Science.gov

Sample records for elias katrin laikoja

  1. The KATRIN Neutrino Mass Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parno, Diana; Katrin Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While neutrino oscillation experiments have demonstrated that the particles have non-zero mass, the absolute neutrino mass scale is still unknown. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is designed to improve on previous laboratory limits by an order of magnitude, probing the effective neutrino mass with a sensitivity approaching 0.2 eV at 90% confidence via the kinematics of tritium beta decay. At the same time, KATRIN has the potential to scan for sterile neutrinos at eV and keV scales. After years of preparation, all major components are now on site and commissioning is underway. I will report on the current status of the experiment, including recent results and preparations for the introduction of tritium later this year. US participation in KATRIN is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  2. Status of the neutrino mass experiment KATRIN

    SciTech Connect

    Bornschein, L.; Bornschein, B.; Sturm, M.; Roellig, M.; Priester, F.

    2015-03-15

    The most sensitive way to determine the neutrino mass scale without further assumptions is to measure the shape of a tritium beta spectrum near its kinematic end-point. Tritium is the nucleus of choice because of its low endpoint energy, superallowed decay and simple atomic structure. Within an international collaboration the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently being built up at KIT. KATRIN will allow a model-independent measurement of the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c{sup 2} (90% CL). KATRIN will use a source of ultrapure molecular tritium. This contribution presents the status of the KATRIN experiment, thereby focusing on its Calibration and Monitoring System (CMS), which is the last component being subject to research/development. After a brief overview of the KATRIN experiment in Section II the CMS is introduced in Section III. In Section IV the Beta Induced X-Ray Spectroscopy (BIXS) as method of choice to monitor the tritium activity of the KATRIN source is described and first results are presented.

  3. Norbert Elias and the Lost Young Worker Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2006-01-01

    Forty years ago, between 1962 and 1964, fieldwork was carried out on the research project "Adjustment of Young Workers to Work Situations and Adult Roles". Using archived materials relating to the little known Norbert Elias project, this paper has two aims. First, to introduce this largely unknown aspect of Elias's work to a wider…

  4. The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim; Katrin Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) aims to determine the electron neutrino mass from tritium decay in a model-independent way, by a kinematic measurement of the energy of β-electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 will improve present limits by one order of magnitude. The decay electrons will originate from a 10 m long windowless gaseous tritium source. Super-conducting magnets will guide the electrons through a differential and cryogenic pumping section to the electro-static tandem spectrometer (MAG-E-filter), where the kinetic energy will be measured. The experiment is presently being built at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe by an international collaboration of more than 120 scientists. The largest component, the 1240 m3 main spectrometer, was delivered end of 2006 and first commissioning tests have been performed. This paper gives an overview of the goals and technological challenges of the experiment and reports on the progress in commissioning first major components. The start of first measurements is expected in 2012.

  5. [Pertinence of the Elias approach in history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Wenger, Alexandre

    2003-01-01

    Norbert Elias has notably influenced the historiography of the Early Modern Period since the 1970s. In the course of the borrowing of his concepts by different disciplines, the uniqueness of these concepts was nevertheless altered. This article aims to show that Elias' 'Sociology of configurations' proposed an original point of view on Longue Durée in history. It thus suggests: 1) to re-evaluate the historical dimension of Elias' sociology; 2) to question eventual contributions to present-day research to the history of medicine and health.

  6. 77 FR 22800 - Wilderness Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... National Park Service Wilderness Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Wilderness Eligibility Reclassification, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. SUMMARY: Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve...

  7. Detecting sterile neutrinos with KATRIN like experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    2011-02-01

    A sterile neutrino with mass in the eV range, mixing with ν-bar {sub e}, is allowed and possibly even preferred by cosmology and oscillation experiments. If such eV-mass neutrinos exist they provide a much better target for direct detection in beta decay experiments than the active neutrinos which are expected to have sub-eV masses. Their relatively high mass would allow for an easy separation from the primary decay signal in experiments such as KATRIN.

  8. Norbert Elias, maritime supremacy and the naval profession: on Elias' unpublished studies in the genesis of the naval profession.

    PubMed

    Moelker, René

    2003-09-01

    In 1950 Norbert Elias published the first of three studies on 'The Genesis of the Naval Profession' in the British Journal of Sociology. At the time Elias was not the established scholar that he was to become in later days. In the 1950s his work on the 'Naval Profession' was not well received by the audience, even though all the major themes of the 'civilizing process' were interwoven in the article. The other two studies were never published in English journals (only one was published in a Dutch journal but received no international attention). A perusal of the Norbert Elias Archive in Marbach am Neckar in Germany--shows that the 'Naval Profession' project is larger than the intended three part series of articles for the BJS. From an outline to the project found in the archive it can be concluded that Elias intended to write a book with six to seven chapters. The key to the studies is a sketchy theory of institutions, which states that conflict promotes institutional development. Through the conflict between two occupational groups, sailors and soldiers, the naval officer becomes institutionalized as a new profession. During the period this process takes place England acquires maritime supremacy, secures the passages to the colonies and becomes an empire.

  9. [Norbert Elias and a narrative about ageing and death].

    PubMed

    do O, Alarcon Agra

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the contribution made by Norbert Elias (1897-1990) to the problematization of old age by analyzing his text "Envelhecer e morrer". Here, the sociologist is seen as an author of texts which can help build up references that span disciplinary boundaries, or even overcome the polarization between 'health-' and 'social-'related knowledge, making it possible to form the desired field of study on ageing. Though Elias sometimes aligns himself with ideas bordering on an idealization of ageing from a pre-capitalist 'Golden Age', he does offer insights which deserve to be taken into consideration, especially when he relates the contemporary experience of ageing to the invention of modernity itself.

  10. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  11. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  12. Deformation during terrane accretion in the Saint Elias orogen, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruhn, R.L.; Pavlis, T.L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of southern Alaska and adjacent Canada is a complex belt of mountains formed by collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane into the transition zone from transform faulting to subduction in the northeast Pacific. The orogen is an active analog for tectonic processes that formed much of the North American Cordillera, and is also an important site to study (1) the relationships between climate and tectonics, and (2) structures that generate large- to great-magnitude earthquakes. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin of southern Alaska. Interaction between the Yakutat terrane and the North American and Pacific plates causes significant differences in the style of deformation within the terrane. Deformation in the eastern part of the terrane is caused by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by reverse faulting beneath the coastal mountains, but there is little deformation immediately offshore. The central part of the orogen is marked by thrusting of the Yakutat terrane beneath the North American plate along the Chugach-Saint Elias fault and development of a wide, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. Strike-slip faulting in this segment may he localized in the hanging wall of the Chugach-Saint Elias fault, or dissipated by thrust faulting beneath a north-northeast-trending belt of active deformation that cuts obliquely across the eastern end of the fold-and-thrust belt. Superimposed folds with complex shapes and plunging hinge lines accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen, where the sedimentary cover of the Yakutat terrane is accreted into the upper plate of the Aleutian subduction zone. These three structural segments are separated by transverse tectonic boundaries that cut across the Yakutat terrane and also coincide with the courses of piedmont glaciers that flow from

  13. Mar Elias, Arab Christians of Israel, and the Sign of the White Dove

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.; Loller, Marie; Spence, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to relate the formation of a tertiary institution as part of Mar Elias Educational Institutions and to identify the spheres of influence and relevant factors that may lead to its success or demise. It considers the relevance of its founding president, Abuna Elias Chacour, whose installation as Archbishop of the Galilee…

  14. [The driving force in the thinking of Norbert Elias. An attempt at psychoanalytic interpretation].

    PubMed

    Schröter, M

    1993-07-01

    The theory of civilization proposed by the eminent sociologist Norbert Elias, who died in 1990, has its roots in Freud's theory of culture. Elias always denied the importance of personal factors in connection with his work, but as has been demonstrated in connection with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and indeed Freud himself, this does not make it any the less legitimate to go in search of those infantile/unconscious motifs and affective sources powering Elias' prodigious scholarly creativity and informing his work, in however sublimated a form. Proceeding from the observation that successful scholarly or artistic production represents a synthesis of the forces of id, ego and super-ego, i.e. of affect, knowledge and conscience, the author demonstrates that concerns of central moment to Elias' thinking--commitment and non-involvement, establishment and outsider, the restraining of aggression in the civilizational process, interdependence of individuals--are partly the product of early experiences which Elias was able to turn to fruitful account in his work.

  15. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  16. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; ...

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3more » km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  17. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Viveiros, L. De; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Ureña, A. Gonzalez; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; Cascio, L. La; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H. -W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  18. Introduction to direct neutrino mass measurements and KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.; Katrin Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The properties of neutrinos and especially their rest mass play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. On the other hand experiments such as MARE, KATRIN and the recently proposed Project 8 will investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Here, because of neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. It combines an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source with an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. It will investigate the neutrino rest mass with 0.2 eV/c (90% C.L.) sensitivity and allow β spectroscopy close to the T endpoint at 18.6 keV with unprecedented precision.

  19. Forty Years On: Norbert Elias and the Young Worker Project. CLMS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    A study performed in 1962 by Norbert Elias on the adjustment of young people to the transition from school to work had five areas of inquiry; adjustment to relationships with older workers and supervisors; adjustment to job problems; adjustment to role as workers; adjustment to role as money-earner in home relations; and adjustment to role as…

  20. Infrared Observations of Hot Gas and Cold Ice Toward the Low Mass Protostar Elias 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.

  1. Sterile neutrinos and right-handed currents in KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, James; Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2014-07-01

    Kurie-plot experiments allow for neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics in an almost model-independent manner. A future tritium-based KATRIN-like experiment can be sensitive to light sterile neutrinos with masses below 18 keV, which are among the prime candidates for warm dark matter. Here we consider such keV neutrinos in left-right symmetric extensions, i.e. coupled to right-handed currents, which allow for an enhanced contribution to beta decay even for small active-sterile mixing, without violating astrophysical X-ray constraints. The modified spectral shape is in principle distinguishable from the standard contribution — especially for sterile neutrino masses below 9 keV, which can lead to a distinct peak. We compare the sensitivity to constraints from the LHC and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  2. Status and commissioning of the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino experiment KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuemmler, Thomas; Katrin Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino properties, and especially the determination of the neutrino rest mass, play an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. At present there are two complementary approaches to address this topic in laboratory experiments. The search for neutrinoless double β decay probes whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determines an effective neutrino mass value. Experiments based on single β decay investigate electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino mass by a modelindependent method. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β spectroscopy close to the tritium endpoint with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mass.

  3. ON THE PRAGMATICS OF SOCIAL THEORY: THE CASE OF ELIAS'S "ON THE PROCESS OF CIVILIZATION".

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Filipe Carreira; Bucholc, Marta

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the study of sociological classics. This approach is pragmatic in character. It draws upon the social pragmatism of G. H. Mead and the sociology of texts of D. F. McKenzie. Our object of study is Norbert Elias's On the Process of Civilization. The pragmatic genealogy of this book reveals the importance of taking materiality seriously. By documenting the successive entanglements between human agency and nonhuman factors, we discuss the origins of the book in the 1930s, how it was forgotten for 30 years, and how in the mid-1970s it became a sociological classic. We explain canonization as a matter of fusion between book's material form and its content, in the context of the paperback revolution of the 1960s, the events of May 1968, and the demise of Parsons' structural functionalism, and how this provided Elias with an opportunity to advance his model of sociology.

  4. Infrared observations of hot gas and cold ice toward the low mass protostar Elias 29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; de Graauw, Th.

    2000-08-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 μm spectrum of the low luminosity (36 Lsolar) Class I protostar Elias 29 in the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 μm" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  5. Deconvolution of the energy loss function of the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannen, V.; Heese, I.; Weinheimer, C.; Sejersen Riis, A.; Valerius, K.

    2017-03-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at a direct and model independent determination of the neutrino mass with 0.2 eV/c2 sensitivity (at 90% C.L.) via a measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum. The main components of the experiment are a windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), differential and cryogenic pumping sections and a tandem of a pre- and a main-spectrometer, applying the concept of magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic retardation potential to analyze the energy of beta decay electrons and to guide electrons passing the filter onto a segmented silicon PIN detector. One of the important systematic uncertainties of such an experiment are due to energy losses of β-decay electrons by elastic and inelastic scattering off tritium molecules within the source volume which alter the shape of the measured spectrum. To correct for these effects an independent measurement of the corresponding energy loss function is required. In this work we describe a deconvolution method to extract the energy loss function from measurements of the response function of the experiment at different column densities of the WGTS using a monoenergetic electron source.

  6. Synoptic variability of extreme snowfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andin, Caroline; Zdanowicz, Christian; Copland, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers in the Wrangell and St. Elias Mountains (Alaska and Yukon) are presently experiencing some of the highest regional wastage rates worldwide. While the effect of regional temperatures on glacier melt rates in this region has been investigated, comparatively little is known about how synoptic climate variations, for example in the position and strength of the Aleutian Low, modulate snow accumulation on these glaciers. Such information is needed to accurately forecast future wastage rates, glacier-water resource availability, and contributions to sea-level rise. Starting in 2000, automated weather stations (AWS) were established in the central St-Elias Mountains (Yukon) at altitudes ranging from 1190 to 5400 m asl, to collect climatological data in support of glaciological research. These data are the longest continuous year-round observations of surface climate ever obtained from this vast glaciated region. Here we present an analysis of snowfall events in the icefields of the St-Elias Mountains based on a decade-long series of AWS observations of snow accumulation. Specifically, we investigated the synoptic patterns and air mass trajectories associated with the largest snowfall events (> 25 cm/12 hours) that occurred between 2002 and 2012. Nearly 80% of these events occurred during the cold season (October-March), and in 74 % of cases the precipitating air masses originated from the North Pacific south of 50°N. Zonal air mass advection over Alaska, or from the Bering Sea or the Arctic Ocean, was comparatively rare (20%). Somewhat counter-intuitively, dominant surface winds in the St. Elias Mountains during high snowfall events were predominantly easterly, probably due to boundary-layer frictional drag and topographic funneling effects. Composite maps of sea-level pressure and 700 mb winds reveal that intense snowfall events between 2002 and 2012 were associated with synoptic situations characterized by a split, eastwardly-shifted or longitudinally

  7. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  8. Are bison exotic in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, James M.; Miquelle, Dale G.; Wright, R. Gerald

    1987-03-01

    The effect of past distributions of animal populations now extinct in an area from unknown causes is considered relative to their status as exotic or native in national parks. The example is the bison (Bison bison) on the Copper and Chitina river drainages in Alaska in the USA which was introduced prior to establishment of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The fossil record suggests that bison were present as recently as 500 years ago in Alaska. The policy of the US National Park Service to maintain natural ecosystems and restrict or eliminate exotic species raises the issue of whether this species should be treated as exotic or native.

  9. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  10. Electron line shape and transmission function of the KATRIN monitor spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slezák, M.

    2013-12-30

    Knowledge of the neutrino mass is of particular interest in modern neutrino physics. Besides the neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmological observation information about the neutrino mass is obtained from single beta decay by observing the shape of the electron spectrum near the endpoint. The KATRIN β decay experiment aims to push the limit on the effective electron antineutrino mass down to 0.2 eV/c{sup 2}. To reach this sensitivity several systematic effects have to be under control. One of them is the fluctuations of the absolute energy scale, which therefore has to be continuously monitored at very high precision. This paper shortly describes KATRIN, the technique for continuous monitoring of the absolute energy scale and recent improvements in analysis of the monitoring data.

  11. Tests of by-pass diodes at cryogenic temperatures for the KATRIN magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, W.; Bolz, H.; Jansen, A.; Müller, K.; Steidl, M.; Hagedorn, D.

    2014-01-27

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) requires a series of superconducting solenoid magnets for guiding beta-electrons from the source to the detector. By-pass diodes will operate at liquid helium temperatures to protect the superconducting magnets and bus bars in case of quenches. The operation conditions of the by-pass diodes depend on the different magnet systems of KATRIN. Therefore, different diode stacks are designed with adequate copper heat sinks assuming adiabatic conditions. The by-pass diode stacks have been submitted to cold tests both at liquid nitrogen and liquid helium temperatures for checking operation conditions. This report presents the test set up and first results of the diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, as well as of endurance tests of the diode stacks at constant current load at 77 K and 4.2 K.

  12. Neutrinos secretly converting to lighter particles to please both KATRIN and the cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Hannestad, Steen E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    2016-02-01

    Within the framework of the Standard Model of particle physics and standard cosmology, observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) set stringent bounds on the sum of the masses of neutrinos. If these bounds are satisfied, the upcoming KATRIN experiment which is designed to probe neutrino mass down to ∼ 0.2 eV will observe only a null signal. We show that the bounds can be relaxed by introducing new interactions for the massive active neutrinos, making neutrino masses in the range observable by KATRIN compatible with cosmological bounds. Within this scenario, neutrinos convert to new stable light particles by resonant production of intermediate states around a temperature of T∼ keV in the early Universe, leading to a much less pronounced suppression of density fluctuations compared to the standard model.

  13. Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N

    2014-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11, P = 0.019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water.

  14. The 3.2-3.6 micron spectra of monoceros R2/IRS-3 and Elias 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Smith, R. G.; Brooke, T. Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained 3.2-3.6 micron spectra, with a resolution lambda/delta-lambda approximately 750, of the protostar Mon R2/IRS-3 and of Elias 16, a background K giant behind the Taurus molecular cloud. A feature at 3,482 microns (2872/cm), with a full width at half-maximum of 0.09 microns (76/cm), is clearly seen in Mon R2/IRS-3. This feature is not detected in Elias 16. The 3.482 micron feature in Mon R2/IRS-3 is similar to a feature at 3.466-3.478 microns (2875-2885/cm) detected by Allamandola et al. in four protostars and attributed by these authors to a CH stretch in hydrocarbons dominated by sp3-bonded carbon. Neither Mon R2/IRS-3 nor Elias 16 shows absorption at 3.540 microns (2825/cm), which has been detected in two of the four protostars observed by Allamandola et al. and attributed by them to CH3OH ice. Our limit on CH3OH ice toward Elias 16 is compared to models of gas-grain chemistry in dark clouds. Our results confirm those of Allamandola et al. that at this resolution the 3.4 micron absorption due to dust in molecular clouds has very different spectral structure than that due to dust in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  15. Ilya Neustadt, Norbert Elias, and the Leicester Department: personal correspondence and the history of sociology in Britain.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, John; Hughes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The central aims of this paper are: (1) to explore the utility of using personal correspondence as a source of data for sociological investigations into the history of sociology in the UK; (2) in relation to this undertaking, to advance the beginnings of a figurational analysis of epistolary forms; and (3), to provide an empirically-grounded discussion of the historical significance of the Department of Sociology at the University of Leicester (a University largely ignored in 'standard histories' of the subject) at a formative phase in the development of the discipline within the UK. The correspondence drawn upon in the paper is between Norbert Elias and Ilya Neustadt between 1962 and 1964 when Elias was Professor of Sociology at the University of Ghana and Ilya Neustadt was Professor of Sociology and Head of the Sociology Department at the University of Leicester. From an analysis of this correspondence, we elucidate an emergent dynamic to the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, one which, we argue, undergirds the development of sociology at Leicester and the distinctive character of the intellectual climate that prevailed there during the 1960s. The paper concludes with a consideration of whether it was a collapse of this dynamic that led to a total breakdown in the relationship between Neustadt and Elias, and by extension, an important phase in the expansion of sociology at Leicester.

  16. Reconsidering Feminisms and the Work of Norbert Elias for Understanding Gender, Sport and Sport-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…

  17. 78 FR 13379 - Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; Proposed Mining Plan of... of operations to conduct a mining operation on lands embracing the Shamrock (AA026813) and Tony...

  18. Geologic map of the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donald R.; Preller, Cindi C.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.

    2006-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest national park within the U.S. National Park Service system, extends from the northern Pacific Ocean to beyond the eastern Alaska Range into interior Alaska. It features impressively spectacular scenery such as high and craggy mountains, active and ancient volcanoes, expansive ice fields, immense tidewater glaciers, and a myriad of alpine glaciers. The park also includes the famous Kennecott Mine, a world-class copper deposit that was mined from 1911 to 1938, and remnant ghost town, which is now a National Historic Landmark. Geologic investigations encompassing Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve began in 1796, with Dmitriv Tarkhanov, a Russian mining engineer, who unsuccessfully ventured up the Copper River in search of rumored copper. Lieutenant H.T. Allen (1897) of the U.S. Army made a successful epic summer journey with a limited military crew up the Copper River in 1885, across the Alaska Range, and down the Tanana and Yukon Rivers. Allen?s crew was supported by a prospector named John Bremner and local Eyak and Ahtna native guides whose tribes controlled access into the Copper River basin. Allen witnessed the Ahtnas? many uses of the native copper. His stories about the copper prompted prospectors to return to this area in search of the rich copper ore in the years following his journey. The region boasts a rich mining and exploration history prior to becoming a park in 1980. Several U.S. Geological Survey geologists have conducted reconnaissance surveys in the area since Allen?s explorations. This map is the result of their work and is enhanced by more detailed investigations, which began in the late 1950s and are still continuing. For a better understanding of the processes that have shaped the geology of the park and a history of the geologic investigations in the area, we recommend U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1616, ?A Geologic Guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park

  19. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Sean P S; Jaeger, John M; Mix, Alan C; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L; Berbel, Glaucia B B; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Kioka, Arata; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J; März, Christian; Matsuzaki, Kenji M; McClymont, Erin L; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R; Ridgway, Kenneth D; Romero, Oscar E; Slagle, Angela L; Stoner, Joseph S; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D; Worthington, Lindsay L; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M

    2015-12-08

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼ 2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8-1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼ 100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2-0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50-80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale.

  20. Norbert Elias's motion pictures: history, cinema and gestures in the process of civilization.

    PubMed

    Algazi, Gadi

    2008-09-01

    Norbert Elias's project in The process of civilization (1939) involved reconstructing invisible movement--both the slow tempoof long-term historical change and the modification of psychic structures and embodied dispositions. To do this, he resorted to uncommon devices: treating historical texts as constituting a series amenable to a rudimentary discourse analysis, he constructed an imagined 'curve of civilization' serving as an approximation of the hidden process of change. Elias's curve was not supposed to represent single past states, but movement itself, its direction and pace. This novel concept of historical representation was related to the perception of cinema as a new medium making actual movement visible. But beyond making it possible to imagine how one could telescope long-term historical process, cinema also held the promise of serving as a microscope, making the minute movements of the human body, gestures and manners available for close inspection. While anthropologists were devising ways of using the new medium to document fleeting gestures and bodily postures, it was used by popular audiences as a source for remodelling behaviour and acquiring polite manners and body techniques, as noticed by such acute observers as Marcel Mauss and Joseph Roth. Hence, popular appropriation of the cinema gave rise to a heightened awareness of the historicity of gestures and the changing modalities of their transmission. Cinema was itself part of the accelerated motion of history, of a perceived change of pace in the process of civilization, which in its turn shed light on its historical antecedents and played an essential role in rethinking the notion of civilization and culture.

  1. Mid-Pleistocene climate transition drives net mass loss from rapidly uplifting St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, John M.; Mix, Alan C.; Asahi, Hirofumi; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Belanger, Christina L.; Berbel, Glaucia B. B.; Childress, Laurel; Cowan, Ellen; Drab, Laureen; Forwick, Matthias; Fukumura, Akemi; Ge, Shulan; Gupta, Shyam; Konno, Susumu; LeVay, Leah J.; März, Christian; McClymont, Erin L.; Moy, Chris; Müller, Juliane; Nakamura, Atsunori; Ojima, Takanori; Ribeiro, Fabiana R.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Romero, Oscar E.; Slagle, Angela L.; Stoner, Joseph S.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Suto, Itsuki; Walczak, Maureen D.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Bailey, Ian; Enkelmann, Eva; Reece, Robert; Swartz, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Erosion, sediment production, and routing on a tectonically active continental margin reflect both tectonic and climatic processes; partitioning the relative importance of these processes remains controversial. Gulf of Alaska contains a preserved sedimentary record of the Yakutat Terrane collision with North America. Because tectonic convergence in the coastal St. Elias orogen has been roughly constant for 6 My, variations in its eroded sediments preserved in the offshore Surveyor Fan constrain a budget of tectonic material influx, erosion, and sediment output. Seismically imaged sediment volumes calibrated with chronologies derived from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program boreholes show that erosion accelerated in response to Northern Hemisphere glacial intensification (∼2.7 Ma) and that the 900-km-long Surveyor Channel inception appears to correlate with this event. However, tectonic influx exceeded integrated sediment efflux over the interval 2.8–1.2 Ma. Volumetric erosion accelerated following the onset of quasi-periodic (∼100-ky) glacial cycles in the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (1.2–0.7 Ma). Since then, erosion and transport of material out of the orogen has outpaced tectonic influx by 50–80%. Such a rapid net mass loss explains apparent increases in exhumation rates inferred onshore from exposure dates and mapped out-of-sequence fault patterns. The 1.2-My mass budget imbalance must relax back toward equilibrium in balance with tectonic influx over the timescale of orogenic wedge response (millions of years). The St. Elias Range provides a key example of how active orogenic systems respond to transient mass fluxes, and of the possible influence of climate-driven erosive processes that diverge from equilibrium on the million-year scale. PMID:26598689

  2. Mercury in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in

  3. Interim report on the St. Elias, Alaska earthquake of 28 February 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, John C.; Plafker, George; Stephens, C.D.; Foglean, K.A.; Blackford, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    On 28 February 1979 an earthquake with surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 7.7 (W. Person, personal communication, 1979) occurred beneath the Chugach and St. Elias mountains of southern Alaska (fig. 1). This is a region of complex tectonics resulting from northwestward convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. To the east, the northwest-trending Fairweather fault accommodates the movement with dextral slip of about 5.5 cm/yr (Plafker, Hudson, and others, 1978); to the west, the Pacific plate underthrusts Alaska at the Aleutian trench, which trends southwestward (Plafker 1969). The USGS has operated a telemetered seismic network in southern Alaska since 1971 and it was greatly expanded along the eastern Gulf of Alaska in September 1974. The current configuration of stations is shown in Figure 9. Technical details of the network are available in published earthquake catalogs (Lahr, Page, and others, 1974; Fogleman, Stephens, and others, 1978). Preliminary analysis of the data from this network covering the time period September 1, 1978 through March 10, 1979, as well as worldwide data for the main shock will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and trace rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study (??? 10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples. ?? 1994.

  5. Offshore Tectonics of the St. Elias Mountains: Insights from Ocean Drilling and Seismic Stratigraphy on the Yakutat Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, L. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Montelli, A.; Jaeger, J. M.; Zellers, S.; Walczak, M. H.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing collision of the Yakutat (YAK) microplate with North America (NA) in southern Alaska has driven orogenesis of the St. Elias Mountains and the advance of the offshore deformation front to the southeast. The offshore St. Elias fold-thrust belt records the complex interaction between collisional tectonics and glacial climate variability, providing insight for models of orogenesis and the evolution of glacial depocenters. Glacial erosion and deposition have provided sediment that constructed the upper continental shelf, much of which has been reincorporated into the orogenic wedge through offshore faulting and folding. We integrate core and downhole logging data from IODP Expedition 341 (Sites U1420 and U1421) drilled on the Yakutat shelf and slope with high-resolution and regional seismic profiles to investigate the coupled structural and stratigraphic evolution of the St. Elias margin. Site U1420 lies on the Yakutat shelf within the Bering Trough, a shelf-crossing trough that is within primary depocenter for Bering Glacier sediments. Two faults underlie the glacial packages and have been rendered inactive as the depositional environment has evolved, while faulting elsewhere on the shelf has initiated. Site U1421 lies on the current continental slope, within the backlimb of an active thrust that forms part of the modern YAK-NA deformation front. At each of these sites, we recovered glacigenic diamict (at depths up to ~1015 m at Site U1420), much of which is younger than 0.3 Ma. Age models within the trough indicated that initiation of active deformation away from the Bering Trough depocenter likely occurred since 0.3 Ma, suggesting that possible tectonic reorganization due to mass redistribution by glacial processes can occur at time scales on the order of 100kyr-1Myr.

  6. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkley, T.K. )

    1994-08-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar to those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and track rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also-large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study ([approximately]10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples.

  7. Simulation of background from low-level tritium and radon emanation in the KATRIN spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Leiber, B.; Collaboration: KATRIN Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment for the model independent determination of the mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium beta decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum at 18.6 keV. To achieve a good signal to background ratio at the endpoint, a low background rate below 10{sup −2} counts per second is required. The KATRIN setup thus consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), a magnetic electron transport system with differential and cryogenic pumping for tritium retention, and electro-static retarding spectrometers (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a segmented detector system for counting transmitted beta-electrons. A major source of background comes from magnetically trapped electrons in the main spectrometer (vacuum vessel: 1240 m{sup 3}, 10{sup −11} mbar) produced by nuclear decays in the magnetic flux tube of the spectrometer. Major contributions are expected from short-lived radon isotopes and tritium. Primary electrons, originating from these decays, can be trapped for hours, until having lost almost all their energy through inelastic scattering on residual gas particles. Depending on the initial energy of the primary electron, up to hundreds of low energetic secondary electrons can be produced. Leaving the spectrometer, these electrons will contribute to the background rate. This contribution describes results from simulations for the various background sources. Decays of {sup 219}Rn, emanating from the main vacuum pump, and tritium from the WGTS that reaches the spectrometers are expected to account for most of the background. As a result of the radon alpha decay, electrons are emitted through various processes, such as shake-off, internal conversion and the Auger deexcitations. The corresponding simulations were done using the KASSIOPEIA

  8. A geologic guide to Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska; a tectonic collage of northbound terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; with contributions by MacKevett, E. M.; Plafker, George; Richter, D.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, the largest unit in the U.S. National Park System, encompasses near 13.2 million acres of geological wonderments. This geologic guide presents history of exploration and Earth-science investigation; describes the complex geologic makeup; characterizes the vast college of accretion geologic terranes in this area of Alaska's continental margin; recapitulates the effects of earthquakes, volcanoes, and glaciers; characterizes the copper and gold resources of the parklands; and describes outstanding locales within the park and preserve area. A glossary of geologic terms and a categorized list of additional sources of information complete this report.

  9. Tectonic processes during oblique collision: Insights from the St. Elias orogen, northern North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlis, T.L.; Picornell, C.; Serpa, L.; Bruhn, R.L.; Plafker, G.

    2004-01-01

    Oblique convergence in the St. Elias orogen of southern Alaska and northwestern Canada has constructed the world's highest coastal mountain range and is the principal driver constructing all of the high topography in northern North America. The orogen originated when the Yakutat terrane was excised from the Cordilleran margin and was transported along margin-parallel strike-slip faults into the subduction-transform transition at the eastern end of the Aleutian trench. We examine the last 3 m.y. of this collision through an analysis of Euler poles for motion of the Yakutat microplate with respect to North America and the Pacific. This analysis indicates a Yakutat-Pacific pole near the present southern triple junction of the microplate and' predicts convergence to dextral-oblique convergence across the offshore Transition fault, onland structures adjacent to the Yakutat foreland, or both, with plate speeds increasing from 10 to 30 mm/yr from southeast to northwest. Reconstructions based on these poles show that NNW transport of the collided block into the NE trending subduction zone forced contraction of EW line elements as the collided block was driven into the subduction-transform transition. This suggests the collided block was constricted as it was driven into the transition. Constriction provides an explanation for observed vertical axis refolding of both earlier formed fold-thrust systems and the collisional suture at the top of the fold-thrust stack. We also suggest that this motion was partially accommodated by lateral extrusion of the western portion of the orogen toward the Aleutian trench. Important questions remain regarding which structures accommodated parts of this motion. The Transition fault may have accommodated much of the Yakutat-Pacific convergence on the basis of our analysis and previous interpretations of GPS-based geodetic data. Nonetheless, it is locally overlapped by up to 800 m of undeformed sediment, yet elsewhere shows evidence of young

  10. Crustal Structure of the Yakutat Microplate: New Parameters for Understanding the Evolution of the Chugach-St.Elias Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, L. L.; Christeson, G. L.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We present results of a 2008 marine seismic reflection/refraction survey acquired as part of the St. Elias Erosion and Tectonics Project (STEEP), a multi-disciplinary NSF-Continental Dynamics project aimed at tectonic-climate interaction, structural evolution and geodynamics in the Chugach-St. Elias orogen. The Chugach-St.Elias orogen is the result of flat-slab subduction and collision of the Yakutat (YAK) microplate with North Amercian (NA) on the southern Alaska margin during the last ~10Ma. A fundamental goal of STEEP is to address controversy related to the deep crustal structure of the YAK block itself, describe its offshore structural relationships and constrain its buoyancy in order to understand the orogenic driver. Marine seismic reflection profiles acquired across the offshore YAK microplate provide the first regional images of the top of the subducting YAK basement. The basement reflector is observed near the seafloor at the Dangerous River Zone (DRZ) and is overlain by up to 12 km of sediments near Kayak Island, resulting in a basement dip of ~3° in the direction of subduction. The basement reflector also shallows near the shelf-edge adjacent to the Transition Fault, the YAK-Pacific boundary. These observations are indicative of an overall regional basement tilt towards the NA continent. Two coincident wide-angle refraction profiles constrain YAK crustal thickness between 30-35km, >20km thicker than normal oceanic crust, and lower crustal velocities potentially >7km/s. Crustal velocity and thickness are comparable to the Kerguelen oceanic plateau and the Siletz terrane. These results are the first direct observations in support of the oceanic plateau theory for the origin of the YAK microplate. Crustal velocity and structure are continuous across the DRZ on the YAK shelf, which is historically described as a vertical boundary between continental crust on the east and oceanic basement on the west. Instead, we observe a gradual shallowing of elevated

  11. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  12. Next generation KATRIN high precision voltage divider for voltages up to 65kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Berendes, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Rosendahl, S.; Thümmler, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-10-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment aims to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino with a sensitivity of 200 meV by precisely measuring the electron spectrum of the tritium beta decay. This will be done by the use of a retarding spectrometer of the MAC-E-Filter type. To achieve the desired sensitivity the stability of the retarding potential of -18.6 kV has to be monitored with a precision of 3 ppm over at least two months. Since this is not feasible with commercial devices, two ppm-class high voltage dividers were developed, following the concept of the standard divider for DC voltages of up to 100 kV of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In order to reach such high accuracies different effects have to be considered. The two most important ones are the temperature dependence of resistance and leakage currents, caused by insulators or corona discharges. For the second divider improvements were made concerning the high-precision resistors and the thermal design of the divider. The improved resistors are the result of a cooperation with the manufacturer. The design improvements, the investigation and the selection of the resistors, the built-in ripple probe and the calibrations at PTB will be reported here. The latter demonstrated a stability of about 0.1 ppm/month over a period of two years.

  13. 3 Neutrino mass experiments fit a strange 3 + 3 model, but will KATRIN reveal the model's unique 3-part signature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is presented in support of an unconventional 3 + 3 model of the neutrino mass eigenstates with specific m2 > 0 and m2 < 0 masses. The two large m2 > 0 masses of the model were originally suggested based on a SN 1987A analysis, and they were further supported by several dark matter fits. The new evidence for one of the m2 > 0 mass values comes from an analysis of published data from the three most precise tritium β - decay experiments. The KATRIN experiment by virtue of a unique 3-part signature should either confirm or reject the model in its entirety.

  14. [Social institutions and tempering of affects as "contraints" of social change. Norbert Elias' theory on the civilization theory in light of the biologic system theory of evolution].

