might evolve with changing climate in the future. To help decision makers understand and respond to the changing permafrost condition, we are modeling near-surface permafrost dynamics—permafrost temperature, distribution, and active layer thickness—in eight national parks of Alaska at a decadal time scale. We are using GIPL 1.0 model (Spatially Distributed Model of Permafrost Dynamics in Alaska), the best available climate inputs, and high-resolution (28 m) ecotype, soil landscape, and snow inputs. Here we present results for two national parks—Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA) and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST). Areas underlain by glaciers and permanent ice-fields were excluded. In DENA, the model suggested near-surface permafrost in 51% of the park area for the 2000 decade, predicted its decline to 6% by 2050s, and 1% by 2090s. In WRST, the model suggested near-surface permafrost in 72% of the park area for the 2000 decade, predicted its decline to 42% by 2050s, and 15% by 2090s. In summary, the near-surface permafrost will likely be degrading in most parts of DENA and WRST towards the end of the current century except at higher elevations where climate models continue to project colder temperature. The modeled maps of DENA and WRST showed 86% and 95% agreement with the field observations of permafrost presence/ absence at 1375 and 430 sites, respectively. In

  18. Late Quaternary glacial relief evolution and fracture-density control on erosion revealed by low-temperature thermochronometry and remote sensing (Granite Range, Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Lowick, Sally; Guralnik, Benny; Shuster, David; Fellin, Giuditta

    2013-04-01

    Long-term erosion and topographic evolution of mountain belts arise from complex coupling between tectonics, climate and surface processes. The Granite Range (Wrangell-St Elias National Park, Alaska) presents an ideal setting to study such interactions. Its alpine landscape, preserving typical glacial features (U-shaped valleys, cirques), appears highly smoothed in the west, and progressively more rugged towards the east. In the field, this is evidenced by minor and only localized faulting of massive bedrock (granite and paragneiss) in the west, while the eastern part shows highly fractured bedrock (penetrative faults, fault gouges). Remote-sensing analysis confirms that fracture density is much higher towards east, and also reveals high post-glacial incision only in areas associated with high fracture density. To quantify our morphometric observations, we sampled four elevation profiles (~15 samples in total) over an 80-km East-West transect for low-temperature thermochrometry. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He dating provides ages between ~10 and 30 Ma, in agreement with published data, and shows apparent low long-term exhumation rates (~0.05-0.1 km/Ma). Preliminary 4He/3He thermochronometry data reveal a more complex exhumation history, with a significant increase since ~6-5 Ma which can be related to either onset of glaciations in Alaska or a major change in tectonic activity occurring at that period. Further data collected within the Granite Range will help to decipher the origin of this late-Miocene acceleration in exhumation. We also performed luminescence thermochronometry measured on feldspar separates from bedrock samples. Our results show a strong East-West gradient in samples saturation ratio. Apparent ages vary from ~250 ka in the western part of the range, towards younger ages of ~30 ka in the east. This pattern reveals spatially variable erosion rates during the late Quaternary associated with a major fracture-density control on erosion, and further supports the

  19. Simultaneous assessment of rotavirus-specific memory B cells and serological memory after B cell depletion therapy with rituximab.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Daniel; Rojas, Olga L; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Mantilla, Rubén D; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of serological memory are still unclear. Rotavirus (RV) memory B cells (mBc) are enriched in IgM(+) and CD27- subpopulations, which are associated with autoimmune diseases pathogenesis. In patients with autoimmune diseases treated with Rituximab (RTX), some autoantibodies (auto-Abs) decrease after treatment, but other auto-Abs and pathogen-specific IgG Abs remain unchanged. Thus, maintenance of autoimmune and pathogen-specific serological memory may depend on the type of antigen and/or Ab isotype evaluated. Antigen-specific mBc and antigen-specific Abs of different isotypes have not been simultaneously assessed in patients after RTX treatment. To study the relationship between mBc subpopulations and serological memory we characterized total, RV- and tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific mBc by flow cytometry in patients with autoimmune diseases before and after treatment with RTX. We also measured total, RV- and TT-Abs, and some auto-Abs by kinetic nephelometry, ELISA, and EliA tests, respectively. Minor differences were observed between the relative frequencies of RV-mBc in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune disease. After RTX treatment, naïve Bc and total, RV- and TT-specific mBc [IgM(+), switched (IgA(+)/IgG(+)), IgM(+) only, IgD(+) only, and CD27- (IgA(+)/IgG(+)/IgM(+))] were significantly diminished. An important decrease in total plasma IgM and minor decreases in total IgG and IgA levels were also observed. IgM rheumatoid factor, IgG anti-CCP, and IgG anti-dsDNA were significantly diminished. In contrast, RV-IgA, RV-IgG and RV-IgG1, and TT-IgG titers remained stable. In conclusion, in patients with autoimmunity, serological memory against RV and TT seem to be maintained by long-lived plasma cells, unaffected by RTX, and an important proportion of total IgM and serological memory against some auto-antigens seem to be maintained by short-lived plasma cells, dependent on mBc precursors depleted by RTX.

  20. Simultaneous Assessment of Rotavirus-Specific Memory B Cells and Serological Memory after B Cell Depletion Therapy with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Daniel; Rojas, Olga L.; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Ángel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of serological memory are still unclear. Rotavirus (RV) memory B cells (mBc) are enriched in IgM+ and CD27- subpopulations, which are associated with autoimmune diseases pathogenesis. In patients with autoimmune diseases treated with Rituximab (RTX), some autoantibodies (auto-Abs) decrease after treatment, but other auto-Abs and pathogen-specific IgG Abs remain unchanged. Thus, maintenance of autoimmune and pathogen-specific serological memory may depend on the type of antigen and/or Ab isotype evaluated. Antigen-specific mBc and antigen-specific Abs of different isotypes have not been simultaneously assessed in patients after RTX treatment. To study the relationship between mBc subpopulations and serological memory we characterized total, RV- and tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific mBc by flow cytometry in patients with autoimmune diseases before and after treatment with RTX. We also measured total, RV- and TT-Abs, and some auto-Abs by kinetic nephelometry, ELISA, and EliA tests, respectively. Minor differences were observed between the relative frequencies of RV-mBc in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune disease. After RTX treatment, naïve Bc and total, RV- and TT-specific mBc [IgM+, switched (IgA+/IgG+), IgM+ only, IgD+ only, and CD27- (IgA+/IgG+/IgM+)] were significantly diminished. An important decrease in total plasma IgM and minor decreases in total IgG and IgA levels were also observed. IgM rheumatoid factor, IgG anti-CCP, and IgG anti-dsDNA were significantly diminished. In contrast, RV-IgA, RV-IgG and RV-IgG1, and TT-IgG titers remained stable. In conclusion, in patients with autoimmunity, serological memory against RV and TT seem to be maintained by long-lived plasma cells, unaffected by RTX, and an important proportion of total IgM and serological memory against some auto-antigens seem to be maintained by short-lived plasma cells, dependent on mBc precursors depleted by RTX. PMID:24819618

  1. Towards understanding North Pacific climate variabilty with instrumental and ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Eric P.

    Reconstructing climate variability prior to the instrumental era is critical to advance our understanding of the Earth's climate system. Although many paleoclimate records from the North Atlantic basin have been studied, relatively few paleoclimate records have been recovered in the North Pacific leaving a gap in our knowledge concerning North Pacific climate variability. The Eclipse and Mount Logan Prospector-Russell ice cores are favorably located in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada to document North Pacific climate variability over the late Holocene. Detailed analysis reveals a consistent relationship of surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies associated with extreme Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Pacific-North America (PNA) index values, and a consistent relationship of North Pacific sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies associated with extreme Mt. Logan annual [Na+] and Eclipse cold season accumulation values. Spatial SAT anomaly patterns are most consistent for AO and PNA index values ≥1.5 and ≤-1.5 during the period 1872-2010. The highest and lowest ˜10% of Eclipse warm and cold season stable isotopes are associated with distinct atmospheric circulation patterns. The most-fractionated isotope values occur with a weaker Aleutian Low, and the least-fractionated isotope values occur with an amplification of the Aleutian Low and northwestern North American ridge. The assumption of stationarity between ice core records and sea-level pressure was tested for the Eclipse cold season accumulation and Mt. Logan annual sodium concentration records for 1872-2001. A stationary relationship was found for ≥95% of years when Mt. Logan sodium concentrations were ≤1.32 microg/L, with positive SLP anomalies in the eastern North Pacific. This high frequency supports the use of low sodium values at Mt. Logan for a reconstruction of SLP prior to 1872. Negative SLP anomalies in the North Pacific occurred for extreme high sodium concentration years and positive SLP

  2. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fei; Xu, Min; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Yu, Jiang; Xu, Weiguo; Moussalli, Micheline J.; Elias, Elias; Li, Haiyan S.; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Shureiqi, Imad

    2015-01-01

    The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate–induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.—Mao, F., Xu, M., Zuo, X., Yu, J., Xu, W., Moussalli, M. J., Elias, E., Li, H. S., Watowich, S. S., Shureiqi, I. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:25713055

  3. Documenting and Communicating the Dynamics of a Rapidly Changing Cryosphere Through the Use of Repeat Ground-Based, Airborne, and Space-Based Photography and Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    about sub-decadal to century-scale changes to glaciers and landscapes. These locations include: Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve of the St. Elias Mountains, Kenai Fjords National Park of the Kenai Mountains, the northwestern Prince William Sound area of the Chugach Mountains, and the Juneau Icefield of the Coast Mountains. In each, detailed assessments of these all-source data were performed and annotated image pairs and triplets are presented to show the results and positive benefits of this approach.

  4. PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

  5. Laurentian and Baltican components of Terranes in NW Washington: Implications for Displacement of Paleozoic Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, E. R.; Brown, N.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cordillera. Although our prior work suggested connections to Turtleback complex (San Juan Islands) and Alexander terrane (Karheen formation) based on U-Pb data, Hf data appear to rule out such connections. However some elements of Alexander terrane (St Elias and Banks Island) are similar to YAC, and further work is needed to resolve the tectonic links.

  6. Identification of Gas Phase PAHs in Absorption Towards Protostellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The infrared emission bands (also known as the UIR bands.) have recently been observed in absorption at 3.25 micrometers in the ices surrounding a few proto-stellar objects at 11.2 micrometers in MonR2, and at 6.2 micrometers towards two sources near the galactic center. The UIR bands have been observed in emission for many years, but identifying these bands has proven to be both difficult and contentious as no one has yet found a single material that provides a good match to the features. However, most investigators agree that some form of carbon-based material with aromatic bonds is the most likely candidate, and many arguments favor free molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) as the carriers of at least the narrow emission bands. Since the emission arises not from a single molecule but from a family of molecules, identifying which PAHs are contributing to the infrared emission bands is difficult. The identification is further complicated by the fact that the emission at short wavelengths is dominated by small molecules while at long wavelengths it is dominated by large molecules. Thus, for example, the emission at 3.3 micrometers is from a different mix of molecules than those which produce the 11.2 micrometer band. To complicate matters further, the molecular mix includes both neutral and ionic species. In absorption, the same mixture of molecules contributes at all wavelengths and the molecules should be neutral, potentially simplifying comparisons with lab data. Also, absorption strengths measured in the lab are directly applicable to interstellar absorption bands without the need to model an emission spectrum of an unknown mixture of ionized and neutral PAHs. In this paper we show that a mixture of argon matrix isolated PAH molecules can reproduce the 3.25 micrometers absorption band seen in the ISO SWS spectra of four embedded Infrared sources, S140 IRS1, AFGL 2591, Elias 29, and AFGL 989. In section 2 we describe the ISO SWS data analysis and

  7. Crustal Deformation Associated with Glacial Fluctuations in the Eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Plafker, George; Molnia, Bruce F.; Bryant, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    ) between 0 and 10 km was approximately equal 1.0 MPa, which is significant in relation to the stress drops in recent earthquakes (approximately 2 to 10 MPa) but small in relation to the estimated tectonic stress magnitude. Therefore the occurrence of an earthquake such as the St. Elias (1979, M(sub S) = 7.2) may have been advanced in time; however, most of the ongoing stress accumulation would be primarily due to tectonic forces.

  8. Seasonal evolution of glacier velocity and portraits of basal motion across southeast Alaska via cross-correlation of optical satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. H., Jr.; Anderson, R. S.; Moon, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how glacier geometry and geographic setting govern a glacier's response to meltwater and precipitation inputs. Does the up-glacier limit of enhanced summer basal motion vary across glaciers? Do non-surge glaciers show consistent spatial patterns of basal motion from year to year? We investigate such questions by documenting the seasonal-to-annual evolution of surface velocity for over 25 surge- and non-surge type glaciers in the Wrangell-St Elias ranges of southeast Alaska, USA, during 2013-2015. We use the Python-implemented PYCORR image cross-correlation software to estimate ice surface velocity fields over ~35,000 km2 covered by four Landsat-8 (L8) scenes. PYCORR is an optimized version of IMCORR, and takes less than 5 minutes to process a full L8 scene. This computational efficiency allows us to calculate dozens of velocity fields for each scene to provide high temporal resolution. We automate the extraction of velocity profiles along longitudinal glacier profiles to document their temporal evolution over timespans ranging from 16 days to greater than one year at spatial resolution of several tens to several hundred meters. This method provides much greater spatial coverage than GPS-derived velocities, and succeeds in terrain of rough surface texture and significant temporal elevation change, both of which present substantial challenges for deriving InSAR velocities. Preliminary data on Kennicott Glacier (Figure 1) resolve the annual velocity cycle in which speeds are lowest over winter and highest in summer reflecting meltwater-induced basal motion. We find notable seasonal velocity fluctuations at distances of more than 30 km from the glacier terminus. While longitudinal stress gradient coupling may explain a portion of these velocity variations, local basal motion must contribute, as the relatively thin (~500 m) ice cannot transmit longitudinal stresses over such distances. Regions downstream of tributary junctions show consistently

  9. Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    Acknowledgements This conference would not have been possible without the generous support from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the George Washington University INS and IMPACT institutes, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Office of Vice-President for Research, and the Department of Physics. We thank them wholeheartedly. We are also very grateful for the support of our colleagues on the local organizing committee, Walter Freeman and Frank Lee, and on the International Advisory Committee: Simon Hands, Tetsuo Hatsuda, Frithjof Karsch, Maria Paola Lombardo, Tereza Mendes, Atsushi Nakamura, Owe Philipsen, Claudia Ratti, Paul Romatschke, Misha Stephanov, and Nu Xu. List of participants Alexandru, Andrei George Washington University Bazavov, Alexei Brookhaven National Laboratory Bloch, Jacques University of Regensburg Braun-Munzinger, Peter EMMI, GSI Breto Rangel, Guillermo CMS/UC Davis D'Elia, Massimo University of Pisa, INFN Dexheimer, Veronica UFSC - Federal University of Santa Catarina Ding, Heng-Tong Brookhaven National Laboratory Dion, Alan Stony Brook University Dumitru, Adrian RBRC and Baruch College, CUNY Freeman, Walter George Washington University Gavai, Rajiv Tata Institute (TIFR), Mumbai Hanada, Masanori KEK Theory Center Hands, Simon Swansea University Hegde, Prasad Brookhaven National Laboratory Heinke, Craig University of Alberta Horvath, Ivan University of Kentucky Karsch, Frithjof Brookhaven National Laboratory Krieg, Stefan Wuppertal University Lattimer, James Stony Brook University Lee, Frank George Washington University Li, Anyi Institute for Nuclear Theory Liu, Keh-Fei University of Kentucky Lombardo, Maria Paola INFN - LNF Lottini, Stefano Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main Maezawa, Yu Brookhaven National Laboratory Miura, Kohtaroh Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN Monnai, Akihiko The University of Tokyo Mukherjee, Swagato Brookhaven National Laboratory Myers, Joyce University of Groningen Nakamura, Atsushi RIISE, Hiroshima

  10. Young tectonics of a complex plate boundary zone: Indentation, rotation, and escape in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. K.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Convergence of thick crust of the Yakutat block with the southern margin of Alaska is widely recognized as a dominant influence on the tectonics of Alaska since at least late Miocene time. It is less clear how this convergence relates to the distribution, type, and orientation of geologic structures, and to the boundaries between the tectonic provinces that they define. We propose that convergence of Yakutat block includes two distinct components that influence deformation and topography in different ways: 1) The crust of the exposed, southern Yakutat block is too thick to subduct, which has caused the collisional St. Elias orogen. Detachment of the upper part of the mafic basement allows delamination and sinking of the remaining mafic crust and lithospheric mantle. The collisional orogen drives rigid counterclockwise rotation of the southern Alaska block south of the arcuate, right-lateral Denali fault. The western boundary of this block is a zone of distributed contraction in the western Alaska Range and Cook Inlet. 2) The northern part of the Yakutat block is thin enough to subduct but thick and buoyant enough to cause localized flat-slab subduction orthogonal to rotation of the southern Alaska block. Consequences include the gently antiformal Talkeetna Mountains that span the forearc basin, a gap in the magmatic arc, and a basement-involved fold-and-thrust belt in the northern Alaska Range. An arcuate oroclinal hinge from southern Alaska to the northeastern Brooks Range reflects indentation since at least Paleocene time. Traction above the subducted Yakutat block along the southern part of this hinge drives current indentation. North of the subducted Yakutat block, indentation is reflected by left-lateral block rotation that accommodates shortening between the Denali and Tintina faults and by contraction farther north along the northern edge of the arcuate northeastern Brooks Range. Western Alaska accommodates both northward indentation and westward convergence

  11. Constraints on the age and provenance of the Chugach accretionary complex from detrital zircons in the Sitka Graywacke near Sitka, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Gehrels, George E.; Karl, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Graywacke implies that it lay to the south when it was deposited and offscraped. Thus, although source areas as far north as the St. Elias Mountains and south-central Alaska are possible, they were most likely in coastal and interior British Columbia.

  12. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  13. Geological Controls on Glacier Surging?: Statistics and Speculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, G. E.; Crompton, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier surging represents an end-member behavior in the spectrum of ice dynamics, involving marked acceleration and high flow speeds due to abrupt changes in basal mechanics. Though much effort has been devoted to understanding the role of basal hydrology and thermal regime in fast glacier flow, fewer studies have addressed the potential role of the geologic substrate. One interesting observation is that surge-type glaciers appear almost universally associated with unconsolidated (till) beds, and several large-scale statistical studies have revealed correlations between glacier surging and bedrock properties. We revisit this relationship using field measurements. We selected 20 individual glaciers for sampling in a 40x40 km region of the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. Eleven of these glaciers are known to surge and nine are not. The 20 study glaciers are underlain by lithologies that we have broadly classified into two types: metasedimentary only and mixed metasedimentary-granodiorite. We characterized geological and geotechnical properties of the bedrock in each basin, and analyzed the hydrochemistry and mineralogy and grain size distribution (GSD) of the suspended sediments in the proglacial streams. Here we focus on some intriguing results of the GSD analysis. Using statistical techniques, including significance testing and principal component analysis, we find that: (1) lithology determines GSD for non-surge-type glaciers, with metasedimentary basins associated with finer mean grain sizes and mixed-lithology basins with coarser mean grain sizes, but (2) the GSDs associated with surge-type glaciers are intermediate between the distributions described above, and are statistically indistinguishable between metasedimentary and mixed lithology basins. The latter suggests either that surge-type glaciers in our study area occur preferentially in basins where various processes conspire to produce a characteristic GSD, or that the surge cycle itself exerts an

  14. Ert Applied to the Characterization of Subsidence in Mexico City: Ancient Structures Affecting Urban Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Hernández-Quintero, E.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of subsidence in Mexico City is basically due to the rapid extraction of groundwater for water supply in addition to the geological conditions. The most typical manifestations of the phenomena are presented as cracks and fractures due to compaction of ancient lake clayish sediments. This phenomenon has caused major affectations to city infrastructure because of the differential subsidence. Fractured buildings, sinkholes, among others manifestations, are potentially sources of collapses, which exposes the population to a serious risk. A small portion of Iztacalco County is being affected by this problem, specifically, in a crossroad formed by two important avenues: La Viga and Plutarco Elias Calles, where the area apparently increases its topographical level. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography technique was selected in order to obtain a resistivity image of the subsoil, which allows identify the main features associated to the terrain uprising. Three (ERT) profiles 200 m, were deployed on the mentioned crossroad in order to characterize the subsurface structures affecting the topographical level of the avenues. A big resistivity anomaly (~ 1000 ohm-m) could be observed towards the central part of the crossroad, coinciding with the major lifting level on surface. This feature appears at 15 m deep in all the profiles and depicts an approximate extension of 100 m in the E-W direction and 60 m in N-S axis. On the other hand, the surrounding material seems to correspond to a higher-saturated environment (lacustrine sediments <10 ohm-m). Shallow anomalies were also detected related to urban artifacts (pipes, sewers, etcetera). The apparently terrain uprising can be associated to a differential subsidence. However, the mentioned avenues were ancient water channels since pre-Hispanic times, where the caudal was enough to allow small steam boating at late nineteenth century. These waterways served as main routes for the exchange of goods during colonial times