    PubMed

    Weinich, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    This study is to be regarded as a contribution to interdisciplinary research and represents an attempt to clarify the question of whether and to what extent concepts that have been developed in the field of theoretical biology and which have a high degree of importance here can also be applied to sociological phenomena. In particular it is intended to examine the question of whether the civilizing process can be adequately treated using the evolutionary concept of "Constraints". This term, which has only recently been introduced into the discussion by PERE ALBERCH as an evolutionary factor, comprises all of the internal factors which influence the further course of the evolution of a system by ruling out certain possibilities, thus showing a limiting effect. Although "Constraints" go beyond the scope of Darwinian teachings about selection by the environment, they are increasingly accepted today as evolution factors by well-known exponents of Darwinian theory (cf. MAYNARD-SMITH 1985). The increase in popularity of "constraints" is also an expression of the rediscovery of a phenomenon which was originally expressed by RUPERT RIEDL and was introduced by him into German literature in the seventies. In the clarification of this question, special reference is made to the "theory of the civilizing process" by NORBERT ELIAS, since here a highly respected scholar has presented an important sociological theory. Moreover, there is such good scientific access to ELIAS because this author exemplifies his theses in historical terms and thus to a certain extent makes his explanations verifiable in scientific terms. In the treatment of this topic, the central terms and theses of ELIAS will be presented from the considerable scope of his work, and then illustrated with the help of several selected historical case studies. Furthermore, reference will be made at the relevant points to parallels and analogies which the works of ELIAS have to other, predominantly system

  15. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THE CLASS I LOW-MASS PROTOSTAR ELIAS 29 APPLYING OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF ICES PROCESSED BY HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAY ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, W. R. M.; Pilling, S. E-mail: sergiopilling@yahoo.com.br

    2015-04-10

    We present a study of the effects of high energy cosmic rays (CRs) over the astrophysical ices, observed toward the embedded class I protostar Elias 29, by using computational modeling and laboratory data. Its spectrum was observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering 2.3–190 μm. The modeling employed the three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC-3D and laboratory data of bombarded ice grains by CR analogs and unprocessed ices (not bombarded). We are assuming that Elias 29 has a self-irradiated disk with inclination i = 60.°0, surrounded by an envelope with a bipolar cavity. The results show that absorption features toward Elias 29 are better reproduced by assuming a combination between unprocessed astrophysical ices at low temperature (H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}) and bombarded ices (H{sub 2}O:CO{sub 2}) by high energy CRs. Evidences of the ice processing around Elias 29 can be observed by the good fitting around 5.5–8.0 μm, by polar and apolar ice segregation in 15.15–15.25 μm, and by the presence of the CH{sub 4} and HCOOH ices. Given that non-nitrogen compounds were employed in this work, we assume that absorption around 5.5–8.0 μm should not be associated with the NH{sub 4}{sup +} ion (see the 2003 work of Shutte and Khanna ), but more probably with aliphatic ethers (e.g., R1-OCH{sub 2}-R2), CH{sub 3}CHO, and related species. The results obtained in this paper are important because they show that the environment around protostars is better modeled considering processed samples and, consequently, demonstrate the chemical evolution of the astrophysical ices.

  16. Computational Modeling of the Class I Low-Mass Protostar Elias 29 Applying Optical Constants of Ices Processed By High Energy Cosmic Ray Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, W. R. M.; Pilling, S.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of the effects of high energy cosmic rays (CRs) over the astrophysical ices, observed toward the embedded class I protostar Elias 29, by using computational modeling and laboratory data. Its spectrum was observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering 2.3-190 μm. The modeling employed the three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC-3D and laboratory data of bombarded ice grains by CR analogs and unprocessed ices (not bombarded). We are assuming that Elias 29 has a self-irradiated disk with inclination i = 60.°0, surrounded by an envelope with a bipolar cavity. The results show that absorption features toward Elias 29 are better reproduced by assuming a combination between unprocessed astrophysical ices at low temperature (H2O, CO, CO2) and bombarded ices (H2O:CO2) by high energy CRs. Evidences of the ice processing around Elias 29 can be observed by the good fitting around 5.5-8.0 μm, by polar and apolar ice segregation in 15.15-15.25 μm, and by the presence of the CH4 and HCOOH ices. Given that non-nitrogen compounds were employed in this work, we assume that absorption around 5.5-8.0 μm should not be associated with the NH4+ ion (see the 2003 work of Shutte & Khanna ), but more probably with aliphatic ethers (e.g., R1-OCH2-R2), CH3CHO, and related species. The results obtained in this paper are important because they show that the environment around protostars is better modeled considering processed samples and, consequently, demonstrate the chemical evolution of the astrophysical ices.

  17. Cenozoic evolution of the Yakutat-North American collision zone and structural accommodation of St. Elias syntaxis exhumation, Alaska/Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Active convergent margins potentially pose multiple natural hazards to human life and infrastructure. Tectonic strain may be further focused where convergent margins are warped into broad syntaxes. However, the processes responsible for upper plate deformation in these settings are not well understood. The St. Elias syntaxis in southeast Alaska and southwest Yukon is located at the eastern corner of the Yakutat microplate, which indents into the North American Plate and subducts at a flat angle beneath Alaska. High rates of long-term glacial erosion and exhumation (>2 mm/yr) are found on the southern, coastal flanks of the St. Elias orogen, but the deepest and most rapid exhumation is focused at the St. Elias syntaxis. In this location, transform motion transitions into subduction of the wedge-shaped, oceanic plateau of the Yakutat microplate. In order to map the spatio-temporal pattern of exhumation in the Yakutat-North American collision zone, we conducted zircon and apatite fission-track analyses of predominantly detrital, sand-sized material and five bedrock samples from 47 different glacio-fluvial catchments covering an area of ~45,000 km2 around the St. Elias syntaxis. Integration of the new thermochronologic data with prior work and other geologic and geophysical observations yielded information on past terrane accretion events at the North American margin since the late Mesozoic and the evolution of exhumation at the St. Elias syntaxis in the context of the ongoing Yakutat-North American plate collision. Our results indicate a migrating focus of the most rapid exhumation from north to south and from the upper (North American Plate) to the lower (Yakutat microplate) plate in the syntaxis area over the past ~10 Myr. This migration occurred in response to a change in plate motions, increasingly thicker crust of the subducting Yakutat microplate, and changes in surface processes after glaciation began that resulted in modification of the rheology. We propose a

  18. Iceberg calving as a primary source of regional‐scale glacier‐generated seismicity in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neel, Shad; Larsen, Christopher F.; Rupert, Natalia; Hansen, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of the Alaska Regional Seismic Network in the 1970s, data analysts have noted nontectonic seismic events thought to be related to glacier dynamics. While loose associations with the glaciers of the St. Elias Mountains have been made, no detailed study of the source locations has been undertaken. We performed a two-step investigation surrounding these events, beginning with manual locations that guided an automated detection and event sifting routine. Results from the manual investigation highlight characteristics of the seismic waveforms including single-peaked (narrowband) spectra, emergent onsets, lack of distinct phase arrivals, and a predominant cluster of locations near the calving termini of several neighboring tidewater glaciers. Through these locations, comparison with previous work, analyses of waveform characteristics, frequency-magnitude statistics and temporal patterns in seismicity, we suggest calving as a source for the seismicity. Statistical properties and time series analysis of the event catalog suggest a scale-invariant process that has no single or simple forcing. These results support the idea that calving is often a response to short-lived or localized stress perturbations. Our results demonstrate the utility of passive seismic instrumentation to monitor relative changes in the rate and magnitude of iceberg calving at tidewater glaciers that may be volatile or susceptible to ensuing rapid retreat, especially when existing seismic infrastructure can be used.

  19. 1. Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and groundwater in alpine glacierized watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine glacierized watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine glacierized catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the glacier-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of glacier meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.

  20. Summer habitat selection by Dall’s sheep in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Sexual segregation occurs frequently in sexually dimorphic species, and it may be influenced by differential habitat requirements between sexes or by social or evolutionary mechanisms that maintain separation of sexes regardless of habitat selection. Understanding the degree of sex-specific habitat specialization is important for management of wildlife populations and the design of monitoring and research programs. Using mid-summer aerial survey data for Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southern Alaska during 1983–2011, we assessed differences in summer habitat selection by sex and reproductive status at the landscape scale in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST). Males and females were highly segregated socially, as were females with and without young. Resource selection function (RSF) models containing rugged terrain, intermediate values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and open landcover types best explained resource selection by each sex, female reproductive classes, and all sheep combined. For male and all female models, most coefficients were similar, suggesting little difference in summer habitat selection between sexes at the landscape scale. A combined RSF model therefore may be used to predict the relative probability of resource selection by Dall’s sheep in WRST regardless of sex or reproductive status.

  1. Loess origin, transport, and deposition over the past 10,000 years, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Budahn, James R.; McGeehin, John P.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Skipp, Gary L.; Paces, James B.; Wheeler, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary glaciogenic dust has not received much attention, because most research has been on glaciogenic dust of the last glacial period or non-glaciogenic dust of the present interglacial period. Nevertheless, dust from modern glaciogenic sources may be important for Fe inputs to primary producers in the ocean. Adjacent to the subarctic Pacific Ocean, we studied a loess section near Chitina, Alaska along the Copper River in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, where dust has been accumulating over the past ∼10,000 years. Mass accumulation rates for the fine-grained (<20 μm) fraction of this loess section are among the highest reported for the Holocene of high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mineralogy and geochemistry, loess at Chitina is derived from glacial sources in the Wrangell Mountains, the Chugach Mountains, and probably the Alaska Range. Concentrations of Fe in the silt-plus-clay fraction of the loess at Chitina are much higher than in all other loess bodies in North America and higher than most loess bodies on other continents. The very fine-grained (<2 μm) portion of this sediment, capable of long-range transport, is dominated by Fe-rich chlorite, which can yield Fe readily to primary producers in the ocean. Examination of satellite imagery shows that dust from the Copper River is transported by wind on a regular basis to the North Pacific Ocean. This Alaskan example shows that high-latitude glaciogenic dust needs to be considered as a significant Fe source to primary producers in the open ocean.

  2. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high source luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.

  3. Status of the KATRIN experiment and prospects to search for keV-mass sterile neutrinos in tritium β-decay

    DOE PAGES

    Mertens, Susanne

    2015-03-24

    In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment are presented. The prime goal of this single β-decay experiment is to probe the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90% CL). We discuss first results of the recent main spectrometer commissioning measurements, successfully verifying the spectrometer’s basic vacuum, transmission and background properties. We also discuss the prospects of making use of the KATRIN tritium source, to search for sterile neutrinos in the multi-keV mass range constituting a classical candidate for Warm Dark Matter. Due to the very high sourcemore » luminosity, a statistical sensitivity down to active-sterile mixing angles of sin² θ < 1 · 10⁻⁷ (90% CL) could be reached.« less

  4. Hydrologic conditions and hazards in the Kennicott River basin, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickman, R.L.; Rosenkrans, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    McCarthy, Alaska, is on the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier in the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. Most visitors to McCarthy and the park cross the West Fork Kennicott River using a hand-pulled tram and cross the East Fork Kennicott River on a temporary footbridge. Outburst floods from glacier-dammed lakes result in channel erosion, aggradation, and migration of the Kennicott River, which disrupt transportation links, destroy property, and threaten life. Hidden Creek Lake, the largest of six glacier-dammed lakes in the Kennicott River Basin, has annual outbursts that cause the largest floods on the Kennicott River. Outbursts from Hidden Creek Lake occur from early fall to mid-summer, and lake levels at the onset of the outbursts have declined between 1909 and 1995. Criteria for impending outbursts for Hidden Creek Lake include lake stage near or above 3,000 to 3,020 feet, stationary or declining lake stage, evidence of recent calving of large ice blocks from the ice margin, slush ice and small icebergs stranded on the lakeshore, and fresh fractures in the ice-margin region. The lower Kennicott Glacier has thinned and retreated since about 1860. The East and West Fork Kennicott River channels migrated in response to changes in the lower Kennicott Glacier. The largest channel changes occur during outburst floods from Hidden Creek Lake, whereas channel changes from the other glacier-dammed lake outbursts are small. Each year, the West Fork Kennicott River conveys a larger percentage of the Kennicott Glacier drainage than it did the previous year. Outburst floods on the Kennicott River cause the river stage to rise over a period of several hours. Smaller spike peaks have a very rapid stage rise. Potential flood magnitude was estimated by combining known maximum discharges from Hidden Creek Lake and Lake Erie outburst floods with a theoretical large regional flood. Flood hazard areas at the transportation corridor were

  5. The anomalous 3.43 and 3.53 micron emission features toward HD 97048 and Elias 1 - C-C vibrational modes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Wooden, D. H.; Cohen, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 5-8 micron spectra obtained toward the two protostellar sources, HD 97048 and Elias 1 exhibit strong anomalous emission features at 3.43 and 3.53 microns. Combining these results with earlier data established that the emission in the general IR features is extended on at least a 20-arcsec scale. In view of the high energy density in the emission zone, as well as the apparent correspondence of the anomalous 3.43 and 3.53 micron features with weak emission shoulders associated with the general family of IR emission bands, an explanation for these observations in terms of C-C overtones and combination tones of large or dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is judged to be provisionally suitable.

  6. Geochemical data for environmental studies of mineral deposits at Nabesna, Kennecott, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, Bremner, and Gold Hill, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Rosenkrans, D.S.; Ballestrazze, Vanessa; Aldir, Jose; Brown, Z.A.; Crock, J.G.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Doughten, M.W.; Fey, D.L.; Hageman, P.L.; Hopkins, R.T.; Knight, R.J.; Malcolm, M.J.; McHugh, J.B.; Meier, A.L.; Motooka, J.M.; O'Leary, R. M.; Roushey, B.H.; Sultley, S.J.; Theodorakos, P.M.; Wilson, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental geochemical investigations were carried out between 1994 and 1997 in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska. Mineralized areas studied include the historic Nabesna gold mine/mill and surrounding areas; the historic Kennecott copper mill area and nearby Bonanza, Erie, Glacier, and Jumbo mines; the historic mill and gold mines in the Bremner district; the active gold placer mines at Gold Hill; and the unmined copper-molybdenum deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of possible environmental hazards associated with these mineralized areas and to establish background and baseline levels for selected elements. Thus, concentrations of a large suite of trace elements were determined to assess metal loadings in the various sample media collected. This report presents the methodology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, leachate, sediment, heavy-mineral concentrate, rock, and vegetation (willow) samples collected during these geochemical investigations. An interpretive U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper incorporating these geochemical data will follow.

  7. Impact of ADC non-linearities on the sensitivity to sterile keV neutrinos with a KATRIN-like experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolde, Kai; Mertens, Susanne; Radford, David; Bode, Tobias; Huber, Anton; Korzeczek, Marc; Lasserre, Thierry; Slezak, Martin

    2017-03-01

    ADC non-linearities are a major systematic effect in the search for keV-scale sterile neutrinos with tritium β-decay experiments like KATRIN. They can significantly distort the spectral shape and thereby obscure the tiny kink-like signature of a sterile neutrino. In this work we demonstrate various mitigation techniques to reduce the impact of ADC non-linearities on the tritium β-decay spectrum to a level of < ppm . The best results are achieved with a multi-pixel (≥104 pixels) detector using full waveform digitization. In this case, active-to-sterile mixing angles of the order of sin2 θ =10-7 would be accessible from the viewpoint of ADC non-linearities. With purely peak-sensing ADCs a comparable sensitivity could be reached with highly linear ADCs, sufficient non-linearity corrections or by increasing the number of pixels to ≥105 .

  8. Limited climate control of the Chugach/St. Elias thrust wedge in southern Alaska demonstrated by orogenic widening during Pliocene to Quaternary climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigs, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Critical taper wedge theory is the gold standard by which climate control of convergent orogenic belts is inferred. The theory predicts (and models reproduce) that an orogenic belt narrows if erosion increases in erosion in the face of a constant tectonic influx. Numerous papers now argue on the basis of thermochronologic data that the Chugach/ St. Elias Range (CSE) of southern Alaska narrowed as a direct response to Quaternary climate change because glaciers dominated erosion of the orogenic belt. The CSE formed in response to collision of a microplate with North America and is notable because glacial erosion has dominated the CSE for the past 5 to 6 Ma. An increase in sediment accumulation rates in the foreland basin over that time suggests that glacial erosion become more efficient. If correct, it is possible that glacial erosion outpaced rock influx thereby inducing a climatically controlled narrowing of the orogenic wedge during the Quaternary. Growth strata preserved within the wedge provide a test of that interpretation because they demonstrate the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation during the Pliocene to Quaternary climate transition. A thrust front established between 6 and 5 Ma jumped towards the foreland by 30 and 15 km at 1.8 and 0.25 Ma, respectively. Distributed deformation within the thrust belt accompanied the thrust front relocations. Continuous exhumation recorded by low-temperature thermochronometers occurred contemporaneously with the shortening, parallel the structural not the topographic grain, and ages become younger towards the foreland as well. Interpreted in terms of critical wedge theory, continuous distributed deformation reflects a sub-critical wedge taper resulting from the combined effects of persistent exhumation and incremental accretion and orogenic widening via thrust front jumps into the undeformed foreland. Taper angle varies according to published cross-sections and ranges from 3 to 9 degrees. If the wedge oscillated

  9. Convergence rates vs Exhumation rates: An indirect test of exhumation rates during the last glacial maximum in the St. Elias Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Serpa, L.; Bruhn, R. L.; Plafker, G.

    2002-12-01

    Several recent studies of Holocene erosion rates in the St. Elias orogen concluded that large glaciers are denuding the region at what may be the highest rates in the world, yet long-term exhumation studies from low-T geochronometers suggest more modest denudation rates. One solution to this discrepancy is that erosion rates were lower during glacial maxima to produce a lower long-term average, but it is also possible that erosion rates have accelerated through time. The Transition fault is the trailing edge of the Yakutat microplate, the microcontinental block that is driving the active tectonics of the orogen as the microplate is jammed into the subduction-transform transition. Seismic reflection images across the Transition fault show that it is overlapped by up to 800m of flat-lying sediments where a large submarine fan complex has accumulated at the foot of the Yakutat submarine canyon. Elsewhere along the fault trace, however, the fault appears to be active, and based on linear velocity analysis from GPS data previous workers have suggested that the Transition fault absorbs approx. 20 mm/yr of convergence. We considered the hypothesis that the apparent lack of convergence indicated by overlapping sediments was a 3-D effect of the position for an Euler pole for Yakutat-Pacific motion, but our analysis of the plate motion circuit indicates this hypothesis is not viable. Specifically, the best-fit Yakutat-NA pole (from GPS data and transform curvature) lies in the north Pacific (53.5, -150, 2.55 degrees/m.y.) which when summed with the NA-P pole yields a Y-P pole immediately to the south and east of the Yakutat microplate (best fit pole at 57,-133,-3.10 degrees/m.y.) for any reasonable choice of a Y-NA pole. With this pole position, the convergence rates at the northwest end of the Transition fault, where the fault is overlapped by undeformed sediments, are actually higher than to the southeast. We conclude that either the Transition fault is not taking up the

  10. Norbert Elias and the civilized prison.

    PubMed

    Pratt, J

    1999-06-01

    This paper employs an Eliasian perspective to provide an historical overview to the contemporary crisis in British prisons. It argues that some of the roots of this crisis lie within the very attempts to bring prison development in line with the cultural values of modern society.

  11. Water quality of the Chokosna, Gilahina, Lakina Rivers, and Long Lake watershed along McCarthy Road, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.; Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chokosna, Gilahina, and Lakina River basins, and the Long Lake watershed are located along McCarthy Road in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve. The rivers and lake support a large run of sockeye (red) salmon that is important to the commercial and recreational fisheries in the larger Copper River. To gain a better understanding of the water quality conditions of these watersheds, these basins were studied as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service during the open water periods in 2007 and 2008. Water type of the rivers and Long Lake is calcium bicarbonate with the exception of that in the Chokosna River, which is calcium bicarbonate sulfate water. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 63 to 222 milligrams per liter, indicating a high buffering capacity in these waters. Analyses of streambed sediments indicated that concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, chromium, and nickel exceed levels that might be toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, these concentrations reflect local geology rather than anthropogenic sources in this nearly pristine area. Benthic macroinvertebrate qualitative multi-habitat and richest targeted habitat samples collected from six stream sites along McCarthy Road indicated a total of 125 taxa. Insects made up the largest percentage of macroinvertebrates, totaling 83 percent of the families found. Dipterans (flies and midges) accounted for 43 percent of all macroinvertebrates found. Analysis of the macroinvertebrate data by non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated differences between (1) sites at Long Lake and other stream sites along McCarthy Road, likely due to different basin characteristics, (2) the 2007 and 2008 data, probably from the higher rainfall in 2008, and (3) macroinvertebrate data collected in south-central Alaska, which represents a different climate zone. The richness, abundance, and community composition of periphytic algae taxa was variable between sampling sites

  12. Hispanos en la EPA: Elias Rodríguez

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  13. Partial melting of amphibolite to trondhjemite at Nunatak Fiord, St. Elias Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F.; McLellan, E.L.; Plafker, G.

    1985-01-01

    At Nunatak Fiord, 55km NE of Yakutat, Alaska, a uniform layer of Cretaceous basalt ca. 3km thick was metamorphosed ca. 67 million years ago to amphibolite and locally partially melted to pegmatitic trondhjemite. Segregations of plagioclase-quartz+/-biotite rock, leucosomes in amphibolite matrix, range from stringers 5-10mm thick to blunt pods as thick as 6m. They tend to be parallel to foliation of the amphibolite, but crosscutting is common. The assemblage aluminous hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-sphene-quartz gave a hydrous melt that crystallized to plagioclase-quartz+/-biotite pegmatitic trondhjemite. 5-10% of the rock melted. Eu at 2x chondrites is positively anomalous. REE partitioning in melt/residum was controlled largely by hornblende and sphene. Though the mineralogical variability precludes quantitative modeling, partial melting of garnet-free amphibolite to heavy-REE-depleted trondhjemitic melt is a viable process.

  14. The October 1988 Elia Prefecture Earthquake (SW Greece): Seismic Environment, Building Types and Damage Patterns.

    PubMed

    Pomonis, A

    1989-06-01

    Earthquake disasters occur frequently in Greece, causing serious building damage and considerable loss of life. The latest event, on 16 October 1988, though not one of the most destructive, caused considerable damage. Strong motion records have been obtained near to the damaged region and this provides the opportunity to assess the extent of damage to various building types, and compare it with damage caused during another recent earthquake. The common characteristics of each building type are given, along with the typical damage patterns. Comments are also made about the seismicity of Greece and earthquake damage during this century. The building type distribution in various parts of the country is also discussed, with a view to future earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation.

  15. 78 FR 50106 - Aniakchak National Monument Subsistence Resource Commission and the Wrangell-St. Elias National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ..., contact Designated Federal Official Diane Chung, Superintendent, at (907) 246-3305; Mary McBurney at (907... applying for Aniakchak National Monument SRC membership, contact the Superintendent at P.O. Box 7, King Salmon, AK 99613, or visit the park Web site at: http://www.nps.gov.ania/contacts.htm ....

  16. Hydrologic and mass-movement hazards near McCarthy Wrangell-St Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, S.H.; Glass, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the confluence of McCarthy Creek and the Kennicott River, about 1 mile from the terminus of Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, McCarthy Creek and Kennicott River basins are prone to several natural hazards including floods; formation and failure of natural dams; stream erosion and sediment deposi- tion; snow avalanches; aufeis; and the mass wasting of rock, soil, and debris. Low-lying areas along the Kennicott River flood annually, commonly during late July or early August, as a result of outbursts from glacier-dammed lakes, but these floods can occur during any month of the year. Flood plains along McCarthy Creek and its tributaries are frequently flooded and prone to rapid erosion and deposition during intense rainfall and periods of rapid snow- melt. Sediments from continual mass wasting accumu- late in stream channels and are mobilized during floods. Several lateral erosion, scour, and deposition resulting from floods in September 1980 and August 1985 destroyed bridges and several historic structures at McCarthy were jeopardized by the rapidly eroding northern streambank of McCarthy Creek. Flood discharges were determined indirectly using the slope-area method at two high-gradient reaches on the Kennicott River, four on McCarthy Creek, and one on Nikolai Creek. During the flood of September 13, 1980, peak discharge for McCarthy Creek at McCarthy was 4,500 cubic feet per second.

  17. M/V ELIAS Explosion and Fire at Fort Mifflin, PA., on 9 April 1974 with Loss of Life.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-09

    and main deck house vent systems . The location of the corroded bulkheads and drainpipes could have prcv.ldcd a path for combustible vapors from the...heating system in the cargo tanks which could have created an ignitable vapor cloud or the failure of a steam line releasing a static charge developing...of a central clearing house for fire data is already an integral part of the Coast Guard informational system . Data on fires aboard foreign flag

  18. Plate Margin Deformation and Active Tectonics Along the Northern Edge of the Yakutat Terrane in the Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Sauber, Jeanne; Cotton, Michele M.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Burgess, Evan; Ruppert, Natalia; Forster, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    The northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane into the cusp of southern Alaska. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds is poorly constrained, however, due to pervasive glaciation. In this study we used high-resolution topography, geodetic imaging, seismic, and geologic data to advance understanding of the transition from strike-slip motion on the Fairweather fault to plate margin deformation on the Bagley fault, which cuts through the upper plate of the collisional suture above the subduction megathrust. The Fairweather fault terminates by oblique-extensional splay faulting within a structural syntaxis, allowing rapid tectonic upwelling of rocks driven by thrust faulting and crustal contraction. Plate motion is partly transferred from the Fairweather to the Bagley fault, which extends 125 km farther west as a dextral shear zone that is partly reactivated by reverse faulting. The Bagley fault dips steeply through the upper plate to intersect the subduction megathrust at depth, forming a narrow fault-bounded crustal sliver in the obliquely convergent plate margin. Since . 20 Ma the Bagley fault has accommodated more than 50 km of dextral shearing and several kilometers of reverse motion along its southern flank during terrane accretion. The fault is considered capable of generating earthquakes because it is linked to faults that generated large historic earthquakes, suitably oriented for reactivation in the contemporary stress field, and locally marked by seismicity. The fault may generate earthquakes of Mw <= 7.5.

  19. [Clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibody measured by EliA anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2Glycoprotein I antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Yuichiro; Shida, Haruki; Oku, Kenji; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Amengual, Olga; Horita, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL-IgG/IgM) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI-IgG/IgM) are laboratory tests included in the current classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, not all of these assays have been commercially available in Japan. We investigated the efficacy of aCL-IgG/IgM and aβ2GPI-IgG/IgM assays using fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (Phadia:EliA(TM)) for the diagnosis of APS in Japan. This study comprised 229 sera from patients (100 with APS and 129 without APS). The diagnosis of APS was made according to Sydney revised Sapporo criteria. EliA(TM)Cardiolipin and EliA(TM)β2-Glycoprotein (Phadia AB. Uppsala Sweden) were used to detect aCL IgG/M and aβ2GPI IgG/M, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were as follows; aCL-IgG (45%, 94%, 0.80), aCL-IgM (20%, 94%, 0.54), aβ2GPI-IgG (33%, 98%, 0.88) and aβ2GPI-IgM (16%, 99%, 0.64) respectively. aCL-IgM, aβ2GPI-IgG or aβ2GPI-IgM were detected in 10 patients (18%) with aCL-IgG negative. The use of Phadia:EliA(TM)antiphospholipid antibodies assays improve the diagnostic yield of thrombotic risk in APS patients.

  20. Fault Segmentation and Earthquake Generation in the Transition from Strike-slip to Subduction Plate Motion, Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, R. L.; Shennan, I.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    The structural transition from strike-slip motion along the Fairweather transform fault to subduction on the Aleutian megathrust occurs within the collision zone between the Yakutat microplate and southern Alaska. The collision is marked by belts of thrust and strike-slip faulting both within the microplate and along its margins, forming a complex fault network that mechanically interacts with rupturing of the Aleutian megathrust on one hand, and the Fairweather transform fault on the other. For example, stress released by M8+ earthquakes within the central and eastern parts of the Yakutat microplate in 1899 may have constrained the 1964 rupture on the Aleutian megathrust to the western part of the microplate. However, megathrust earthquakes circa 900 BP and 1500 BP may have ruptured farther east than in 1964, generating earthquakes of significantly greater magnitude and tsunami potential. Structurally, the thrust-faulting earthquake of Sept. 10, 1899 occurred on faults that are loaded primarily by the Fairweather transform, but the earlier event of Sept. 4 is more closely linked to the Aleutian megathrust. Large reverse faults that rise off of the megathrust are superimposed on older structures within the microplate; creating complex duplex and wedge fault geometries beneath the mountains onshore that link to simpler fault propagation folds offshore. These lateral variations in fault network style correlate with 1) permanent uplift of the coast at ≈ 1 cm/yr in the Yakataga region of the microplate, 2) an abrupt change in structural style and orientation across the Kayak Island - Bering Glacier deformation zone, and 3) the seaward limit of ruptures in the 1899 earthquakes which occurred beneath the mountains onshore. Future goals include refining locations of earthquake source faults and determining the recurrence history of earthquakes within the Yakutat microplate. The history of rupturing within the microplate offshore is of particular interest given the potential tsunami hazard that may affect population centers around the Pacific rim. Plate tectonic setting, NE Gulf of Alaska

  1. Validation of 3D Code KATRIN For Fast Neutron Fluence Calculation of VVER-1000 Reactor Pressure Vessel by Ex-Vessel Measurements and Surveillance Specimens Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalandinov, A.; Tsofin, V.; Kochkin, V.; Panferov, P.; Timofeev, A.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makhotin, D.; Erak, D.; Voloschenko, A.

    2016-02-01

    Usually the synthesis of two-dimensional and one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations is used to evaluate neutron fluence on VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for prognosis of radiation embrittlement. But there are some cases when this approach is not applicable. For example the latest projects of VVER-1000 have upgraded surveillance program. Containers with surveillance specimens are located on the inner surface of RPV with fast neutron flux maximum. Therefore, the synthesis approach is not suitable enough for calculation of local disturbance of neutron field in RPV inner surface behind the surveillance specimens because of their complicated and heterogeneous structure. In some cases the VVER-1000 core loading consists of fuel assemblies with different fuel height and the applicability of synthesis approach is also ambiguous for these fuel cycles. Also, the synthesis approach is not enough correct for the neutron fluence estimation at the RPV area above core top. Because of these reasons only the 3D neutron transport codes seem to be satisfactory for calculation of neutron fluence on the VVER-1000 RPV. The direct 3D calculations are also recommended by modern regulations.

  2. 75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... requested from Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439...-delivered to Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439,...

  3. Correspondence regarding "The problem of conifer species migration lag in the Pacific Northwest region since the last glaciation" by Elias, S.A., (2013), Quaternary Science Reviews 77, 55-69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buma, B.; Hennon, P. E.; Bidlack, A. L.; Baichtal, J. F.; Ager, T. A.; Streveler, G.

    2014-06-01

    The velocity of species dispersal post-last glacial maximum (LGM) is an interesting question from both paleo-historical and contemporary perspectives. The apparent time lag between a location's climate becoming suitable for a given species and that species' arrival at that location has important implications for our understanding of the relationship between climate variables such as temperature and moisture and the dispersal ability of plants. Our knowledge of species dispersal rates underlies assumptions required for the interpretation of pollen and sediment records, biogeochemical reconstructions, and other endemic species distributions.

  4. Energy Extraction from the Electron Beam in a Free Electron Laser Resonator Gaussian Mode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Elias, Juan Gallardo and Peter Goldstein N00014-80-C-0308 S. PF OR -ING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS I . PROGRAM ELEMt.T PROJECT, TASK * ,’ niwxrsity...Elias, Juan Gallardo , Peter Goldstein Quantum Institue, University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106 ABSTRACT We present preliminary...QUANTUM INSTITUTE FREE ELECTRON LASER PROJECT Energy Extraction fran the Electron Beam in a Free Electron Laser Resonator Gaussian Mode Luis Elias, Juan

  5. Learning to Mock--Challenging the Teaching Establishment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Norman

    2016-01-01

    There have been very few studies that apply the work of Mikhail Bakhtin and Norbert Elias to understand the underlying learning processes of young children. This article will explore the methodological similarities between Bakhtin's ideas about the carnivalesque and Norbert Elias's theory of established-outsider relations to explain how young…

  6. "I Couldn't Wait for the Day": Young Workers' Reflections on Education during the Transition to Work in the 1960s. CLMS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    Researchers analyzed 500 never-before-analyzed interviews from a study conducted by Norbert Elias and other researchers at University of Leicester in 1962, which was one of the first studies of the transition from school to work. The Elias study explored how young people in England experienced work and adjusted their lives to the work role. All of…

  7. 77 FR 25538 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... KEILBAR PETER TIMOTHY KELLER PATRICIA DORIS KELLY ALEXANDER ANTHONY KELLY VIRGINIA RAE KEMPE TOBY NICHOLAS... NADIA STUBER ANDREAS PAUL STUBER KATRIN STUBER LISA RAE STUMP BEATRICE SUTER MARTIN KASPAR SYZ...

  8. TRITIUM-β-DECAY Experiments - the Direct way to the Absolute Neutrino Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornschein, Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Tritium-β-decay experiments provide the most sensitive approach to measure the absolute neutrino mass in a model independent way. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN will measure the neutrino mass scale with an expected sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c2 (90% C.L.) and so will help to clarify the roles of neutrinos in the early universe. KATRIN investigates spectroscopically the electron spectrum from tritium β-decay 3 H -> 3 {He} + {e}^ - + bar ν e close to the kinematic endpoint of 18.6 keV. It will use a windowless gaseous tritium source in combination with an electrostatic filter for energy analysis. KATRIN is currently under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Campus North. This proceeding will give an overview of the status of the main components of the KATRIN experiment.

  9. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  10. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  11. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  12. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  13. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  14. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  15. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  16. 36 CFR 13.40 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of the Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve, including the use of these park areas for...

  17. 36 CFR 13.150 - Use for authorized commercial fishing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Krusenstern National Monument, the Malaspina Glacier Forelands area of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Preserve, and the Dry Bay area of Glacier Bay National Preserve is authorized pursuant to the provisions of §...

  18. In Praise of Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead singer of the band Alabama, (with his wife Kelly) received the Paul G. Rogers Public Service ... lead singer of the band Alabama, (with his wife Kelly). Photo courtesy of NIH NIH Director Elias ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: harlequin ichthyosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taylor AE, Ilchyshyn A, Kennedy CT, Goodyear H, Moss C, Paige D, Harper JI, Young BD, Leigh ... D, Elias PM, Williams ML. Pathophysiologic basis for growth failure in children with ichthyosis: an evaluation of ...

  20. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Kīlauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  1. From the NIH Director: A Global Health System

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. During his recent visit to India, NIH Director Dr. Elias Zerhouni (left) met with Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, to discuss NIH's substantial medical research collaborations with ...

  2. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand; Hodák, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380,000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter, the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the BB. Probably, the most promising method to “see” the CNB is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The “KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino” (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time, KATRIN can also look by the reaction νe(˜ 1.95K) +3H →3He + e‑(Q = 18.6keV + m νec2). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spectrum as a peak by the electron neutrino rest mass above Q. Here, the possibility to see the CNB with KATRIN is studied. A detection of the CNB by KATRIN seems not to be possible at the moment. But KATRIN should be able to determine an upper limit for the local electron neutrino density of the CNB.

  3. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Anthony Elias CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Regents of the University of Colorado Aurora , CO 80045 REPORT DATE: September 2015...REPORT NUMBER Regents of the University of Colorado 13001 E 17th Place Bldg 500 W1126 Aurora , CO 80045-2505 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...University of Colorado Postdoctoral Research Day, Aurora , CO. * won best overall poster award. Barton VN, D’Amato N, Gordon M, Elias, A, and JK

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  5. Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Heller, Martin; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J

    2012-01-01

    Elia (1992) identified the specific resting metabolic rates (K(i)) of major organs and tissues in young adults with normal weight: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue and 12 for residual mass (all units in kcal/kg per day). The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Elia's K(i) values for obese adults. A sample of young women (n = 80) was divided into two groups, nonobese (BMI <29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30.0-43.2 kg/m(2)). This study was based on the mechanistic model: REE = σ (K(i) × T(i)), where REE is whole-body resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry and T(i) is the mass of individual organs and tissues measured by magnetic resonance imaging. For each organ/tissue, the corresponding Elia's K(i) value was analyzed respectively for nonobese and obese groups by using stepwise univariate regression analysis. Elia's K(i) values were within the range of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the nonobese group. However, Elia's K(i) values were outside the right boundaries of 95% CIs in the obese group and a corresponding obesity-adjusted coefficient was calculated as 0.98, indicating that Elia's values overestimate K(i) by 2.0% in obese adults. Obesity-adjusted K(i) values were 196 for liver, 235 for brain, 431 for heart and kidneys, 12.7 for skeletal muscle, 4.4 for adipose tissue, and 11.8 for residual mass. In conclusion, although Elia's K(i) values were validated in nonobese women, obesity-adjustments are appropriate for application in obese women.

  6. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and by solid phase assay.