  15. Transience and Glacial Erosion in South Central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, J.; Spotila, J. A.; Owen, L. A.; Buscher, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is documented that a glacial presence in active orogenic belts undergoing rapid rock uplift will increase erosion rates often matching rates of rock uplift. Glacial erosion seems to have shaped the mass balance of numerous mountain ranges and tectonic settings, but the Kenai Peninsula and Chugach Mountains of south central Alaska do not conform to this pattern. The Kenai Peninsula is an uplifted forearc forming above the Aleutian subduction zone and the Chugach Mountains are the continuation of the orogenic belt around Prince William Sound. This mountain belt is comprised of accreted Mesozoic island arcs, which were sequentially metamorphosed from the cretaceous through the Tertiary. Geomorphic analysis and past studies, including Buscher et al. (2008) and Arkle et al. (2013), show that the Chugach Mountains and Kenai Peninsula are similar to the Saint Elias Mountains in the Yakutat collision zone with regards to topographic ruggedness. The region is dominated by alpine glaciers, ice fields, and extensive valley glaciers that are actively eroding the topography through headwall erosion and valley glacier down cutting. Despite this, there is a low background long term erosion rate of <0.1-0.2 mm/yr (Buscher et al, 2008). This suggests a transient landscape that has not yet fully adjusted to onset of erosive glacial conditions. Through the use of four dating techniques spanning different timescales, we aim to quantify erosion rates in the Kenai and Chugach Mountains. (U-TH)/He thermochronometry (106-7 yr), He/He thermochronometry (105-6 yr), OSL thermochronometry (105-6 yr), and 10Be and 36CL cosmogenic dating (103-4 yr), are being used in conjunction to test if short-term rates exceed long-term rates, thereby indicating a transient response to late Cenozoic glaciations. This analysis will also address how landscapes respond to the onset of glacial conditions and subsequent climate fluctuations. The history of exhumation and erosion will also characterize the role

  16. Subduction of thick crust: the Alaska example (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Christensen, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a paradigm of plate tectonics that oceanic lithosphere subducts readily, while lithosphere transporting much thicker continental crust does not. Analyses of plate buoyancy have included a variety of effects, such as eclogitization, crustal compositional stratification, and plate strength, but all lead to the conclusion that crust needs to be thinner than about 15-25 km in order to subduct. A test of this conclusion is underway in southern Alaska, where the Yakutat terrane is being driven by the Pacific plate into the Alaskan margin. Its crust is 15-30 km thick, varying along strike, with a seismic velocity structure resembling an oceanic plateau; thus it spans the predicted limit in thickness of subductable crust. In the eastern thicker part, the terrane appears to be colliding and driving orogenesis in the St. Elias-Chugach ranges, although voluminous volcanism of the Wrangell Volcanic Field may be a consequence of some crust subducting. Farther west, the Yakutat terrane is 15-20 km thick and clearly subducting beneath the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula. It forms the slab subducting beneath the central Alaska Range 400 km inland. The thick crust has been imaged at all depths less than 130 km, through receiver functions, travel-time tomography, and offshore by active-source imaging, with similar structure in most images. Greater than 130 km depth the imaged crust vanishes in seismic images, consistent with predicted depths of eclogitization of weakly hydrated metagabbroic crust, and the lack of a velocity contrast between eclogite and peridotite. Lithosphere including the thick Yakutat crust gives a net buoyancy close to neutral, so its subduction will depend on other factors. The high buoyancy may be responsible for the remarkably shallow dip of the plate at depths less than 50 km, producing one of the widest seismogenic thrust zones on the planet, allowing it to host the great (Mw 9.3) 1964 Gulf of Alaska earthquake. The shallow dip may also aid

  17. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  18. Microscopic photometric quantification of stiffness and relaxation time of red blood cells in a flow chamber.

    PubMed

    Artmann, G M

    1995-01-01

    .95 mPas/K, reflecting an inverse relationship between RBC viscosity and temperature. Using the automated version of this technique (Elias-c-) to test RBCs of 36 healthy subjects, we found the inter-individual coefficients of variation to be 8.6% for stiffness, 7.9% for relaxation time and 12.4% for stiffness-relaxation time product.

  19. Characterization of residuals from ice particles and droplets sampled in mid-latitude natural and aviation-influenced cirrus and in tropical deep convective cloud systems during ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schulz, Christiane; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Mira; Schneider, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Airborne sampling of cloud particles inside different cirrus cloud types and inside deep convective clouds was conducted during the HALO missions ML-CIRRUS over Europe in March/April 2014 and ACRIDICON over Amazonia in September 2014. ML-CIRRUS aims at the investigation of the for-mation, evolution, microphysical state and radiative effects of different natural and aviation-induced cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. The main objectives of ACRIDICON are the microphysical vertical profiling, vertical aerosol transport and the cloud processing of aerosol particles (compari-son in- and outflow) of tropical deep convective cloud systems in clean and polluted air masses and over forested and deforested regions. The hydrometeors (drops and ice particles) are sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) which has to be installed in the front part of the upper fuselage of the HALO aircraft. Such an intake position implies a size dependent abundance of cloud particles with respect to ambient conditions that was studied by particle trajectory simulations (Katrin Witte, HALO Technical Note 2008-003-A). On the other hand, this sampling location avoids that large ice crystals which could potentially bias the cloud particle sampling by shattering and break-up at the inlet shroud and tip enter the inlet. Both aspects as well as the flight conditions of HALO were taken into account for an optimized CVI design for HALO (HALO-CVI). Interstitial particles are pre-segregated and the condensed phase is evaporated/sublimated by the CVI, such that the residuals from cloud droplets and ice particles (CDR and IPR) can be microphysically and chemically analyzed by respective aerosol sensors located in the cabin. Although an even more comprehensive characterization of CDR and IPR was carried out, we like to report on the following measurements of certain aerosol properties. Particle number concentra-tion and size distribution are measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an

  20. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    , Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Denali National Park and Preserve, the northern and northwestern Prince William Sound area of the Chugach National Forest, and the Mendenhall Glacier area of the Tongass National Forest to document and determine the extent of changing glaciers and landscapes. The use of repeat photography to document temporal change is not new. It originated as a glacier-monitoring technique in the European Alps more than 150 years ago. What is unique in this Alaskan application of repeat photography is the systematic approach being used to obtain photographic documentation of glacier and landscape change for every glacier-hosting fiord in western southcentral Alaska, as well as at many Alaskan valley glacier sites. What is also unique is the development of an annotated website which presents many pairs of these photographs as well as ancillary materials to help convey the basics of Alaskan glaciers and climate change. The website, titled 'Glacier and Landscape Change in Response to Changing Climate', (http://www.usgs.gov/climate_landuse/glaciers/) was awarded the 2010 USGS Shoemaker External Communications Award.

  1. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  2. Development of a glacially dominated shelf-slope-fan system in tectonically active southeast Alaska: Results of IODP Expedition 341 core-log-seismic integrated studies at glacial cycle resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Mix, Alan; Swartz, John; Worthington, Lindsay; Reece, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Collision of the Yakutat microplate with North American formed the St. Elias Mountains in coastal Gulf of Alaska. While the tectonic driver for orogenesis has been ongoing since the Miocene, results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 suggests that direct climatic perturbation of active orogenesis through glacial erosion is non-linear. Geophysical studies of the glaciated continental margin, slope, and adjacent deep-sea Surveyor Fan allow examination of the glaciated orogen from source to sink. Using high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data and through comparison with other glaciated margins, we can identify key diagnostic seismic morphologies and facies indicative of glacial proximity and sediment routing. Expedition drilling results calibrated these images suggesting a timeline for initial advances of the Cordilleran ice sheet related glacial systems onto the shelf and a further timeline for the development of ice streams that reach the shelf edge. Comparisons can be made within this single margin between evolution of the tectonic-glacial system where erosion and sediment transport are occurring within a fold and thrust belt versus on a more stable shelf region. Onshore the Bering-Bagley glacial system in the west flows across the Yakataga fold and thrust belt, allowing examination of whether glacial erosion can cause tectonic feedbacks, whereas offshore the Bering-Bagley system interacts with the Pamplona Zone thrusts in a region of significant sediment accommodation. Results from Expedition 341 imply that timing of glacial advance to the shelf edge in this region may be driven by the necessity of filling up the accommodation through aggradation followed by progradation and thus is autogenic. In contrast the Malaspina-Hubbard glacial system to the east encountered significantly less accommodation and more directly responded to climatic forcing including showing outer shelf glacial occupation since the mid-Pleistocene transition-MPT to

  3. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2003-01-01

    dissemination route of these microorganisms in some groups of healthy scholars, which may be dependent of either socioeconomic categories or geographic site of each child. In contrast to the higher similarity, the lower similarity or higher polymorphism degree (0.499 < or = SD < 0.788) of protein profiles was shown in 23 (30.6%) C. albicans oral isolates. Considering the social epidemiological aspect, 42.1%, 41.7%, 26.6%, 23.5%, and 16.7% were isolates from children concerning to socioeconomic categories A, D, C, B, and E, respectively, and geographically, 63.6%, 50%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 30%, 25%, and 14.3% were isolates from children from schools LAE (Liceu Colégio Albert Einstein), MA (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Elias de Melo Ayres"), CS (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Carlos Sodero"), AV (Alphaville), HF (E.E.P.S.G. "Honorato Faustino), FMC (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Francisco Mariano da Costa"), and MEP (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Manasses Ephraim Pereira), respectively. Such results suggest a higher protein polymorphism degree among some strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic strata or geographic sites. Complementary studies, involving healthy students and their families, teachers, servants, hygiene and nutritional habits must be done in order to establish the sources of such colonization patterns in population groups of healthy children. The whole-cell protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide additional criteria for the taxonomic and epidemiological studies of C. albicans.

  4. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.

  5. Investigating Cenozoic climate change in tectonically active regions with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd; Li, Jingmin; Werner, Martin; Stepanek, Christian; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Cenozoic palaeo-climates contribute to our understanding of contemporary climate change by providing insight into analogues such as the Pliocene (PLIO), and by evaluation of GCM (General Circulation Models) performance using the Mid-Holocene (MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Furthermore, climate is a factor to be considered in the evolution of ecology, landscapes and mountains, and in the reconstruction of erosion histories. In this study, we use high-resolution (T159) ECHAM5 simulations to investigate pre-industrial (PI) and the the above mentioned palaeo-climates for four tectonically active regions: Alaska (St. Elias Range), the US Northwest Pacific (Cascade Range), western South America (Andes) and parts of Asia (Himalaya-Tibet). The PI climate simulation is an AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) style ECHAM5 experiment, whereas MH and LGM simulation are based on simulations conducted at the Alfred Wegner Institute, Bremerhaven. Sea surface boundary conditions for MH were taken from coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (Wei and Lohmann, 2012; Zhang et al, 2013) and sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentration for the LGM are based on GLAMAP project reconstructions (Schäfer-Neth and Paul, 2003). Boundary conditions for the PLIO simulation are taken from the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) project and the employed PLIO vegetation boundary condition is created by means of the transfer procedure for the PRISM vegetation reconstruction to the JSBACH plant functional types as described by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012). For each of the investigated areas and time slices, the regional simulated climates are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability of precipitation, 2m air temperature and the intra-annual amplitude of the values. Results indicate the largest differences to a PI climate are observed for LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and warming

  6. Carbon Fluxes Between the Atmosphere, Terrestrial, and River Systems Across a Glacier-Dominated Landscape in Southcentral Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, R. C.; Welker, J. M.; Tomco, P. L.

    2011-12-01

    The coastal Gulf of Alaska region is experiencing rapid and accelerating changes due to local and regional warming. Predicted high latitude warming may result in rapid recession of glaciers with subsequent changes in river discharge, nutrient fluxes into the rivers, shifts in landscape vegetation cover, and altered CO2 fluxes affecting the regional carbon balance. As glaciers recede an increase in glacier-dominated river discharge and a change in seasonality of the river discharge are expected. Recently deglaciated landscapes will, over time, be occupied by a succession of vegetation cover that are likely to alter the fluxes of carbon both between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, and between terrestrial ecosystems and stream and river systems. As the landscape evolves from deglaciated forelands it is expected that there is low to no CO2 fluxes between the atmosphere and the recently deglaciated landscape, as well as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon inputs into rivers and streams. These recently deglaciated landscapes will transition to early successional plant species and on towards mature spruce forests. Each transitional terrestrial ecosystem will have different carbon cycling between the atmosphere, terrestrial, and aquatic systems until the mature spruce forests which is expected to have high carbon uptake and sequestration as well as increased inputs of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon into the rivers and streams. A new research project was initiated in the summer of 2011 focusing on glacier-dominated landscapes within the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve in southcentral Alaska with the objective to quantify how the transition from deglaciated forelands to mature spruce forests (a successional sequence) alters the patterns and magnitudes of CO2 exchange, the dissolved carbon inputs from terrestrial to aquatic systems and the extent to which these are manifested due to changes in glacier coverage. We seek to examine present

  7. Observing Weather in Venus's Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. F.; Bullock, M. A.; Chanover, N. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2003-05-01

    References Carlson, R.W., K.H. Baines, T. Encrenaz, F.W. Tay-lor, P. Drossart, L.W. Kamp, J.B. Pollack, E. Lellouch, A.D. Collard, S.B. Calcutt, D.H. Grinspoon, P.R. Weissman, W.D. Smythe, A.C. Ocampo, G.E. Danielson, F.P. Fanale, T.V. Johnson, H.H. Kieffer, D.L. Matson, T.B. McCord, and L.A. Soderblom, Galileo infrared imaging spectrometer measurements at Venus, Science, 253, 1541-1548, 1991. Chanover, N.J., D.A. Glenar, and J.J. Hillman, Multispectral near-IR imaging of Venus nightside cloud features, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 31,335-31,348, 1998. Crisp, D., S. McMuldroch, S.K. Stephens, W.M. Sinton, B. Ragent, K.W. Hodapp, R.G. Probst, L.R. Doyle, D.A. Allen, and J. Elias, Ground-based near-infrared imaging observations of Venus during the Galileo encounter, Science, 253, 1538-1541, 1991b.

  8. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    quite fruitful, enjoyable 'Mediterranean' atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and discussion. It is a pleasure to thank our administrative and technical staff Georgia Angelopoulou, Athina Pouri, Mando Zambeli and Manolis Zoulias for their untiring assistance. We also thank the staff of the OAC for the enthusiastic support and their hospitality. We are grateful to the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation for their generous financial support which made MCCQG possible. Finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting. The success of the MCCQG is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors March 2010 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Spyros Basilakos (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Mariano Cadoni (University and INFN Cagliari, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Elias Vagenas (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Advisory Committee Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Switzerland) Orfeu Bertolami (IST, Lisbon, Portugal) Loriano Bonora (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) George Contopoulos (Academy of Athens, Greece) Ruth Durrer (Geneva University, Switzerland) Enrique Gaztanaga (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain) Gabriela Gonzalez (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA) Marc Henneaux (Brussels University, Belgium) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Claus Kiefer (Cologne University, Germany) Stefano Liberati (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Ofer Lahav (University College London, UK) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Don Marolf (UC Santa Barbara, USA) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Augusto Sagnotti (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy) Mairi Sakellariadou (King's College London, UK) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Valdivia, Chile) SPONSORS Academy of Athens The Tomalla Foundation Università di Cagliari University of Mississippi University of Athens LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdalla, Elcio (Instituto de

  9. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    reinforce the benefits of reducing low level speeding - the central message of "Wipe Off 5". These strategies were implemented across the entire state of Victoria with the intention of covering as many road users as possible. This study aimed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the speed-related package. The study objectives were: to document the increased speed camera activity in each speed limit zone and in Melbourne compared with the rest of Victoria; to evaluate the overall effect on crash outcomes of the package; to account as far as possible for the effect on crash outcomes of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors, which would otherwise influence the speed-related package evaluation; and to examine speed trends in Melbourne and on Victorian rural highways, especially the proportions of vehicles travelling at excessive speeds. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the overall impact on crash outcomes associated with the speed-related package, after adjusting as far as possible for the effect of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. D'Elia, Newstead and Cameron (2007) document the study results in full. PMID:18184508

  10. Confidence intervals in Flow Forecasting by using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Tsekouras, George

    2014-05-01

    variable of different ANN structures [3]. The performance of each ANN structure is evaluated by the voting analysis based on eleven criteria, which are the root mean square error (RMSE), the correlation index (R), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), the mean percentage error (MPE), the mean percentage error (ME), the percentage volume in errors (VE), the percentage error in peak (MF), the normalized mean bias error (NMBE), the normalized root mean bias error (NRMSE), the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) and the modified Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E1). The next day flow for the test set is calculated using the best ANN structure's model. Consequently, the confidence intervals of various confidence levels for training, evaluation and test sets are compared in order to explore the generalisation dynamics of confidence intervals from training and evaluation sets. [1] H.S. Hippert, C.E. Pedreira, R.C. Souza, "Neural networks for short-term load forecasting: A review and evaluation," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, 2001, pp. 44-55. [2] G. J. Tsekouras, N.E. Mastorakis, F.D. Kanellos, V.T. Kontargyri, C.D. Tsirekis, I.S. Karanasiou, Ch.N. Elias, A.D. Salis, P.A. Kontaxis, A.A. Gialketsi: "Short term load forecasting in Greek interconnected power system using ANN: Confidence Interval using a novel re-sampling technique with corrective Factor", WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing, (CSECS '10), Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, December 29-31, 2010. [3] D. Panagoulia, I. Trichakis, G. J. Tsekouras: "Flow Forecasting via Artificial Neural Networks - A Study for Input Variables conditioned on atmospheric circulation", European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2012 (NH1.1 / AS1.16 - Extreme meteorological and hydrological events induced by severe weather and climate change), Vienna, Austria, 22-27 April 2012.

  11. Deformation record of 4-d accommodation of strain in the transition from transform to oblique convergent plate margin, southern Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeske, S.; Benowitz, J.; Enkelmann, E.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal deformation at the transition from a dextral transform to subduction in the northern Cordillera is complicated by both the bend of the margin and the presence of low-angle subduction of an oceanic plateau, the Yakutat microplate, into the 'corner'. The dextral Denali Fault system located ~400 km inboard of the plate margin shows a similar transition from a dominantly strike-slip to transpressional regime as it curves to the west. Thermochronologic and structural studies in both areas indicate crustal response through the transition region is highly varied along and across strike. Previous thermochronology along the Fairweather fault SE of the St. Elias bend shows the most rapid exhumation occurs in close proximity to the fault, decreasing rapidly away from it. Enkelmann et al. (2010) and more recent detrital zircon FT (Falkowski et al., 2013 AGU abstract) show rapid and deep exhumation concentrated in the syntaxis, but over a fairly broad area continuing north beyond the Fairweather fault. Although the region is dominantly under ice, borders of the rapidly exhuming region appear to be previously identified major high-angle faults. This suggests that structures controlling the extreme exhumation may have significant oblique slip component, or, if flower structure, are reverse faults, and the region may be exhuming by transpression, with a significant component of pure shear. Southwest of the syntaxis, where convergence dominates over strike-slip, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts in the Yakutat microplate strata account for the shortening. The long-term record of convergence in this area is more cryptic due to sediment recycling through deep underplating and/or limited exhumation by upper crustal shortening, but a wide range of thermochronologic studies suggests that initial exhumation in the region began ~ 30 Ma and most rapid exhumation in the syntaxis began ~ 5 Ma. In the eastern Alaska Range a significant component of strike-slip, in addition to

  12. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    of fish sampled were above a benchmark for risk to highly sensitive avian consumers (90 ng/g ww), and THg concentrations in 68 percent of fish sampled were above exposure levels recommended by the Great Lakes Advisory Group (50 ng/g ww) for unlimited consumption by humans. Of the fish assessed for risk to human consumers (that is, species that are large enough to be consumed by recreational or subsistence anglers), only one individual fish from Yosemite National Park had a muscle Hg concentration exceeding the benchmark (950 ng/g ww) at which no human consumption is advised. Zion, Capital Reef, Wrangell-St. Elias, and Lake Clark National Parks all contained sites in which most fish exceeded benchmarks for the protection of human and wildlife health. This finding is particularly concerning in Zion and Capitol Reef National Parks because the fish from these parks were speckled dace, a small, invertebrate-feeding species, yet their Hg concentrations were as high or higher than those in the largest, long-lived predatory species, such as lake trout. Future targeted research and monitoring across park habitats would help identify patterns of Hg distribution across the landscape and facilitate management decisions aimed at reducing the ecological risk posed by Hg contamination in sensitive ecosystems protected by the National Park Service.