    PubMed

    Op De Beeck, Katrijn; Vermeersch, Pieter; Verschueren, Patrick; Westhovens, René; Mariën, Godelieve; Blockmans, Daniel; Bossuyt, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    Testing for antinuclear antibodies is useful for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases. Solid phase assays are increasingly replacing indirect immunofluorescence for detection of antinuclear antibodies. In the most recent generation of solid phase assays, manufacturers attempt to improve the performance of the assays by adding extra antigens. Solid phase assay (EliA CTD Screen, Phadia, in which antibodies to 17 antigens are detected) was compared to indirect immunofluorescence for the detection of antinuclear antibodies in diagnostic samples of 236 patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases, in 149 healthy blood donors, 139 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 134 diseased controls. The sensitivity of EliA CTD Screen for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, primary Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and inflammatory myopathy was 74%, 72%, 89%, 100%, and 39%, respectively. The reactivity in blood donors, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and in diseased controls was <4%. Likelihood ratios increased with increasing antibody concentrations. Generally, a positive test result by EliA CTD Screen had a higher likelihood ratio for systemic rheumatic disease than a positive test result by indirect immunofluorescence. A negative test result by indirect immunofluorescence, however, had a lower likelihood ratio than a negative test result by EliA CTD Screen, indicating that the negative predictive value was higher for indirect immunofluorescence than for EliA CTD screen.

  7. Kamstrupp's Wow-Effect: Re-Examined and Expanded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is…

  8. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 {mu}g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 {mu}g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake`s closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

  9. International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (2nd) Held in Santa Barbara, California on 12-17 July 1992 (Extended Abstracts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA) Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata, Argentina It is a well known...LINE MODEL S.G. Real, A.C. Elias and J.R. Vilche Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Te6ricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas...ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR S. Alonso-Romarowski, A.C. Elias, H.R. Arias F.J. Barrantes* and J.R. Vilche. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Te6ricas y

  10. Directory of Manufacturing Research Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    M. 57 Elias, Luis 55 Hanifin, Leo 46, 136 Elinger, Wayne 105 Harbison-Briggs, Karan 15 Ellingwood, Sara 169 Harnett, Michael 56 Ellis, Edwin 61 Harral...VanKooy, Henry 20 Vicroy, Roger 76 Villanueva, Jose 143 Von Herrman, Pieter 174 Wagner, Harry 26 Wagner, James W. 51 Wakeley, Chris 161 Walk, Robert A...Director of CREOL Dr. Mike Bass, Staff Dr. Glenn Boreman, Staff Dr. Luis Elias, Staff Dr. Karl Gunther, Staff Dr. Dave Hagan, St3ff Dr. Jin Kim, Staff

  11. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  12. Eventos de Julio (July Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 July events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: United States Declaration of Independence; the birthdays of P.T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar; Marisol Malaret (first puerto Rican to be "Miss Universe"); Puerto Rican Constitution; Las…

  13. Continuity and Change in the Experiences of Transition from School to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

    2007-01-01

    Using previously unanalysed data from Norbert Elias's lost study of young workers in Leicester--the "Adjustment of Young Workers to Work Situations and Adult Roles" (1962-1964), and data from a subsequent restudy of the same respondents in 2003-2005, this paper focuses on three main themes. First, we critically examine the concept of…

  14. Latin America Report No. 2689.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    luncheon in Nogueira did not take place. In Brasilia, Deputy Roberto Freire of Pernambuco’s Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) considered the...Minister Sandoval and will include Elias Soley Soler as alternate delegate; Juan Mora Varela , the minister’s adviser; Gerardina Gonzalez

  15. Preventing School Problems--Promoting School Success: Strategies and Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minke, Kathleen M., Ed.; Bear, George C., Ed.

    This book discusses the prevention of problems and the promotion of success for school children today. Chapters include: (1) "Preventing Aggression and Violence" (George G. Bear, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Michael J. Furlong, and Sabrina Rhee); (2) "Promoting Social and Emotional Competence in Children" (Joseph E. Zins, Maurice J. Elias, Mark T.…

  16. Anti-Communist Vigilantes in the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    Ocean." 20 July 1925 Indonesian Communist Leader Tan Malaka, alias Elias Fuentes , arrived In Manila on board the SS Empress of Russia along with 5 or...and Cirilo Bugnot attended Profintern Conference held in Moscow. 26 August 1930 Sixty (60) labor delegates met at the Templo del Trabajo to set up the

  17. A New Source of Research Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    These are especially difficult times for researchers who depend on government money. Their "anxiety is palpable," Elias A. Zerhouni, director of the National Institutes of Health, wrote last 2006. Moreover, Leo Furcht, president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, warned Congress that "we are, quite simply, losing our…

  18. "Hacer o no hacer" (To do or not to do). Mexican Foreign Policy and UN Peacekeeping Operations in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 1 A. THE NEW VISION ...peacekeeping operations. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. THE NEW VISION On...Plutarco Elias Calles was elected president in 1924. Calles had the political vision that would allow the “revolutionary class” to stay in power

  19. Children at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelievich, Elias, Ed.

    The aim of this book is to examine the problem of child labor in various parts of the world: to make the phenomenon known, to analyze its causes, and to propose possible solutions. In Part I (by Elias Mendelievich), an introduction first outlines the problem. Chapter 2 examines pertinent international and national legislation and the International…

  20. Who discovered the Frank-Starling mechanism?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Heinz-Gerd

    2002-10-01

    In 1866 at Carl Ludwig's Physiological Institute at Leipzig, Elias Cyon described the influence of diastolic filling of the isolated perfused frog heart on ejection volume. A study performed at the institute of the effect of filling pressure on contraction amplitude was published in 1869 by Joseph Coats, based on a recording made by Henry P. Bowditch.

  1. What's Happening in July?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet provides brief information on eight July events: Independence Day; The Patron Saint Festivals and the Festival of Loiza, celebrated by Puerto Ricans; and the birthdays of P. T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar. Information is provided on the Declaration of…

  2. Biopower and the "Civilisation" of Children's Bodies in a Preschool Bathroom: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ken; Millei, Zsuzsa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore a vital, if rarely focused upon, space in early childhood settings (0-5 years): the bathroom. In bathrooms, more or less fundamental biological, self-care, and "civilising" (Elias 1978) processes are performed by children, such as those related to personal hygiene, the management of bodily discharges,…

  3. Adult and Child Identities in Irish Primary Schools, c.1830-1909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on teaching manuals, government reports and school inspectors' reports from the 1830s up to the early twentieth century, this paper traces the changing conceptual and social distance between childhood and adulthood in Ireland. Using Norbert Elias's figurational approach, it is argued that children became increasingly involved in both…

  4. Issues in Education: Emotional Intelligences--A Missing Link in Educating Our Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Shirley W.; Wadlington, Elizabeth; Enloe, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of education is to provide individuals with the emotional and academic skills necessary for academic and workplace success, as well as to develop informed and responsible community members (Elias, Arnold, & Hussey, 2003). Recent years have seen an explosion of deep interest, debate, and even controversy regarding concepts related…

  5. A Correction for Recruitment Bias in Norms Derived from Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Michael; Cottle, Cindy C.

    2011-01-01

    Normative comparisons are an integral component of neuropsychological test interpretation and provide the basis for an inference of abnormal function and impairment. In order to remedy a deficit of normative standards for a large number of neuropsychology tests, Mitrushina, Boone, Razani, and D'Elia (2005) used the meta-analysis of studies that…

  6. The Film. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarris, Andrew, Ed.

    Prefaced by a brief discussion of early films and film criticism, 10 essays treat selected modern directors and their works. Essays on Stanley Kubrick's "Lolita," the early works of Elia Kazan, and the response of French critics to Jerry Lewis explore the American scene, while Francois Truffaut's "Jules and Jim," the early work of Robert Bressen,…

  7. Sustaining Professional Learning Communities. The Soul of Educational Leadership Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M., Ed.; Houston, Paul D., Ed.; Cole, Robert W., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The third volume of "The Soul of Educational Leadership" series offers key concepts and strategies for sustaining the critically important work of professional learning communities. With contributions from Shirley Hord, Maurice Elias, Karen Seashore Louis, Andy Hargreaves, and other nationally known educators, this essential reading for all school…

  8. Identifying Configurations of Higher Education: Reflections on Concepts That Compare Complex Cultural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alheit, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the idea of qualitative comparing in order to create a "heuristic concept" that will enable relational structures to be examined, drawing on the sociological tradition founded by Norbert Elias. Subsequently, an empirical research example -- the comparison of three "mentality spaces" in post-socialist…

  9. Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Applications, Technical Digest Series, Volume 9, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Diffractive TuA, DIFFRACTIVE OPTICS FOR LASER SYSTEMS and refractive microlenses are combined to obtain improved Norbert Streibl, University Erlangen...wave linear diode-laser array into a two-dimensional distribution analysis of grating diffraction, Elias N. Glytsis, Thomas K. with symmetric...Diffractive optical elements in optoelectronics, Norbert Streibl, Physikalisches Institut, Germany. Diffractive components such as deflectors, lenses and

  10. Configurations of Activity: From the Coupling of Individual Actions to the Emergence of Collective Activity. A Study of Mathematics Teaching Situation in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrunes, Philippe; Gal-Petitfaux, Nathalie; Durand, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and uses the notion of configuration of activity, which extends the Norbert Elias's original concept of social configuration based on the study and analysis of individual and collective activity. Although this concept embraces all types of social activities, in the present study the authors used it to describe and analyse…

  11. Credit and civilization.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  12. Physical and Neuropsychiatric Trauma-Wound Healing and Tissue Preservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Overcoming Psychological Stress -Induced Delays in Wound Healing by Inhibiting Stress Hormone (Glucocorticoid) Activities. (Peter Elias, MD... stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological deficits, and atrophy in brain regions such as the hippocampus has been reported...meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. She completed a statistical analysis of longitudinal neuropsychological changes

  13. UC Berkeley's Undocumented Student Program: Holistic Strategies for Undocumented Student Equitable Success across Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Ruben Elias Canedo; So, Meng L.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Ruben Elias Canedo Sanchez and Meng L. So share the history and development of the Undocumented Student Program at the University of California, Berkeley. In describing the creation of the program, the authors offer reflections on the strategies employed to holistically support undocumented students' success on campus. By drawing on…

  14. 77 FR 58868 - Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... National Park Service Teleconference for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of open public meetings. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) and the Wrangell-St. Elias...

  15. Education for Social Change: Highlander Education in the Appalachian Mountains and Study Circles in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The article explores how education promotes social change. Using the philosophical foundations of adult education outlined by Elias and Merriam (2001, "Philosophical foundations of adult education" (3rd ed.), Krieger) as an analytical framework, the article compares the similarities and differences between popular education forms in two…

  16. New upper bounds on the rate of a code via the Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H., Jr.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    An upper bound on the rate of a binary code as a function of minimum code distance (using a Hamming code metric) is arrived at from Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities. The upper bound so found is asymptotically less than Levenshtein's bound, and a fortiori less than Elias' bound. Appendices review properties of Krawtchouk polynomials and Q-polynomials utilized in the rigorous proofs.

  17. Conference on the Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Water (3rd) Held in West Dover, Vermont on October 16-19, 2008 (Abstracts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-27

    confinement, photocatalytic water splitting, recyclable hydrogen, thermoluminescence , nanofluids, nanochannels. aqueous hydroxide ion transport, IR...Conseiller Scientifique Thermoluminescence as an experimental tool to investigate the ’ structure’ of high dilutions 10:10 Vittorio Elia Univ... Thermoluminescence as an experimental tool to investigate the " structure " of High Dilutions : Glimpses into the potential role of the gas phase during

  18. The Provision of School Assemblies as a Primary Prevention Psycho-Educational Strategy, for Early Adolescents in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley-Scott, Janis

    2012-01-01

    School psychologists are becoming more and more involved in helping our youth to learn better coping strategies, decision making skills, and develop tolerance with others. According to Elias (2002), school psychologists are valuable resources for early adolescents to learn skills necessary to avoid high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug…

  19. Delta Pi Epsilon National Research Conference Proceedings (Indianapolis, Indiana, November 14-16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Robert B., Ed.

    The following are among the 34 papers included: "An Assessment of Support Staff Training in Public Two-Year Colleges" (Kuceyeski); "Attitude and Motivation of Vocational Student Teachers toward Teaching Commerce and Entrepreneurship" (Pihie, Elias); "Barriers Adult Office Education Students Encounter in Pursuit of…

  20. Internationalization, Globalization and Relationship Networks as an Epistemological Framework Based on Comparative Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Amelia Molina; Lara, José Luis Horacio Andrade

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present some thoughts on the epistemological framework of comparative studies in education. We present some concepts on the internationalization, globalization and inter-relation networks, based on Jürgen Schriewer, Immanuel Wallerstein, and Norbert Elias's theoretical concepts. These reflections were built within the framework of…

  1. Reliability Demonstration for an Eddy Current NDE Technique Using A Computational Electromagnetic Model-Assisted Approach (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349 5e. TASK NUMBER RG 6. AUTHOR(S) John C. Aldrin (Computational Tools ) Jeremy Knopp...Computational Tools Gurnee, IL 60031 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Nondestructive Evaluation Branch (AFRL/RXLP...Harold A. Sabbagh4, Elias H. Sabbagh4, and R. Kim Murphy4 1 Computational Tools , Gurnee, IL 60031, USA aldrin@computationaltools.com, 2 Air

  2. Shared Savings Contracting for Reducing Energy Costs of Defense Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Chesapeake Avenue 1030 V. Third Avenue 1727 Atwood Towson , MD 21204 Columbus, OR 43212 Loangeat, CO 80501 The KCE Group E9e1rbe Associates Inc...Chambeau Road 1000 Crescent Avenue, ,.E. Boulder, CO 80302 Fort Wayne , IN 46801 Atlanta, GA 30309 Ssmyn-D’elia, Architects Shiffman & Tietjeo CoLsulting

  3. The Clinical Research Forum and Association of American Physicians disagree with criticism of the NIH Roadmap.

    PubMed

    Crowley, William; Courtney, John; Jameson, Larry; Pardes, Herbert; Moskowitz, Jay; Orringer, Eugene; Rubenstein, Arthur; Wood, Alastair; Rettig, Richard; Ausiello, Dennis; Brenner, David; Collins, Francis; Elias, Jack; Greene, Warner; Horowitz, Ralph; Jameson, Larry; Kieff, Elliott; Thompson, Craig; Swain, Judith L

    2006-08-01

    As representatives of 50 leading academic medical centers focusing on clinical research and many of academic medicine's scientific leaders, the Clinical Research Forum and Association of American Physicians disagree with the JCI's recent editorials on the NIH Roadmap, Elias Zerhouni's leadership, and the future directions of biomedical research.

  4. Training Needs in Gerontology. Hearings, Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    At the second day of hearings on training needs in gerontology the witnesses were Stephen Kurzman accompanied by Arthur S. Flemming, John Lapp, Gerald D. LaVeck; George Maddox; Elias Cohen; Wilma Donahue; Brin Hawkins with Lettie Graves and Yolanda Owens; and John B. Martin. (MS)

  5. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  6. Aminoglycoside Resistance and Susceptibility Testing Errors in Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Robinson,5 Katrin Mende,1,6 and Clinton K. Murray1,2* Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam...Laboratory Services, San Antonio Military Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, Texas 78234-62005; and Infectious Disease Clinical...by the Vitek 2 automated * Corresponding author. Mailing address: Infectious Disease Ser- vice, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Brooke Army

  7. Polymers from plants to develop biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Udo

    2005-11-01

    Katrin Neumann et al. have recently shown that transgenic tobacco and potato plants can accumulate high levels of cyanophycin, a possible source for poly-aspartate. This work opens the way to the future production of biodegradable plastics using a plant-based production system. Several problems need to be overcome first, such as growth retardation as a result of cyanophycin accumulating in the cytosol, and a co-production system needs to be developed for economical reasons.

  8. Final scientific and technical report: New experiments to measure the neutrino mass scale

    SciTech Connect

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2016-11-19

    In this work, we made material progress towards future measurements of the mass of the neutrino. The neutrino is a fundamental particle, first observed in the 1950s and subjected to particularly intense study over the past 20 years. It is now known to have some, non-zero mass, but we are in an unusual situation of knowing the mass exists but not knowing what value it takes. The mass may be determined by precise measurements of certain radioactive decay distributions, particularly the beta decay of tritium. The KATRIN experiment is an international project which is nearing the beginning of a tritium measurement campaign using a large electrostatic spectrumeter. This research included participation in KATRIN, including construction and delivery of a key calibration subsystem, the ``Rear Section''. To obtain sensitivity beyond KATRIN's, new techniques are required; this work included R\\&D on a new technique we call CRES (Cyclotron Resonance Electron Spectroscopy) which has promise to enable even-more-sensitive tritium decay measurements. We successfully carried out CRES spectroscopy in a model system in 2014, making an important step towards the design of a next-generation tritium experiment with new neutrino mass measurement abilities.

  9. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  10. A Study of Port Safety Firefighting Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-26

    standable since the Queeny never requested assistance. At the Elias fire, initial response expected the availability of the installed fire water system...are sometimes supplemented with the P-250 portable pump rated at 250 gpm at 100 psi, if available. The range of effectiveness of a fire water nozzle...Foam Systems The preceding discussion has emphasized use of the installed fire water systems. Although water is by far the best all-around

  11. The Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Using Macrocycles of Nickel and Cobalt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-24

    and Busch, Daryl H., J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1974, 96, 3109; Rillema , D . Paul , Endicott, John F., and Papaconstantinous, Elias, Inorg. Chem. 1971; 10, 1739...NUMBER or PAGES MOt RnS LA N21 NAE 5A6R) is. SECURITY CLASS. (of m ape) Unclassified IS& :ftAkU=ICAIOMOOWGAOIN@ Is. OISTRIDUTION STATEMENT (of d ...these complexes in nonaqueous solvents has been previously reported.5 Each complex . .. ik. d & -2- undergoes uncomplicated reversible or

  12. Prior-Free Multi-Unit Auctions with Ordered Bidders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    case, the Bayesian optimal auction awards items to the (at most k) bidders with the highest positive virtual valuations. The payment of a winning...Prior-Free Multi-Unit Auctions with Ordered Bidders∗ Sayan Bhattacharya† Elias Koutsoupias‡ Janardhan Kulkarni§ Stefano Leonardi¶ Tim Roughgarden...Xiaoming Xu∗∗ Abstract Prior-free auctions are robust auctions that assume no distribution over bidders’ valuations and provide worst-case (input-by

  13. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  14. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-07

    degrees. According to then-NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, the damages have been particularly acute for early- and mid- career scientists seeking a first or...scientists to undertake careers in research and to help them speed their transition from training to independent research. The Pathway to Independence...engineers at the beginning of their careers . The FY2011 request for NSF is intended to be an installment toward the doubling effort of the Administration

  15. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-23

    Elias Zerhouni, the adverse ramifications have been particularly acute for early- and mid- career scientists seeking a first or second grant.6, 7...young scientists to undertake careers in research and to help them speed their transition from training to independent research. The Pathway to...and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers ($1.5 million). The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC

  16. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    According to then-NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, the damages have been particularly acute for early- and mid- career scientists seeking a first or second...allowing them to by-pass the traditional postdoctoral training period and move directly to an independent research career ; the President requested $12...special focus on promoting diversity in the workforce and understanding barriers to career advancement. Selected Other Program Changes in IC Budgets

  17. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-22

    Elias Zerhouni, the adverse ramifications have been particularly acute for early- and mid- career scientists seeking a first or second grant.6, 7...scientists to undertake careers in research and to help them speed their transition from training to independent research. The Pathway to Independence...Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers ($1.5 million). The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC

  18. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-15

    with advanced degrees. According to then-NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, the adverse ramifications have been particularly acute for early- and mid- career ...scientists to undertake careers in research and to help them speed their transition from training to independent research. The Pathway to Independence...Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers ($1.5 million). The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account is

  19. Orbit and Stellar Properties of the Young Triple V807 Tau

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    spectral step (∼250 K) and calculating the range of variation in the derived parameters . We know from the FGS photometry that V807 Tau A is variable... parameters – stars: individual (V807 Tau) – stars: pre-main sequence Online-only material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION V807 Tau (Elias 12, HBC 404) is a...convert the flux ratios to component magnitudes by using published photometry obtained for the unresolved system. The top portion of the table lists the

  20. Air Force Instructor Evaluation Enhancement: Effective Teaching Behaviors and Assessment Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Evertson, C., Sanford, J., Clements, 0., & Worsham, M. (1984). Classroom management for secondary teachers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 17...1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. McDonald, F., & Elias, P. (1976). The effects of teaching...empirical data in mathematics. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10, 75-81. Kounin, J. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt

  1. Bismaleimide/Preceramic Polymer Blends for Hybrid Material Transition Regions. Part 1. Processing and Characterization (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Case Number: 88ABW-2012-4313; Clearance Date: 08 Aug 2012. Journal article published in High Performance Polymers, 25(4), 363-376 (2013). © 2012 Sage...thermal properties, and rheology of the blends. Preparation of hot-melt blends Two types of samples were prepared. The first group was mixed and then...siloxanes to silicon carbide. Chem Mater 1992; 4: 1313–1323. 12. Elias L, Fenouillot F, Majeste JC, et al. Morphology and rheology of immiscible polymer

  2. Death, the Military and Society: Casualties and Civil-Military Relations in Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    has been socially toned down. In this, he is joined by others who - like, inter alia, Norbert Fischer (2001) and the authors in the anthology by Blum...also propelled by processes renowned sociologists like Ulrich Beck, Norbert Elias, Anthony Giddens, and Ronald Inglehart came to call individualization...At around 1:00 p.m. local time on 29 May 2003 German soldiers were driving in two unar- mored Wolf vehicles on patrol in heavy terrain far out from

  3. The French Huguenots of Colonial South Carolina: Assimilation or Acculturation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Bacot, Elias Prioleau. Benjamin Marion, Dr. Isaac Porcher , Paul Mazyck, Elie Horry, and Gabriel Manlgault, whose estates appear in the probate records...8217Chelsea* was one of the oldest plantations in the parish. It was the home of the Porchers , St. Jullens, and the Ravenels--all prominent families in...1949. 9. DuBose, Samuel and Frederick A. Porcher , A Contribution to the History of the Huauenots of South Carolina. New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1887

  4. Aviation Security: Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-25

    Order Code RL34390 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo February 25, 2008 Bart Elias Specialist in... Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for

  5. Use of Potential Fields Data to Identify Petrological Controls on Seismicity within South-Central and Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Veilleux, A. M.; Rodriguez, H.; de La Pena, A.; Mankhemthong, N.

    2010-12-01

    We have used data from regional gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to determine how variations in petrological properties of the upper plate(s) and subducting lower plate(s) influence the concentration of background seismicity in south-central and southeastern Alaska, as well as possible controls on asperities that ruptured during great earthquakes along the plate margin. In the Prince William Sound region it appears that seismicity concentrates at the edges of mafic and ultramafic bodies within the upper (North American) plate, while within Cook Inlet upper plate seismicity concentrates at the edges of a large serpentinite body. Rupture segmentation during the 1958 Fairweather earthquake in southeastern Alaska is associated with gravity highs along the Fairweather fault, while segmentation of the Queen Charlotte fault system appears related to changes in the structure of the Pacific plate. Although gravity coverage within the St. Elias region is sparse, background seismicity at depths of 10 to 20 km, including aftershocks of the 1979 Mw=7.4 St. Elias event, wraps around the edge of a gravity high located at the intersection of the Pamplona and Chugach-St. Elias fault systems. These results emphasize how additional gravity and magnetic data collection should be included as part of the upcoming Earthscope initiative in Alaska.

  6. Radio continuum from FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, L.F.; Hartmann, L.W.; Chavira, E. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla )

    1990-12-01

    Using the very large array a sensitive search is conducted for 3.6-cm continuum emission toward four FU Orionis objects: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, and Elias 1-12. V1057 Cyg and Elias 1-12 at the level of about 0.1 mJy is detected. The association of radio continuum emission with these FU Ori objects strengthens a possible relation between FU Ori stars and objects like L 1551 IRS 5 and Z CMa that are also sources of radio continuum emission and have been proposed as post-FU Ori objects. Whether the radio continuum emission is caused by free-free emission from ionized ejecta or if it is optically thin emission from a dusty disk is discussed. It was determined that, in the archives of the Tonantzintla Observatory, a plate taken in 1957 does not show Elias 1-12. This result significantly narrows the time range for the epoch of the outburst of this source to between 1957 and 1965. 38 refs.

  7. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  8. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Bodine, Laura; Enomoto, Sanshiro; Kallander, Matthew; Machado, Eric; Parno, Diana; Robertson, Hamish; Trims Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The upcoming KATRIN and Project 8 experiments will measure the model-independent effective neutrino mass through the kinematics near the endpoint of tritium beta-decay. A critical systematic, however, is the understanding of the molecular final-state distribution populated by tritium decay. In fact, the current theory incorporated in the KATRIN analysis framework predicts an observable that disagrees with an experimental result from the 1950s. The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment will reexamine branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question.We will give an update on simulation software, analysis tools, and the apparatus, including early commissioning results. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  9. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  10. Benzene and its methyl-derivatives: derivation of maximum exposure levels in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Thomas; Bolt, Hermann M; Jaeckh, Rudolf; Hengstler, Jan G

    2006-01-05

    Automobile drivers are exposed to several organic hydrocarbons. Concentrations measured in passenger compartments have been reported to range between 13 and 560 microg/m(3) for benzene, 33-258 microg/m(3) for toluene, 20-250 microg/m(3) for xylene (mixed isomers) and 3-23 microg/m(3) for trimethylbenzene (mixed isomers). These aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted from gasoline and from materials inside a car. In the present study we evaluated, whether these exposures pose a potential risk to the health of drivers. Therefore, we derived maximum exposure levels inside cars for chronic (ELIA(chronic)) and short-term (STELIA) exposure. The lowest ELIA's(chronic) for benzene, toluene, xylene and trimethylbenzene were 0.083, 1.2, 8.8 and 0.31 mg/m(3), respectively. The respective STELIA's were 16, 30, 29 and 25 mg/m(3). Obviously concentrations of toluene, xylene and trimethylbenzene inside cars do not exceed their individual STELIA's. In contrast, benzene seems to be problematic, since concentrations inside cars amount up to 0.56 mg/m(3), which exceeds the ELIA(chronic) derived for benzene. This should not be underestimated, since benzene is a genotoxic carcinogen that probably acts by non-threshold mechanisms. In conclusion, concentrations of toluene, xylene and trimethylbenzene usually observed inside cars are unlikely to pose a risk to the health of drivers. A systematic toxicological evaluation of the risk associated with benzene exposure in cars seems to be necessary.

  11. Seismic component of the STEEP project, Alaska: Results of the first field season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S.; Stachnik, J.; Lafevers, M.; Roush, J.; Sanches, R.; Fuerst, E.; Sandru, J.; Ruppert, N.; Pavlis, G.; Bauer, M.

    2005-12-01

    STEEP (SainT Elias Erosion/tectonics Project) is a five year, multi-disciplinary study that addresses evolution of the highest coastal mountain range on Earth - the St. Elias Mountains of southern Alaska and northwestern Canada. The overall goal of the project is to develop a comprehensive model for the St. Elias orogen that accounts for the interaction of regional plate tectonic processes, structural development, and rapid erosion. The seismic component of this project includes passive seismic experiment utilizing the IRIS PASSCAL Program instruments. The total project consists of 22 new, telemetered, digital broad band seismic stations, most accessible by helicopter only. There are 12 existing short period stations in the area. Eight new stations were installed in the coastal region in June 2005. Freewave IP radios provide the telemetry to the newly installed VSAT at the Bering Glacier camp site. The challenge was to find ice-free locations, on bedrock, large enough to install equipment and still have a helicopter landing zone nearby. The stations consist of Quanterra Q330 digitizers with baler, a STS-2 seismometer installed in a vault, a Freewave IP radio, a Scala 900 Mhz antenna, twenty 100 AH rechargeable batteries with a 2400AH backup Celair primary battery, and three solar panels mounted on hut. The acquired data is recorded in real time at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center located in Fairbanks and is incorporated into the standard data processing procedures. High quality data allows for more reliable automatic earthquake detections in the region with lower magnitude threshold. In addition to tectonic earthquakes, glacial events that occur within the vast ice fields of the region are also regularly detected. Broadband instruments complement regional broadband network for more reliable calculations of the regional moment tensors.

  12. Linking Quaternary Climate Changes to Mountain Building in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Allen, W. K.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chugach-St. Elias Mountains in southeastern Alaska exhibit extreme topography as a result of the subduction and collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North American plate. Extensive glaciation in the area, coupled with the active tectonics, makes the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains the ideal site to investigate the resulting spatial and temporal variations in exhumation. The St. Elias Mountains have experienced three major climate changes including the start of regional glaciation at ~5.5 Ma, the onset of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere during the Plio-Pleistocene Transition to colder temperatures at 2.5 Ma, and a change in global climate cyclicity during the mid-Pleistocene Transition from 1.2-0.7 Ma. Our goal is to determine whether these climate changes result in shifts in the rates and patterns of regional exhumation due to the intensification of glacial erosion. We investigate the late Cenozoic sediments from five boreholes that were drilled by IODP Expedition 341 along a transect crossing the Yakutat shelf (offshore Bering glacier) and into the deep-sea Surveyor Fan in the Gulf of Alaska. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy on these sediments establish an up to 10 Ma depositional history in the boreholes. To study rock exhumation of the sediment source over time, 17 detrital samples from various depths in the cores were dated using zircon fission track thermochronology. Single grain cooling ages range from 302.8 Ma to 0.2 Ma, and contain composite age populations with peaks coinciding with major regional tectonic events providing information on sediment provenance and exhumation. All single grains were also double dated using U-Pb dating to identify and eliminate volcanic grains from the sample. Common U-Pb age populations are 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. These ages are being used to better constrain sediment provenance and reconstruct past glacial catchments.

  13. Crustal Structure and Deformation of the Yakutat Microplate: New Insights From STEEP Marine Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, L. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Christeson, G.; van Avendonk, H.; Reece, R.; Elmore, R.; Pavlis, T.

    2008-12-01

    In fall 2008, we will conduct an active source marine seismic experiment of the offshore Yakutat microplate in the northern Gulf of Alaska. The survey will be conducted aboard the academic research vessel, R/V Marcus Langseth, collecting deep-penetrating multi-channel seismic reflection survey using an 8-km, 640 channel hydrophone streamer and a 6600 cu. in., 36 airgun array. The survey is the concluding data acquisition phase for the ST. Elias Erosion and tectonics Project (STEEP), a multi-institution NSF-Continental Dynamics project investigating the interplay of climate and tectonics in the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains in southern Alaska. The experiment will also provide important site survey information for possible future Integrated Ocean Drilling Program investigations. Two profiles coincident with wide-angle refraction data (see Christeson, et al., this session) will image structural changes across the Dangerous River Zone from east to west and the Transition Fault from south to north. We will also image the western portion of the Transition Fault to determine the nature of faulting along this boundary including whether or not the Pacific Plate is underthrusting beneath the Yakutat microplate as part of this collision. Our westernmost profile will image the Kayak Island Zone, typically described as the northern extension of the Aleutian megathrust but which may be a forming suture acting as a deformation backstop for the converging Yakutat and North American plates. Profiles across the Pamplona Zone, the current Yakutat-North America deformation front, will further constrain relative timing of structural development and the depth of deformation on the broad folds and thrust faults that comprise the area. This new dataset will allow further insight into regional tectonics of the St. Elias region as well as provide more detail regarding the development of the south Alaskan margin during major Plio-Pleistocene glacial- interglacial periods.

  14. Inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in southeast and central Alaska National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.L.; Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Robards, Martin D.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Drew, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a national inventory program funded by the National Park Service, we conducted an inventory of marine and estuarine fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Sitka National Historical Park, and Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in 2001 and 2002. In addition, marine fish data from a previous project that focused on forage fishes and marine predators during 1999 and 2000 in Glacier Bay proper were compiled for this study. Sampling was conducted with modified herring and Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawls, a plumb staff beam trawl, and beach seines. Species lists of relative abundance were generated for nearshore fishes in all parks, and for demersal and pelagic fishes in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve. With a total sampling effort of 531 sets, we captured 100 species in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, 31 species in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, 23 species in Sitka National Historical Park, and 11 species in Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. We estimated that between 59 and 85 percent of the total marine fish species present were sampled by us in the various habitat-park units. We also combined these data with historical records and prepared an annotated species list of 160 marine and estuarine fishes known to occur in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Shannon-Wiener diversity index and catch per unit effort were used to assess the effects of depth and latitude (distance from tidewater glaciers) on marine fish community ecology in Glacier Bay proper. Our findings suggest that demersal fishes are more abundant and diverse with increased distance from tidewater glaciers, and that pelagic fishes sampled deeper than 50 m are more abundant in areas closer to tidewater glaciers. Fish, Marine, Estuarine, National Parks, Southeast Alaska, Central Alaska, Inventory, Monitoring, Diversity, Abundance, Glacier Bay

  15. The Employee Diversity Team Wants to Take You around the World in Film | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer The NCI at Frederick Employee Diversity Team (EDT) has prepared a new display that features a sample of the foreign films from the team’s collection in the Scientific Library. “Foreign films really help stimulate an awareness of different cultures and countries. I think it is a great celebration of diversity to have the Employee Diversity Team promote films from across the globe and make them available to our employees,” said Amber Elia, program analyst, NCI at Frederick Office of Scientific Operations, and member of the EDT.

  16. Market Surveillance - Replacement Diesel Engine for Military Standard 60 KW Diesel Engine Driven Generator Sets MEP-006A, MEP-105A, and MEP-115A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-11

    options atvailbe .... .................................... 12 vol 24 v Cranking Motor I Heavy Duly. Positive Engagement) - Volt...elia Cold Soak 00F to32VF - 1*C toOC) - 0F CCA ...................... 0o 4Cranking Motor Current Based on Lube Oil Viscosity per Bulletin 3379002...OLES 5.63 6.57 4 HOLES 20(08 (19.1 2.59t0.001)20058 7.72 7.72 3.1(3 WORLDWIDE Detroit Diesel Allison REGIONAL OFFICES I~.Division of General Motors

  17. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  18. Maximum exposure levels for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in cars.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Thomas; Bolt, Hermann M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2005-01-31

    Although millions of individuals are exposed to emissions from articles inside cars, relatively little has been published about possible adverse health effects and about exposure levels that can be considered safe or "acceptable". Xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde represent typical examples of relevant volatile organic substances (VOC) released from articles inside cars. Recently, a concept for derivation of maximum exposure levels for volatile organic substances in cars has been published. In the present study we applied this concept to derive maximum exposure levels for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and compared the resulting concentrations to exposure levels usually found inside of cars. We derived Short Term Exposure Levels Inside Automotive Vehicles (STELIA) of 29, 0.125 and 15.3 mg/m(3) for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. These STELIAs should not be exceeded during short-term exposures, for instance when starting a car that had been heated up during parking in the sun. Exposure Levels Inside Automotive Vehicles (ELIA, chronic) for chronic exposure to non-genotoxic substances were 8.8, 0.125 and 0.635 mg/m(3) for systemic as well as 17.6, 0.125 and 1.7 mg/m(3) for local exposure to xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although, it is known that exposure limits for carcinogenic substances should be treated with caution, encouraged by the well documented threshold mechanisms we nevertheless derived ELIAs for Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Substances (ELIA, cm) resulting in 0.125 and 0.635 mg/m(3) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. If these ELIAs are matched against average concentrations of xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde found in cars at 23 degrees C (1.22, 0.048 and 0.042 mg/m(3)), there is no reason for concern. With respect to STELIAs and extrapolated concentrations at 65 degrees C (14.7, 1.47 and 1.68 mg/m(3), for xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, respectively), however, a reduction of the

  19. Synthesis of Dual NIR Two-photon Absorptive [60]fullerenyl Multiadducts for Nonlinear Light-transmittance Reduction Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    and Elias, W. E., “Optical limiting with C60 in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Opt. Lett. 18, 334-336 (1993). [3] He, G. S., Xu, G. C., Prasad , P. N...L. Y., Padmawar, P. A., Canteewala, T., Tan, L.-S., He, G. S., Kanna, R., Vaia, R., Lin, T.-C., Zheng, Q. and Prasad , P. N., “Synthesis of C60...S., Zheng, Q., Lu, C., Slagle, J. E., Danilov, E., McLean, D. G., Fleitz, P. A. and Prasad , P. N., “Large cross-section enhancement and

  20. Remembering Emil von Behring: from Tetanus Treatment to Antibody Cooperation with Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A century ago, Emil von Behring passed away. He was the first to be honored by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the successful therapy of diphtheria and tetanus, which he had developed from the bench to the bed. He also contributed to the foundation of immunology, since his therapy was based on passive immunization with specific antisera. Being an ambitious character, he did not shy away from friction with his colleagues Paul Ehrlich and Elias Metchnikoff and his mentor, Robert Koch. Behring was not only an excellent translational researcher but also a successful entrepreneur and early proponent of public-private partnerships. PMID:28246359

  1. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  2. Kinetic ballooning modes at the tokamak transport barrier with negative magnetic shear

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagiwa, M.; Hirose, A.; Elia, M.

    1997-11-01

    Stability of the kinetic ballooning modes is investigated for plasma parameters at the internal transport barrier in tokamak discharges with negative magnetic shear employing a kinetic shooting code with long shooting distance. It is found that the second stability regime with respect to the pressure gradient parameter, which was predicted for negative shear [A. Hirose and M. Elia, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 628 (1996)], can possibly disappear. The mode with comparatively low toroidal mode number and mode frequency below 100 kHz is found to be destabilized marginally only around the transport barrier characterized by steep pressure and density gradients. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hemagglutinin 1 Protein of Human Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Circulating in Kenya During 2007-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Subtype H1N1 Circulating in Kenya During 2007–2008 Wallace D. Bulimo,1,2 Rachel A. Achilla,1 Janet Majanja,1 Silvanos Mukunzi,1 Meshack Wadegu,1 Finnley... Alfred Odindo,1 Charles Adega,1 Jeremiah Kiponda,1 Ruth Mupa,1 Frida Munyazi,1 George Kissinger,1 Mohammed Mwakuzimu,1 Diana Kamola,1 Elias Muhidin,1...Correspondence: Wallace Bulimo, PhD, US Army Medical Research Unit– Kenya, Box 606, Village Market, 00621 Nairobi, Kenya (wbulimo@wrp-nbo.org). The Journal of

  4. Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, Kengo; Machida, Masahiro N.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Lin, Chia Hui

    2017-01-01

    We study formation and long-term evolution of a circumstellar disk in a collapsing molecular cloud core using a resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation. While the formed circumstellar disk is initially small, it grows as accretion continues, and its radius becomes as large as 200 au toward the end of the Class-I phase. A pair of grand-design spiral arms form due to gravitational instability in the disk, and they transfer angular momentum in the highly resistive disk. Although the spiral arms disappear in a few rotations as expected in a classical theory, new spiral arms form recurrently as the disk, soon becoming unstable again by gas accretion. Such recurrent spiral arms persist throughout the Class-0 and I phases. We then perform synthetic observations and compare our model with a recent high-resolution observation of a young stellar object Elias 2–27, whose circumstellar disk has grand-design spiral arms. We find good agreement between our theoretical model and the observation. Our model suggests that the grand-design spiral arms around Elias 2–27 are consistent with material arms formed by gravitational instability. If such spiral arms commonly exist in young circumstellar disks, it implies that young circumstellar disks are considerably massive and gravitational instability is the key process of angular momentum transport.

  5. Figurational dynamics and parliamentary discourses of living standards in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paddy

    2009-12-01

    While the concept of living standards remains central to political debate, it has become marginal in sociological research compared to the burgeoning attention given to the topic of consumer culture in recent decades. However, they both concern how one does and should consume, and, indeed, behave at particular times. I use the theories of Norbert Elias to explain the unplanned but structured (ordered) changes in expected standards of living over time. This figurational approach is compared to other alternative explanations, particularly those advanced by Bourdieu, Veblen and Baudrillard. Though these offer some parallels with Elias's theories, I argue that consumption standards are produced and transformed through the changing dependencies and power relations between social classes. They cannot be reduced to the intentions, interests or ambitions of particular elites, nor to the needs of social systems. Using qualitative data from parliamentary debates in Ireland to trace changing norms and ideals of consumption, as well as historical data to reconstruct shifts in social interdependencies, I further contend that discourses of living standards and luxury are vital aspects of the growing identification and empathy between classes, which in turn encourages greater global integration in the face of emigration and national decline.

  6. A comparison between the Farr radioimmunoassay and a new automated fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against double stranded DNA in serum

    PubMed Central

    Derksen, R; Bast, E; Strooisma, T; Jacobs, J

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study comprising 440 samples from 440 patients, sent to the laboratory over a three month period for anti-dsDNA testing. Chart review was performed, blinded for test results, to count for each patient the number of American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification of SLE that were fulfilled. At least four criteria were met by 248 (56%) patients (SLE), one to three criteria by 77 (18%) (lupus-like disease, LLD), and no criterion by 115 (26%) (non-SLE/non-LLD). Results from serum samples from the non-SLE/non-LLD and SLE groups were used to calculate receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: For the Farr assay, specificities of 95% and 99% corresponded to sensitivities of 72% and 56% respectively. For the ELIA dsDNA test these levels of specificity corresponded to sensitivities of 44% and 17% respectively. Conclusions: The Farr radioimmunoassay is superior to the ELIA dsDNA test for identifying patients with SLE. PMID:12429543

  7. Kamstrupp's wow-effect: re-examined and expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth M.; Dickmann, Ellyn M.; Johnson, Barbara Z.

    2016-12-01

    This review examines Anne Katrine Kamstrupp's article "The wow-effect in science teacher education; technology; sociomateriality." In the discussion below we explore three key areas of her ethnographic research. First, we reconsider Kamstrupp's article through the lens of technology as a pedagogical choice and philosophy. This is followed by our discussion of aspects of her study within the context of a basic understanding that entry-level pre-service teachers need to fully understand both the process of learning and scientific principles as these are important foundational factors in determining whether or not the wow-effect will occur as expected. Finally, our review team presents multiple areas in Kamstrupp's article as potential points for further elaboration.

  8. Changes to Irradiation Conditions of VVER-1000 Surveillance Specimens Resulting from Fuel Assemblies with Greater Fuel Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, Pavel; Kochkin, Viacheslav; Erak, Dmitry; Makhotin, Denis; Reshetnikov, Alexandr; Timofeev, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the work was to obtain experimental data on the influence of newtype fuel assemblies with higher fuel rods on the irradiation conditions of surveillance specimens installed on the baffe of VVER-1000. For this purpose, two surveillance sets with container assemblies of the same design irradiated in reactors with different fuel assemblies in the core were investigated. Measurements of neutron dosimeters from these sets and retrospective measurements of 54Mn activity accumulated in each irradiated specimen allow a detailed distribution of the fast neutron flux in the containers to be obtained. Neutron calculations have been done using 3D discrete ordinate code KATRIN. On the basis of the obtained results, a change of the lead factor due to newtype fuel assemblies was evaluated for all types of VVER-1000 container assemblies.

  9. Prospects for cosmic neutrino detection in tritium experiments in the case of hierarchical neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the effects of neutrino mixing and the neutrino mass hierarchy when considering the capture of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) on radioactive nuclei. The implications of mixing and hierarchy at future generations of tritium decay experiments are considered. We find that the CNB should be detectable at these experiments provided that the resolution for the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron can be pushed to a few 0.01 eV for the scenario with inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, about an order of magnitude better than that of the upcoming KATRIN experiment. Another order of magnitude improvement is needed in the case of normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We also note that mixing effects generally make the prospects for CNB detection worse due to an increased maximum energy of the normal beta decay background.

  10. Forbidden unique beta-decays and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of the electron spectrum in beta-decays provides a robust direct determination of the values of neutrino masses. The planned rhenium beta-decay experiment, called the "Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment" (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which is expected to collect data in a near future. In this contribution we discuss the spectrum of emitted electrons close to the end point in the case of the first unique forbidden beta-decay of 79Se, 107Pd and 187Re. It is found that the p3/2-wave emission dominates over the s1/2-wave. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed beta-decay of 3H.

  11. The Absolute Mass of Neutrino and the First Unique Forbidden β-DECAY of 187Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment MARE might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the tritium β-decay experiment KATRIN, which will start data taking in 2011 and will proceed for five years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β-decay of 187Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s-wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos the Kurie function for the rhenium β-decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the endpoint is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed βof 3H.

  12. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Muto, Kazuo; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-01

    The planned rhenium β-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β decay of Re187. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium β decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed β decay of H3.

  13. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  14. Absolute mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand

    2011-04-15

    The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave emission of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.

  15. Investigation of durability of optical coatings in highly purified tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Schoenung, K.; Bornschein, B.; Rolli, R.; Schaefer, V.; Sturm, M.

    2015-03-15

    Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of expo-sure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated. Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy. (authors)

  16. Post service examination of turbomolecular pumps after stress testing with Kg-scale tritium throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Priester, F.; Roelling, M.

    2015-03-15

    Turbomolecular pumps (TMP) will be used with large amounts of tritium in future fusion machines like ITER, DEMO and in the KATRIN Experiment. In this work, a stress test of a large, magnetically levitated TMP (Leybold MAG W2800) with a tritium throughput of 1.1 kg over 384 days of operation was performed at TLK. After this, the pump was dismantled and the tritium uptake in several parts was deter-mined. Especially the non-metallic parts of the pump have absorbed large amounts of tritium and are most likely responsible for the observed pollution of the process gas. The total tritium uptake of the TMP was estimated with 0.1-1.1 TBq. No radiation-induced damages were found on the inner parts of the pump. The TMP showed no signs of functional limitations during the 384 days of operation. (authors)

  17. Overview of the Project 8 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandevender, Brent; Project 8 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of the Project 8 experiment, a concept for the next-generation direct neutrino mass measurement after KATRIN, with a sensitivity goal to cover the range of neutrino masses allowed by the inverted mass hierarchy. Project 8 is a tritium endpoint experiment based on Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) of beta decay electrons from an atomic tritium source. We demonstrate how this combination can offer advantages in both statistical and systematic uncertainties compared to existing technologies. We then present our staged approach to develop the technology for the final experiment, including a discussion of the demanding specifications for an atomic tritium source. This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S.

  18. SDAV Viz July Progress Update: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer

    2012-07-30

    SDAV Viz July Progress Update: (1) VPIC (Vector Particle in Cell) Kinetic Plasma Simulation Code - (a) Implemented first version of an in-situ adapter based on Paraview CoProcessing Library, (b) Three pipelines: vtkDataSetMapper, vtkContourFilter, vtkPistonContour, (c) Next, resolve issue at boundaries of processor domains; add more advanced viz/analysis pipelines; (2) Halo finding/merger trees - (a) Summer student Wathsala W. from University of Utah is working on data-parallel halo finder algorithm using PISTON, (b) Timo Bremer (LLNL), Valerio Pascucci (Utah), George Zagaris (Kitware), and LANL people are interested in using merger trees for tracking the evolution of halos in cosmo simulations; discussed possible overlap with work by Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann (Argonne) during their visit to LANL 7/11; (3) PISTON integration in ParaView - Now available from ParaView github.

  19. GPS Constraints on Strain Partitioning and Transfer in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Larsen, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    GPS data from southern Alaska and eastern Canada have helped redraw the picture of how strain is partitioned and transferred within the region. Instead of a relatively simple boundary, the interactions of the Pacific plate and the Yakutat block with Alaska have created a complex margin made up of a number of small blocks and deformation zones. Relative motion is distributed along a variety of structures, including the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Denali, and Totschunda strike-slip fault systems. We present GPS data from across the region and use it to constrain a model for strain partitioning and transfer in southern and central Alaska and the adjacent region of Canada. In southeast Alaska, which contains the eastern boundary of the Yakutat block, the major tectonic feature is the dextral Fairweather-Queen Charlotte fault system. Most the relative plate motion is accommodated by 45 mm/yr of slip along this fault. Some of this motion may be transferred north along a fault connecting the Fairweather and Totschunda faults, but the majority is transferred west into the St. Elias orogen. The remaining relative plate motion in southeast Alaska is transferred east of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte system, causing the region inboard of the Fairweather fault to undergo a clockwise rotation into the Northern Cordillera. About 2 mm/yr of relative motion is accommodated by dextral oblique motion along the Eastern Denali fault while 5% is transferred further east into the Northern Cordillera. Strain partitioning in south central Alaska, which contains the northern and western boundaries of the Yakutat block and the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust, is more complicated. Most of the relative plate motion is accommodated along a narrow band of thrust faults within the St. Elias orogen. About 10-15% of the relative motion is transferred north of the St. Elias and causes the counterclockwise rotation of southern Alaska. Motion between this rotating block, the Northern

  20. Flat-slab subduction, orogenesis, intraplate deformation, and glacial erosion in southern Alaska: A tectonic-glacial progression from STEEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Gulick, S. S.; Bruhn, R. L.; Christeson, G. L.; Enkelmann, E.; Freymueller, J. T.; Hallet, B.; Horton, B. K.; Hansen, R. A.; Koons, P. O.; Pavlis, G. L.; Ridgway, K. D.; Spotila, J. A.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The ST. Elias Erosion and tectonics Project (STEEP) is a Continental Dynamics multidisciplinary collaboration involving offshore and onshore studies of a modern example of an oceanic plateau collision with a continental margin in southern Alaska. These studies constrain erosion-tectonic interactions and clarify the timeline of northern Cordilleran orogenesis. At ~55 Ma an oceanic plateau formed on either the Kula-Farallon or Farallon-Resurrection spreading center. From 50-46 Ma, this plateau attempted to subduct beneath an accretionary complex, the Yakutat Group (YG), near offshore British Columbia. The YG was thrust onto the plateau to form what is now the Yakutat Terrane. From ~40 to as late as 33 Ma the Yakutat Terrane was part of North America and the proto-Transition Fault was active moving the remnant Kula Plate towards the Aleutian Trench, slicing off the southern edge of the Yakutat Terrane, and emplacing Pacific crust adjacent to the Terrane. From ~33 to 6 Ma the Yakutat Terrane moved northward with the Pacific Plate. There is some Oligocene paleogeographic uncertainly, but upper plate deformation and basin development starting ~ 20-25 Ma may be Yakutat related. At ~6 Ma the Pacific Plate underwent a clockwise shift in motion reactivating the Transition Fault, albeit at a slow rate, and this motion drove a component of oblique convergence along the Fairweather Fault and orogenesis in the St. Elias. Rejuvenation of the Transition Fault formed a stable triple junction with the Aleutian Trench and the Yakutat-North American subduction front. Uplift in the orogen seeded glacial systems that reached tidewater by ~5.5 Ma and the sediments produced were the glaciomarine, syn-orogenic Yakataga Formation. The eastern syntaxis of the St. Elias orogen began to focus exhumation as thickened crust generated along the transpressive Fairweather system was fed into the fully contractional core of the orogen. Between 4 and 3 Ma, the thicker portions of the Yakutat Terrane

  1. Rock Uplift above the Yakutat Megathrust on Montague Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, K.; Armstrong, P. A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Arkle, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakutat microplate is subducting shallowly (~6°) beneath the North American Plate at a rate of approximately 53 mm/yr to the northwest. Deformation from this flat- slab subduction extends >600 km inland and has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation in the Alaska Range, central Chugach Mountains, and St. Elias Mountains. Many questions still remain about how strain is partitioned between these regions of focused uplift, particularly in the Prince William Sound (southern Chugach Mountains) on Montague Island. Montague Island (and adjacent Hinchinbrook Island) are ~20 km above the megathrust where there is a large degree of coupling between the subducting Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague Island is of particular interest because it lies between two areas of rapid rock uplift focused in the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains and the western Chugach Mountains. In the St. Elias/eastern Chugach Mountains, faulting related to collisional processes and bending of fault systems causes rapid rock uplift. About 200 km farther northwest in the western Chugach Mountains, recent rock uplift is caused by underplating along the megathrust that is focused within a syntaxial bend of major fault systems and mountain ranges. Montague Island bounds the southern margin of Prince William Sound, and is steep, narrow, and elongate (81 km long and ~15 km wide). The maximum relief is 914 m, making for very steep, mountainous topography considering the narrow width of the island. During the Mw 9.2 earthquake in 1964, the Patton Bay and Hanning Bay reverse faults were reactivated, with 7 and 5 m of vertical offset, respectively. Both faults dip ~60° NW and strike NE-SW parallel to the long-axis of the island and parallel to geomorphic features including lineaments, elongate valleys, and escarpments. Prominent ~450 m high escarpments are present along the SE-facing side of the island, which suggests rapid and sustained uplift. New apatite

  2. Ancient astronomy revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John

    2009-03-01

    In the autumn of 1900 a team of sponge divers from the small Greek island of Symi, just north of Rhodes, made one of the most spectacular underwater discoveries of modern times. After being blown off course on their journey back to Symi from the southern Mediterranean sponge-fishing grounds, they sheltered near the island of Antikythera, located between the southern tip of the Greek mainland and the north-west corner of Crete. When the winds died down, the team's captain, Dimitrios Kontos, decided to send the divers down in the hope of adding some final sponges to their catch. Instead, Elias Stadiatis, the first diver into the water, spotted a shipwreck on the sea bed.

  3. The 2012 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Fabien; Cotton, William D.; Lawson, Peter R.; Ridgway, Steve T.; Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John D.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Thiébaut, Eric; Soulez, Férréol; Mary, David; Millour, Florentin; Vannier, Martin; Young, John; Elias, Nicholas M.; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan

    2012-07-01

    We present the results of the fifth Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest. The contest consists in blind imaging of test data sets derived from model sources and distributed in the OIFITS format. Two scenarios of imaging with CHARA/MIRC-6T were offered for reconstruction: imaging a T Tauri disc and imaging a spotted red supergiant. There were eight different teams competing this time: Monnier with the software package MACIM; Hofmann, Schertl and Weigelt with IRS; Thiebaut and Soulez with MiRA ; Young with BSMEM; Mary and Vannier with MIROIRS; Millour and Vannier with independent BSMEM and MiRA entries; Rengaswamy with an original method; and Elias with the radio-astronomy package CASA. The contest model images, the data delivered to the contestants and the rules are described as well as the results of the image reconstruction obtained by each method. These results are discussed as well as the strengths and limitations of each algorithm.

  4. Environmentally conscious alternative energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, M.

    2007-09-15

    This fourth volume of the series describes and compares the environmental and economic impacts of renewable and conventional power generation technologies. Chapter heading are: Economic comparisons of power generation technologies (Todd Nemec); Solar energy applications (Jan F. Kreider); Fuel cells (Matthew W. Mench); Geothermal resources and technology: an introduction (Peter D. Blair); Wind power generation (Todd Nemec); Cogeneration (Jerald Caton); Hydrogen energy (Elias K. Stefanakos, Yogi Goswami, S.S. Srinivasan, and J.T. Wolan); Clean power generation from coal (Prabir Basu and James Butler); and Using waste heat from power plants (Herbert A. Ingley). The chapter on clean coal power generation from coal has been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 2 apps.

  5. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FU ORIONIS STAR V1735 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.

    2009-05-01

    The variable star V1735 Cyg (=Elias 1-12) lies in the IC 5146 dark cloud and is a member of the class of FU Orionis objects whose dramatic optical brightenings are thought to be linked to episodic accretion. We report the first X-ray detections of V1735 Cyg and a deeply embedded class I protostar lying 24'' to its northeast. X-ray spectra obtained with EPIC on XMM-Newton reveal very high-temperature plasma (kT > 5 keV) in both objects, but no large flares. Such hard X-ray emission is not anticipated from accretion shocks and is a signature of magnetic processes. We place these new results into the context of what is presently known about the X-ray properties of FU Orionis stars and other accreting young stellar objects.

  6. Precise Masses of Young Stars in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Gail

    2011-08-01

    We propose to continue mapping the orbits of young stars in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at Keck. We are near our goal of measuring the masses of the binary components in Elias 12N and NTT 045251+3016 to better than 5-10%. This level of precision is important to validate and distinguish among theoretical calculations of pre-main-sequence evolution. We have reached this point thanks to consistent assignments of time. In 2011B, we expect to obtain high precision measurements of these binaries at orbital phases that were not well-sampled previously, leading to improvements in the dynamical masses. The proposed observations will also enable us to map the orbits for recently resolved systems at small separations (HBC 351, HBC 360/361) and lay critical groundwork for the longer period binaries in our sample.

  7. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I.; Wilner, David J.; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T.; Chandler, Claire J.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S.; Harris, Robert J.; Mundy, Lee G.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  8. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: understanding the origin of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołegowska, Sabina; Crock, James G; Lamothe, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas.

  9. Social scientists in public health: a fuzzy approach.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Juliana Luporini; Stephan, Celso; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze the presence of social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the field of public health. A survey by the Lattes Curriculum and sites of Medical Colleges, Institutes of Health Research Collective, seeking professionals who work in healthcare and have done some stage of their training in the areas of social sciences. In confluence with Norbert Elias' concepts of social networks and configuration of interdependence it was used fuzzy logic, and the tool free statistical software R version 2.12.0 which enabled a graphic representation of social scientists interdependence in the field of social sciences-health-social sciences. A total of 238 professionals were ready in 6 distinct clusters according to the distance or closer of each professional in relation to public health and social sciences. The work was shown with great analytical and graphical representation possibilities for social sciences of health, in using this innovative quantitative methodology.

  10. [Colective process of knowledge production in health: an overview in hospital nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dagmar Elisabeth Estermann

    2006-01-01

    The article presents some reflections based on the authors'participation in a workshop when the subject: colective processes of knowledge production in health was discussed. Based on other authors' ideas such as Michel Focault and Norbert Elias, the author's discussion concerns some dimensions over that process in a particular knowledge considering the hospital setting and also the position of specific nursing know-how in the context of professional practice (nursing records), with central focus in the work, the disease, and the sick body. In that direction the text is structured around three inter-related/dependent central questions: which knowledge configure nursing know how in hospital context? Which registered knowledge reinforce, legitimate and feed-back the nursing know how? How does this process occur, what and for who are those effects?

  11. [Project HOPE contribution to the setting up of the professional identity of the first nurses from Alagoas, 1973-1977].

    PubMed

    Costa, Laís de Miranda Crispim; dos Santos, Regina Maria; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Trezza, Maria Cristina Soares Figueiredo; Leite, Josete Luzia

    2014-01-01

    Social-historical study conducted to examine the contribution of the American Nurses of Project HOPE to the configuration of the professional identity of the first trained nurses in Alagoas, in the period of 1973-1977. The theoretical framework was the "Civilizing Process" of Norbert Elias. Primary sources were official documents and personal files of 13 respondents by oral history; the secondary sources were authors of the History of Brazil/Alagoas. Data analysis showed that the configuration of the professional identity of the first trained nurses in Alagoas was a civilizing process, with all the nuances that make up the power relations. There was a significant contribution of American Nursing. However the movement of resistance to this domination was very strong, resulting in a Course that could take advantage of technological advancement and prestige brought by the United States, to build a unique Nursing from the social fabric embroidery at this meeting with so many different cultures.

  12. [Gender relations and interdependence: reflections on changes in the hospital configuration].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Oliveira, Simone Santos

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes changes that have occurred in hospitals over the years, with a focus on the dynamics of gender relations as experienced by healthcare workers. We use the notions of configuration and interdependence, taken from Norbert Elias' theory of the civilizing process, along with discussions of gender relations at work; drawing from Michel Foucault, we also reference the disciplinary practices employed down through hospital history. This linkage of discussions on gender issues and on interdependent relations opens up to a reflection on conflicts of interests, power struggles, and the balance of tensions, which in turn makes it possible to problematize gender inequalities with the ultimate aim of achieving an interdisciplinary effort that will promote health care of an integral nature.

  13. The Ars alchemie: the first Latin text on practical alchemy.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Antony

    2009-03-01

    The Ars alchemie is a collection of alchemical recipes associated with the names of the Arabic-Latin translator Michael Scot and the major general of the Friars Minor, Elias Cortona, of the first half of the thirteenth century. This articles investigates the various forms in which this text appears in the four manuscripts that contain it. It shows the dependence of one of its prologues on the work of an earlier translator, Hugo of Santalla, and the overlap of its contents with other alchemical treatises: Liber luminis luminum, Liber Dedali, Liber de aluminibus et salibus and Liber Hermetis de blchkmkb. Its mention of the alum of Aleppo corresponds with references to trade in this material in the thirteenth century. Its main characteristics are its compilatory nature and its emphasis on practical applications.

  14. Extreme localized exhumation at syntaxes initiated by subduction geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendick, Rebecca; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2014-08-01

    Some of the highest and most localized rates of lithospheric deformation in the world are observed at the transition between adjacent plate boundary subduction segments. The initiating perturbation of this deformation has long been attributed to vigorous erosional processes as observed at Nanga Parbat and Namche Barwa in the Himalaya and at Mount St. Elias in Alaska. However, an erosion-dominated mechanism ignores the 3-D geometry of curved subducting plates. Here we present an alternative explanation for rapid exhumation at these locations based on the 3-D thermomechanical evolution of collisions between plates with nonplanar geometries. Comparison of model predictions with existing data reproduces the defining characteristics of these mountains and offers an explanation for their spatial correlation with arc termini. These results demonstrate a "bottom-up" tectonic rather than "top-down" erosional initiation of feedbacks between erosion and tectonic deformation; hence, the importance of 3-D subduction geometry.

  15. Data transmission via erasure type channels protected by linear codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacker, H. D.; Pendli, P.; Börcsök, J.

    2012-05-01

    The paper is concerned with data transmission via channels composed of a memoryless binary symmetric channel and the erasure channel of Peter Elias. Channels of this type play an important role in modelling different types of networks especially wireless networks, and have been investigated using, amongst others, the theory of Markov chains. Channel Capacities and network flows have been determined. The authors focus their interest on some aspects of coding theory. They assume the data transmission to be protected by a linear code, a CRC for example, and determine the probability of undetected error of the code. They then consider redundant transmission via two or more channels with bit inversion, and calculate the probability of undetected error. They prove some inequalities that are useful instruments to estimate the rate of transmission errors and to determine safety integrity levels according to the standards. Finally the authors apply their results to Bluetooth channels suffering from different types of noise.

  16. Spiral density waves in a young protoplanetary disk.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura M; Carpenter, John M; Andrews, Sean M; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I; Wilner, David J; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T; Chandler, Claire J; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M; Corder, Stuartt A; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S; Harris, Robert J; Mundy, Lee G

    2016-09-30

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  17. [Rachel Haddock Lobo: her professional life and her contribution to REBEn].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Oliveira, Sonô Taíra

    2002-01-01

    This is a historical study that analyses the formation process of the professional habitus of Rachel Haddock Lobo through the reconstruction of her biography. It also analyses her contribution as 1st editor in chief of Revista Annaes de Enfermagem (Brazilian Journal of Nursing), in 1932, which is currently called Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem. The preferential primary sources of this study included written documents and the oral testimony of one of Rachel Haddock Lobo's family members. Both sources were obtained from Centro de Documentação da Escola de Enfermagem Ana Nery (Documentation Center of Ana Neri School of Nursing). Data were analyzed through the concepts of habitus and social configuration by Norbert Elias. The analysis showed that Rachel Haddock Lobo gave expressive contribution to the creation process of the journal referred, which, on its turn, had an strategic importance on the formation of the identity of the Brazilian nursing professionals at that time.

  18. Empirical description of the hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interaction at the accelerator energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubiak, G.; Szabelski, J.; Wdowczyk, J.; Kempa, J.; Piotrowska, A.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account several assumptions, a formula is transformed into two expressions for kaon and baryon plus antibaryon production in proton interaction and for pion production in pion interactions. Combining both formulae, expression are obtained for the spectrum of kaons and baryons plus antibaryons produced in the meson interactions. For analysis of the cosmic ray propagation in the atmosphere in actual fact, instead of the formulae for interactions of protons and mesons with protons, formulae appropriate for interactions with air nuclei was used. Using the method outlined among others by Elias et al. (1980) simple corrections were introduced to the derived expressions to account for the fact that the target is an air nucleus.

  19. Putting the Second Law to Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmer, Thomas F.

    2008-08-01

    Thermo Electron Corporation was founded in 1956 by Dr. George Hatsopoulos with the goal of applying thermodynamics to the solution of energy problems throughout society. As the company grew from a small research laboratory to a multi-billion dollar Fortune 500 enterprise, the Second Law of thermodynamics played a pivotal role in creating a diversified portfolio of products and services. George and his staff also employed thermodynamics, particularly availability analyses of energy processes, to help guide changes in National policy arising from the 1973 oil embargo. As directors of the company, Professors Joseph Keenan and Elias Gyftopoulos made key contributions to the strategy of applying the Second Law to real-world engineering challenges.

  20. Felt stigma and obesity: introducing the generalized other.

    PubMed

    Barlösius, Eva; Philipps, Axel

    2015-04-01

    People with a big body are tainted in western societies. Although most research on obesity occurs in the medical context, few studies investigate characteristics and effects of feelings and fears related to the fat stigma in the absence of overt discrimination. By linking Norbert Elias's and George H. Mead's theoretical frameworks, this paper offers a different approach to understanding and investigating felt stigma. The study is based on secondary data (25 semistructured interviews with children and adolescents). It explores internalized societal perspectives on overweight and obesity and inquires into the way in which interviewees handle the blame frame of personal responsibility during their interview. The preliminary findings suggest that specific forms of managing one's self-presentation in interviews indicate felt stigma. Consequently, the paper argues for an analytical approach that extends the focus on the content of interviews to include its dynamics.

  1. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: Understanding the origin of pollution sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Dole, ogonekgowska S.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Processing of icy mantles in protostellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Gerakines, P. A.; Whittet, D. C.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G.; Adamson, A. J.; Boogert, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained CO absorption profiles of several young stellar objects (YSOs), spanning a range of mass and luminosity, in order to investigate their ice mantle composition. We present the first detection of CO toward the class I YSO L1489 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud. In general, the CO profiles for YSOs show evidence for both processed and pristine ices in the same line of sight, strong indirect evidence for CO, is suggested in R CrA IRS 7, L1489 IRS, Elias 18, and GL 961E. Toward other sources (R CrA IRS 1, IRS 2, W33A, NGC 7538 IRS 9, Mon R2 IRS 2) CO is present in (nearly) pure form. We propose an evolutionary scenario to explain the chemical diversity of the icy mantles toward these objects.

  3. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  4. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  5. A postulated new source for the White River Ash, Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the US. Geological Survey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Richter, Donald H.; DuBois, Gregory D.; Miller, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The White River Ash (Lerbekmo and others, 1968), product of two of the most voluminous pyroclastic eruptions in North America in the past 2,000 yr, blankets much of the Yukon Terrtory, Canada, and a small part of adjoining eastern Alaska. Lerbekmo and Campbell (1969) narrowed the source of the ash to an area northeast of the Mt. Bona-Mt. Churchill massif in the St. Elias Mountains of southern Alaska. Based on indirect evidence, Lerbekmo and Campbell (1969) further suggested that the vent was beneath the Klutlan Glacier, adjacent to a mound of coarse pumice, 16 km northeast of Mt. Bona. Recently discovered pumice and ash deposits and a possible vent structure near the summit of Mt. Churchill suggest an alternate source area. The White River Ash is a bilobate plinian fallout deposit covering more than 340,000 km2 and containing an estimated 25-50 km3 of tephra (Bostock, 1952; Berger, 1960; fig. 1). Radiocarbon ages indicate that the northern lobe was deposited about 1,887 yr B.P. and the eastern, and larger, lobe about 1,250 yr B.P. (Lerbekmo and others, 1975). The axes of the two lobes converge near Mt. Bona (16,420 ft (5,005 m)) and Mt. Churchill [15,638 ft (4,766 m)], which together form a prominent massif in the St. Elias Mountains. The Klutlan Glacier, a large valley glacier that flows eastward into Canada, has its principal source on the eastern flank of the massif. 

  6. An Integrated View of Tectonics in the North Pacific Derived from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J.; Marechal, A.; Larsen, C.; Perea Barreto, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Textbooks show a simple picture of the tectonics of the North Pacific, with discrete deformation along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates along the Aleutian megathrust and Fairweather/Queen Charlotte fault system. Reality is much more complex, with a pattern of broadly distributed deformation. This is in part due to a number of studies and initiatives (such as PBO) in recent years that have greatly expanded the density of GPS data throughout the region. We present an overview of the GPS data acquired and various tectonic interpretations developed over the past decade and discuss a current effort to integrate the available data into a regional tectonic model for Alaska and northwestern Canada. Rather than discrete plate boundaries, we observe zones of concentrated deformation where the majority of the relative plate motion is accommodated. Within these zones, there are major fault systems, such as the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform and the Aleutian megathrust, where most of the deformation occurs along a main structure, but often motion is instead partitioned across multiple faults, such as the fold-and-thrust belt of the eastern St. Elias orogen. In zones of particular complexity, such as the eastern syntaxis of the St. Elias orogen, the deformation is better described by continuum deformation than localized strain along crustal structures. Strain is transferred far inboard, either by diffuse deformation or along fault system such as the Denali fault, and outboard of the main zones of deformation. The upper plate, if it can be called such, consists of a number of blocks and deforming zones while the lower plate is segmented between the Yakutat block and Pacific plate and is also likely undergoing internal deformation.

  7. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-12-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen-Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. We present results from new campaign and permanent GPS stations deployed in SW Yukon, combined with STEEP data from SE Alaska, straddling the Fairweather and Denali Faults. GPS data are processed with the NRCan PPP software to derive long-term velocities and are corrected for transient effects primarily due to Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to recent ice mass loss. In the southern region (from Yakutat, AK to Whitehorse, YK), our preferred model gives slip rates of 49.9 +/- 2.6 mm/a on the Fairweather Fault and 1.1 +/- 1.0 mm/a on the Denali Fault; i.e., over 95% the Pacific - North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary fault. However, the fault-normal component is strongly partitioned, with ~25% of the Pacific - North America convergence transferred inland, into the Yukon and Northern Cordillera. This strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the northern region (from Yakutat, AK to Beaver Creek, YK), the Pacific - North America convergence is strongly partitioned, with less than ~60% accommodated on the Chugach-St. Elias Fault and the residual motion distributed between the Pamplona thrust zone to the south (~15%) and internal shortening of the St. Elias Mountains to the north (~25%), where few faults and little seismicity are observed. The new GPS data also helps address the activity and slip rate of a potential "Connector Fault" that would link the Fairweather and Totschunda Faults, bypassing the Denali Fault in SW Yukon.

  8. Evidence for chemical processing of precometary icy grains in circumstellar environments of pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166/cm in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud cource Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166/cm absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C triple bonded to N containing compound (called X(C triple bonded to N)) that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components. We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO components in nonpolar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H2O are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C triple bonded to N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main-sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  9. Evidence for Chemical Processing of Precometary Icy Grains In Circumstellar Environments of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teglier, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166 cm-1 in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud source Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166 cm-1 absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C=-N containing compound [called X(C=-N)] that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components, We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in non- polar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H20 are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C=-N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main- sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  10. Desensitization of the insulin receptor by antireceptor antibodies in vivo is blocked by treatment of mice with beta-adrenergic agonists.