  13. Feasibility study on earthquake early warning application to schools: the example of the ITIS 'E. Majorana', Somma Vesuviana, Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, Antonio; Zollo, Aldo; Picozzi, Matteo; Martino, Claudio; Elia, Luca; Verderame, Gerardo; De Risi, Maria Teresa; Ricci, Paolo; Lombardi, Anna; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano; Boxberger, Tobias; Miranda, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    empirical regression analysis, to produce an alert level at each station that can be correlated with the expected local damage in a robust way. At the same time, by means of the software PRESTo and a newly developed prototype of a low-cost EEW sentinel, these data have been also used to run an EEW drill at a few school classes. Finally, the preliminary results of the vulnerability study carried out at the school will be also shown. Indeed, after some preliminary in-situ surveys, structural and non-structural components, which are involved in the vulnerability analysis, have been identified. Hence, geometrical and mechanical model definition was performed and dynamic properties were carried out through a modal analysis. The evaluation of the seismic capacity has been performed through an incremental nonlinear static analysis approach, thus identifying seismic intensity levels leading to different Damage States in structural and non-structural components. References Satriano, Elia et al. (2010). PRESTo, the earthquake early warning system for Southern Italy: Concepts, capabilities and future perspectives. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng, doi 10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.06.008. Zollo et al. (2010). A threshold-based earthquake early warning using dense accelerometer networks. Geophys. J. Int. 183, 963-974.

  14. Evolved Massive Stars in the Local Group. I. Identification of Red Supergiants in NGC 6822, M31, and M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    1998-07-01

    Knowledge of the red supergiant (RSG) population of nearby galaxies allows us to probe massive star evolution as a function of metallicity; however, contamination by foreground Galactic dwarfs dominates surveys for red stars in Local Group galaxies beyond the Magellanic Clouds. Model atmospheres predict that low-gravity supergiants will have B-V values that are redder by several tenths of a magnitude than foreground dwarfs at a given V-R color, a result that is largely independent of reddening. We conduct a BVR survey of several fields in the Local Group galaxies NGC 6822, M33, and M31 as well as neighboring control fields and identify RSG candidates from CCD photometry. The survey is complete to V = 20.5, corresponding to MV = -4.5 or an Mbol of -6.3 for the reddest stars. Follow-up spectroscopy at the Ca II triplet of 130 stars is used to demonstrate that our photometric criterion for identifying RSGs is highly successful (96% for stars brighter than V = 19.5; 82% for V = 19.5-20.5). Classification spectra are also obtained for a number of stars in order to calibrate color with spectral type empirically. We find that there is a marked progression in the average (B-V)0 and (V-R)0 colors of RSGs in these three galaxies, with the higher metallicity systems having a later average spectral type, which is consistent with previous findings by Elias, Frogel, & Humphreys for the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. More significantly, we find that there is a clear progression with metallicity in the relative number of the highest luminosity RSGs, a trend that is apparent both in absolute visual magnitude and in bolometric luminosity. Thus any use of RSGs as distance indicators requires correction for the metallicity of the parent galaxy. Our findings are in accord with the predictions of the ``Conti scenario'' in which higher metallicities result in higher mass-loss rates, resulting in a star of a given luminosity spending an increasing fraction of its He-burning lifetime as

  15. Sticky situations: recent advances in control of cell adhesion during neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Solecki, David J

    2012-10-01

    The migration of neurons along glial fibers from a germinal zone (GZ) to their final laminar positions is essential for morphogenesis of the developing brain; aberrations in this process are linked to profound neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. During this critical morphogenic movement, neurons must navigate complex migration paths, propelling their cell bodies through the dense cellular environment of the developing nervous system to their final destinations. It is not understood how neurons can successfully migrate along their glial guides through the myriad processes and cell bodies of neighboring neurons. Although much progress has been made in understanding the substrates (Fishell G, Hatten ME: Astrotactin provides a receptor system for CNS neuronal migration. Development 1991, 113:755; Elias LA, Wang DD, Kriegstein AR: Gap junction adhesion is necessary for radial migration in the neocortex. Nature 2007, 448:901; Anton ES, Kreidberg JA, Rakic P: Distinct functions of alpha3 and alpha. (v) integrin receptors in neuronal migration and laminar organization of the cerebral cortex. Neuron 1999, 22:277; Anton ES, Marchionni MA, Lee KF, Rakic P: Role of GGF/neuregulin signaling in interactions between migrating neurons and radial glia in the developing cerebral cortex. Development 1997, 124:3501), guidance mechanisms (Polleux F, Whitford KL, Dijkhuizen PA, Vitalis T, Ghosh A: Control of cortical interneuron migration by neurotrophins and PI3-kinase signaling. Development 2002, 129:3147; Zhou P, et al.: Polarized signaling endosomes coordinate BDNF-induced chemotaxis of cerebellar precursors. Neuron 2007, 55:53; Renaud J, et al.: Plexin-A2 and its ligand, Sema6A, control nucleus-centrosome coupling in migrating granule cells. Nat Neurosci 2008, 11:440), cytoskeletal elements (Schaar BT, McConnell SK: Cytoskeletal coordination during neuronal migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005, 102:13652; Tsai JW, Bremner KH, Vallee RB: Dual subcellular roles for LIS1

  16. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    quite fruitful, enjoyable 'Mediterranean' atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and discussion. It is a pleasure to thank our administrative and technical staff Georgia Angelopoulou, Athina Pouri, Mando Zambeli and Manolis Zoulias for their untiring assistance. We also thank the staff of the OAC for the enthusiastic support and their hospitality. We are grateful to the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation for their generous financial support which made MCCQG possible. Finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting. The success of the MCCQG is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors March 2010 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Spyros Basilakos (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Mariano Cadoni (University and INFN Cagliari, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Elias Vagenas (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Advisory Committee Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Switzerland) Orfeu Bertolami (IST, Lisbon, Portugal) Loriano Bonora (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) George Contopoulos (Academy of Athens, Greece) Ruth Durrer (Geneva University, Switzerland) Enrique Gaztanaga (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain) Gabriela Gonzalez (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA) Marc Henneaux (Brussels University, Belgium) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Claus Kiefer (Cologne University, Germany) Stefano Liberati (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Ofer Lahav (University College London, UK) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Don Marolf (UC Santa Barbara, USA) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Augusto Sagnotti (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy) Mairi Sakellariadou (King's College London, UK) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Valdivia, Chile) SPONSORS Academy of Athens The Tomalla Foundation Università di Cagliari University of Mississippi University of Athens LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdalla, Elcio (Instituto de

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  19. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    start the process of star formation. "Using the data from THINGS in combination with observations from NASA's space telescopes has allowed us to investigate how the processes leading to star formation differ in big spiral galaxies like our own and much smaller, dwarf galaxies," said Adam Leroy and Frank Bigiel of the Max-Planck Insitute for Astronomy at the Austin AAS meeting. Because atomic hydrogen emits radio waves at a specific frequency, astronomers can measure motions of the gas by noting the Doppler shift in frequency caused by those motions. "Because the THINGS images are highly detailed, we have been able to measure both the rotational motion of the galaxies and non-circular random motions within the galaxies," noted Erwin de Blok of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Galaxy Dynamics in THINGS The motion measurements are providing new information about the mysterious, unseen "dark matter" in the galaxies. "The non-circular motions revealed by the THINGS observations, turn out to be too small to solve a long-standing problem in cosmology, namely the inability of state-of-the-art computer simulations to describe the distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies. It was thought that random motions could explain that inability, but our data show otherwise," de Blok explained. The THINGS images revealed what Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire, UK, called a "stunning complexity of structures in the tenuous interstellar medium of the galaxies." These structures include large shells and "bubbles," presumably caused by multiple supernova explosions of massive stars. Analyzing the detail of these complex structures will help astronomers better understand the differences in star formation processes in the varied types of galaxies. Even such a simple question such as how big are the disks of gas in spiral galaxies had largely eluded astronomers previously. "The quality and sensitivity of the THINGS images has allowed us to see the actual edges of these

  20. In situ measurement of the Icelandic Holuhraun/ Bárðarbunga volcanic plume in an early "young state" using a LOAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, Damien; Roberts, Tjarda; Carboni, Elisa; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Dagsson Waldhauserovà, Pavla; Berthet, Gwenael; Jegou, Fabrice; Baptiste Renard, Jean; Olafsson, Haraldur; Bergsson, Baldur; Yeo, Richard; Fannar Reynisson, Njall; Grainger, Roy; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lurton, Thibaut; Duverger, Vincent; Coute, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    analysis of IASI satellite remote sensing data, thus demonstrating in-situ validation of this recent satellite algorithm (Carboni et al. 2015). This experimentation shows that under such difficult field campaign conditions (strong wind, low temperatures, only car batteries for power supply, night time and active volcano close to the launch site) it is possible to launch meteorological balloons with novel payloads to directly sample in-situ the near-source plume, determine the plume altitude, identify dynamical phases of the plume and document the size distribution of particles inside a plume which is only a quarter of an hour old. Carboni, E., Grainger, R., Walker, J., Dudhia, A., Siddans, R.: A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11417-11434, 2012/doi:10.5194/acp-12-11417-2012, 2012. Gíslason, S.R., Stefánsdóttir, G., Pfeffer, M.A., Barsotti, S., Jóhannsson, Th., Galeczka, I., Bali, E., Sigmarsson, O., Stefánsson, A., Keller, N.S., Sigurdsson, Á., Bergsson, B., Galle, B., Jacobo, V.C., Arellano, S., Aiuppa, A., Jónasdóttir, E.B., Eiríksdóttir, E.S., Jakobsson, S., Guðfinnsson, G.H., alldórsson, S.A., Gunnarsson, H., Haddadi, B., Jónsdóttir, I., Thordarson, Th., Riishuus, M., ögnadóttir, Th., Dürig, T., Pedersen, G.B.M., Höskuldsson, Á., Gudmundsson, M.T.: Environmental pressure from the 2014-15 eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland. Geochem. Persp. Let. 1, 84-93, 2015. Renard, J.B., Dulac, F., Berthet, G., Lurton, T., Vignelles, D., Jégou, F., Tonnelier, T., Thaury, C., Jeannot, M., Couté, B., Akiki, R., Verdier, N., Mallet, M., Gensdarmes, F., Charpentier, P., Duverger, V., Dupont, J.V., Mesmin, S., Elias, T., Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Giacomoni, J., Gobbi, M., Hamonou, E., Olafsson, H., Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Camy-Peyret, C., Mazel, C., Décamps, T., Piringer, M., Surcin, J., and Daugeron, D.: LOAC: a small aerosol optical