    PubMed

    Elias, D; Rapoport, M; Cohen, I R; Shechter, Y

    1988-06-01

    In previous studies we reported that immunization of mice with ungulate insulins induced the development of antiinsulin antibodies, which include an idiotype that appeared to recognize the part of the insulin molecule recognized by the hormone receptor. The antiinsulin antibodies of this idiotype were replaced spontaneously by antiidiotypic antibodies. The antiidiotypic antibodies, which persisted for about 14 d, mimicked insulin and functioned as antibodies to the insulin receptor. They induced down regulation, desensitization and refractoriness of the insulin receptor and disturbances in glucose homeostasis in vivo (Shechter, Y., D. Elias, R. Maron, and I.R. Cohen., 1984; Elias, D., R. Maron, I.R. Cohen, and Y. Shechter. 1984, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 6411-6419). We now report that effects of the antiidiotypic antibodies on the insulin receptor effector system can be modified pharmacologically. Administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol during the period of insulin resistance (days 26-40 after primary immunization), largely restored fat cell responsiveness to insulin, and eliminated the appearance of fasting hyperglycemia. This restoration appeared to be caused by inhibition of both insulin receptor desensitization and refractoriness. In contrast, down regulation of insulin receptors was not reversed by isoproterenol treatment in vivo. The effects of treatment with isoproterenol persisted for 2-4 d after termination of treatment. The beta-antagonist, propranolol and more so, the beta 1a-antagonist metoprolol, specifically blocked the effect of isoproterenol at a molar ratio of 3-10:1. Oral administration of the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, aminophylline, was also effective in inhibiting the development of desensitization in fat cells. These results indicate that treatment with beta 1-adrenergic agonists in vivo, or other agents that elevate cellular cAMP levels, can inhibit the development of the "postbinding" defects induced by insulin

  11. Deformation in the Yakataga seismic gap, Southern Alaska, 1980- 1986 ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 60-by-40-km trilateration network in the Yakataga seismic gap was surveyed in 1980, 1982, 1984, and 1986 with precise electro-optical distance-measuring equipment to measure strain accumulation. The overall deformation is roughly approximated by a 0.24+ or -0.03 mu strain/yr N32oW+ or -2.4o uniaxial contraction that is uniform in time. However, the spatial distribution of deformation shows some concentration of convergence in the neighbourhood of the Chugach-St. Elias fault and of right-lateral shear across the Contact fault. A simple dislocation model of the plate interaction in the Yakataga gap fits the observed deformation reasonably well but seems to require that the motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate be directed more nearly N36oW than N15oW, the generally accepted direction of relative motion for this location. However, the direction of plate motion inferred from the dislocation model depends upon details of the interaction at the plate boundary that may not have been modeled accurately. A nearby but smaller trilateration network at Icy Bay was surveyed in 1982, 1984, and 1986. This network spans the SW corner of the rupture zone of the 1979 St. Elias earthquake. The deformation at Icy Bay consists of left-lateral shear across a NE trending zone. The relation of this deformation to strain accumulation in the Yakataga gap, postseismic relaxation associated with the 1979 earthquake, or rebound from the unloading associated with the rapid recession of the Guyot glacier is not understood.-Authors

  12. Lithospheric discontinuity structure in Alaska, thickness variations determined by Sp receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Miller, Meghan S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first broad-scale image of lithospheric thickness across the major tectonic domains of Alaska based on S wave receiver functions and joint interpretation with the potential field, seismic velocity, and heat flow measurements. Thus, we provide context for the distribution of strain throughout the Alaskan orocline. In the north, below the Brooks Range, a 130 km thick lithosphere is resolved, consistent with the presence of strong lithosphere that deflects strain to the south into central and southern Alaska. In southern Alaska beneath the Chugach and St. Elias Mountains, multiple interfaces are present, and we interpret a thinner (80-90 km) North American lithosphere above a deeper interface that represents the base of the Yakutat microplate, thereby extending it to the area below the Wrangell Volcanic Field and St. Elias Mountains. Immediately north of the E-W striking Denali Fault, shallow negative conversions (80 km) denote thin lithosphere in the greater back-arc region where heat flow is observed to be high. Thin lithosphere in eastern Alaska and adjacent Yukon Territory coincides with the occurrence of inboard crustal seismicity and may be indicative of transmitted compression caused by the collision of the Yakutat microplate. Relatively thin lithosphere (<90 km) south of the Arctic Alaska domain that is deforming throughout the Alaskan orocline may result from lithospheric thinning associated with guided deformation. Expansion of this model using the upcoming Transportable Array will be critical to establish lateral continuity (or lack thereof) of lithospheric structure and directly discriminate between existing regional deformation models.

  13. Is lead in tap water still a public health problem? An observational study in Glasgow.

    PubMed Central

    Watt, G. C.; Britton, A.; Gilmour, W. H.; Moore, M. R.; Murray, G. D.; Robertson, S. J.; Womersley, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between tap water lead and maternal blood lead concentrations and assess the exposure of infants to lead in tap water in a water supply area subjected to maximal water treatment to reduce plumbosolvency. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey and collection of kettle water from a representative sample of mothers; blood and further water samples were collected in a random sample of households and households with raised water lead concentrations. SETTING: Loch Katrine water supply area, Glasgow. SUBJECTS: 1812 mothers with a live infant born between October 1991 and September 1992. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 342 mothers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean geometric blood lead concentrations and the prevalence of raised tap water lead concentration. RESULTS: 17% of households had water lead concentration of 10 micrograms/l (48.3 nmol/l) or more in 1993 compared with 49% of households in 1981. Tap water lead remained the main correlate or raised maternal blood lead concentrations and accounted for 62% and 76% of cases of maternal blood lead concentrations above 5 and 10 micrograms/dl (0.24 and 0.48 mumol/l) respectively. The geometric mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.65 micrograms/dl (0.18 mumol/l) in a random sample of mothers and 3.16 micrograms/dl (0.15 mumol/l) in mothers whose tap water lead concentrations were consistently below 2 micrograms/l (9.7 nmol/l). No mother in the study had a blood lead concentration above 25 micrograms/dl (1.21 mumol/l). An estimated 13% of infants were exposed via bottle feeds to tap water lead concentrations exceeding the World Health Organisation's guideline of 10 micrograms/l (48.3 nmol/l). CONCLUSIONS: Tap water lead and maternal blood led concentrations in the Loch Katrine water supply area have fallen substantially since the early 1980s. Maternal blood lead concentrations are well within limits currently considered safe for human health. Tap water lead is still a public health

  14. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  15. Forbidden unique beta-decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-30

    The measurement of the electron spectrum in beta-decays provides a robust direct determination of the values of neutrino masses. The planned rhenium beta-decay experiment, called the “Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment” (MARE), might probe the absolute mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which is expected to collect data in a near future. In this contribution we discuss the spectrum of emitted electrons close to the end point in the case of the first unique forbidden beta-decay of {sup 79}Se, {sup 107}Pd and {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p{sub 3/2}-wave emission dominates over the s{sub 1/2}-wave. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed beta-decay of {sup 3}H.

  16. Beyond low beta-decay Q values

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, M. T.; Suhonen, J.

    2010-11-24

    Beta decays with low Q values can be utilized in the quest to determine the neutrino mass scale. This is being realized in two experiments, KATRIN and MARE, using tritium and {sup 187}Re, respectively. The beta-decay of {sup 187}Re had the lowest known Q value until 2005, when the beta decay of {sup 115}In to the first excited state of {sup 115}Sn was discovered in Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Last year two independent ion trap measurements confirmed that this decay breaks the former record by an order of magnitude.Our theoretical study on this tiny decay channel complemented the experimental effort by the JYFLTRAP group in Finland and HADES underground laboratory in Belgium. A significant discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results was found. This might be explained by various atomic contributions known to grow larger as the Q value decreases. However, the traditional recipes for taking these effects into account break down on this new ultra-low Q value regime, providing new challenges for theorists on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics.

  17. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Joseph A. Formaggio

    2011-10-12

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  18. Upper bound of 0.28 eV on neutrino masses from the largest photometric redshift survey.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shaun A; Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer

    2010-07-16

    We present a new limit of ∑m(v) ≤ 0.28 (95% CL) on the sum of the neutrino masses assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. This relaxes slightly to ∑m(ν) ≤ 0.34 and ∑m(v) ≤ 0.47 when quasinonlinear scales are removed and w≠ -1, respectively. These are derived from a new photometric catalogue of over 700,000 luminous red galaxies (MegaZ DR7) with a volume of 3.3  (Gpc h(-1))(3) and redshift range 0.45 < z < 0.65. The data are combined with WMAP 5-year CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, and a Hubble Space Telescope prior on h. When combined with WMAP these data are as constraining as adding all supernovae and baryon oscillation data available. The upper limit is one of the tightest constraints on the neutrino from cosmology or particle physics. Further, if these bounds hold, they all predict that current-to-next generation neutrino experiments, such as KATRIN, are unlikely to obtain a detection.

  19. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  20. Neutrino mass from triton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2006-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino flavor oscillation in different fields and by many different experiments we believe that neutrinos have non-vanishing masses in contrast to their current description within the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the absolute values of the neutrino masses, which are as important for particle physics as they are for cosmology and astrophysics, cannot be determined by oscillation experiments alone. There are a few ways to determine the neutrino mass scale, but the only model-independent method is the investigation of the electron energy spectrum of a β decay near its endpoint with tritium being the ideal isotope for the classical spectrometer set-up. The tritium β decay experiments at Mainz and Troitsk have recently been finished. At Mainz all relevant systematic uncertainties have been investigated by dedicated experiments yielding an upper limit of m(ν)<2.3eV/c (90% C.L.). The new Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will enhance the sensitivity on the neutrino mass by an ultra-precise measurement of the tritium β decay spectrum near the endpoint by another order of magnitude down to 0.2 eV/c2 by using a very strong windowless gaseous molecular tritium source and a huge ultra-high resolution electrostatic spectrometer of MAC-E-Filter type. The recent achievements in test experiments show, that this very challenging experiment is feasible.

  1. Assessment of molecular effects on neutrino mass measurements from tritium β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, L. I.; Parno, D. Â. S.; Robertson, R. Â. G. Â. H.

    2015-03-01

    The β decay of molecular tritium currently provides the highest sensitivity in laboratory-based neutrino mass measurements. The upcoming Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment will improve the sensitivity to 0.2 eV, making a percent-level quantitative understanding of molecular effects essential. The modern theoretical calculations available for neutrino mass experiments agree with spectroscopic data. Moreover, when neutrino mass experiments performed in the 1980s with gaseous tritium are reevaluated using these modern calculations, the extracted neutrino mass squared values are consistent with zero instead of being significantly negative. However, the calculated molecular final-state branching ratios are in conflict with dissociation experiments performed in the 1950s. We reexamine the theory of the final-state spectrum of molecular-tritium decay and its effect on the determination of the neutrino mass, with an emphasis on the role of the vibrational- and rotational-state distribution in the ground electronic state. General features can be reproduced quantitatively from considerations of kinematics and zero-point motion. We summarize the status of validation efforts and suggest means for resolving the apparent discrepancy in dissociation rates.

  2. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  3. Geological and geodynamic investigations of Alaskan tectonics: Responses in the ancient and modern geologic records to oblique plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbas, James L.

    Stratigraphic, structural, and geophysical modeling studies focusing on both the Mesozoic and modern development of southern Alaska aid in understanding the nature of tectonic responses to oblique plate convergence. Analyses of the Lower to Upper (?) Cretaceous Kahiltna assemblage of the western Alaska Range and the Upper Cretaceous Kuskokwim Group of the northern Kuskokwim Mountains provide a stratigraphic record of orogenic growth in southwestern Alaska. The Kahiltna assemblage records dominantly west-directed gravity-flow transport of sediment to the axis of an obliquely closing basin that made up the suture zone between the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane and the North American pericratonic margin. Stratigraphic, compositional, and geochronologic analyses suggest that submarine-fan systems of the Kahiltna basin were fed from the subearial suture zone and contain detrital grains derived from both allochthonous and pericratonic sources, thereby implying a relatively close proximity of the island-arc terrane to the North American margin by late Early Cretaceous time. In contrast, Upper Cretaceous strata exposed immediately west of the Kahiltna assemblage record marine deposition during a period of transition from island arc accretion to strike-slip tectonics. The new stratigraphic model presented here recognizes diverse bathyal- to shelfal-marine depositional systems within the Kuskokwim Group that represent distinctive regional sediment entry points to the basin. Collectively, these strata suggest that the Kuskokwim Group represents the waning stages of marine deposition in a long-lived intra-oceanic and continental margin basin. Geodynamic studies focus on the mechanics of contemporary fault systems in southern Alaska inboard of the collisional Yakutat microplate. Finite-element analyses predict that a poorly understood Holocene strike-slip fault in the St. Elias Mountains transfers shear from the Queen Charlotte fault northward to the Denali fault

  4. The Evolution of the Surveyor Fan and Channel System, Gulf of Alaska based on Core-Log-Seismic Integration at IODP Site U1417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Walton, M. A. L.; Swartz, J. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The transition to quasi-periodic ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2 Ma) saw an acceleration of sediment delivery from the St. Elias orogen. Eroded sediment from the St. Elias Mountains is transferred to the deep sea via glacially carved shelf troughs and eventually to the Aleutian Trench via the Surveyor Channel and Fan system. By analyzing the submarine sediments in this Fan, we can evaluate the source-to-sink relationship between the erosion of an orogen and deep-sea deposition and inform our understanding of the impact of climate on local tectonics. Our work seeks to update depositional models of the unique sedimentary sequences, architecture, and origins of the glacially-fed Surveyor Fan using well-log-seismic correlation and new data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341. Exp. 341 results question proposed ages of major fan stratigraphic packages, necessitating this update. We created an integrated velocity model using discrete core-based p-wave velocities acquired at site U1417 from 100-152m, down-hole sonic log velocities from 152m-476m, and then projected the trend of the sonic log velocity from 476m to the base of the borehole. Previous work has interpreted the Sequence I/II boundary (~300 mbsf at U1417) to correspond with the start of the Surveyor Fan and the onset of tidewater glaciation in the late Miocene and the Sequence II/III boundary (~160 mbsf at U1417) to coincide with the intensification of glaciation and subsequent increase in sediment flux at the MPT. Our updated velocity model places these major sequence boundaries at the correct depths in borehole site U1417. We can use the revised velocity model to correlate lithologic, biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and logging data from the borehole/cores to seismic data, allowing for construction of a temporal model for the evolution of the Surveyor fan. We can then examine the relationship between glacial-interglacial cycle duration and

  5. Southern Alaska as an Example of the Long-Term Consequences of Mountain Building Under the Influence of Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meigs, Andrew; Sauber, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Southern Alaska is a continent-scale region of ongoing crustal deformation within the Pacific-North American plate boundary zone. Glaciers and glacial erosion have dictated patterns of denudation in the orogen over the last approx. 5 My. The orogen comprises three discrete topographic domains from south to north, respectively: (1) the Chugach/St. Elias Range; (2) the Wrangell Mountains; and (3) the eastern Alaska Range. Although present deformation is distributed across the orogen, much of the shortening and uplift are concentrated in the Chugach/St. Elias Range. A systematic increase in topographic wavelength of the range from east to west reflects east-to-west increases in the width of a shallowly-dipping segment of the plate interface, separation of major upper plate structures, and a decrease in the obliquity of plate motion relative to the plate boundary. Mean elevation decays exponentially from approx. 2500 m to approx. 1100 m from east to west, respectively. Topographic control on the present and past distribution of glaciers is indicated by close correspondence along the range between mean elevation and the modern equilibrium line altitude of glaciers (ELA) and differences in the modern ELA, mean annual precipitation and temperature across the range between the windward, southern and leeward, northern flanks. Net, range- scale erosion is the sum of: (1) primary bedrock erosion by glaciers and (2) erosion in areas of the landscape that are ice-marginal and are deglaciated at glacial minima. Oscillations between glacial and interglacial climates controls ice height and distribution, which, in turn, modulates the locus and mode of erosion in the landscape. Mean topography and the mean position of the ELA are coupled because of the competition between rock uplift, which tends to raise the ELA, and enhanced orographic precipitation accompanying mountain building, which tends to lower the ELA. Mean topography is controlled both by the 60 deg latitude and maritime

  6. Neogene Sediment Transport, Deposition, and Exhumation from the Southern Alaska Syntaxis to the Eastern Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, K. D.; Witmer, J. W.; Enkelmann, E.; Plafker, G.; Brennan, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over 5 km of Neogene sedimentary strata are well exposed in the Chugach-St. Elias Ranges within the southern Alaska syntaxis. This syntaxis forms where the Pacific-North America plate boundary changes from the northwest-trending Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform system to the southwest-trending Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Active collision and subduction of the buoyant Yakutat microplate in the syntaxis results in a wide collisional zone defined by active mountain belts, extensive glaciation, and thick packages of synorogenic strata. New stratigraphic and U-Th/He thermochronologic data from Neogene synorogenic strata, named the Yakataga and Redwood Formations, provide insights on collisional tectonics, glacial erosion, and sediment transport, deposition, burial, and exhumation from the onshore Chugach and St. Elias Ranges to the exposed accretionary prism of the Aleutian trench. Stratigraphic analyses show that along the southeastern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata are characterized by deposition in braid delta, shallow marine, and glaciomarine slope apron depositional systems that resulted in construction of a broad continental shelf. In the central part of the syntaxis, marine shelf and upper slope environments deposited thick-bedded sandstone and mudstone in a thrust belt/foreland basin system. Along the southwestern part of the syntaxis, Neogene strata were deposited in a regional submarine fan system that filled the easternmost part of the Aleutian trench. Geologic mapping of the contact between the Yakataga Formation and underlying strata along the syntaxis document an angular unconformity with maximum stratigraphic separation (> 5 km) in the central part of the syntaxis. Along strike, this unconformity becomes conformable along both the southwestern and southeastern parts of the syntaxis. The regional angular unconformity and facies transitions both point to the importance of the central part of the syntaxis in the generation and distribution of

  7. Deciphering the Transitional Tectonics of the Southern Alaska Margin Through Gulf Sedimentology and Geophysics: IODP Expedition 341

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, R.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Jaeger, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Alaska is a complex amalgam of tectonic environments, centered on the subduction/collision of the Yakutat Block with North America. Along the Aleutians in the west, the Pacific Plate subducts normally beneath North America, with a gradually shallowing subduction angle towards the Yakutat Terrane to the east. The western region of the Yakutat Block undergoes nearly flat-slab subduction beneath North America, whereas it transitions to collision in the northeast, which is the primary driver for the growth of the Chugach-St. Elias orogen. Farther to the east, the collisional system transitions to a transform boundary with the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte fault system. The collisional system contributes to farfield tectonic effects in many regions, including northern Alaska and the Pacific Plate, but also combines with glaciation to drive sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska. Glaciation has periodically increased in the St. Elias Range since the Miocene, but began dominating erosion and spurred enhanced exhumation since the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, at ~2.5 Ma. Results from IODP Expedition 341 show the first appearance of ice-rafted debris and a doubling of Gulf sedimentation at site U1417 at this age, and a major increase in sedimentation at ~1 Ma at sites U1417 and U1418. Glacigenic sediment flux into the Gulf of Alaska represents the majority of accumulation in the deepwater Surveyor Fan, and was the impetus for formation of the Surveyor Channel system. Climate events correlate to three major differentiable sequences across the Surveyor Fan that have been previously mapped using seismic reflection profiles. The change in morphology observed throughout the sequences allows us to characterize the influence that a glaciated orogen can have in shaping margin processes and the sediment pathways from source to sink. IODP Expedition 341 results allow us to now apply this method at higher resolution time scales (i.e., 100 kyr). We will explore

  8. The Mobile Margin of (Far) North America: GPS Constraints on Active Deformation in Alaska and the Role of the Yakutat Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Larsen, C. F.; Motyka, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    a main thrust instead of cutting through the lithosphere. In contrast with the region to the east, relative convergence is accommodated over a fairly short distance across the St. Elias Mountains. West of the deformation front, the en echelon blocks and faults continue until the vicinity of the Bering Glacier, where the GPS data reveal a rotation towards the north as the tectonic regime transitions from the collision and accretion of the Yakutat block to subduction along the Aleutian Megathrust. North of the Chugach and St. Elias Ranges, the Southern Alaska block rotates counterclockwise.

  9. Active Tectonics of Southern Alaska and the Role of the Yakutat Block Constrained by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Larsen, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    GPS data from southern Alaska and the northern Canadian Cordillera have helped redefine the region's tectonic landscape. Instead of a comparatively simple interaction between the Pacific and North American plates, with relative motion accommodated on a single boundary fault, the margin is made up of a number of small blocks and deformation zones with relative motion distributed across a variety of structures. Much of this complexity can be attributed to the Yakutat block, an allochthonous terrane that has been colliding with southern Alaska since the Miocene. We present GPS data from across the region and use it to constrain a tectonic model for the Yakutat block collision and its effects on southern Alaska and eastern Canada. According to our model, the Yakutat block itself moves NNW at a rate of 50 mm/yr. Along its eastern edge, the Yakutat block is fragmenting into small crustal slivers. Part of the strain from the collision is transferred east of the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte fault system, causing the region inboard of the Fairweather fault to undergo a distinct clockwise rotation into the northern Canadian Cordillera. About 5% of the relative motion is transferred even further east, causing small northeasterly motions well into the northern Cordillera. Further north, the GPS data and model results indicate that the current deformation front between the Yakutat block and southern Alaska runs along the western side of the Malaspina Glacier. The majority of the ~37 mm/yr of relative convergence is accommodated along a narrow band of thrust faults concentrated in the southeastern part of the St. Elias orogen. Near the Bering Glacier, the tectonic regime abruptly changes as crustal thrust faults give way to subduction of the Yakutat block beneath the western St. Elias orogen and Prince William Sound. This change aligns with the Gulf of Alaska shear zone, implying that the Pacific plate may be fragmenting in response to the Yakutat collision. From the Bering

  10. Active tectonics in Southern Alaska and the role of the Yakutat block constrained by GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Julie

    2011-12-01

    GPS data from southern Alaska and the northern Canadian Cordillera have helped redefine the region's tectonic landscape. Instead of a comparatively simple interaction between the Pacific and North American plates, with relative motion accommodated on a single boundary fault, the margin is made up of a number of small blocks and deformation zones with relative motion distributed across a variety of structures. Much of this complexity can be attributed to the Yakutat block, an allochthonous terrane that has been colliding with southern Alaska since the Miocene. This thesis presents GPS data from across the region and uses it to constrain a tectonic model for the Yakutat block collision and its effects on southern Alaska and eastern Canada. The Yakutat block itself moves NNW at a rate of 50 mm/yr. Along its eastern edge, the Yakutat block is fragmenting into small crustal slivers. Part of the strain from the collision is transferred east of the Fairweather -- Queen Charlotte fault system, causing the region inboard of the Fairweather fault to undergo a distinct clockwise rotation into the northern Canadian Cordillera. About 5% of the relative motion is transferred even further east, causing small northeasterly motions well into the northern Cordillera. Further north, the GPS data and model results indicate that the current deformation front between the Yakutat block and southern Alaska runs along the western side of the Malaspina Glacier. The majority of the ˜37 mm/yr of relative convergence is accommodated along a narrow band of thrust faults concentrated in the southeastern part of the St. Elias orogen. Near the Bering Glacier, the tectonic regime abruptly changes as crustal thrust faults give way to subduction of the Yakutat block beneath the western St. Elias orogen and Prince William Sound. This change aligns with the Gulf of Alaska shear zone, implying that the Pacific plate is fragmenting in response to the Yakutat collision. The Bering Glacier region is

  11. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauber, J.M.; Molnia, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes (ML???2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes (Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M s=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  12. Tectonics and surface processes interactions in exhumation history of South Alaska: insights from the thermochronological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre G.; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Shuster, David L.; Herman, Frederic; Giuditta Fellin, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The southern Alaska range presents an ideal setting to study complex interactions between tectonics, climate and surface processes in landscape evolution. It exhibits active tectonics with the ongoing of subduction/collision between Pacific and North America, and major active seismogenic reverse and strike-slip faults. The alpine landscape, rugged topography and the important present-day ice-coverage reveal a strong glacial imprint associated with high erosion and sediment transport rates. Therefore, the relative importance of glacial erosion and tectonics for the observed late-exhumation history appears to be quite complex to decipher. This problem partly arises from the fact that most studies have been focused on the southern coast of Alaska where both glacial erosion and tectonic processes are both very active and act together in driving high exhumation rates. Here, we first perform a formal inversion of an extensive bedrock thermochronological dataset collected in southern Alaska over the last decades to quantify the large-scale 20-Myr exhumation history. Our results confirm high exhumation rates in the St Elias "syntaxis" and frontal fold and thrust belts for the last 0-2 Myr, where major ice fields and high precipitation rates likely promoted high erosion rates. It also highlights localized exhumation in the last 4-6 Myr along major tectonic features such like the Fairweather and Border Ranges faults. Large-scale inverse modeling therefore suggests that the late-stage exhumation history of South Alaska has mainly been driven by tectonic processes; the impact of late Cenozoic glaciations impact being less visible there than in less active mountain ranges such as the European Alps, British Columbia or Patagonia. To overcome this potential bias in resolving the glacial impact on erosion history, we studied to the Granite Range (Wrangell-St Elias National Park, Alaska), an area presenting a strong glacial imprint but minor tectonic activity with only localized

  13. Unraveling tectonics and climate forcing in the late-Neogene exhumation history of South Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Shuster, David; Herman, Frédéric; Giuditta Fellin, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The southern Alaska range presents an ideal setting to study the complex interactions between tectonics, climate and surface processes in landscape evolution. It exhibits active tectonics with the ongoing subduction/collision between Pacific and North America, and major active seismogenic reverse and strike-slip faults. The alpine landscape, rugged topography and the important ice-coverage at present reveal a strong glacial imprint associated with high erosion and sediment transport rates. Therefore, the relative importance of climatically-driven glacial erosion and tectonics for the observed late-exhumation history appears to be quite complex to decipher. Here, we first perform a formal inversion of an extensive bedrock thermochronological dataset from the literature to quantify the large-scale 20-Myr exhumation history over the entire southern Alaska. We show that almost half of the variability within the thermochronological record can be explained by modern annual precipitations spatial distribution, the residuals clearly evidencing localized exhumation along major tectonic structures of the frontal fold and thrust belt. Our results confirm high exhumation rates in the St Elias "syntaxis" and frontal zones for the last 0-2 Myr, where major ice fields and high precipitation rates likely sustained high exhumation rates; however the impact of late Cenozoic glaciations is difficult to constrain because of the low resolution on the exhumation history older than ~2 Myr. On the contrary, our inversion outcomes highlight that north of the Bagley Icefield the long-term exhumation has remained quite slow and continuous over the last ~20 Myr, with no late-stage signal of exhumation change since the onset of glaciations despite a clear glacial imprint on the landscape. We thus focus on the Granite Range (Wrangell-St Elias National Park, Alaska), an area presenting a strong glacial imprint but minor tectonic activity with only localized brittle deformation. We sampled four

  14. Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices

  15. Tectonic model and seismic potential of the eastern Gulf of Alaska and Yakataga Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Omar J.; Jacob, Klaus H.

    1980-12-01

    Based on 13 new fault plane solutions and published seismological, geological, and geophysical data, we interpret the deformation along the Pacific-North American plate margin in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Three major tectonic units can be distinguished: (1) the North American plate, (2) the Pacific plate, and (3) a belt of mobile borderland terranes. The Pacific plate moves in a NNW direction at rates of about 6 cm/yr in relation to the North American plate. That motion results in mostly right-lateral strike slip at the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system, a well-known observation. A new finding,however, is that a small component (˜1 cm/yr) of convergence may also be present which results in minor subduction of the oceanic plate beneath portions of the continental margin. Heretofore the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault zone and associated continental margin was interpreted as a classical, pure transform boundary. The Yakutat block, a borderland terrane about 400 km long and 100 to 200 km wide, is carried passively by the Pacific plate except that the block slowly overrides this plate at about 1 cm/yr. This motion is taken up by almost pure thrust faulting in a southwesterly direction along a 400-km long SE striking shelf edge structure. At its NW edge the Yakutat block is in turn being thrust beneath the North American plate along the Pamplona zone-Icy Bay lineament. The underthrusting of the Yakutat block results in a major orogeny, crustal shortening and uplift of the Chugach-St. Elias range. The effects of this collision may extend as far as 500 km inland and cause some deformation at the Denali fault in the central Alaska Range. Subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the colliding margin appears responsible for development of an active volcanic arc up to 300 km inland which trends SE from the Wrangell Mountains to Yukon Territory, Canada, and perhaps to Mt. Edgecumbe volcano in southeast Alaska. The tectonic model proposed implies a high seismic

  16. Untypical even-to-odd predominance in the low-molecular n-alkanes of water, suspended matter, and bottom sediments in some regions of the Arctic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdova, Anastasia; Belyaev, Nikolay; Ponyaev, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Over the years, several studies have shown an unusual predominance of even-carbon number n-alkanes in dissolved and particulate phase samples and sediment samples from various regions of the World Ocean [Nachman, 1985; Nishimura and Baker, 1985; Elias et al., 1997]. Different possible sources were proposed such as diagenesis (diagenetic origin from co-occurring fatty acids and alcohols), direct microbial input, microbial degradation of algal detritus, etc. Some researchers, however, are incredulous about this phenomenon and consider relatively high content of even-carbon number n-alkanes as contamination during the experiments. We report here the results of GC and GC-MS analysis of water, suspended particulate matter and sediment samples collected during 7 marine and coastal scientific expeditions to the White and Kara Seas, and to the central Arctic Basin (2004-2013). Many of the above samples (more than 30) present n-alkane distribution with a strong even-carbon number predominance of n-C14H30, and n-C16H34. Maximum enrichment was observed in some suspended matter samples with predominance of n-C16H34. The origin of even-carbon number n-alkanes in marine ecosystems is still not clear. In Antarctic region n-C16 and n-C18 and other even chain n-alkanes were reported to be dominant in the samples of the sea-ice algae, zooplankton and fish [Green et al. 1997] however in the Arctic region this phenomenon has not been demonstrated yet. Increasing of bacteria number and δ13C values observed in course of the accompanying studies [Lein et al., 2013] suggest existence of mechanism of phytoplankton bacterial destruction in the Arctic ecosystems, leading to formation of even-carbon number n-alkanes. R.J. Nachman - Lipids, Vol. 20, No 9, pp. 629-633 (1985). M. Nishimura, E.W. Baker - Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 50, pp. 299-305 (1986). V.O. Elias, B.R.T. Simoneit, J.N. Cardoso - Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 84, pp. 415-420 (1997). G. Green et al. - Marine Pollution

  17. Screening for antinuclear antibodies by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, T D; Schroder, C; Martins, T B; Mouritsen, C L; Litwin, C M; Hill, H R

    1996-04-01

    Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) ia most widely used method in clin clinical laboratories to screen for autoantibodies against a wide variety of nuclear antigens. Recently, a number of antinuclear antibody (ANA) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screens have become commercially available and claim to be an alternative method to screen for ANAs. Given the subjectivity of technical interpretation of IFA and the high number of ANA negative samples, a suitable EIA method for ANA screening would be beneficial to clinical laboratories with large samples volumes. Five ANA EIA screens were compared (Elias, Helix, Sanofi, TheraTest and Zeus) to IFA using a human epithelial cell line (HEp-2). Sera from 601 patients submitted to our reference laboratory for autoimmune testing, and from 202 normal healthy blood donors, were included in this study. Samples with discordant results between IFA and EIA were further analyzed using single antigen EIAs for SSA, SSB, Sm, RNP, Scl-70, histones, dsDNA, and ssDNA. Analyses were based on clinically significant IFA titers of > or equal to 1:160 as positive and <1:40 as negative. When compared to IFA, agreement, sensitivity and specificity for each ANA EIA screen were as follows: Elias: 87.0%, 69.5% and 97.9%; Helix: 94.6%, 90.2%, and 97.3%; Sanofi: 95.0%, 93.7%, and 95.9%; TheraTest: 95.3%, 97.7%, and 93.5%; Zeus: 87.1%, 96.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. In conclusion, screening for ANAs by EIA using several commercial assays was both sensitive and specific when compared to IFA. Moreover, the EIA is objective and much less labor intensive when screening a large number of clinical specimens. None of the EIAs were 100% sensitive and, thus, may fail to detect a few of the nonspecific ANAs that demonstrate atypical as well as classical IFA patterns. The advantages of employing these nonsubjective assays to screen out the vast majority of ANA negative sera is clear. The authors still recommend confirming titers and patterns of sera with positive EIA

  18. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  19. Site-dependent ground motions from distant earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, G. L.; Isenberg, J.; Dunbar, W. S.

    1980-11-01

    This study considers geologic and seismological reasons for patterns of guidance alarms in Minuteman Wing V due to the 1975 Pocatello Valley, Idaho and 1979 St. Elias, Alaska earthquakes. The main geologic feature identified that can produce the observed effect is the thickness of sediments overlying Precambrian basement rock. Near vertically-incident P and S seismic waves which propagate directly from the source through the crust and upper mantle can interact with this structure. A velocity model based on oil well log data and a Haskell-Thompson formulation for body wave propagation in a layered model indicate that amplitude of peak ground shaking can vary by a factor of 2 at adjacent Wing V Flights due to variations in sediment thickness and wavespeeds. Interaction of surface waves with the same sedimentary layer is currently being studied and is the subject of a forthcoming report. Escarpments, basin edges and similar features are not likely to cause the observed distribution of alarms because they produce resonances at periods too short to affect the Missile Guidance Set.

  20. Proglacial hydrochemistry and sediment characteristics observed across a spectrum of glacier dynamic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The broad influence of bedrock geology on glacier dynamics has received comparatively little attention in the alpine glacier literature. Geological influences vary widely from subglacial hydrochemistry to deformable till rheology, which may be governed by the mineralogy and grain size distribution within the till. In an investigation of borehole and proglacial water at an unnamed glacier in the Donjek Range of the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada, we find that subglacial mineral precipitation exerts a significant control on the proglacial hydrochemistry and suspended sediment flux. To understand if this process is common to glaciers across the range, we collected proglacial water samples from 20 glaciers in and around the Donjek Range. From each sample, we analyzed the hydrochemistry, measured the grain size distribution (GSD) using a Mastersizer laser diffraction particle size analyzer, and analyzed the mineralogy of the suspended sediments using X-ray diffraction. We also analyzed thin sections from bedrock samples collected at the glacier margins to constrain the mineralogical input to the system. This suite of measurements permits us to investigate the discrepancies between the secondary minerals predicted by the proglacial hydrochemistry and the observed mineralogy. Given that glaciers in the sample set exhibit a range of dynamic behaviour (including surging), we investigate how the mineralogy, GSDs, and hydrochemistry vary as a function of glacier dynamics. Where we have identified correlations between surging glaciers and proglacial GSDs, we investigate the possible controls of hydrochemistry and/or mineralogy on the GSDs and thus on subglacial dynamics.

  1. Identification of geostructures of continental crust, particularly as they relate to mineral resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gryc, G. (Principal Investigator); Lathram, E. H.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The southeastward continuation of a fault that has been mapped in the vicinity of Dan Creek, Alaska, shows up as a lineament on ERTS-1 image 1043-20163 that can be traced for more than 50 miles southeastward to beyond the Alaska-Canada boundary. The lineament probably reflects a major fault that is significant in understanding the complicated tectonics of the Wrangell Mountains-Saint Elias Mountains complex. From a study of the ERTS-1 image, low level vertical photography, and limited field work in the largely unmapped region, E.M. Mackevett, Jr., speculates that the eastern part of the fault may mark the southern boundary of a mild-Paleozoic metamorphic terrane that constitutes the westernmost known extent of the Alexander terrane of Berg, Jones, and Richter (1972) and correlates with the Kaskawulsh Group in Canada. This terrane, which consists dominantly of marble, was recognized during 1972 reconnaissance mapping in the eastcentral part of the McCarthy quadrangle by MacKevett, D.L. Jones, and D.H. Richter and contrasts strongly with the dominantly volcanic and volcanoclastic terrane of Pennsylvanian and Permian age that forms the basement in most of the McCarthy quadrangle.

  2. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals: Background, rationale and mission statement of the 'Editors' Club' (Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F; Ambrosio, G; Pinto, F J; van der Wall, E E

    2008-06-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane k MD, Jørgen Videbaek MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations).

  3. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    PubMed

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  4. Role of lipids in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M

    2014-03-01

    The major function of the skin is to form a barrier between the internal milieu and the hostile external environment. A permeability barrier that prevents the loss of water and electrolytes is essential for life on land. The permeability barrier is mediated primarily by lipid enriched lamellar membranes that are localized to the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. These lipid enriched membranes have a unique structure and contain approximately 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids with very little phospholipid. Lamellar bodies, which are formed during the differentiation of keratinocytes, play a key role in delivering the lipids from the stratum granulosum cells into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum. Lamellar bodies contain predominantly glucosylceramides, phospholipids, and cholesterol and following the exocytosis of lamellar lipids into the extracellular space of the stratum corneum these precursor lipids are converted by beta glucocerebrosidase and phospholipases into the ceramides and fatty acids, which comprise the lamellar membranes. The lipids required for lamellar body formation are derived from de novo synthesis by keratinocytes and from extra-cutaneous sources. The lipid synthetic pathways and the regulation of these pathways are described in this review. In addition, the pathways for the uptake of extra-cutaneous lipids into keratinocytes are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  5. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wesson, Rob; Ekström, Göran

    Alaska's tectonic environment, one of the most dramatic and active on Earth, results in frequent great earthquakes, spectacular topography, crustal deformation, and high rates of volcanism. The Pacific-North America plate boundary system in Alaska and Canada is composed of four main types of faulting environments: a strike-slip boundary near the continental margin in the southeast (Fairweather, Queen Charlotte, and related faults), subduction of oceanic crust and block rotation in the west (Alaska-Aleutian megathrust), continental accretion and shortening in the north (Eastern Chugach-St. Elias region), and strike-slip and transpressional faulting well within the continent (Denali and other interior Alaska faults). These faults gave rise to the largest earthquakes in North America in the last hundred years, including the 1964 magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska earthquake and the 2002 magnitude 7.9 Denali fault earthquake. From the middle of the twentieth century to the present, virtually the entire Pacific-North America plate boundary from the Queen Charlotte Islands of northern British Columbia to the western end of the Aleutian Islands, has ruptured in about a dozen large to great earthquakes. The relatively small areas, segments only a few hundred kilometers long, along this plate boundary that have not ruptured during this time are of great interest. Some may be candidates for future gap-filling events, or if they are not, the differing character of these zones may hold clues to the fundamental nature of earthquake generation.