  1. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on various communities: Chapter G in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben; Eckel, Edwin B.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    1969-01-01

    more than 60 feet, that occurred in the Prince William Sound region during the earthquake. A train of long-period seismic sea waves that began about 20 minutes after the start of the earthquake inundated shores along the Gulf of Alaska coast to a maximum height of 35 feet above tide level. At the communities described, they virtually destroyed two logging camps at Whidbey Bay and Puget Bay on the south coast of the Kenai Peninsula, caused moderate damage to boat harbors and docks at Seldovia and Cordova, floated away some beach cabins in the Cordova area, and drowned two people, one at Point Whitshed near Cordora and one at the Cape Saint Elias Light Station. The seismic sea waves were generated by regional tectonic uplift of the sea floor on the Continental Shelf. Vertical tectonic displacements of the land relative to sea level that accompanied the earthquake affected virtually all the coastal communities. Tectonic subsidence of 5 to 6 feet, augmented locally by surficial subsidence of unconsolidated deposits required either the relocation or raising of structures at Portage, Girdwood, and Hope on Turnagain Arm. Shoreline submergence resulting from about 3½ feet of tectonic subsidence at Seldovia necessitated raising all waterfront facilities and the airstrip above the level of high tides. On the other hand, tectonic uplift of the land in the Prince Williams Sound region required deepening of the small-boat harbors at Cordora and Tatitlek, dredging of the waterways in the Cordova area, and lengthening of some docks or piers at Cordova, the Cape Hinchinbrook Light Station, and in Sawmill Bay. Significant structural damage from direct seismic shaking was largely confined to fluid containers and a pier facility near Kenai. Indirect damage from fissuring and differential settling of foundation mterials in the vicinity of the Cordova airfield mused damage to a building, underground utilities, an airfield fill, and the highway. Minor amounts of direct and indirect damage

  2. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    funded projects (always with international participation) in the United States, Russian Federation, China, European Union, Japan, and Canada have been mutually united to explore the scientifically significant Northern Eurasian region. NEESPI scientists have been quite productive during the past two years (2005 2006) publishing more than 200 books, book chapters, and papers in refereed journals. NEESPI sessions at international conferences are open to everyone who works on environmental and climate change problems in Northern Eurasia and the circumpolar boreal zone. This thematic issue brings together articles from the authors who presented their latest results at the Annual Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco (December 2006). The research letters in this issue are preceded by two editorial papers (Leptoukh et al and Sherstyukov et al) devoted to informational support of research in the NEESPI domain that is critical to the success of the Initiative. The following papers are quite diverse and are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions in the NEESPI domain and the circumpolar boreal zone. Focus on Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Editorials NASA NEESPI Data and Services Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Information Gregory Leptoukh, Ivan Csiszar, Peter Romanov, Suhung Shen, Tatiana Loboda and Irina Gerasimov NEESPI Science and Data Support Center for Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia B G Sherstyukov, V N Razuvaev, O N Bulygina and P Ya Groisman Climate and hydrology Changes in the fabric of the Arctic's greenhouse blanket Jennifer A Francis and Elias Hunter Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973 2005 Heejun

  3. In situ measurement of the Icelandic Holuhraun/ Bárðarbunga volcanic plume in an early "young state" using a LOAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, Damien; Roberts, Tjarda; Carboni, Elisa; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Dagsson Waldhauserovà, Pavla; Berthet, Gwenael; Jegou, Fabrice; Baptiste Renard, Jean; Olafsson, Haraldur; Bergsson, Baldur; Yeo, Richard; Fannar Reynisson, Njall; Grainger, Roy; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lurton, Thibaut; Duverger, Vincent; Coute, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    analysis of IASI satellite remote sensing data, thus demonstrating in-situ validation of this recent satellite algorithm (Carboni et al. 2015). This experimentation shows that under such difficult field campaign conditions (strong wind, low temperatures, only car batteries for power supply, night time and active volcano close to the launch site) it is possible to launch meteorological balloons with novel payloads to directly sample in-situ the near-source plume, determine the plume altitude, identify dynamical phases of the plume and document the size distribution of particles inside a plume which is only a quarter of an hour old. Carboni, E., Grainger, R., Walker, J., Dudhia, A., Siddans, R.: A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11417-11434, 2012/doi:10.5194/acp-12-11417-2012, 2012. Gíslason, S.R., Stefánsdóttir, G., Pfeffer, M.A., Barsotti, S., Jóhannsson, Th., Galeczka, I., Bali, E., Sigmarsson, O., Stefánsson, A., Keller, N.S., Sigurdsson, Á., Bergsson, B., Galle, B., Jacobo, V.C., Arellano, S., Aiuppa, A., Jónasdóttir, E.B., Eiríksdóttir, E.S., Jakobsson, S., Guðfinnsson, G.H., alldórsson, S.A., Gunnarsson, H., Haddadi, B., Jónsdóttir, I., Thordarson, Th., Riishuus, M., ögnadóttir, Th., Dürig, T., Pedersen, G.B.M., Höskuldsson, Á., Gudmundsson, M.T.: Environmental pressure from the 2014-15 eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland. Geochem. Persp. Let. 1, 84-93, 2015. Renard, J.B., Dulac, F., Berthet, G., Lurton, T., Vignelles, D., Jégou, F., Tonnelier, T., Thaury, C., Jeannot, M., Couté, B., Akiki, R., Verdier, N., Mallet, M., Gensdarmes, F., Charpentier, P., Duverger, V., Dupont, J.V., Mesmin, S., Elias, T., Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Giacomoni, J., Gobbi, M., Hamonou, E., Olafsson, H., Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Camy-Peyret, C., Mazel, C., Décamps, T., Piringer, M., Surcin, J., and Daugeron, D.: LOAC: a small aerosol optical

  4. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    were analyzed in size segregated soil and ambient PM samples at Higley; intra- and inter- comparisons were made between the ambient PM and three types of soil dust samples (agricultural soil, native soil, road dust) based on the particle size (fine vs. coarse), seasonality, and relative composition of 12 saccharide compounds. Based on the ambient concentrations of major saccharides and a number of other specific compounds (including elemental and organic carbon, ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) that are simultaneously resolved in Higley PM samples, a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was performed to determine the key contributors to PM10 and PM2.5 levels. Six distinct factors were isolated, with two factors dominated by the enrichment of saccharide compounds. There was not consistency between the source profiles of these two saccharide rich source factors with the saccharide composition of the local size-segregated soil samples, which implies that there may be other major sources contributing to ambient PM saccharides. One possible alternative is that PBAPs that are injected directly into the atmosphere instead of residing in the surface soil and being re-entrained through soil erosion or agricultural processing. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to compare the saccharide composition between the fine and coarse fraction of different soils types in two seasons, and to relate the contribution from soil dust to ambient PM using saccharide species. REFERENCE [1] AirData: Access to Air Pollution data. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://www.epa.gov/air/data/index.html [2] Allergy and Asthma in the Southwestern United States. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://allergy.peds.arizona.edu/southwest/swpollen.html [3] Cox, C.S., Wathes, C.M., 1995. Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, NY [4] Simoneit, B.R.T., Elias, V.O., et al., 2004. "Sugars - Dominant water-soluble organic

  5. Global snowline and mountain topography: a contrasted view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    topography and the rate of rock column uplift: a global perspective, Geomorphology, 122, 129-139, 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.06.005, 2010. Porter, S. C.: Some geological implications of average Quaternary glacial conditions., Quaternary Research, 32, 245-261, 1989. Spotila, J. A., and Berger, A. L.: Exhumation at orogenic indentor corners under long-term glacial conditions: Example of the St. Elias orogen, Southern Alaska, Tectonophysics, 490, 241-256, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.05.015, 2010.

  6. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    of pore waters in continental margin settings has been reported in association with dissociating gas hydrate deposits (Hesse, 2003), but neither seismic profiles nor sediment records showed any indications for the presence of gas hydrates at the Gulf of Alaska sites. An alternative and intriguing explanation for these almost brackish waters in the glaciomarine shelf and slope deposits is the presence of glacial meltwater that could either be "fossil" (stored in the glaciomarine sediments since the last glacial termination) or "recent" (i.e., actively flowing from currently melting glaciers of the St. Elias Mountain Range along permeable layers within the shelf deposits). As these relatively fresh waters are found at three distinct drill sites, it can be assumed that they are distributed all along the Gulf of Alaska shelf and slope, and similar findings have been reported at other glaciated continental margins, e.g., off East Greenland (DeFoor et al., 2011) and Antarctica (Mann and Gieskes, 1975; Chambers, 1991; Lu et al., 2010). While a recent review has highlighted the importance of fresh and brackish water reservoirs in continental shelf deposits worldwide (Post et al., 2013), we suggest that climatic and depositional processes affecting glaciated continental margins (e.g., the release of huge amounts of fresh water from ice sheets and glaciers during glacial terminations, and the rapid deposition of unconsolidated sediments on the adjacent shelf) are particularly favourable for the storage and/or flow of meltwater below the present sea floor. Adkins JF, McIntyre K, Schrag DP (2002) The salinity, temperature, and d18O of the glacial deep ocean. Science 298, 1769-1773. Chambers SR (1991) Solute distributions and stable isotope chemistry of interstitial waters from Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program 119, 375-392. DeFoor W, Person M, Larsen HC, Lizarralde D, Cohen D, Dugam B (2011) Ice sheet-derived submarine groundwater discharge on

  7. FOREWORD: International Summer School for Advanced Studies 'Dynamics of open nuclear systems' (PREDEAL12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2013-02-01

    the status of the equation of state, hyperonic and quark matter and neutrino physics, as well as the applications of nuclear structure in astrophysics, were also on the School's agenda. There were many discussions and questions both during and after presentations. An open and friendly atmosphere characterized our School, although different opinions quite often divided the participants. Many discussions continued during coffee breaks and excursions organized in the beautiful surroundings. We hope that this proceedings volume will be useful for future reference to both young scientists and senior researchers working in various fields of nuclear physics. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to the National Authority for Scientific Research and the Romanian Academy (Elias Foundation) for their financial support. We acknowledge the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering and Bioterra University for their important contribution in organizing the School. Guest Editors D S Delion, N V Zamfir, A R Raduta and F Gulminelli First Week International Summer School on Nuclear Physics: First Week Second Week International Summer School on Nuclear Physics: Second Week Sponsors Sponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logo