  6. A correction for recruitment bias in norms derived from meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, J Michael; Cottle, Cindy C

    2011-12-01

    Normative comparisons are an integral component of neuropsychological test interpretation and provide the basis for an inference of abnormal function and impairment. In order to remedy a deficit of normative standards for a large number of neuropsychology tests, Mitrushina, Boone, Razani, and D'Elia (2005) used the meta-analysis of studies that incorporated normal volunteers to create a type of normative standard for many tests in neuropsychology that were not adequately normed in the past. The present study examined this method by contrasting meta-analysis norms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981) with its published quota norms. The study examined 12 experimental studies of the WAIS-R that included normal, control volunteers (N = 2,147). These were combined by meta-analysis, and the summary scores were compared. The meta-analysis revealed a significant sampling bias with studies recruiting more White and higher educated respondents than indicated by the U.S. Census. This bias was successfully corrected using Monte Carlo simulation and adjustments for quota sampling. The corrections could be applied to all meta-analysis norms currently in use and bring them in line with the U.S. Census demographics.

  7. Extent of endocrine disruption in fish of western and Alaskan National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 2009, 998 fish were collected from 43 water bodies across 11 western Alaskan national parks and analyzed for reproductive abnormalities. Exposure to estrogenic substances such as pesticides can induce abnormalities like intersex. Results suggest there is a greater propensity for male intersex fish collected from parks located in the Rocky Mountains, and specifically in Rocky Mountain NP. Individual male intersex fish were also identified at Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and WrangellSt. Elias NPs. The preliminary finding of female intersex was determined to be a false positive. The overall goal of this project was to assess the general health of fish from eleven western national parks to infer whether health impacts may be linked to contaminant health thresholds for animal andor human health. This was accomplished by evaluating the presence of intersex fish with eggs developing in male gonads or sperm developing in female gonads using histology. In addition, endocrine disrupting compounds and other contaminants were quantified in select specimens. General histologic appearance of the gonadal tissue and spleen were observed to assess health.

  8. An 18 million year record of vegetation and climate change in northwestern Canada and Alaska: Tectonic and global climatic correlates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.M.; Ager, T.A.; Adam, D.P.; Leopold, E.B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jette, H.; Schweger, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    We reconstruct long-term vegetation/paleoclimatic trends, spanning the last 18 million years, in Alaska. Yukon and far western Northwest Territories. Twenty-one average percentage spectra for pollen and spores are assembled from eight surface/subsurface sections. The sections are dated independently or by correlation. Pollen and spore ratios indicate the direction of change in vegetation and climatic parameters growing season temperature (T(est)), tree canopy density (C(est)) and paludification at study sites (P(est)). A global warm peak ca. 15 Ma is shown by the abundance of thermophilous taxa, including Fagus and Quercus. A temperature decline immediately following 15 Ma parallels climatic reconstructions based on marine oxygen isotopes. Subsequent declines correlate to the Messinian event and the onset of late Pliocene Pleistocene glaciation. After 7 Ma herbs and shrubs become more important elements of the palynological assemblages, suggesting a more continental, colder/drier climate. However, a late Pliocene warm interval is evident. Vegetation/climatic changes during the early to late Miocene show synchrony with, and are most economically attributable to, global events. After 7 Ma, vegetation/climate change is attributed primarily to latest Miocene-to-Pleistocene uplift of the Alaska Range and St. Elias Mrs. The continuing influence of global climatic patterns is shown in the late Pliocene warm interval, despite uplift to the south. The opening of the Bering Strait ca. 3 Ma may have moderated the climate in the study area.

  9. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  10. The Clinical Relevance of Antifibrillarin (anti-U3-RNP) Autoantibodies in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tall, F; Dechomet, M; Riviere, S; Cottin, V; Ballot, E; Tiev, K P; Montin, R; Morin, C; Chantran, Y; Grange, C; Jullien, D; Ninet, J; Chretien, P; Cabane, J; Fabien, N; Johanet, C

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease associated with several antinuclear autoantibodies useful to diagnosis and prognosis. The aim of the present multicentric study was to determine the clinical relevance of antifibrillarin autoantibodies (AFA) in patients with SSc. The clinical features of 37 patients with SSc positive for AFA (AFA+) and 139 SSc patients without AFA (AFA-) were collected retrospectively from medical records to enable a comparison between AFA- and AFA+ patients. Antifibrillarin autoantibodies were screened by an indirect immunofluorescence technique using HEp2 cells and identified by an in-house Western blot technique and/or an EliA test. Comparing AFA+ and AFA- patients, AFA+ patients were significantly younger at disease onset (36.9 versus 42.9; P = 0.02), more frequently male (P = 0.02) and of Afro-Caribbean descent (65% versus 7.7%; P < 0.001). At diagnosis, the Rodnan skin score evaluating the cutaneous manifestations was higher (13.3 versus 8.7; P = 0.01) and myositis was also more common in the AFA+ group (31.4% versus 12.2%; P < 0.01). Patients with AFA+ were not associated with diffuse cutaneous SSc or with lung involvement and no difference in survival was observed. Antifibrillarin autoantibodies are associated with patients of Afro-Caribbean origin and can identify patients with SSc who are younger at disease onset and display a higher prevalence of myositis.

  11. The contributions of Carl Ludwig to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1999-03-01

    The basic instruments for measuring functional cardiovascular parameters and the most important discoveries made by Carl Ludwig and his disciples in cardiovascular physiology are described and put into perspective in regard to the further development of his methods and ideas. The most important apparatus was the kymograph, which, for the first time, made recording and documenting of functional parameters possible. This instrument was also used for the functional evaluation of the isolated perfused frog heart that was developed by Elias Cyon in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. In the isolated frog heart, important phenomena were discovered such as the staircase ('Treppe'), the absolute refractory period and the all-or-none law of the heart. The isolated dog heart was used to determine the origin of the first heart sound, which was characterized as a muscle tone. To measure regional blood flow and eventually cardiac output, a flowmeter ('Stromuhr') was designed. Precise measurements of cardiac output became possible only when Adolf Fick had developed his principle, which served as the basis for the modern indicator methods. Cyon and Ludwig also discoverd the depressor nerve, which constitutes the basis of the baroreceptor reflex. Finally, the precise localization of the vasomotor centre in the ventrolateral medulla was achieved in Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute. This was confirmed more than 100 years later with modern neuroanatomical methods making use of retrograde axonal transport. Thus, Ludwig and his scholars made major substantial contributions to cardiovascular knowledge that can be considered to constitute the basis of modern cardiology.

  12. The modern atmospheric background dust load: Recognition in Central Asian snowpack, and compositional constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.; Pertsiger, F.; Zavjalova, L.

    1997-01-01

    Dusts in strata of snowpack in the Alai-Pamir range, Kirghizstan, Central Asia, have chemical compositions that are in the same restricted range as those of the dusts found in snowpacks at three other locations: central south Greenland, the St. Elias range (Alaska), and coastal Antarctica, where special-type local dust sources certainly cannot dominate. This similarity at the four widely separated sites appears to indicate that there is a modern atmospheric background dust that is the same on a regional, hemispheric, or global scale. The common compositional range is that of average crustal rock, or of moderately ferromagnesian volcanic rock. It is not that of carbonate, nor highly siliciceous rocks. Previously, the existence of an atmospheric background dust has been postulated only on the basis of its particle size distribution, and only from observations in polar regions. The present study partially determines the chemical composition of the background dust, and confirms its existence in snowpack at four localities worldwide, including the center of the earth's largest continent where dusts of local source have considerable influence. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Fatty aldehyde and fatty alcohol metabolism: review and importance for epidermal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, William B

    2014-03-01

    Normal fatty aldehyde and alcohol metabolism is essential for epidermal differentiation and function. Long-chain aldehydes are produced by catabolism of several lipids including fatty alcohols, sphingolipids, ether glycerolipids, isoprenoid alcohols and certain aliphatic lipids that undergo α- or ω-oxidation. The fatty aldehyde generated by these pathways is chiefly metabolized to fatty acid by fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH, alternately known as ALDH3A2), which also functions to oxidize fatty alcohols as a component of the fatty alcohol:NAD oxidoreductase (FAO) enzyme complex. Genetic deficiency of FALDH/FAO in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols and related lipids (ether glycerolipids, wax esters) in cultured keratinocytes. These biochemical changes are associated with abnormalities in formation of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum and impaired delivery of their precursor membranes to the stratum corneum (SC). The defective extracellular SC membranes are responsible for a leaky epidermal water barrier and ichthyosis. Although lamellar bodies appear to be the pathogenic target for abnormal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism in SLS, the precise biochemical mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Nevertheless, studies in SLS highlight the critical importance of FALDH and normal fatty aldehyde/alcohol metabolism for epidermal function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  14. The Physical Parameters of Red Supergiants: When Massive Stars Are as Cool as They Get

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Levesque, Emily; Olsen, Knut; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges

    2005-08-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are an important but poorly characterized stage in the evolution of massive stars. In the past, evolutionary models did not reproduce the ``observed" location of RSGs in the H-R diagram. However, our recent study using the new MARCS atmospheric models to fit spectrophotometry of Galactic RSGs has now led to good agreement between theory and observations (Levesque et al. 2005). With time generously granted by the TAC last year, we attempted to extend this study to the lower metallicity RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds, where the distribution of spectral types is quite different than that of the Milky Way (Elias et al. 1985; Massey & Olsen 2003). Unfortunately, our run was haunted by a ``grating ghost", rendering the observations in the near-UV and blue useless for our purposes, although good data were obtained in the red. We are now requesting time to complete these observations, using the last semester for which the RC Spectrograph is likely to be available. (The observations cannot be done with SOAR since the Goodman HTS lacks both a suitable grating and a blue-sensitive chip.) Reliable spectrophotometry in the blue is critical for deriving the effective temperatures, comparing the atomic lines Ca I(lambda) 4226 and Ca II H and K to the models, and in investigating the presence of peculiar reddening around these stars, presumably due to circumstellar dust.

  15. Synthesis of CO and CO2 Molecules by UV Irradiation of Water Ice-covered Hydrogenated Carbon Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, V.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.; Bergin, E. A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the results of UV irradiation with Lyα photons of carbon grains with a water ice cap at 11 K. Formation of CO and CO2 molecules takes place during irradiation. An estimation of the formation cross section of these molecules by Lyα photons has been obtained from the intensity increase of their infrared stretching bands as a function of the photon fluence. The fraction of carbon in the grains converted to CO and CO2 by UV photons is 0.06 and 0.05, respectively. The spectral profile of the CO stretching feature and that of the CO2 bending mode indicate a polar environment for these molecules. On the basis of the present laboratory results and those obtained in previous work on ion irradiation of similar samples, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of polar CO and CO2 produced on carbon grains by energetic processing to the observed column densities of these molecules for dense clouds whose visual extinction is known. A significant amount of polar CO and CO2 is produced through the mechanism we have studied. Furthermore, we have found that the laboratory profile of the bending band of CO2 produced on carbon grains is compatible with that observed toward the field star Elias 16.

  16. Improved False Discovery Rate Estimation Procedure for Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the potentially vast number of hypotheses generated by a shotgun proteomics experiment requires a valid and accurate procedure for assigning statistical confidence estimates to identified tandem mass spectra. Despite the crucial role such procedures play in most high-throughput proteomics experiments, the scientific literature has not reached a consensus about the best confidence estimation methodology. In this work, we evaluate, using theoretical and empirical analysis, four previously proposed protocols for estimating the false discovery rate (FDR) associated with a set of identified tandem mass spectra: two variants of the target-decoy competition protocol (TDC) of Elias and Gygi and two variants of the separate target-decoy search protocol of Käll et al. Our analysis reveals significant biases in the two separate target-decoy search protocols. Moreover, the one TDC protocol that provides an unbiased FDR estimate among the target PSMs does so at the cost of forfeiting a random subset of high-scoring spectrum identifications. We therefore propose the mix-max procedure to provide unbiased, accurate FDR estimates in the presence of well-calibrated scores. The method avoids biases associated with the two separate target-decoy search protocols and also avoids the propensity for target-decoy competition to discard a random subset of high-scoring target identifications. PMID:26152888

  17. Exhumation along the Fairweather fault, southeastern Alaska, based on low-temperature thermochronometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAleer, R.J.; Spotila, J.A.; Enkelmann, E.; Berger, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The southern Alaskan syntaxis marks the spectacular junction between the >1000-km-long Pacific-North America transform margin and the Chugach-St. Elias belt, where subduction and terrane accretion drive rapid convergent deformation and rock uplift. New low-temperature thermochronometry reveals that intense orogenic deformation is not restricted to one side of the syntaxis but extends nearly 300 km south along the dextral Fairweather fault. Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages as young as 0.9 and 2.0 Ma suggest maximum exhumation rates of nearly 2 mm/a in close proximity (0.5 mm/a along the entire plate margin. We estimate that long-term rock uplift accommodates ???3 mm/a of fault-normal convergence in this area. This suggests that the Fairweather fault is slightly transpressive and highly partitioned, analogous to the central San Andreas fault. This convergence only accounts for ???1/5 of the obliquity between Pacific plate motion and the continental margin, however, implying the deficit is taken up by 1-2 cm/a thrust-sinistral motion along the offshore Transition fault. Additionally, thermochronometry shows a marked increase in bedrock cooling coincident with onset of heavy glaciation, similar to what has been observed in other parts of the Pacific Northwest. The tectonically active Fairweather corridor is distinguished, however, by the magnitude of the acceleration and the depth of exhumation since Pliocene climate change. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Globalization of P4 medicine: predictive, personalized, preemptive, and participatory--summary of the proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology, August 27-29, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William G; Golding, Stephen G; Herold, Christian J; Hricak, Hedvig; Krestin, Gabriel P; Lewin, Jonathan S; Miller, Janet C; Ringertz, Hans G; Thrall, James H

    2011-02-01

    In August 2009, the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its eighth biennial meeting. The program focused on the globalization of predictive medicine--or P4 medicine--as it relates to the practice of radiology and radiology research. P4 medicine refers to predictive, personalized, preemptive, and participatory medicine and was the inspiration of Elias Zerhouni, MD, former director of the National Institutes of Health. This article is a summary of some of the key concepts presented at the meeting by an international group of radiologists, imaging scientists, and leaders of industry. In predictive medicine, imaging and imaging-related technologies will likely play an increasing role in the early detection of disease and, thus, the preemption of the development of advanced, hard-to-treat disease. Research into systems biology and molecular imaging promises to personalize medicine, facilitating the provision of the right care to the right patient at the right time. In participatory medicine, increasing interactions with referring physicians and patients will be helpful in raising awareness and recognition of the role of radiologists and will have a positive effect on professionalism. There is also a need to increase awareness of the vital role of radiologists as imaging and radiation safety experts who evaluate the necessity and appropriateness of examinations, monitor performance quality, and are available for postexamination consultations.

  19. Summary of a systematic review on oral nutritional supplement use in the community.

    PubMed

    Stratton, R J

    2000-08-01

    Despite a marked increase in the prescription of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in the community (Department of Health, 1991-7), there is still uncertainty about the value of their use in patients with different diseases. To answer questions about the effects on ONS on body weight and structure, spontaneous food intake and body function, a critical systematic review was undertaken (Stratton & Elia, 1999a). Eighty-four trials were reviewed (forty-five randomized, thirty-nine non-randomized: 2,570 patients; diagnoses including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome and cancer). Most studies (83 %) were conducted in patients living at home. The supplements were typically mixed macronutrients in liquid form, providing < 0.42-10.5 MJ/d for 1 week-2 years. The studies reviewed in patients with predominantly chronic conditions living in the community suggested that: (1) ONS produce demonstrable clinical (including functional) benefits, but the nature and extent of these benefits varies with the underlying chronic condition; (2) ONS increase total energy intake with > 50 % of the energy from ONS typically additional to that from habitual food intake; (3) improvements in body weight, total energy intake and body function following ONS appear to occur more frequently in individuals with a BMI < 20 kg/m2 than in those with a BMI > 20 kg/m2.

  20. Public-private partnerships in translational medicine: concepts and practical examples.

    PubMed

    Luijten, Peter R; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Moonen, Chrit T; Storm, Gert; Crommelin, Daan J A

    2012-07-20

    The way forward in multidisciplinary research according to former NIH's director Elias Zerhouni is to engage in predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory medicine. For the creation of the optimal innovation climate that would allow for such a strategy, public-private partnerships have been widely proposed as an important instrument. Public-private partnerships have become an important instrument to expedite translational research in medicine. The Netherlands have initiated three large public-private partnerships in the life sciences and health area to facilitate the translation of valuable basic scientific concepts to new products and services in medicine. The focus of these partnerships has been on drug development, improved diagnosis and regenerative medicine. The Dutch model of public-private partnership forms the blueprint of a much larger European initiative called EATRIS. This paper will provide practical examples of public-private partnerships initiated to expedite the translation of new technology for drug development towards the clinic. Three specific technologies are in focus: companion diagnostics using nuclear medicine, the use of ultra high field MRI to generate sensitive surrogate endpoints based on endogenous contrast, and MRI guidance for High Intensity Focused Ultrasound mediated drug delivery.

  1. Contributions of Contingencies in Modern Societies to “Privacy” in the Behavioral Relations of Cognition and Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury; Borba, Aécio; Vichi, Christian; Leite, Felipe Lustosa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine specific features of modern individualistic societies that contribute to “emotions” and “cognitions” becoming a matter of privacy. Although some behavior analysts identify emotions and cognitions as “private events,” we argue with Skinner (1945) that cognitions and emotions are relations among events and that their origin is in public events in the contingencies of reinforcement maintained by other people. Guided by Elias (1939/1996), we suggest that the shift from feudal economies to market economies involved the increasing individualization of society's members. This individualizing process includes the socially maintained contingencies that bring some verbal responses under control of private stimulation and reduce the magnitude of some verbal responses to a covert level. Behavioral relations in which either stimuli or responses (or both) cannot be observed by others set the stage for a concept of “privacy.” Changes in societal contingencies that gave rise to individualization and the attribution of privacy to cognitions and emotions are suggested to include the following: (a) increasing frequency of individual consequences that have no apparent or direct relevance to the group; (b) increasing numbers of concurrent contingencies and choice requirements; (c) conflicts between immediate and delayed consequences for the individual; and (d) conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group. PMID:22532738

  2. The new science and the public sphere in the premodern era.

    PubMed

    Rupp, J C

    1995-01-01

    This paper argues that the New Science, which was seen as essentially a public enterprise, was moreover a major constituent of the public sphere in early modern era. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Western Europe the sphere of public experimentation, testing, and discussion related to the new science, manifested itself as a highly diversified, contested, and complex social field. Two general problems arose in constructing this cultural public sphere: the selection of participants in the debate and the inclusion of a heterogenous public in the experimental scene. National authorities employed diverse policies but none denied the necessity of public debate for testing the validity of experimentations. The public sphere had to create its own conditions of existence by imposing manifold regulations in order to make these public meetings possible and enjoyable. The regulations emphasized common interest and the moral code as the most basic condition for the sustenance of the public sphere, thus enhancing self-restraint, tolerance, and politeness on the part of both discussants and participants. The more inclusive and heterogenous the public sphere, the more these norms were required. Thus the sphere of public debate constituted by early modern science implied a civilizing process, quite different from and more encompassing than the one analyzed by Norbert Elias.

  3. The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'.

    PubMed

    van Krieken, R

    1999-06-01

    Norbert Elias suggested that 'civilization' involves the transformation of human habitus so that violence of all sorts is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control, whereas 'decivilization' encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of on-going social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which 'civilizing offensives', the self-conscious attempts to bring about 'civilization', have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices. This paper examines the systematic removal of indigenous Australian children from their families, largely for the social engineering purpose of the gradual and systematic annihilation of Aboriginal cultural identity. At the time, these policies and practices were constructed by most observers as contributing to the 'welfare' of Australian Aborigines, and this intersection of welfare and violence raises the possibility that civilization and decivilization, rather than being different processes which may or may not run alongside each other, interpenetrate each other so that, under certain circumstances, societies are 'barbaric' precisely in their movement towards increasing civilization. It may also be possible to describe the move away from the systematic removal of Aboriginal children since the 1970s as itself part of a civilizing process, an increasing recognition of the human rights of Australian Aborigines and of the inhumanity of those policies and practices. The paper concludes by addressing the implications for theories of civilization and decivilization, as well as more generally for our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a 'civilized' modern citizen.

  4. Influence of Subducting Plate Geometry on Upper Plate Deformation at Orogen Syntaxes: A Thermomechanical Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    Syntaxes are short, convex bends in the otherwise slightly concave plate boundaries of subduction zones. These regions are of scientific interest because some syntaxes (e.g., the Himalaya or St. Elias region in Alaska) exhibit exceptionally rapid, focused rock uplift. These areas have led to a hypothesized connection between erosional and tectonic processes (top-down control), but have so far neglected the unique 3D geometry of the subducting plates at these locations. In this study, we contribute to this discussion by exploring the idea that subduction geometry may be sufficient to trigger focused tectonic uplift in the overriding plate (a bottom-up control). For this, we use a fully coupled 3D thermomechanical model that includes thermochronometric age prediction. The downgoing plate is approximated as spherical indenter of high rigidity, whereas both viscous and visco-plastic material properties are used to model deformation in the overriding plate. We also consider the influence of the curvature of the subduction zone and the ratio of subduction velocity to subduction zone advance. We evaluate these models with respect to their effect on the upper plate exhumation rates and localization. Results indicate that increasing curvature of the indenter and a stronger upper crust lead to more focused tectonic uplift, whereas slab advance causes the uplift focus to migrate and thus may hinder the emergence of a positive feedback.

  5. The role of abnormalities in the distal pathway of cholesterol synthesis in the Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Paller, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant ichthyotic disorder. CHILD syndrome results from loss of function mutations in the NSDHL gene, which leads to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates in affected tissues. The CHILD syndrome skin is characterized by plaques topped by waxy scales and a variety of developmental defects in extracutaneous tissues, particularly limb hypoplasia or aplasia. Strikingly, these alterations are commonly segregated to either the right or left side of the body midline with little to no manifestations on the ipsilateral side. By understanding the underlying disease mechanism of CHILD syndrome, a pathogenesis-based therapy has been developed that successfully reverses the CHILD syndrome skin phenotype and has potential applications to the treatment of other ichthyoses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  6. Examination of vigilance and disengagement of threat in social anxiety with a probe detection task.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Heide; Amir, Nader

    2009-05-01

    Selective attention for threat faces in social anxiety is commonly measured with a probe detection task. Various studies that have used this task show socially anxious individuals exhibit selective attention for threat faces (Mogg & Bradley, 2002; Mogg, Philippot, & Bradley, 2004b; Pishyar, Harris, & Menzies, 2004). Selective attention for threat when measured with a probe detection task is interpreted as an attentional shift toward threat ("vigilance"). Yet, there is data that show socially anxious individuals may have difficulty in shifting their attention away from threat ("disengagement"; Amir, Elias, Klumpp, & Przeworski, 2003). A step toward clarifying the extent to which selective attention for threat comprises vigilance or disengagement effects is described by Koster, Crombez, Verschuere, and de Houwer (2004). We adapted their modified probe detection task to examine vigilance and disengagement effects for threat and happy faces in individuals with and without social anxiety. The results indicate that socially anxious individuals exhibit vigilance for threat faces, but not for happy faces, compared to individuals without social anxiety. Our study is consistent with cognitive theories of anxiety that propose vigilance for threat may contribute to the maintenance of anxiety disorders.

  7. Ceramide signaling in mammalian epidermis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    Ceramide, the backbone structure of all sphingolipids, as well as a minor component of cellular membranes, has a unique role in the skin, by forming the epidermal permeability barrier at the extracellular domains of the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, which is required for terrestrial mammalian survival. In contrast to the role of ceramide in forming the permeability barrier, the signaling roles of ceramide and its metabolites have not yet been recognized. Ceramide and/or its metabolites regulate proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes. Recent studies have further demonstrated that a ceramide metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate, modulates innate immune function. Ceramide has already been applied to therapeutic approaches for treatment of eczema associated with attenuated epidermal permeability barrier function. Pharmacological modulation of ceramide and its metabolites' signaling can also be applied to cutaneous disease prevention and therapy. The author here describes the signaling roles of ceramide and its metabolites in mammalian cells and tissues, including the epidermis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias.

  8. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on geologic investigations in Alaska. Contributions include 14 Articles and 5 shorter Geologic Notes that report results from all corners of the State.USGS activities in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of earth science topics, including the environment, hazards, resources, and geologic framework studies. Three articles focus on the environmental geochemistry of parts of south-central, west-central, and southwestern Alaska. An article on methane released from permafrost near Fairbanks and a note on paleowind direction indicators on the Arctic coastal plain contribute to ongoing climate and paleoclimate investigations. Landslide hazards in the Talkeetna Mountains and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park are discussed in two notes. Possible active fault traces near Alaska's main population center are described in an article on the Castle Mountain fault. An article on Aniakchak volcano presents evidence for a previously unrecognized catastrophic flooding event. Resources and resource assessment on gold, base metals, and coal are discussed in several articles and a note. Geologic framework studies cover tectonics, paleontology, stratigraphy, and metamorphic petrology. One contribution involves field methods; it evaluates the relative accuracy of global positioning systems and topographic map-based methods for deriving location data for field stations.Two bibliographies at the end of the volume list reports about Alaska in USGS publications released in 1993 and reports about Alaska by USGS authors in non-USGS publications in 1993.

  9. Mapping and modelling of polythermal glacier structure in a meltwater-dominated thermal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, N.; Flowers, G. E.; Mingo, L.

    2012-12-01

    We have mapped zones of cold and temperate ice within two small polythermal glaciers in the Saint Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada using ice-penetrating radar at multiple frequencies. Temperature measurements from instrumented boreholes provide validation of the radar data interpretation. Both glaciers exhibit temperate accumulation zones and cold termini indicating that accumulation zone entrapment and refreezing of meltwater constitute a primary heat source. When forced with a modern climate, a two-dimensional thermomechanically-coupled model based on a first-order momentum balance and an enthalpy method reproduces major features of the observations along the central flowband, such as the arrangement of and the approximate transition between cold and temperate ice. Concentrated rates of strain heating resulting from basal sliding provide a sufficient mechanism for explaining observed lateral heterogeneity in thermal structure. Meltwater entrapment serves as a direct connection between climate and thermal structure. Numerical experiments performed on a synthetic glacier geometry with a range of climatic conditions comparable to the study site reveal that similar glaciers in which meltwater entrapment is the dominant heat source are likely to experience declining temperate ice fractions in a warming climate.

  10. Ideas for Use of an IPad in Introductory Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile devices such as an IPad, tablet computers and smartphones offer an opportunity to collect information to facilitate physics teaching and learning. The data collected with built-in sensors, such as a video camera, may be analyzed on the mobile device itself or on a desktop computer. In this work, first, the circular motion of a steel ball rolling in a cereal bowl was analyzed to show that it consisted of two simple harmonic motions, in perpendicular directions. Secondly, motion of two balls-one dropped vertically down, and the other one launched as a projectile - was analyzed. Data was analyzed with Logger Pro software, and value of g was determined graphically. Details of the work, its limitations and additional examples will be described. The material so obtained may be used as a demonstration, in a classroom, to clarify physics concepts. In a school, where students are required to have such portable devices, one may assign such activities as homework, to enhance student engagement in learning physics. The author is thankful to USciences for the IPad; and Rich Cosgriff, Phyllis Blumberg and Elia Eschenazi for useful discussions.

  11. Analysis and measurement of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of white and brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Ehlen, J Christopher; Bartness, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of how to denervate white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT) and how to measure sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to these and other tissues neurochemically. The brain controls many of the functions of WAT and BAT via the SNS innervation of the tissues, especially lipolysis and thermogenesis, respectively. There is no clearly demonstrated parasympathetic innervation of WAT or the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. WAT and BAT communicate with the brain neurally via sensory nerves. We detail the surgical denervation (eliminating both innervations) of several WAT pads and IBAT. We also detail more selective chemical denervation of the SNS innervation via intra-WAT/IBAT 6-hydroxy-dopamine (a catecholaminergic neurotoxin) injections and selective chemical sensory denervation via intra-WAT/IBAT capsaicin (a sensory nerve neurotoxin) injections. Verifications of the denervations are provided (HPLC-EC detection for SNS, ELIA for calcitonin gene-related peptide (proven sensory nerve marker)). Finally, assessment of the SNS drive to WAT/BAT or other tissues is described using the alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine method combined with HPLC-EC, a direct neurochemical measure of SNS activity. These methods have proven useful for us and for other investigators interested in innervation of adipose tissues. The chemical denervation approach has been extended to nonadipose tissues as well.

  12. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C. Wisconsin Univ., Madison Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-11-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs.

  13. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time. PMID:26487146

  14. The Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and accretion of the Yakutat microplate, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Gulick, Sean P.

    2011-12-01

    The Suckling Hills and Kayak Island are isolated mountain blocks located along strike from each other within the foreland of the St. Elias orogen in southern Alaska. These blocks preserve an erosional surface that was deformed by slip on northwest-dipping reverse faults in the Pleistocene. We suggest that the Suckling Hills Fault and Kayak Island Zone form a segmented fault network that links with the Bering Glacier structure to the north. This fault network separates the central Yakataga fold and thrust belt from complex, multiply deformed structures in the western syntaxis. Ongoing accretion of the Yakutat microplate to North America results in translation of structures of the fold and thrust belt into the western syntaxis. The composite Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and Bering Glacier structure may have formed because the older structures of the fold and thrust belt were unfavorably oriented within the western syntaxis region. This pattern of deformation provides a template for understanding the complex deformation within the core of the western syntaxis and predicts refolding and straightening of the western syntaxis margin with continued accretion. This study provides an analog for structural overprinting and changing deformation patterns through time in orogenic corners.

  15. Analysis of Ori-S sequence of HSV-1: identification of one functional DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Deb, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using gel retardation assays, we have detected an Ori-S binding activity in the nuclear extract of HSV-1 infected Vero cells. The sequence-specific DNA binding activity seems to be identical to that described by Elias et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6322-6326, 1986). This activity fails to retard a mutant origin DNA that has a 5 bp deletion in the reported protein binding site along with an A to T substitution at a position 16 base-pairs away from the site. This mutant also failed to replicate in a transient replication assay, thus correlating binding of the factor on the origin to replication efficiency. Using crude nuclear extracts as the source of the factor and with the help of footprint and gel retardation analyses, we confirmed that protection is only observed on the preferred site of binding on and near the left arm of the Ori-S palindrome. In order to analyze the sequence specificity of the binding we have generated a set of binding site mutants. Competition experiments with these mutant origins indicate that the sequence 5'-TTCGCACTT-3' is crucial for binding. Images PMID:2541411

  16. Field-Based and Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging for Applied Research in the State of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Buchhorn, M.; Cristobal, J.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, P. R.; Waigl, C. F.; Hampton, D. L.; Werdon, M.; Guldager, N.; Bertram, M.; Stuefer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imagery acquired using Hyspex VNIR-1800 and SWIR-384 camera systems have provided unique information on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical parameters, and diagnostic mineral properties in exposed outcrops in selected sites in the state of Alaska. The Hyspex system was configured for in-situ and field scanning by attaching it to a gimbal-mounted rotational stage on a robust tripod. Scans of vertical faces of vegetation and rock outcrops were made close to the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in an abandoned mine near Fairbanks, and on exposures of Orange Hill in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park. Atmospherically corrected integrated VNIR_SWIR spectra were extracted which helped to study varying nitrogen content in the vegetation, and helped to distinguish the various micas. Processed imagery helped to pull out carbonates, clays, sulfates, and alteration-related minerals. The same instrument was also mounted in airborne configuration on two different aircrafts, a DeHavilland Beaver and a Found Bush Hawk. Test flights were flown over urban and wilderness areas that presented a variety of landcover types. Processed imagery shows promise in mapping man-made surfaces, phytoplankton, and dissolved materials in inland water bodies. Sample data and products are available on the University of Alaska Fairbanks Hyperspectral Imaging Laboratory (HyLab) website at http://hyperspectral.alaska.edu.

  17. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. High-spectral resolution observations of the 3.29 micron emission feature: Comparison to QCC and PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Sellgren, Kris; Sakata, Akira; Wada, S.; Onaka, Takashi; Nakada, Y.; Nagata, T.

    1989-01-01

    Two of the most promising explanations for the origin of the interstellar emission features observed at 3.29, 3.4, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns are: quenched carbonaceous composite (QCC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). High resolution spectra are given of the 3.29 micron emission feature which were taken with the Cooled Grating Array Spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and previously published. These spectra show that the peak wavelength of the 3.29 micron feature is located at 3.295 + or - 0.005 micron and that it is coincident with the peak absorbance of QCC. The peak wavelength of the 3.29 micron feature appears to be the same in all of the sources observed thus far. However, the width of the feature in HD 44179 and Elias 1 is only 0.023 micron, which is smaller than the 0.043 micron width in NGC 7027, IRAS 21282+5050, the Orion nebula, and BD+30 deg 3639. Spectra of NGC 7027, QCC, and PAHs is shown. QCC matches the 3.29 micron interstellar emission feature very closely in the wavelength of the peak, and it produces a single feature. On the other hand, PAHs rarely match the peak of the interstellar emission feature, and characteristically produce multiple features.

  19. Collared Pikas as a Model Species for Studying the Biological Impacts of Climate Change in Alpine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, K. S.; Hik, D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models suggest that global temperatures could rise between 1.4° C and 5.8° C over the next 100 years, and that these effects will be most extreme in northern mountain regions. Pikas (Ochotona, Lagomorpha) are widespread small mammals in the alpine environments of Asia and North America. They are cold adapted and consequently sensitive to warming global temperatures. Considerable research has shown a poleward migration of many species as a result of rising temperatures, but high alpine dwelling species, like the pika, may already be trapped at the top of mountains. Little is known about the threshold values of environmental conditions under which pikas either persist or disappear. Collared pikas (Ochotona collaris) inhabit alpine meadows in the Kluane region of the southwest Yukon. Sites located along an environmental gradient from nunataks in the St Elias Icefields to the Ruby Range Mountains have experienced different climatic and glacial histories. Using baseline data from the long-term study in the Ruby Ranges, we report on differences in the ecological and climatic conditions of sites along this gradient and how this translates into differences in the behavioural and population ecology of the pikas living there. By looking at these differences we can infer the potential impacts of a warming climate, and the subsequent ecological changes on collared pika populations in order to clarify the causes of local extinction and allow us to develop models for predicting ecological responses as conditions change under future climate regimes.

  20. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  1. Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.

    2010-12-01

    wind tunnel investigations and the outcomes from test flights planned for September 2010 at a marine location are discussed. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the significant contributions to this system made by the late Katrin Lehmann whose life was tragically cut short by a hiking accident. Katrin was responsible for the initial design, construction and programming of the UAS elements, and in doing so laid solid foundations for the system. We are indebted to NOAA, for funding this project through the research grant NOAA NA17RJ1231. Thank you also to Mike Marston of NASA, the BAE systems crew Phillip Corcoran and Rafael Gaytan, and Mike Rizen of UCSD Physics workshop for their mission roles. We would also like to thank NSF for long term support of the C4 UAS Program.

  2. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    Project Manager Henrik Dalgaard for his excellent editorial services and to stud.mag. Nanna Katrine Lüders Kaalund for her practical assistance with the proceedings. The European Commission under the Regional Development Fund has funded the conference and the publication of the proceedings.