  8. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    AbeTakashiUniversity of Tokyotabe@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp AmusiaMironRacah Institute of Physics, Jerusalemamusia@vms.huji.ac.il BaldoMarcelloINFN Cataniabaldo@ct.infn.it BansalManiePanjab University, Chandigarhbansalmanni@gmail.com BarrancoFranciscoUniversity of Sevillebarranco@us.es BertschGeorgeUniversity of Washington, Seattlebertsch@u.washington.edu BhagwatAmeeyaCBS Mumbaiameeya@kth.se BorderieBernardIPN Orsayborderie@ipno.in2p3.fr CarbonellJaumeLPSC Grenoblejaume.carbonell@lpsc.in2p3.fr CarlsonJoeLos Alamos National Laboratorycarlson@lanl.gov ColòGianlucaINFN - Università degli Studi di Milanocolo@mi.infn.it DanielewiczPawelNSCL, Michigan State Universitydanielewicz@nscl.msu.edu DescouvemontPierreUniversité Libre de Bruxellespdesc@ulb.ac.be Dohet-EralyJérémyUniversité Libre de Bruxellesjdoheter@ulb.ac.be DraayerJerryLouisiana State Universitydraayer@lsu.edu DufourMarianneIPHC, Université de Strasbourgmarianne.dufour@ires.in2p3.fr DuguetThomasCEA Saclaythomas.duguet@cea.fr DukelskyJorgeCSIC Madriddukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es EbranJean-PaulCEA-DAM, Arpajonebran@ipno.in2p3.fr FreerMartinUniversity of Birminghamm.freer@bham.ac.uk FujiiShinichiroUniversity of Tokyosfujii@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp FunakiYasuroRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakofunaki@riken.jp GrassoMarcellaIPN Orsaygrasso@ipno.in2p3.fr HaginoKouichiTohoku Universityhagino@nucl.phys.tohoku.ac.jp HansenHubertUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon 1hansen@ipnl.in2p3.fr HolzmannMarkusLPMMC Grenoblemarkus@lptl.jussieu.fr HoriuchiHisashiRCNP, Osaka Universityhoriuchi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp HoriuchiWataruGSI Darmstadtw.horiuchi@gsi.de HupinGuillaumeGANIL, Caenhupin@ganil.fr JinMengHuazhong Normal University, Wuhanjinm@iopp.ccnu.edu.cn KamimuraMasayasuRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakomkamimura@riken.jp Kanada-En'yoYoshikoKyoto Universityyenyo@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KatoKiyoshiHokkaido University, Sapporokato@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp KawabataTakahiroKyoto Universitykawabata@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KhanEliasIPN Orsaykhan@ipno.in2p3.fr

  9. The Gobbling Dwarf that Exploded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    100 is available as ESO Press Photo 08a/06. More Information These results are reported in a paper in Science Express published on 12 July 2007 ("Detection of circumstellar material in a normal Type Ia Supernova", by F. Patat et al.). The team is composed of F. Patat and L. Pasquini (ESO), P. Chandra and R. Chevalier (University of Virginia, USA), S. Justham, Ph. Podsiadlowski , and C. Wolf (University of Oxford, UK), A. Gal-Yam and J.D. Simon (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA), I.A. Crawford (Birkbeck College London, UK), P.A. Mazzali, W. Hillebrandt, and N. Elias-Rosa (Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), A.W.A. Pauldrach (Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany), K. Nomoto (University of Tokyo, Japan), S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, A. Renzini , F. Sabbadin, and M. Turatto (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy), D.C. Leonard (San Diego State University, USA), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University Belfast, UK). P.A. Mazzali is also associated with INAF/Trieste, Italy.

  10. Spirochete motility and morpholgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Nyles

    2004-03-01

    . burgdorferi during chemotaxis. In translational motility, the bundles of periplasmic flagella rotate in opposite directions. When not translating, they rotate in the same direction, and the cells flex. We present evidence that asymmetrical rotation of the bundles during translation does not depend upon the chemotaxis signal transduction system. The histidine kinase CheA is known to be an essential component in the signaling pathway for bacterial chemotaxis. Mutants of cheA in flagellated bacteria continually rotate their flagella in one direction. B. burgdorferi has two copies of cheA. We reasoned that if chemotaxis were essential for asymmetrical rotation of the flagellar bundles, and if the flagellar motors at both cell ends were identical, inactivation of the two cheA genes should result in cells that constant flex. To test this hypothesis, the signaling pathway was completely blocked by construction of a double cheA mutant. This mutant was completely deficient in chemotaxis. Rather than flexing, it failed to reverse, and it continually translated only in one direction. The results indicate that asymmetrical rotation does not depend upon the chemotaxis system but rather upon differences between the two flagellar bundles. We propose that certain factors within the spirochete localize at flagellar motors at one end of the cell to effect this asymmetry (3). References: 1. Charon, N.W. and S.F. Goldstein. 2002. The genetics of motility and chemotaxis of a fascinating group of bacteria: the spirochetes. Ann. Rev. Genetics. 36: 47-73. 2. Motaleb M.A., L. Corum, J.L Bono, A.F. Elias, P. Rosa, D.S. Samuels, N.W. Charon. 2000. Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000 97:10899-10904. 3. Li, C. R. Bakker, M. Motaleb, F. Cabello, M.L. Sartakova, and N.W. Charon. 2002. Asymmetrical flagellar rotation in Borrelia burgdorferi non-chemotaxis mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:6169-6174.

  11. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    were analyzed in size segregated soil and ambient PM samples at Higley; intra- and inter- comparisons were made between the ambient PM and three types of soil dust samples (agricultural soil, native soil, road dust) based on the particle size (fine vs. coarse), seasonality, and relative composition of 12 saccharide compounds. Based on the ambient concentrations of major saccharides and a number of other specific compounds (including elemental and organic carbon, ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) that are simultaneously resolved in Higley PM samples, a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was performed to determine the key contributors to PM10 and PM2.5 levels. Six distinct factors were isolated, with two factors dominated by the enrichment of saccharide compounds. There was not consistency between the source profiles of these two saccharide rich source factors with the saccharide composition of the local size-segregated soil samples, which implies that there may be other major sources contributing to ambient PM saccharides. One possible alternative is that PBAPs that are injected directly into the atmosphere instead of residing in the surface soil and being re-entrained through soil erosion or agricultural processing. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to compare the saccharide composition between the fine and coarse fraction of different soils types in two seasons, and to relate the contribution from soil dust to ambient PM using saccharide species. REFERENCE [1] AirData: Access to Air Pollution data. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://www.epa.gov/air/data/index.html [2] Allergy and Asthma in the Southwestern United States. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://allergy.peds.arizona.edu/southwest/swpollen.html [3] Cox, C.S., Wathes, C.M., 1995. Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, NY [4] Simoneit, B.R.T., Elias, V.O., et al., 2004. "Sugars - Dominant water-soluble organic

  12. Arthroscopic dorsal capsulo-ligamentous repair in the treatment of chronic scapho-lunate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L; Mathoulin, Christophe L

    2013-05-01

    Introduction Scapholunate ligament injuries usually result due to a fall on the outstretched hand leading to scapholunate instability. The natural history of untreated scapholunate instability remains controversial and usually results in late arthritic changes- the so-called "SLAC" wrist. The advent of wrist arthroscopy helps in early diagnosis and treatment of these serious injuries. In selected cases with reducible scapholunate instability (Garcia-Elias stages 2, 3 and 4) we propose a new "all arthroscopic dorsal capsulo- ligamentous repair" with the added advantage of early rehabilitation and prevention of post-operative stiffness. Material and Methods We report the results of our series of 57 consecutive patients suffering from chronic wrist pain refractory to conservative measures. All patients underwent a thorough clinical examination in addition to a standard set of radiographs and MRI exam; and they were treated by an all-arthroscopic dorsal capsulo-ligamentous repair under loco-regional anesthesia on an ambulatory basis. All patients were available for follow-up at regular intervals during the post-operative period. At follow-up, the wrist ROM in all directions, the grip strength, DASH questionnaire and pain relief based on the VAS were recorded for both- the operated and contra-lateral sides. Results There were 34 males & 23 females with a mean age of 38.72 ± 11.33 years (range 17-63 years). The dominant side was involved in 52 cases. The mean time since injury was 9.42 ± 6.33 months (range 3-24 months) and the mean follow-up was 30.74 ± 7.05 months (range 18-43 months). The mean range of motion improved in all directions. The mean difference between the post- and pre-operative extension was 14.03° (SEM = 1.27°; p < 0.001); while the mean difference between the post-and pre-operative flexion was 11.14° (SEM = 1.3°; p < 0.0001) with flexion and radial deviation reaching 84.3% and 95.72% respectively of the

  13. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable sedimentary record that extends from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene/Holocene has been drilled during IODP Expedition 341 (May - July 2013) in the Gulf of Alaska. The recovery and examination of sediments along a transect of five drill sites (U1417 - U1421) from the deep ocean towards the continental slope and shelf offshore the St. Elias Mountains enables the reconstruction of the palaeoceanographic and environmental development in the NE Pacific during a period of significant global cooling and directly addresses the overall research objectives of the IODP programme. The knowledge about palaeo sea surface conditions and their relation to climate changes in the subpolar NE Pacific is relatively scarce and mainly confined to the past 17 ka BP (Barron et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2011; Addison et al., 2012). Biomarker based reconstructions of the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice coverage, marine primary productivity) that characterised the subpolar NE Pacific during critical time intervals of Plio- and Pleistocene climate change may provide new information on oceanic and atmospheric feedback mechanisms and further enable the identification of teleconnections between the palaeoceanographic evolution in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present preliminary biomarker data obtained from sediments from the distal deepwater site U1417 and the proximal site U1419 located at the Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Variability in the distribution and abundance of short- and long-chain n-alkanes, sterols, and C25-highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) is interpreted to reflect changes in the environmental setting. These data provide insight in marine primary productivity changes (in response to cooling and warming intervals) and the variable input of terrigenous organic matter via meltwater and/or iceberg discharge events. The C25-HBI diene/triene ratio - hitherto used as a sea ice proxy in the Southern Ocean