  3. The effect of broadleaf woodland on aluminium speciation in stream water in an acid-sensitive area in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jennifer L; Lynam, Philippa; Heal, Kate V; Palmer, Sheila M

    2012-11-15

    Acidification can result in the mobilisation and release of toxic inorganic monomeric aluminium (Al) species from soils into aquatic ecosystems. Although it is well-established that conifer trees enhance acidic atmospheric deposition and exacerbate soil and water acidification, the effect of broad-leaved woodland on soil and water acidification is less clear. This study investigated the effect of broadleaf woodland cover on the acid-base chemistry and Al species present in stream water, and processes controlling these in the acid-sensitive area around Loch Katrine, in the central Highlands, Scotland, UK, where broadleaf woodland expansion is occurring. A nested sampling approach was used to identify 22 stream sampling locations, in sub-catchments of 3.2-61 ha area and 0-45% broadleaf woodland cover. In addition, soils sampled from 68 locations were analysed to assess the influence of: (i) broadleaf woodland cover on soil characteristics and (ii) soil characteristics on stream water chemistry. Stream water pH was negatively correlated with sub-catchment % woodland cover, indicating that woodland cover is enhancing stream water acidification. Concentrations of all stream water Al species (monomeric total, organic and inorganic) were positively correlated with % woodland cover, although not significantly, but were below levels that are toxic to fish. Soil depth, O horizon depth and soil chemistry, particularly of the A horizon, appeared to be the dominant controls on stream water chemistry rather than woodland cover. There were significant differences in soil acid-base chemistry, with significantly lower O horizon pH and A horizon base saturation and higher A horizon exchangeable Al in the wooded catchments compared to the control. This is evidence that the mobile anion effect is already occurring in the study catchments and suggests that stream water acidification arising from broadleaf woodland expansion could occur, especially where tree density is high and acid

  4. Quantitative comparisons of numerical models of brittle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, S.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical modelling of brittle deformation in the uppermost crust can be challenging owing to the requirement of an accurate pressure calculation, the ability to achieve post-yield deformation and localisation, and the choice of rheology (plasticity law). One way to approach these issues is to conduct model comparisons that can evaluate the effects of different implementations of brittle behaviour in crustal deformation models. We present a comparison of three brittle shortening experiments for fourteen different numerical codes, which use finite element, finite difference, boundary element and distinct element techniques. Our aim is to constrain and quantify the variability among models in order to improve our understanding of causes leading to differences between model results. Our first experiment of translation of a stable sand-like wedge serves as a reference that allows for testing against analytical solutions (e.g., taper angle, root-mean-square velocity and gravitational rate of work). The next two experiments investigate an unstable wedge in a sandbox-like setup which deforms by inward translation of a mobile wall. All models accommodate shortening by in-sequence formation of forward shear zones. We analyse the location, dip angle and spacing of thrusts in detail as previous comparisons have shown that these can be highly variable in numerical and analogue models of crustal shortening and extension. We find that an accurate implementation of boundary friction is important for our models. Our results are encouraging in the overall agreement in their dynamic evolution, but show at the same time the effort that is needed to understand shear zone evolution. GeoMod2008 Team: Markus Albertz, Michele Cooke, Susan Ellis, Taras Gerya, Luke Hodkinson, Kristin Hughes, Katrin Huhn, Boris Kaus, Walter Landry, Bertrand Maillot, Christophe Pascal, Anton Popov, Guido Schreurs, Christopher Beaumont, Tony Crook, Mario Del Castello and Yves Leroy

  5. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuestling, Sascha; Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P.; Steidl, M.

    2010-12-01

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement (Δ E/ E=5×10 -5) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay ( Emax=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area (˜80 cm 2), a certain energy resolution (Δ E=600 eV @ 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution (˜3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm 2) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. [6], this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement [7]. The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3×10 -3 cps/cm 2 in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10 5 and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  6. Neutrino mass spectrum and future beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan, Y.; Peres, O. L. G.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2001-09-01

    We study the discovery potential of future beta decay experiments on searches for the neutrino mass in the sub-eV range, and, in particular, KATRIN experiment with sensitivity m>0.3 eV. Effects of neutrino mass and mixing on the beta decay spectrum in the neutrino schemes which explain the solar and atmospheric neutrino data are discussed. The schemes which lead to observable effects contain one or two sets of quasi-degenerate states. Future beta decay measurements will allow to check the three-neutrino scheme with mass degeneracy, moreover, the possibility appears to measure the CP-violating Majorana phase. Effects in the four-neutrino schemes which can also explain the LSND data are strongly restricted by the results of Bugey and CHOOZ oscillation experiments: apart from bending of the spectrum and the shift of the end point one expects appearance of small kink of (<2%) size or suppressed tail after bending of the spectrum with rate below 2% of the expected rate for zero neutrino mass. We consider possible implications of future beta decay experiments for the neutrino mass spectrum, the determination of the absolute scale of neutrino mass and for establishing the nature of neutrinos. We show that beta decay measurements in combination with data from the oscillation and double beta decay experiments will allow to establish the structure of the scheme (hierarchical or non-hierarchical), the type of the hierarchy or ordering of states (normal or inverted) and to measure the relative CP-violating phase in the solar pair of states.

  7. Towards untangling the changing tectonic and climatic influence on deposition on the Surveyor Fan, Gulf of Alaska: A single grain geochemical and geochronological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Barbara; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Drewer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The Surveyor Fan depositional system, Gulf of Alaska, serves as a recorder of onshore processes in the evolving St. Elias orogen, the highest coastal mountain range on earth. Here, the relative contribution of tectonics and climate to clast production and denudation are controversial and need to be determined in detail. Absence of major onshore sediment traps allows fast transport of orogenic sediment to the ocean, minimising modifications of the sediment during transport. Exhumation and climatically controlled variations in glacier type and extent influence denudation rates and the characteristics of the sediments. We apply diverse tools of single grain geochemical provenance analysis to Neogene sediments from IODP 341 expedition sites U1417 (distal Surveyor Fan), U1418 (proximal Surveyor Fan), U1419 (continental slope) and U1420 (continental shelf). This will allow for deriving information about the relative contributions of tectonics and climate on rates and locations of exhumation and denudation as well as their temporal and spatial interplay in the evolving St. Elias orogen. Target of the sampling were sands and silts, covering the Miocene to Pleistocene stratigraphy of the four sites. We apply microprobe analysis for main element geochemistry on different heavy minerals; cathodoluminescence imaging, U/Pb dating and REE and trace element measuring on zircons as well as 40Ar/39Ar dating of hornblende and mica. First analyses point towards dominant sediment sources in the area of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). U/Pb dating of zircons of samples in different stratigraphic positions from sites U1417 and U1418 shows peaks in age spectra between ca. 50 and 60 Ma, the youngest being 25.3 Ma ± 0.6 Ma, the oldest 1305.8 ± 38.1 Ma of age. Additional analyses of REE and trace elements from the same zircons imply granitoid sources, mainly granodiorites and tonalites, for most zircons measured. REE and trace element spectra of the 50 to 60 Ma zircons strongly

  8. Coulomb stress, surface displacement, and seismic rate changes associated with ice mass fluctuations on seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauber, J. M.; Ruppert, N. A.; Luthcke, S. B.; Williams, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Between Yakutat and Cordova in southern Alaska, large ice mass fluctuations occur in a region of upper crustal faulting and folding associated with collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane. Following the Little Ice Age, glacial retreat in this area commenced in the late 19th century and the last great earthquakes occurred in 1899. Annual ablation rates of meters/year have been estimated over the last several decades from aircraft and satellite lidar and radar measurements. For the Chugach-St. Elias region, GRACE 1 deg x 1 deg mascon estimates indicate a general trend of annual ice mass loss (2003-2010) with large, variable seasonal mass fluctuations. The station position of a continuous GPS site near Cape Yakataga (Alaska EarthScope PBO site, AB35, pbo.unavco.org) shows large seasonal excursions in the detrended vertical and horizontal components consistent with snow loading in the late fall and winter. Surface displacements of the solid Earth associated with these annual and seasonal ice and snow changes were calculated using a layered elastic half-space model. For instance, during a warm period in 2002-2006 the predicted elastic displacement rates of the solid Earth due to average annual ice changes were up to 20 mm/yr for the vertical and 3 mm/yr for the horizontal. To empirically evaluate the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared the seismic rate (M>1.8) from a reference background time period against other time periods with variable ice or tectonic change characteristics. After probable icequakes were removed from the AEIC catalog, the seismic rate change for the time periods of 1993-1996 and 1997-2001 relative to 1988-1992 was not statistically significant and the tectonic events did not show a strong seasonal dependence. However, we found that the frequency of small earthquakes increased significantly in the 2002-2006 time interval relative to the reference time period of 1988-1992 and there was a significant increase

  9. Crustal and upper mantle anisotropy associated with fossilized transpression along the Denali Fault, northern Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasendra, N.; Bonnin, M.; Marechal, A.; Tiberi, C.; Mazzotti, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Denali Fault is a major, ~1200 km-long, continental strike-slip fault that participates to the plate boundary system of western North America since the Early Cenozoic. In southwest Yukon, it accommodated ~400 km of dextral displacement in a late Cretaceous - Eocene transpression phase during which allochtonous terranes were accreted to the North America margin. Smaller strike-slip and thrust faults mark a 50 - 100 km wide tectonic corridor between the St. Elias Mountains and the central Yukon plateau, with the Denali Fault along its eastern edge. We examine the crustal and upper mantle structure in SW Yukon using a combination of receiver function (RF) and shear-wave splitting (SKS) analysis on a network of eleven seismic stations deployed in the Denali Fault region. To first order, crustal thickness (35 - 41 km) correlates well with the topography, indicating a ~5 km crustal root beneath the eastern side of the St. Elias Mountains. RFs display a strong P-to-S conversion within the crust, which systematically varies with back-azimuth. Stacking and inversion of RF according the two complementary back-azimuth ranges show a strong Vs anisotropy (> 10%) at mid-crustal depths (15 - 20 km) for a subset of stations within 5 - 25 km of the Denali Fault and inside its tectonic corridor. Other stations, further away or in a different geological setting, show a weaker (< 5%) anisotropy. This Vs anisotropy occurs in a low-velocity zone with the slow velocity axis perpendicular to the Denali Fault trend. Similarly, SKS splitting measurements indicate a strong Vs anisotropy in the upper mantle, with the fast direction parallel to the Denali Fault trend at all but one station within +/- 25 km from the fault. Present-day tectonics is well constrained by an array of campaign and permanent GPS stations in SE Alaska and SW Yukon. These data indicate that the Denali fault and its associated fault array currently accommodate less than 2 mm/yr of transpressional, dextral motion (< 5

  10. Surveying the Underwater Arcaheological Site of Cape Glaros at Pagasetikos Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, E.; Spondylis, E.; Vlachaki, F.; Kolyva, E.

    2017-02-01

    The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.)1 has been conducting an underwater archaeological research in the west coast of southern Pagasetikos Gulf, since 2000. Every year the underwater research focuses on specific archaeological targets that have been recovered during previous field campaigns. The current publication elaborates on the comprehensive documentation of the underwater archaeological site at Cape Glaros, during the 2015 field season, under the direction of the archaeologist Elias Spondylis. The 2015 research campaign was conducted within the framework of the ITACA- Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites European Project (FP7/2007-2013, GA No 606805), at two archaeological sites, namely the Cape Glaros and Metohi. It was among the most important challenges of the project to successfully produce the detailed and accurate 3D mapping of the Cape Glaros site that covers an extended area. Four large concentrations of pottery finds and numerous anchors of different typology have been recorded, that can be dated from the late Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. This challenge was tackled through the simultaneous implementation of three recording methods; photogrammetry, geodesy and conventional architectural mapping. The workflow of the documentation process, including data acquisition, processing and graphic visualization, along with the derived results are presented below. 1The Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A.) is a private, non-profit organization, founded in 1973, which undertakes maritime archaeological research under the supervision or in collaboration with the Greek Ministry of Culture. It has over 100 members, with diverse academic credentials, all of whom work, mainly, on a voluntary basis. 3D recording of underwater archaeological sites has been applied to numerous projects that have been carried out by the multidisciplinary team of H.I.M.A. in locations of utmost archaeological

  11. Demography and decline of the Mentasta Caribou Herd, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Barten, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated population trends in the Mentasta caribou (Rangifer tarandus (L., 1758)) herd in Wrangell a?? St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, from 1990 to 1997 and determined factors contributing to its decline. We postulated that predation-related mortality of adult females and juveniles was the proximate cause of the decline, and that survival of juvenile caribou reflected interactions with winter severity, calving distribution, timing of births, density of caribou, and physical condition of neonates at birth. The population declined at its greatest rate from 1990 to 1993 (r = a??0.32) and at a lower rate from 1994 to 1997 (r = a??0.09). Recruitment (number of calves/100 females during September) averaged 4/100 during the rapid population decline from 1990 to 1993 and 13/100 from 1994 to 1997. Parturition rate of adult females ranged from 65% to 97%. Survival of adult females and juveniles ranged from 0.77 to 0.86 and from 0.00 to 0.22, respectively. Approximately 43%, 59%, and 79% of all juvenile mortality occurred by 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age, respectively. We confirmed predation-related mortality as the primary proximate cause of population decline, with gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758), bears (species of the genus Ursus L., 1758), and other predators accounting for 57%, 38%, and 5%, respectively, of all juvenile mortality, and bears causing disproportionate mortality among 0- to 1-week-old neonates. We supported the hypotheses that timing of birth and habitat conditions at the birth site, particularly mottled snow patterns, affected vulnerability and survival of neonates, and birth mass affected survival of juveniles through summer. We speculate that the population will continue to decline before reaching a low-density equilibrium that is sustained by density-dependent changes in the functional responses of predators.

  12. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  13. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  14. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children's literature.

    PubMed

    Flevares, Lucia M; Schiff, Jamie R

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children's literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children's mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O'Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children's understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children's literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children's books in mathematics activities and for teacher training.

  15. Glacier melt-model parameter sensitivity and transferability in the dry subarctic environment of the southwest Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, A. H.; Flowers, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Regional hydrology and eustatic sea-level are expected to change as a consequence of climate warming. Accurate projection of these changes requires glacier melt-models with high parameter transferability in space and time. We have assessed the parameter transferability and sensitivity of a suite of glacier melt-models for two glaciers 10 km apart in the dry subarctic environment of the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada. The melt models range in complexity from a classical temperature-index model to a simplified energy balance model. Two experiments are conducted: (1) the models are tuned to the output of a full energy balance model forced under idealized conditions to assess the sensitivity of model parameters to variations in glacier geometric attributes, surface conditions, and meteorological conditions; (2) the models are tuned to real ablation stake data from our two study glaciers over two melt seasons, and the parameter transferability between the two sites and the two melt seasons is evaluated. The parameters of the temperature-index models demonstrate high sensitivity to glacier aspect, mean surface elevation, albedo, wind speed, mean annual temperature, and temperature lapse rate. The simplified energy balance model is sensitive to snow albedo. The simplified energy balance model more often than not (in seven of twelve tests) produces the highest model transferability. In the remaining five tests the classical temperature-index model produces the highest transferability twice, and a temperature-index model, where the degree-day factor is a function of potential shortwave radiation, produces the highest transferability three times. The full energy balance model when forced with real data inputs produces higher model parameter transferability than the empirical melt models in nine out of twelve tests. These results suggest that caution should be observed when extending the use of melt models beyond the locations where they were developed and tested.

  16. Preliminary comments about beam loss

    SciTech Connect

    Groom, D.

    1985-10-01

    A variety of beam loss questions are being investigated. They affect several design issues, ranging from machine-associated background in the detectors to the radiation lifetime of the main-ring magnets: (1) Muons. Oppositely directed muon beams from prompt muon production, primary meson decay, and a variety of other processes radiate from each IR. If they were not fanned by the insertion dipoles, the beams would be sufficiently intense and energetic that they would present a radiation hazard even after penetrating 2 km of soil or rock. (2) Machine-associated background in the IR`s. About 30 mb of the total cross section is elastic or quasi-elastic, and most of the protons are in a Gaussian spot with sigma = 9 mr. These particles are well within the machine acceptance, but there is a grey area in the tail of the distributions in which the scattered particles `almost` remain in orbit - they continue for some distance but eventually hit a wall. (3) Cryogenic load. This problem has been addressed to some degree in the RDS, but considerably more detail is needed. It appears that a very large fraction of the inelastic particle energy will be deposited here. (4) Radiation damage in the ring. The lifetime of both magnets and electronics in the tunnel might be limited by radiation due to particle loss. Early results are not reassuring. Tevatron measurements, reported to the authors by John Elias, indicate that most of the tunnel background comes from particle loss due to beam-gas collisions.

  17. Comparative Phylogeography Highlights the Double-Edged Sword of Climate Change Faced by Arctic- and Alpine-Adapted Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Hayley C.; Gunderson, Aren M.; Weksler, Marcelo; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Olson, Link E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e.g., cold tolerance and nunatak survival) that might result in concordant responses to Pleistocene glaciations. All five species contain a similar phylogeographic disjunction separating eastern and Beringian lineages, which we show to be the result of simultaneous divergence. Genetic diversity is similar within each haplogroup for each species, and there is no support for a post-Pleistocene population expansion in eastern lineages relative to those from Beringia. Bayesian skyline plots for four of the five species do not support Pleistocene population contraction. Brown Lemmings show evidence of late Quaternary demographic expansion without subsequent population decline. The Wrangell-St. Elias region of eastern Alaska appears to be an important zone of recent secondary contact for nearctic alpine mammals. Despite differences in natural history and ecology, similar phylogeographic histories are supported for all species, suggesting that these, and likely other, alpine- and arctic-adapted taxa are already experiencing population and/or range declines that are likely to synergistically accelerate in the face of rapid climate change. Climate change may therefore be acting as a double-edged sword that erodes genetic diversity within populations but promotes divergence and the generation of

  18. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  19. The flooding of Beringia and North Pacific Intermediate Water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Stoner, J. S.; Southon, J. R.; Cheseby, M.; Xuan, C.

    2011-12-01

    We reconstruct Northeast Pacific paleoventilation over the last 17,000 ybp from radiocarbon dates in a sediment core (EW0408-85JC) 682 m deep on the Southeast Alaska margin, evaluating the implications of three standard chronologies: 1) calibrated planktonic foraminiferal 14C dates assuming a constant reservoir correction, 2) calibrated benthic foraminiferal 14C dates assuming a constant reservoir correction, and 3) correlation of δ18O in planktonic foraminifera (N. pachyderma sinistral) to δ18O in a layer-counted Greenland ice core (NGRIP). The assumption of constant benthic reservoir age implies negative reservoir ages for coexisting planktonic foraminifera during deglaciation, and is rejected. The δ18O-tuned age model reproduces two episodes of extremely old intermediate water, similar to those inferred during Termination 1 off Baja California (Marchitto et al., 2007), but predicts co-varying reservoir ages for planktonic foraminifera of >2,500 years. Such very high planktonic reservoir ages, on a predominantly downwelling margin, may imply the apparent subsurface ventilation anomalies are an artifact of the age model tuning. The age model based on calibrated planktonic dates indicates a modest increase in intermediate water reservoir age to 2,670 ± 180 during Termination 1, implying reduced ventilation prior to the Holocene. A shift to lower ventilation ages at ~10,500 cal ybp is coeval with flooding of Beringia (Elias et al., 1996), suggesting that flooded shelves and net northward export of low-salinity surface waters through Bering Strait enhanced ventilation of the North Pacific in the early Holocene.

  20. Comparative phylogeography highlights the double-edged sword of climate change faced by arctic- and alpine-adapted mammals.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Gunderson, Aren M; Weksler, Marcelo; Fedorov, Vadim B; Olson, Link E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that alpine and arctic organisms may have distinctly different phylogeographic histories from temperate or tropical taxa, with recent range contraction into interglacial refugia as opposed to post-glacial expansion out of refugia. We use a combination of phylogeographic inference, demographic reconstructions, and hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation to test for phylodemographic concordance among five species of alpine-adapted small mammals in eastern Beringia. These species (Collared Pikas, Hoary Marmots, Brown Lemmings, Arctic Ground Squirrels, and Singing Voles) vary in specificity to alpine and boreal-tundra habitat but share commonalities (e.g., cold tolerance and nunatak survival) that might result in concordant responses to Pleistocene glaciations. All five species contain a similar phylogeographic disjunction separating eastern and Beringian lineages, which we show to be the result of simultaneous divergence. Genetic diversity is similar within each haplogroup for each species, and there is no support for a post-Pleistocene population expansion in eastern lineages relative to those from Beringia. Bayesian skyline plots for four of the five species do not support Pleistocene population contraction. Brown Lemmings show evidence of late Quaternary demographic expansion without subsequent population decline. The Wrangell-St. Elias region of eastern Alaska appears to be an important zone of recent secondary contact for nearctic alpine mammals. Despite differences in natural history and ecology, similar phylogeographic histories are supported for all species, suggesting that these, and likely other, alpine- and arctic-adapted taxa are already experiencing population and/or range declines that are likely to synergistically accelerate in the face of rapid climate change. Climate change may therefore be acting as a double-edged sword that erodes genetic diversity within populations but promotes divergence and the generation of

  1. The Inter-rater Reliability of the Functional Movement Screen Within an Athletic Population Using Untrained Raters.

    PubMed

    Leeder, Jade E; Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C

    2016-09-01

    Elias JE. The inter-rater reliability of the functional movement screen within an athletic population using untrained raters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2591-2599, 2016-The functional movement screen (FMS) is a commonly used screening tool designed to identify restrictions to movement patterns and increased injury risk using 7 predesigned tests. The purpose of this study was to analyze the inter-rater reliability of scoring of the FMS using a group of "untrained" subjects. Additionally, the study also examined if clinical experience level had any effect on reliability. Twenty fully qualified Physiotherapists working at the English Institute of Sport, with elite athletes, volunteered to participate in the study. The group comprised both level 2 and level 3 physiotherapists based on clinical experience levels. Five elite athletes, free from injury, were recruited and videoed completing 6 of the 7 FMS tests using a 3 camera system. The videos were scored by each Physiotherapist using the standardized scoring sheet, as developed by Cook et al. Each practitioner marked each athlete completing the 6 tests. The total scores were calculated for each athlete (maximum score of 18). The inter-rater reliability of the test was shown to be high, intraclass coefficient 0.906. An independent t test showed no significant differences between the level 2 and level 3 practitioners in the total scores (p = 0.502). The results of the test indicate that the FMS is a reliable screening tool when used by untrained practitioners in determining faulty movement patterns and that clinical experience level does not affect the reliability, therefore it may be a useful tool in the screening of athletic populations.

  2. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  3. Rapid Ice Mass Loss: Does It Have an Influence on Earthquake Occurrence in Southern Alaska?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    The glaciers of southern Alaska are extensive, and many of them have undergone gigatons of ice wastage on time scales on the order of the seismic cycle. Since the ice loss occurs directly above a shallow main thrust zone associated with subduction of the Pacific-Yakutat plate beneath continental Alaska, the region between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers is an excellent test site for evaluating the importance of recent ice wastage on earthquake faulting potential. We demonstrate the influence of cumulative glacial mass loss following the 1899 Yakataga earthquake (M=8.1) by using a two dimensional finite element model with a simple representation of ice fluctuations to calculate the incremental stresses and change in the fault stability margin (FSM) along the main thrust zone (MTZ) and on the surface. Along the MTZ, our results indicate a decrease in FSM between 1899 and the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) of 0.2 - 1.2 MPa over an 80 km region between the coast and the 1979 aftershock zone; at the surface, the estimated FSM was larger but more localized to the lower reaches of glacial ablation zones. The ice-induced stresses were large enough, in theory, to promote the occurrence of shallow thrust earthquakes. To empirically test the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared the seismic rate from a reference background time period (1988-1992) against other time periods (1993-2006) with variable ice or tectonic change characteristics. We found that the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region increased in 2002-2006 relative to the background seismic rate. We hypothesize that this was due to a significant increase in the rate of ice wastage in 2002-2006 instead of the M=7.9, 2002 Denali earthquake, located more than 100km away.

  4. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  5. Central Dark Matter Distribution In Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Se-Heon; Brook, C.; Governato, F.; Brinks, E.; Mayer, L.; de Blok, E.; Brooks, A.; Walter, F.

    2012-01-01

    Central dark matter distribution in dwarf galaxies Se-Heon Oh, Chris Brook, Fabio Governato, Elias Brinks, Lucio Mayer, W.J.G. de Blok, Alyson Brooks and Fabian Walter We present high-resolution mass models of 7 nearby dwarf galaxies from "The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey” (THINGS) and compare these with those from hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies assuming a ΛCDM cosmology. The simulations include the effect of baryonic feedback processes, such as gas cooling, star formation, cosmic UV background heating and most importantly, physically motivated gas outflows driven by supernovae (SNe). For the THINGS dwarf galaxies, we derive the mass models for the dark matter component by subtracting the contribution from baryons, derived from our HI observations and using the "Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey” (SINGS) 3.6μm data, from the total kinematics, leaving only the contribution by the Dark Matter halo. In parallel, we perform dark matter mass modeling of the simulated dwarf galaxies in exactly the same way as the observed THINGS dwarf galaxies. From a direct comparison between the observations and simulations, we find that the dark matter rotation curves of the simulated dwarf galaxies rise less steeply in the inner regions than those of dark-matter-only simulations based on the ΛCDM paradigm, and are more consistent with those of the THINGS dwarf galaxies. In addition, the mean value of the logarithmic inner dark matter density slopes, α, of the simulated galaxies is approximately -0.4 ± 0.1, which is in good agreement with α = -0.29 ± -0.07 of the THINGS dwarf galaxies. This shows that the baryonic feedback processes in the simulations are efficient in flattening the initial cusps with α = -1.0 to -1.5 predicted from dark-matter-only simulations, and render the dark matter halo mass distribution more similar to that observed in nearby dwarf galaxies.

  6. Evaluation of the BioPlex 2200 ANA screen for the detection of antinuclear antibodies and comparison with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Desplat-Jego, Sophie; Bardin, Nathalie; Larida, Bruno; Sanmarco, Marielle

    2007-08-01

    BioPlex 2200 multiplexed assays system is an automatic method allowing detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the determination of 13 autoantibodies against chromatinic and nonchromatinic nuclear antigens by the BioPlex 2200 system and to compare the results achieved by this method to those obtained with our routinely used immunoassays. One thousand and four serum samples consecutively sent for ANA detection were routinely tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp2 cells. Among them, 321 were also analyzed by dsDNA enzyme immunoassay (EliA) test and 657 by double immunodiffusion (DID) for extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies. All the sera were evaluated by the BioPlex 2200 ANA screen kit allowing simultaneous detection of antibodies against the following antigens: dsDNA, chromatin, SSA-52 kDa, SSA-60 kDa, SSB, Sm, Sm/RNP, RNP-A, RNP-68 kDa, Scl70, centromere B, Jo-1, and P ribosomal proteins. The kappa coefficient between BioPlex 2200 and routine tests for detection of ANA on HEp2 cells, anti-dsDNA, and anti-ENA antibodies was, respectively, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.61. The comparison with our routine tests showed numerous discrepancies between IIF ANA screening and BioPlex but a good concordance for detection of anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA specificities. BioPlex 2200 system is a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous quantitative detection of several autoantibodies. It is perfectly well adapted to determine ANA antigenic specificities of samples found positive using initial IIF screening. The capability of this multiplexed technology to analyze simultaneously 13 ANA autoantibodies leads to the rapid availability of an "autoimmune connective tissue disease serologic profile."

  7. Modifications of the isolated frog heart preparation in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute: relevance for cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    2000-01-01

    Carl Ludwig was the first physiologist to systematically study isolated organs (heart, muscle, kidney, liver, lung). In his Leipzig Physiological Institute, the isolated perfused frog heart preparation was established in 1866 by Elias Cyon. This preparation was subsequently subjected to various modifications, and many important observations were made by scientists such as Joseph Coats, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Luigi Luciani, Michael Joseph Rossbach, Hugo Kronecker and Otto Frank. The influence of filling pressure on contraction amplitude, the all-or-none law of the heart, the absolute refractory period, postextrasystolic potentiation, the staircase ('Treppe') phenomenon and the dependence of heart function on oxidative metabolism were discovered. The negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of vagus nerve stimulation were also first documented, and a model to induce arrhythmias was established. The isolated frog heart preparation became a widely used standard model for teaching and for basic cardiovascular research. Sidney Ringer discovered the essential role of calcium ions for heart function. Otto Loewi discovered the chemical transduction mechanism of the vagus with acetylcholine as transmitter. In more recent times, the cyclical changes in cAMP and cGMP that occur during the cardiac cycle were first described in the frog heart by Wollenberger and associates. Thus, the isolated perfused frog heart established and modified in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute led not only to the discovery of basic phenomena, but also to observations that became the basis for concepts to be developed and elaborated later. Furthermore, the isolated perfused frog heart was the starting point for the development of the isolated mammalian heart in the retrogradely perfused, nonworking mode in the heart-lung modification and in the working heart preparation.

  8. Isolated heart perfusion according to Langendorff---still viable in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Skrzypiec-Spring, Monika; Grotthus, Bartosz; Szelag, Adam; Schulz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The isolated perfused mammalian heart preparation was established in 1897 by Oscar Langendorff. The method was developed on the basis of the isolated perfused frog heart established by Elias Cyon at the Carl Ludwig Institute of Physiology in Leipzig, Germany in 1866. Observations made using both methods at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century led to important discoveries, forming the basis for our understanding of heart physiology. This included the role of temperature, oxygen and calcium ions for heart contractile function, the origin of cardiac electrical activity in the atrium, the negative chronotropic effect of vagus stimulation and the chemical transmission of impulses in the vagus nerve by acetylcholine. Langendorff himself demonstrated that the heart receives its nutrients and oxygen from blood via the coronary arteries and that cardiac mechanical function is reflected by changes in the coronary circulation. The method underwent many modifications but its general principle remains the same today. Blood, or more commonly crystalloid perfusates, are delivered into the heart through a cannula inserted in the ascending aorta, either at constant pressure or constant flow. Retrograde flow in the aorta closes the leaflets of the aortic valve and as a consequence, the entire perfusate enters the coronary arteries via the ostia at the aortic root. After passing through the coronary circulation the perfusate drains into the right atrium via the coronary sinus. The simplicity of the isolated mammalian heart preparation, the broad spectrum of measurements which can be done using this method, its high reproducibility and relatively low cost make it a very useful tool in modern cardiovascular and pharmacological research, in spite of a few shortcomings. In the last decade the method has brought many important advances in many areas including ischemia-reperfusion injury, cell-based therapy and donor heart preservation for transplant.

  9. Latitudinal variations (18°-23°S) in denudation rates of western Andean Syntaxis, Chile, South America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.; Schaller, Mirjam

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Cosmogenic nuclides, denudation rates, channel steepness, Chi, syntax, North Chile, South Peru Syntaxial regions of orogens (e.g. the western and eastern Himalayan Syntaxes, St. Elias Mountains Alaska) are regions where curved segments of subducting plates meet and the subducting plate is bent forms a rigid indentor. Previous studies of syntaxial regions in the Himalaya and Alaska document localized and rapid deformation and denudation due to vigorous fluvial or glacial erosional processes. In this study we investigate denudation around an arid end-member syntaxial orogen in South America to understand the interactions between climate and tectonic processes in localizing denudation. We present 35 new cosmogenic 10Be analyses of river sediments to quantify spatial variations in erosion along the Andean Coastal Cordillera and Western Cordillera. The sizes of the drainage basin vary from 5 - 5000 square kilometers. These measurements are linked to analysis of digital topography, variations in fluvial steepness indices and Chi- plots. Cosmogenic derived denudation rates range from 2.5 - 130 mm/kyr. Denudation rates decrease generally from the syntaxis (near Arica, Chile) towards the south (near Antofagasta, Chile) and from the Western Cordillera to the Coastal Cordillera. Topographic analysis of channel steepness variations and Chi-plots also document spatial variations in fluvial erosion and are consistent with spatial pattern in cosmogenic derived denudation rates. In summary the results document both a north to south and east to west variation in denudation around the western Andean margin. The spatial pattern of denudation is consistent with recently proposed patterns of syntaxial deformation driven by the geometry of the bent subducting plate. Denudation rates are also likely influenced to a lesser degree by a latitudinal variation in climate along the Andean margin.

  10. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; De Luca, Massimo; Elia, Davide; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Massi, Fabrizio; Martin, Peter G.; Strafella, Francesco E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2010-11-10

    The Vela-D region, according to the nomenclature given by Murphy and May, of the star-forming complex known as the Vela molecular ridge (VMR), has recently been analyzed in detail by Olmi, who studied the physical properties of 141 pre- and proto-stellar cold dust cores, detected by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during a much larger (55 deg{sup 2}) Galactic plane survey encompassing the whole VMR. This survey's primary goal was to identify the coldest dense dust cores possibly associated with the earliest phases of star formation. In this work, the dynamical state of the Vela-D cores is analyzed. Comparison to dynamical masses of a sub-sample of the Vela-D cores estimated from the {sup 13}CO survey of Elia is complicated by the fact that the {sup 13}CO linewidths are likely to trace the lower density intercore material, in addition to the dense gas associated with the compact cores observed by BLAST. In fact, the total internal pressure of these cores, if estimated using the {sup 13}CO linewidths, appears to be higher than the cloud ambient pressure. If this were the case, then self-gravity and surface pressure would be insufficient to bind these cores and an additional source of external confinement (e.g., magnetic field pressure) would be required. However, if one attempts to scale down the {sup 13}CO linewidths, according to the observations of high-density tracers in a small sample of sources, then most proto-stellar cores would be effectively gravitationally bound.

  11. The mid-infrared polarization of the Herbig Ae star WL 16: an interstellar origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Telesco, Charles M.; Pantin, Eric; Li, Dan; Wright, Christopher M.; Mariñas, Naibí; Barnes, Peter; Li, Aigen; Packham, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.4 arcsec) mid-infrared (mid-IR) polarimetric images and spectra of WL 16, a Herbig Ae star at a distance of 125 pc. WL 16 is surrounded by a protoplanetary disc of ∼ 900 au in diameter, making it one of the most extended Herbig Ae/Be discs as seen in the mid-IR. The star is behind, or embedded in, the ρ Ophiuchus molecular cloud, and obscured by 28 mag of extinction at optical wavelengths by the foreground cloud. Mid-IR polarization of WL 16 mainly arises from aligned elongated dust grains present along the line of sight, suggesting a uniform morphology of polarization vectors with an orientation of 33°(east from north) and a polarization fraction of ∼ 2.0 per cent. This orientation is consistent with previous polarimetric surveys in the optical and near-IR bands to probe large-scale magnetic fields in the Ophiuchus star formation region, indicating that the observed mid-IR polarization towards WL 16 is produced by the dichroic absorption of magnetically aligned foreground dust grains by a uniform magnetic field. Using polarizations of WL 16 and Elias 29, a nearby polarization standard star, we constrain the polarization efficiency, p10.3/A10.3, for the dust grains in the ρ Ophiuchus molecular cloud to be ≃1.0 per cent mag-1. WL 16 has polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features detected at 8.6, 11.2, 12.0, and 12.7 μm by our spectroscopic data, and we find an anticorrelation between the PAH surface brightness and the PAH ionization fraction between the north-west and south-west sides of the disc.

  12. Accelerating chemical database searching using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Yang, Eric

    2011-08-22

    The utility of chemoinformatics systems depends on the accurate computer representation and efficient manipulation of chemical compounds. In such systems, a small molecule is often digitized as a large fingerprint vector, where each element indicates the presence/absence or the number of occurrences of a particular structural feature. Since in theory the number of unique features can be exceedingly large, these fingerprint vectors are usually folded into much shorter ones using hashing and modulo operations, allowing fast "in-memory" manipulation and comparison of molecules. There is increasing evidence that lossless fingerprints can substantially improve retrieval performance in chemical database searching (substructure or similarity), which have led to the development of several lossless fingerprint compression algorithms. However, any gains in storage and retrieval afforded by compression need to be weighed against the extra computational burden required for decompression before these fingerprints can be compared. Here we demonstrate that graphics processing units (GPU) can greatly alleviate this problem, enabling the practical application of lossless fingerprints on large databases. More specifically, we show that, with the help of a ~$500 ordinary video card, the entire PubChem database of ~32 million compounds can be searched in ~0.2-2 s on average, which is 2 orders of magnitude faster than a conventional CPU. If multiple query patterns are processed in batch, the speedup is even more dramatic (less than 0.02-0.2 s/query for 1000 queries). In the present study, we use the Elias gamma compression algorithm, which results in a compression ratio as high as 0.097.