  14. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    the meeting was that all plenary talks presented the state-of-the-art and were at the same time educational and exciting, promoting the multidisciplinary aspects of the research, and thus were inspirational for young scientists considering work in these fields. The plenary talks, each lasting 1 hour, were given by distinguished world experts and some young 'rising stars': Richard Ward, Ulf Leonhardt, Jens Eisert, Michael Berry, Shahn Majid, Arndt von Haeseler, Michio Jimbo, Katrin Wendland, Raymond Goldstein, Mark Trodden, Maria Vozmediano and Giulio Chiribella. The public lecture was given by Francesco Iachello and was open to participants and other people from the Newcastle-Durham region. In addition, talks of 30 minutes duration each and including more technical content, were given in four parallel sessions. Each parallel session had a designated time for informal interaction with the speakers, discussions of new directions of research and for forming new collaborations. The poster session, in a room where posters were exhibited for the duration of the conference, was easily accessible, and had a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, encouraging discussions of work and exchanges of new ideas. To secure a high quality scientific programme, all contributions were reviewed. Another interesting feature of the conference was the Open Forum on the Friday afternoon, which was lively and well attended. It took the form of a question and answer session with a panel chaired by Allan Solomon, with the following members: Gerald Goldin, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Mark Trodden and Giulio Chiribella. The focus was on new directions of research, novel applications and the further development of group theory, education, training and career opportunities for young researchers. The participants were asked to submit questions in advance; examples are: "What is the role of symmetries and conservation principles in deducing underlying physics from experimental data?" and "What are the most

  15. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    a concluding Press Conference , during which the outcome of this unique event will be summarized by the participants and the organisers: Monday, November 20, 1995, 15:30 pm, at the ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany List of National First-Prize Winners Belgium: Mr. Freddy Allemeersch (Teacher), Mr. Pieter De Ceuninck, Mr. Jeroen Staelens (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege, Brugge) Denmark: Mr. Joern C. Olsen, Mr. Henrik Struckmann, Mr. Uffe A. Hansen, Mr. Mogens Winther (Teacher) (Soenderborg Amtsgymnasium) Finland: Mr. Reima Eresmaa, Ms. Laura Elina Nykyri, Ms. Reetamaija Janhonen (Cygnaeues-Lukeo, Jyvaeskylae and Jyvaeskylaen Lyseon Lukeo) France: Mr. Rene Cavaroz (Teacher), Mr. Vincent Hardy, Mr. Antoine Lesuffleur (Lycee Chartier, Bayeux) Germany: Ms. Dorothee Barth, Mr. Walter Czech (Teacher), Mr. Uwe Kranz, Ms. Karin Wieland (Immanuel-Kant-Gymnasium, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg) Greece: Ms. Agni Ioannidi, Ms. Elena Katifori, Mr. Vassilis Samiotis, Mr. Vassillos Tzotzes (Teacher) (Second Varvakelo Experimental Lyceum, Athens) Ireland: Mr. Declan Maccuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm Mcloughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. Klaas Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, Rosendaal) Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Dr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) National Committees Further information about the national contests may be obtained from the National Committees: Belgium: Dr. C. Sterken, Vrije Universiteit

  16. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    revitalization of ecosystem services Key Message 6: Meeting the Challenge To achieve the societal transformation required to meet the climate change challenge, we must overcome a number of significant constraints and seize critical opportunities These include reducing inertia in social and economic systems; building on a growing public desire for governments to act on climate change; removing implicit and explicit subsidies; reducing the influence of vested interests that increase emissions and reduce resilience; enabling the shifts from ineffective governance and weak institutions to innovative leadership in government, the private sector and civil society; and engaging society in the transition to norms and practices that foster sustainability The editors of the volume are all the session chairs: Professor Agus Sari Dr Aled Jones Science Manager Anders Viksø-Nielsen Dr Andreas Barkman Professor Anette Reenberg Professor Ann Henderson-Sellers Professor Anthony J McMichael Dr Anthony Patt Dr Bette Otto-Bliesner Dr Cameron Hepburn Dr Carlos Nobre Dr Carol Turley Dr Chris Hope Professor Chris Turney Professor Claus Felby Professor Coleen Vogel Professor Dale Jamieson Professor Daniel M Kammen Senior Scientist Detlef F Sprinz Professor Diana Ürge-Vorsatz Professor Dorthe Dahl-Jensen PhD Fatima Denton Director Generel Frances Seymour Dr Frank Jotzo Professor Harold Mooney Director Henrik Bindslev Mr Jamie Pittock Professor Jacquie Burgess Dr James E Hansen Professor Jiahua Pan Dr Jill Jäger Professor Jim Skea Professor Johan Rockström Dr John Christensen Professor John Mitchell Professor John R Porter Professor Joyeeta Gupta Professor Jørgen E Olesen Professor Karen O'Brien Dr Kazuhiko Takeuchi Dr Katrine Krogh Andersen Professor Keith Paustian Professor Ken Caldeira Professor Kevin Anderson Dr Koko Warner Professor Konrad Steffen Professor Liping Zhou Professor Louise Fresco Professor Maria Carmen Lemos Professor Mark Ashton Dr Mark Stafford-Smith Dr Martin Claussen Dr Martin

  17. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    somewhat similar to the Earth, but it is too cold for life as we know it, and because of its comparatively small size, the atmospheric pressure is very low. It would in principle be possible to detect the outermost planet with the HST, if the distance to this planetary system was less than about 30 light-years. Ireland: Mr. Declan MacCuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm McLoughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) The nearest star, Alpha Centauri, is a double star and a hypothetical planetary system around the A-component, a solar-type star, is studied in some detail. The presence of the companion star makes some planetary orbits unstable. In this project, 4 planets are placed within 2 AU (300 million km) of the central star; 3 of these are terrestrial (no. 3 is Earth-like) and the outermost is a small gaseous planet. Cometary orbits may be very complex in this gravitatinal field. A planetary system like the one described may be barely observable with the Hubble Space Telescope, and only if one of the planets passes in front of the star (an `occultation') and its light diminishes accordingly. Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) This group built a spectrograph from scratch, with a grating and all the usual optical parts. They were able to calibrate the solar spectrum with the help of standard lamps and in this way, they observed several prominent, solar absorption lines. Among them were the H-alpha line at 6562 A, the sodium D-lines at 5890--96 And the magnesium triplet near 5175 A. These observations were made with the eye and also with the photographic recording technique. They were planning to observe the spectra of some stars also, but in the end time was too short and they had to hurry to send in the report. The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. KlAs Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, RosendAl) This team has designed their own planetary

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  19. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY, Hamburg Christian Hillmann Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Potsdam Stephan Hoehne Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Carlos Hoyos University of Wales, Swansea Mechthild Huebscher Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid Matthias Ihl University of Texas at Austin Emiliano Imeroni University of Wales, Swansea Nikos Irges University of Crete Negru Iulian University of Craiova Matthias Kaminski Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Stefanos Katmadas Universiteit Utrecht Shoichi Kawamoto Oxford University Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Arjan Keurentjes Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Sadi Khodaee Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran Michael Kiermaier Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and University of Crete Ingo KirschEidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Johanna Knapp CERN, Geneva Paul Koerber Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Simon Koers Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Anatoly Konechny Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Peter Koroteev Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow Daniel KreflLudwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Chethan KrishnanUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Stanislav Kuperstein Université Libre de Bruxelles Alberto Lerda Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Roman Linares Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, México Maria A Lledo Universidad de Valencia Dieter Luest Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Joseph Lykken Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, IL Carlo Maccaferri Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Oscar Macia Universidad de Valencia Tristan Maillard Centre de

  20. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    MoralIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Valentina Giangreco Marotta PulettiUppsala University Valeria L GiliQueen Mary, University of London Luciano GirardelloUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Gian GiudiceCERN, Geneva Kevin Goldstein Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Pietro Antonio GrassiUniversità del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Viviane GraßLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Johannes GrosseJagiellonian University, Krakow Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Norberto Gutierrez RodriguezUniversity of Oviedo Babak HaghighatPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Robert HaslhoferEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Tae-Won HaPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Alexander HauptImperial College London and Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marc HenneauxUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Johannes HennLAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux Shinji HiranoNiels Bohr Institute, København Stefan HoheneggerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Jan HomannLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Joost HoogeveenInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Mechthild HuebscherUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid Chris HullImperial College London Carmen-Liliana IonescuUniversity of Craiova Ella JasminUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Konstantin KanishchevInstitute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw Stefanos Katmadas Utrecht University Alexandros KehagiasNational Technical University of Athens Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Patrick Kerner Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Rebiai KhaledLaboratoire de Physique Mathématique et Physique Subatomique, Université Mentouri, Constantine Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique,

  1. EDITORIAL: Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiel, Hillel J.; Thomas, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    -LXIII (London: Royal Society) Ralph T C and Pryde G J 2010 Progress in Optics vol 54, ed E Wolf (New York: Elsevier) pp 209-79 (arXiv:1103.6071) Rashevsky N 1960 Mathematical Biophysics: Physico-Mathematical Foundations of Biology vol 1 3rd edn (New York: Dover) pp 375-462 (first edition 1938) Rinzel J and Ermentrout G B 1989 Analysis of neuronal excitability and oscillations Methods in Neuronal Modeling ed C Koch and I Segev (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp 135-69 Rosin B, Nevet A, Elias S, Rivlin-Etzion M, Israel Z and Bergman H 2007 Physiology and pathophysiology of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical networks Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 13 S437-9 Spardy L E, Markin S N, Shevtsova N A, Prilutsky B I, Rybak I A and Rubin J E 2011a A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: I. Rhythm generation J. Neural Eng. 8 065003 Spardy L E, Markin S N, Shevtsova N A, Prilutsky B I, Rybak I A and Rubin J E 2011b A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: II. Phase asymmetry J. Neural Eng. 8 065004 Steane A 1998 Quantum computing Rep. Prog. Phys. 61 117-73 Strogatz S H 1994 Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: with Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering (Cambridge, MA: Perseus) Thomas P J 2011 A lower bound for the first passage time density of the suprathreshold Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process J. Appl. Probab. 48 420-34 White J A, Rubinstein J T and Kay A R 2000 Channel noise in neurons Trends Neurosci. 23 131-7 Wilson H R and Cowan J D 1972 Excitatory and inhibitory interactions in localized populations of model neurons Biophys. J. 12 1-24 Wilson H R and Cowan J D 1973 A mathematical theory of the functional dynamics of cortical and thalamic nervous tissue Biol. Cybern. 13 55-80