  13. Comparison of three tests for faecal calprotectin in children and young adults: a retrospective monocentric study

    PubMed Central

    Prell, Christine; Nagel, Dorothea; Freudenberg, Folke; Schwarzer, Andrea; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Faecal calprotectin is used as a sensitive marker for gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation. We compared the performance of three different assays in a large cohort of symptomatic paediatric patients. Design Retrospective monocentric study. Setting Inpatients and outpatients of a tertiary referral centre for paediatric gastroenterology. Participants 304 symptomatic patients (163 males, aged 2–20 years) with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD/A, n=130), IBD in clinical remission (IBD/R, n=62), other intestinal diseases (n=45) and controls without identified intestinal disease (n=67). Interventions Calprotectin was measured in homogenised faecal samples with three tests (A: EliA Calprotectin, Phadia AB, Sweden; B: PhiCal, Calpro AS, Norway; C: EK-Cal, Bühlmann Laboratories, Switzerland). Outcomes Concordance between tests was calculated using Kendall's τ coefficient. Results IBD/A and controls were correctly classified as 97.7%/82.1% (A), 97.7%/85.1% (B) and 98.4%/62.7% (C; not significant). Test C tended to have higher calprotectin values with a lower specificity compared to tests A and B. The concordance between two tests was 0.835 for tests A and B, 0.782 for tests A and C and 0.765 for tests B and C. Conclusions All three tests are very sensitive for detecting mucosal inflammation, but major differences exist between specificity and absolute values. It is highly advisable to use the test of the same manufacturer for follow-up and to monitor for disease activity. PMID:24793248

  14. IFESS 2005 Special Session 5 Artifical Vision. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, James D.

    2005-07-05

    A special session on visual prostheses was held during the Annual Meeting of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS), in Montreal, Canada, July 5-9, 2005. IFESS is a meeting that typically attracts researchers in implantable nerve stimulators, functional electrical stimulation, and rehabilitation. All of these areas have significant overlap with the retinal prosthesis, but these areas have decades of research behind them. The special session provided a forum for researchers with vast experience in nerve stimulation to interact with leading research in retinal and cortical visual prostheses. The grant paid for the travel and conference costs of the presenters in the session. The session was chaired by James Weiland (the PI on this grant). The session co-chair was Phil Troyk, Ph.D., from the Illinois Institute of Technology. The Department of Energy was acknowledged at the start of the session as the sponsor. The following talks were delivered: Clinical Trial of a Prototype Retinal Prosthesis James Weiland, Ph.D. Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California The U.S. Department of Energy's Artificial Sight Program Elias Greenbaum, Ph.D. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee A 16-Channel stimulator ASIC for use in an intracortical visual prosthesis Phillip R. Troyk, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois Two approaches to the Optic Nerve Visual Prosthesis Jean Delbeke, M.D. University Cath de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium Design and Implementation of High Power Efficiency Modules for a Cortical Visual Stimulator Mohammad Sawan, Ph.D. Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Canada Remaining funds from the grant were used to support Dr. Weiland's travel to the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology in May 2006, with DOE approval, where several projects, supported by the DOE artificial retina program, were presented.

  15. Tectonic model and seismic potential of the eastern gulf of Alaska and Yakataga Seismic Gap

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, O.J.; Jacob, K.H.

    1980-12-10

    Based on 13 new fault plane solutions and published seismological, geological, and geophysical data, we interpret the deformation along the Pacific-North American plate margin in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Three major tectonic units can be distinguished: (1) the North American plate, (2) the Pacific plate, and (3) a belt of mobile borderland terranes. The Pacific plate moves in a NNW direction at rates of about 6 cm/yr in relation to the North American plate. That motion results in mostly right-lateral strike slip at the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system, a well-known observation. A new finding, however, is that a small conponent (approx.1 cm/yr) of convergence may also be present which results in minor subduction of the oceanic plate beneath portions of the continental margin. Heretofore the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault zone and associated continental margin was interpreted as a classical, pure transform boundary. The Yakutat block, a borderland terrane about 400 km long and 100 to 200 km wide, is carried passively by the Pacific plate except that the block slowly overrides this plate at about 1 cm/yr. This motion is taken up by almost pure thrust faulting in a southwesterly direction along a 400-km long SE striking shelf edge structure. At its NW edge the Yakutat block is in turn being thrust beneath the North American plate along the Pamplona zone-Icy Bay lineament. The underthrusting of the Yakutat block results in a major orogeny, crustal shortening and uplift of the Chugach-St. Elias range. The effects of this collision may extend as far as 500 km inland and cause some deformation at the Denali fault in the central Alaska Range. Subduction of the Pacific plate benearth the colliding margin appears responsible for development of an active volcanic arc up to 300 km inland which trends SE from the Wrangell Mountains to Yukon Territory, Canada, and perhaps to Mt. Edgecumbe volcano in southest Alaska.

  16. Large Influence of Subduction Geometry on Extreme Exhumation in Orogen Syntaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R. O.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the highest and most localized rates of lithospheric deformation in the world are observed at the transition between adjacent plate boundary subduction segments (syntaxes). The initiating perturbation of this deformation has long been attributed to vigorous, climate driven, erosional processes as observed at Nanga Parbat and Namche Barwa in the Himalaya and at Mt. St. Elias in Alaska. However, an erosion-dominated mechanism ignores the 3D geometry of curved subducting plates and changes in paleoclimate. Here we present an alternative explanation for rapid exhumation at these locations based on the 3D thermo-mechanical evolution of collisions between plates with nonplanar geometries. A set of numerical solutions and thermochronometer observations are presented for the interaction between a rigid indenter between subduction segments with an overriding viscous material. The model setup is intentionally simplified to identify how the 3D geometry of a subducting plate influences upper plate deformation, and therefore omits many of the complexities of collision interfaces, such as the transfer of mass between the downgoing and overriding plates. Temperatures are calculated using the 3D advection diffusion equation with radiogenic heat production and shear heating. The thermal and Stokes flow solutions are fully coupled and evolve throughout the simulation. Model predicted cooling ages are compared to observed cooling ages from published bedrock and detrital thermochronometer studies by calculating cooling rate dependent thermochronometer ages. Comparison of model predictions with existing thermochronometer data reproduces the defining characteristics of these mountains such as a localized "bulls-eye" pattern of rapid exhumation and young cooling ages above the rigid indenter between subduction segments. These results demonstrate a 'bottom up' tectonic rather than 'top down' erosional initiation of feedbacks between erosion and tectonic deformation. While the role

  17. SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korona, Jérôme; Berthier, Etienne; Bernard, Marc; Rémy, Frédérique; Thouvenot, Eric

    Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Unfortunately, the precision and/or spatial coverage of current satellite missions (radar altimetry, ICESat) or field surveys are generally insufficient. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies) international polar year (IPY) project. SPIRIT will allow (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to April 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ±6 m of ICESat elevations for 90% of the data. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We then demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30-40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.

  18. SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korona, J.; Berthier, E.; Bernard, M.; Remy, F.; Thouvenot, E.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies) IPY project. SPIRIT allows (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the free delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to November 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ± 5 m (RMSE) of ICESat elevations. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We also demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30 to 40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.

  19. Impact of the Yakutat indentor corner on present-day tectonics and fault activity in SE Alaska - SW Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an active tectonic model of the SE Alaska - SW Yukon region based principally on the integration of recent GPS velocity data and new fault-slip rates derived from geomorphology. In this region, the Yakutat collision results in complex tectonics with patterns of strain localization and strain partitioning that strongly vary across the various mountain ranges and active faults. We propose that deformation and fault activity in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains are primarily controlled by the eastern syntaxis of the Yakutat collision, which produces a semi-radial tectonic pattern: Velocities, principal horizontal shortening rates, and maximum horizontal stress orientations rotate by 60 - 80 ° around the syntaxis, from roughly parallel to the relative Pacific - North America motion at the front of the collision to roughly orthogonal southeast of the syntaxis. The interaction between this strain pattern and major inherited tectonic structures inland of the collision zone (i.e., Denali and Duke River Faults) results in various reactivation modes of these structures. Specifically, the Denali Fault shows a very pronounced lateral variations of activity from ~12 mm/a of dextral slip rate in its central section to ~1 mm/a of mostly shortening slip rate along its southern section. This marked change of activity is associated with a possible relay system where the Duke River and Totschunda Faults accommodate a major part (8 - 12 mm/a) of the inland strain transfer directly in front of the syntaxis. This new tectonic model retains some questions, in particular regarding the mechanisms of deformation and strain transfer (1) from the syntaxis to the Duke River - Totschunda system and (2) at the junction between Totschunda and Denali Faults. Numerical models of present-day deformation may help address these issues and provide information about relative strength of the various crustal and inherited fault elements of this system.

  20. sPLA2 and the epidermal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Dusko; Bollinger, James M.; Gelb, Michael; Mauro, Theodora M.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian epidermis provides both an interface and a protective barrier between the organism and its environment. Lipid, processed into water-impermeable bilayers between the outermost layers of the epidermal cells, forms the major barrier that prevents water from exiting the organism, and also prevents toxins and infectious agents from entering. The secretory phospholipase 2 (sPLA2) enzymes control important processes in skin and other organs, including inflammation and differentiation. sPLA2 activity contributes to epidermal barrier formation and homeostasis by generating free fatty acids, which are required both for formation of lamellar membranes and also for acidification of the stratum corneum (SC). sPLA2 is especially important in controlling SC acidification and establishment of an optimum epidermal barrier during the first postnatal week. Several sPLA2 isoforms are present in the epidermis. We find that two of these isoforms, sPLA2 IIA and sPLA2 IIF, localize to the upper stratum granulosum and increase in response to experimental barrier perturbation. sPLA2F−/− mice also demonstrate a more neutral SC pH than do their normal littermates, and their initial recovery from barrier perturbation is delayed. These findings confirm that sPLA2 enzymes perform important roles in epidermal development, and suggest that the sPLA2IIF isoform may be central to SC acidification and barrier function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:24269828

  1. Northern Cordilleran Ice Sheet Dynamics in Coastal Alaska from MIS 3 to the Present: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; LeVay, L.; St-Onge, G.; Mix, A. C.; Bahlburg, H.; Davies-Walczak, M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing the timing of northwestern Cordilleran ice sheet (NCIS) advance-retreat cycles in southern Alaska allows for investigation of global synchronicity in glacial-age climate forcing. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 targeted the glacial dynamics of the NCIS in the coastal St. Elias range. Sediment cores from Site U1419 encompass times of global ice advance and retreat from MIS 3 to the present, based on a preliminary age model with 5-kya resolution developed using oxygen isotopes from benthic and planktonic foraminifera and stratigraphic correlation with a previously C-14 dated site survey core (Davies et al., 2011; doi:10.1029/2010PA002051). CT images of cores were used to identify sedimentary facies and relative ice sheet proximity. Six sedimentary facies were identified in the images; massive mud with and without lonestones, laminations with and without lonestones, massive and stratified diamict (>1 clast/cm). Elemental scanning XRF data were used to delineate possible downcore changes in sediment provenance using provenance-sensitive transition metals. Diamict and gravelly mud are the most common facies, indicative of persistent glacial input interpreted as marine-terminating glacial systems. Stratified diamicts are interpreted as periods of maximum ice extent (~18-20 ka), whereas massive mud (~14 ka-present) suggests terminus retreat. Intervals of laminated mud with and without lonestones are interpreted as periods of reduced ice cover, with the most recent (~14.5 kya) coinciding with the Bølling Interstade of northern Europe/Greenland (Davies et al., 2011). Downcore changes in Al-normalized metal XRF counts vary along with sedimentary lithoficies, suggesting changes in sediment provenance that may be related to the quantity of glacigenic sediment delivery to this location.

  2. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  3. Learning mathematics in two dimensions: a review and look ahead at teaching and learning early childhood mathematics with children’s literature

    PubMed Central

    Flevares, Lucia M.; Schiff, Jamie R.

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years an identifiable interest in using children’s literature in mathematics learning emerged (Clyne and Griffiths, 1991; Welchman-Tischler, 1992; Hong, 1996; Hellwig etal., 2000; Haury, 2001). We critically review the rationales given for the use of picture books in mathematics learning, with a special focus on geometry due to its underrepresentation in this body of literature and the need for greater focus on this topic. The benefits and effectiveness of using picture books for children’s mathematics learning and interest have been documented (Hong, 1996; O’Neill etal., 2004; Young-Loveridge, 2004). For geometry, although much learning of shape ideas should be hands-on, two-dimensional figures are essential to develop children’s understanding of plane geometry. Books may effectively engage pre-literate children with plane shapes (van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and van den Boogaard, 2008; Skoumpourdi and Mpakopoulou, 2011) and shapes as gestalt wholes or prototypes (van Hiele, 1986; Clements etal., 1999; Hannibal, 1999). We review several guidelines and evaluative criteria for book selection, including Cianciolo (2000), Schiro (1997), Hunsader (2004), and van den Heuvel-Panhuizen and Elia (2012). Geometry concepts have proven challenging for young students, but their difficulties may stem, in part, from inadequate teacher training and professional development (Clements and Sarama, 2000; Chard etal., 2008) which lead to misconceptions (Oberdorf and Taylor-Cox, 1999; Inan and Dogan-Temur, 2010). Using picture books in teacher training may be an inviting way for early childhood teachers to enhance their own knowledge. We will examine the literature for guidance on incorporating children’s literature into teacher training. In closing we will outline a comprehensive, multi-pronged agenda for best instructional practices for selection and use of children’s books in mathematics activities and for teacher training. PMID:24904475

  4. Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect and continental evolution involving subduction underplating and synchronous foreland thrusting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.; Brocher, T.M.; Fisher, M.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Page, R.A.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Christensen, N.I.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Saltus, R.W.; Ruppert, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure and tectonic evolution of the North American continent in Alaska, where the continent has grown through magmatism, accretion, and tectonic underplating. In the 1980s and early 1990s, we conducted a geological and geophysical investigation, known as the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT), along a 1350-km-long corridor from the Aleutian Trench to the Arctic coast. The most distinctive crustal structures and the deepest Moho along the transect are located near the Pacific and Arctic margins. Near the Pacific margin, we infer a stack of tectonically underplated oceanic layers interpreted as remnants of the extinct Kula (or Resurrection) plate. Continental Moho just north of this underplated stack is more than 55 km deep. Near the Arctic margin, the Brooks Range is underlain by large-scale duplex structures that overlie a tectonic wedge of North Slope crust and mantle. There, the Moho has been depressed to nearly 50 km depth. In contrast, the Moho of central Alaska is on average 32 km deep. In the Paleogene, tectonic underplating of Kula (or Resurrection) plate fragments overlapped in time with duplexing in the Brooks Range. Possible tectonic models linking these two regions include flat-slab subduction and an orogenic-float model. In the Neogene, the tectonics of the accreting Yakutat terrane have differed across a newly interpreted tear in the subducting Pacific oceanic lithosphere. East of the tear, Pacific oceanic lithosphere subducts steeply and alone beneath the Wrangell volcanoes, because the overlying Yakutat terrane has been left behind as underplated rocks beneath the rising St. Elias Range, in the coastal region. West of the tear, the Yakutat terrane and Pacific oceanic lithosphere subduct together at a gentle angle, and this thickened package inhibits volcanism. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Gulf of Alaska Cryosphere and Paleoceanography in the Neogene: IODP Expedition 341 Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Neogene climate reflects the transition into a colder, more variable world dominated by the onset and intensification of major Northern Hemisphere glaciations. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 recovered a cross-margin transect of pelagic facies from this subarctic, high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll modern setting to glacigenic material from the exhuming coastal mountains. The recovered sedimentary record extends from the late Miocene through the Pleistocene/Holocene. Shipboard results indicate a ~doubling in sediment accumulation rates at ~2.56 Ma at the deep-water distal Site U1417, which is interpreted as the onset of significant glacial coverage in the St. Elias Range after the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, resulting in the start of deposition in the Surveyor Fan. At all sites, clast-rich mud and/or diamict are prevalent in the Pleistocene, indicating the persistent transport of glacigenic sediment by ice, iceberg or sea-ice rafting. An unanticipated observation is the often sharp transitions between these ice-dominated facies and more biogenic-rich, often bioturbated, muddy lithologies that might be related to increased biological productivity, enhanced nutrient supply, and/or decreased input of terrigenous sediments. All sites contained variable preservation of biosiliceous and calcareous microfossils that indicate dynamic water column productivity and/or variable sediment geochemistry from the late Miocene to the present. At deep-water sites, strong variations in environmentally sensitive planktic foraminifera, radiolarians, and diatoms record alternating warming and cooling intervals during the last 1.2 Ma. At Site U1417, planktic foraminifera and radiolarian taxa abundances indicate cooler conditions in the Pleistocene relative to the Pliocene/late Miocene. Especially high sedimentation rates during the late Pleistocene hold promise for future studies related to suborbital-scale variability in paleoproductivity and glacigenic sedimentation.

  6. "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis": Correction to Starcke and Brand (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of Stress on Decisions Under Uncertainty: A Meta-Analysis" by Katrin Starcke and Matthias Brand (Psychological Bulletin, Advanced Online Publication, May 23, 2016, np). It should have been reported that the inverted u-shaped relationship between cortisol stress responses and decision-making performance was only observed in female, but not in male participants as suggested by the study by van den Bos, Harteveld, and Stoop (2009). Corrected versions of the affected sentences are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-25465-001.) The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to quantify the effects that stress has on decisions made under uncertainty. We hypothesized that stress increases reward seeking and risk taking through alterations of dopamine firing rates and reduces executive control by hindering optimal prefrontal cortex functioning. In certain decision situations, increased reward seeking and risk taking is dysfunctional, whereas in others, this is not the case. We also assumed that the type of stressor plays a role. In addition, moderating variables are analyzed, such as the hormonal stress response, the time between stress onset and decisions, and the participants' age and gender. We included studies in the meta-analysis that investigated decision making after a laboratory stress-induction versus a control condition (k = 32 datasets, N = 1829 participants). A random-effects model revealed that overall, stress conditions lead to decisions that can be described as more disadvantageous, more reward seeking, and more risk taking than nonstress conditions (d = .17). In those situations in which increased reward seeking and risk taking is disadvantageous, stress had significant effects (d = .26), whereas in other situations, no effects were observed (d = .01). Effects were observed under processive stressors (d = .19), but not under systemic ones (d = .09). Moderation analyses did not reveal

  7. Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedy, Katrin; Freudenschuss, Alexandra; Zethner, Gehard; Spiegel, Heide; Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Xaver Hölzl, Franz; Preinstorfer, Claudia; Haslmayr, Hans Peter; Formayer, Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Austrian Carbon Calculator (ACC) - modelling soil carbon dynamics in Austrian soils. The project funded by the Klima- und Energiefonds, Austrian Climate Research Programme, 4th call Authors: Katrin Sedy, Alexandra Freudenschuss, Gerhard Zethner (Environment Agency Austria), Heide Spiegel (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety), Uwe Franko, Ralf Gründling (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research) Climate change will affect plant productivity due to weather extremes. However, adverse effects could be diminished and satisfying production levels may be maintained with proper soil conditions. To sustain and optimize the potential of agricultural land for plant productivity it will be necessary to focus on preserving and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is strongly influenced by management practice. The present management is affected by management practices that tend to speed up carbon loss. Crop rotation, soil cultivation and the management of crop residues are very important measures to influence carbon dynamics and soil fertility. For the future it will be crucial to focus on practical measures to optimize SOC and to improve soil structure. To predict SOC turnover the existing humus balance model the application of the "Carbon Candy Balance" was verified by results from Austrian long term field experiments and field data of selected farms. Thus the main aim of the project is to generate a carbon balancing tool box that can be applied in different agricultural production regions to assess humus dynamics due to agricultural management practices. The toolbox will allow the selection of specific regional input parameters for calculating the C-balance at field level. However farmers or other interested user can also apply their own field data to receive the result of C-dynamics under certain management practises within the next 100 years. At regional level the impact of predefined changes in agricultural management

  8. A new myeloarchitectonic map of the human neocortex based on data from the Vogt-Vogt school.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuys, Rudolf; Broere, Cees A J; Cerliani, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Katrin Amunts and their numerous associates, will yield a comprehensive 'supermap' of the structural organization of the human neocortex. For the time being, i. e., as long as this 'supermap' is not yet available, our map may provide a tentative frame of reference for (a) the morphological interpretation of the results of functional neuroimaging studies; (b) the selection of starting points (seed voxels, regions-of-interest) in diffusion tractography studies and

  9. PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. Conference Chairmen Theocharis Kosmas Department of Physics, University of Ioannina Elias Vagenas RCAAM, Academy of Athens Dimitrios Vlachos Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese The PDF also contains a list of members of the International Scientific Committes and details of the Keynote and Invited Speakers.

  10. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Two Volcanoes in Alaska Following the Mw7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Moran, S. C.; Power, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Mw7.9 Denali Fault earthquake provided an opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory monitors 24 volcanoes with seismic networks. We examined one station for each volcano, generally the closest (typically 5 km from the vent) unless noise, site response, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally bandpass filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to reduce noise from microseisms and wind. Data for the period three days before to three days after the Mw7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Shishaldin volcano, which has a background rate of several hundred seismic events per day on station SSLS, showed no change from before to after the earthquake. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of several dozen seismic events per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity at the time of the earthquake by a factor of 2.5; this lasted for 15 days. We tested this result using a different station, VNSS, and a different method of counting (non-filtered data on helicorder records) and found the same result. We infer that Veniaminof's activity was modified by the Mw7.9 earthquake. Wrangell, the closest volcano, had a background rate of about 10 events per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 8 days after the Mw7.9 earthquake because the large number of aftershocks precluded identification of local seismicity. For the following eight days, however, its seismicity rate was 30 percent lower than before. While subtle, we infer that this may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms7.1 St. Elias earthquake of 1979. The other 21 volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity from 3 days before to 3 days after the Mw7.9 event. We conclude that intermediate

  11. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  12. Towards understanding North Pacific climate variabilty with instrumental and ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Eric P.

    Reconstructing climate variability prior to the instrumental era is critical to advance our understanding of the Earth's climate system. Although many paleoclimate records from the North Atlantic basin have been studied, relatively few paleoclimate records have been recovered in the North Pacific leaving a gap in our knowledge concerning North Pacific climate variability. The Eclipse and Mount Logan Prospector-Russell ice cores are favorably located in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada to document North Pacific climate variability over the late Holocene. Detailed analysis reveals a consistent relationship of surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies associated with extreme Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Pacific-North America (PNA) index values, and a consistent relationship of North Pacific sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies associated with extreme Mt. Logan annual [Na+] and Eclipse cold season accumulation values. Spatial SAT anomaly patterns are most consistent for AO and PNA index values ≥1.5 and ≤-1.5 during the period 1872-2010. The highest and lowest ˜10% of Eclipse warm and cold season stable isotopes are associated with distinct atmospheric circulation patterns. The most-fractionated isotope values occur with a weaker Aleutian Low, and the least-fractionated isotope values occur with an amplification of the Aleutian Low and northwestern North American ridge. The assumption of stationarity between ice core records and sea-level pressure was tested for the Eclipse cold season accumulation and Mt. Logan annual sodium concentration records for 1872-2001. A stationary relationship was found for ≥95% of years when Mt. Logan sodium concentrations were ≤1.32 microg/L, with positive SLP anomalies in the eastern North Pacific. This high frequency supports the use of low sodium values at Mt. Logan for a reconstruction of SLP prior to 1872. Negative SLP anomalies in the North Pacific occurred for extreme high sodium concentration years and positive SLP

  13. Timing and Rate of Deglaciation of the MIS 2 Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Bond, J. D.; Gosse, J. C.; Turner, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Cordilleran ice sheet (CIS) consisted of a series of quasi-independent ice lobes that coalesced during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to form a continuous carapace of precipitation limited ice over southern Yukon. Variations in effective precipitation to different source areas of these ice lobes have been used to explain disparities in glacier extents in marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 4 and 6. Deglaciation of the northern margin of the CIS and its rate of recession from the LGM are poorly understood. We use cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating (10Be and 36Cl) on groups of 3-4 glacial erratics to reconstruct the timing and rate of deglaciation. Our sampling concentrated on the St. Elias, Cassiar and Selwyn lobes, as well an independent glacier from the Ogilvie Mountains. Boulders sampled up-ice from terminal moraines show that the initiation of deglaciation varied regionally. 36Cl ages from the Ogilvie Mountains indicate that deglaciation initiated by 24.8 ka. Further south in the Selwyn Lobe, two sites separated by ~150 km returned ages of 15.2 and 16.1 ka. To the south-west, three boulders from the Cassiar Lobe are 13.6 ka. Rates of deglaciation are best constrained for the Cassiar Lobe with two transects along different flow lines. Multiple valley bottom samples in the mid-deglaciation setting at Whitehorse yielded ages of 12.0 ka, while one boulder from the adjacent ridge top 600 m above is 13.5 ka. In the accumulation zone, ice-free conditions occurred by 10.8 ka. The other transect has higher elevation samples in a mid-deglaciation setting in the Pelly Mountains that indicate deglaciation occurred by 13.0 ka. Samples taken from high elevation and valley bottom sites close to accumulation zones of the Cassiar Lobe yielded ages of 13.6 and 11.0 ka, respectively. These results provide a chronology for the style of deglaciation interpreted from regional mapping throughout Yukon: gradual initial retreat and thinning marked by moraines, followed by

  14. Tectonics of Western Canada From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Flueck, P.; Hyndman, R. D.; Dragert, H.; Craymer, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2002-12-01

    colliding with the NA plate. The collision produces the intense deformation of the St. Elias Mountains as well as stress transfer across the northern Canadian Cordillera resulting in active tectonics and seismicity in eastern Yukon mountain front. Continuous and campaign GPS data in the Yukon and adjacent regions support this thick-skin orogenic float model with motion along major strike-slip and thrust fault systems.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: String Theory in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skenderis, Kostas

    2007-11-01

    The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to

  16. Constraints on the age and provenance of the Chugach accretionary complex from detrital zircons in the Sitka Graywacke near Sitka, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Gehrels, George E.; Karl, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Graywacke implies that it lay to the south when it was deposited and offscraped. Thus, although source areas as far north as the St. Elias Mountains and south-central Alaska are possible, they were most likely in coastal and interior British Columbia.

  17. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  18. Confirmation of the expression of a large set of conserved hypothetical proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Elias, Dwayne A; Monroe, Matthew E; Smith, Richard D; Fredrickson, James K; Lipton, Mary S

    2006-08-01

    High-throughput "omic" technologies have allowed for a relatively rapid, yet comprehensive analysis of the global expression patterns within an organism in response to perturbations. In the current study, 9503 different tryptic peptides were identified with high confidence from capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of 26 chemostat cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under various conditions. Using at least one distinctive and a total of two total peptide identifications per protein, we detected the expression of 758 conserved hypothetical proteins. This included 359 such proteins previously described [Kolker, E., Picone, A.F., Galperin, M.Y., Romine, M.F., Higdon, R., Makarova, K.S., Kolker, N., Anderson, G.A., Qiu, X., Auberry, K.J., Babnigg, G., Beliaev, A.S., Edlefsen, P., Elias, D.A., Gorby, Y.A., Holzman, T., Klappenbach, J.A., Konstantinidis, K.T., Land, M.L., Lipton, M.S., McCue, L.A., Monroe, M., Pasa-Tolic, L., Pinchuk, G., Purvine, S., Serres, M.H., Tsapin, S., Zakrajsek, B.A., Zhu, W., Zhou, J., Larimer, F.W., Lawrence, C.E., Riley, M., Collart, F.R., Yates, J.R., III, Smith, R.D., Giometti, C.S., Nealson, K.H., Fredrickson, J.K., Tiedje, J.M., 2005. Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 2099-2104] with an additional 399 reported herein for the first time. The latter 399 proteins ranged from 5.3 to 208.3 kDa, with 44 being of 100 amino acid residues or less. Using a combination of information including peptide detection in cells grown under specific culture conditions and predictive algorithms such as PSORT and PSORT-B, possible/plausible functions are proposed for some conserved hypothetical proteins. Such proteins were found not only to be expressed, but 19 were only expressed under certain culturing conditions, thereby providing insight into potential functions. These findings also impact the genomic annotation for S

  19. PREFACE: 12th Conference on Recent Developments in Gravity (NEB XII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2007-06-01

    /ENTApP, the Hellenic Ministry for Education and Religion, Athens University and ETHNIKI Insurance Co. that financially supported the Conference. We also thank the members of the Local Organizing Committee and the International Scientific Committee. Editors Theodosios I Christodoulakis Elias C Vagenas International Scientific Committee Kokkotas, K (University of Thessaloniki, Greece) Schäfer, G (University of Jena, Germany) Zanelli, J (CECS, Chile) Local Organizing Committee Christodoulakis, T I (University of Athens) Chairman Apostolatos, T (University of Athens) Stavrinos, P (University of Athens) Grammenos, T (University of Thessaly) Zoupas, A (University of Athens and University of Thessaly) Vagenas, E C (University of Athens)

  20. Identification of Gas Phase PAHs in Absorption Towards Protostellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The infrared emission bands (also known as the UIR bands.) have recently been observed in absorption at 3.25 micrometers in the ices surrounding a few proto-stellar objects at 11.2 micrometers in MonR2, and at 6.2 micrometers towards two sources near the galactic center. The UIR bands have been observed in emission for many years, but identifying these bands has proven to be both difficult and contentious as no one has yet found a single material that provides a good match to the features. However, most investigators agree that some form of carbon-based material with aromatic bonds is the most likely candidate, and many arguments favor free molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) as the carriers of at least the narrow emission bands. Since the emission arises not from a single molecule but from a family of molecules, identifying which PAHs are contributing to the infrared emission bands is difficult. The identification is further complicated by the fact that the emission at short wavelengths is dominated by small molecules while at long wavelengths it is dominated by large molecules. Thus, for example, the emission at 3.3 micrometers is from a different mix of molecules than those which produce the 11.2 micrometer band. To complicate matters further, the molecular mix includes both neutral and ionic species. In absorption, the same mixture of molecules contributes at all wavelengths and the molecules should be neutral, potentially simplifying comparisons with lab data. Also, absorption strengths measured in the lab are directly applicable to interstellar absorption bands without the need to model an emission spectrum of an unknown mixture of ionized and neutral PAHs. In this paper we show that a mixture of argon matrix isolated PAH molecules can reproduce the 3.25 micrometers absorption band seen in the ISO SWS spectra of four embedded Infrared sources, S140 IRS1, AFGL 2591, Elias 29, and AFGL 989. In section 2 we describe the ISO SWS data analysis and

  1. Identification and Characterization of Dynamic Alpine Subglacial Lakes Using InSAR, Radio- Echo Sounding, and Crevasse Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, D. L.; Rabus, B. T.; Clague, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    displacement of the overlying ice. The RES survey provided minimum depths of floating ice. We explain crevasse patterns using a two-fold stress field caused by simple downslope ice movement and vertical displacement of the overlying ice due to filling and draining of the lakes. This study demonstrates that a combination of InSAR, RES, and glaciological interpretation can effectively identify and characterize alpine subglacial lakes. Knowledge of these lakes is important for understanding glacier motion, outburst flood potential and routing, and glacier mass balance. This research is a component of a dissertation that seeks to identify and characterize the glacier-dammed lakes of Glacier Bay, Denali, and Wrangell - St. Elias National Parks using ground-truthed radar and optical remote sensing techniques. It is our aim to eventually apply these techniques to glacier-dammed lakes worldwide.

  2. Laurentian and Baltican components of Terranes in NW Washington: Implications for Displacement of Paleozoic Terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, E. R.; Brown, N.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cordillera. Although our prior work suggested connections to Turtleback complex (San Juan Islands) and Alexander terrane (Karheen formation) based on U-Pb data, Hf data appear to rule out such connections. However some elements of Alexander terrane (St Elias and Banks Island) are similar to YAC, and further work is needed to resolve the tectonic links.

  3. Coordinating shared care using electronic data interchange.

    PubMed

    Branger, P; van't Hooft, A; van der Wouden, H C

    1995-01-01

    computer-based patient records. The message can contain both administrative and medical data and can be used for transmission of a complete medical record, or sections of it. Our departments are working on a project in which general practitioners and specialists use their own electronic medical record system for storing data of jointly treated patients. In addition, the participating physicians use the MEDEUR message standard in communicating about these patients. The use of EDI enables physicians to transmit patient data electronically to another physician's computer system. The receiving physician can store the data automatically in his electronic medical record without having to re-type the data. We will demonstrate the electronic data interchange functionality of the general practitioner's information system, ELIAS, and the integrated composing and storing of electronic messages. We will also discuss several system design issues.

  4. Crustal Deformation Associated with Glacial Fluctuations in the Eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Plafker, George; Molnia, Bruce F.; Bryant, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    ) between 0 and 10 km was approximately equal 1.0 MPa, which is significant in relation to the stress drops in recent earthquakes (approximately 2 to 10 MPa) but small in relation to the estimated tectonic stress magnitude. Therefore the occurrence of an earthquake such as the St. Elias (1979, M(sub S) = 7.2) may have been advanced in time; however, most of the ongoing stress accumulation would be primarily due to tectonic forces.

  5. Determining melt regime patterns and changing melt dynamics for Alaskan glaciers and icefields using passive microwave brightness temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmens, K. A.; Ramage, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and studying glacier melt dynamics is necessary for understanding how the cryosphere responds to climate variability and change. Surface melting is often a driver of enhanced glacier velocities and can affect glacial mass balance. Several decades of remotely sensed passive microwave data provides a means for characterizing and analyzing surface melt dynamics across wide spatial domains with temporal continuity. Specifically, brightness temperatures from passive microwave sensors, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing Systems (AMSR-E), enable the detection of melt timing and dynamics over large icefields with relatively high temporal resolution (0.5 to 3 days). The ability to detect melt stems from the distinctness of the melt signal at 36-37 GHz vertical polarization. Further, the sensors collect data in all weather and both day and night providing a complete record. Utilizing these datasets, we focus on large icefields in Alaska including Juneau, St. Elias, and Stikine, as well as on individual glaciers such as the Malaspina, Hubbard, and Bering glaciers to investigate changing melt dynamics and relationships to larger atmospheric circulation patterns and temperatures. A 24 year time series of annual brightness temperature histograms is constructed to determine years that are anomalous from the average and to assess the general melt regime characteristics of the area along with temporal and spatial trends. Potential causative and correlative factors are explored including climate indices, temperature, elevation, distance from coast, and discharge. Diurnal amplitude variations (brightness temperature differences between the day and night) are also calculated to determine melt variability and melt-refreeze duration. Melt regime pattern and type are hypothesized to be largely controlled by distance from coast (maritime versus continental), elevation, and latitude. Melt dynamics and brightness

  6. Surge-like behavior at the non-surge type Matanuska Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal glacier velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of meltwater input. Abe and Furuya (2014) reported winter speed-up signals and their downglacier propagation at a number of glaciers near the border of Alaska and Yukon, based on ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. Here we perform the similar analyses at the Chugach mountain range of South Central Alaska, and report the spatial-temporal evolution of the Matanuska Glacier. Matanuska Glacier is the largest accessible glacier in Alaska with its nearly 40 km length and 5 km width near the terminus. Comparing the winter velocity images in 2007, 2008 and 2010, those in 2010 were about 1.5-2 times faster than those during the previous two years. In addition, comparing the fall and winter velocities, winter velocities were apparently faster at every 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 season. These data indicate winter speed-up or mini-surge signals even at a temperate and non-surgetype Matanuska Glacier. We also examine the spatial-temporal elevation changes, using data from the LiDAR altimeter in the Icebridge mission, and found significant elevation increase near the terminus. Winter speed-up may not be uncommon at Alaskan/Yukon glaciers. Lingle and Fatland (2003) detected faster speed in winter than in fall at non-surging Seward Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains; this is the only published and unambiguous report of winter speed-up, to our knowledge. Combined with earlier glacier hydrological studies, Lingle and Fatland proposed englacial water storage and gravity-driven water flow toward the bed in winter regardless of whether a given glacier is surge-type or not, and considered that the capacity of englacial water storage would control if a given glacier was surge-type or not. We consider that our measurements are complementary to Lingle and Fatland's observations and lend further support for their hypothesis. Basal

  7. A Grazing Encounter Between Two Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    sets were obtained by Debra Meloy Elmegreen (Vassar College), Bruce G. Elmegreen (IBM Research Division), Michele Kaufman (Ohio State U.), Elias Brinks (Universidad de Guanajuato, Mexico), Curt Struck (Iowa State University), Magnus Thomasson (Onsala Space Obs., Sweden), Maria Sundin (Goteborg University, Sweden), and Mario Klaric (Columbia, South Carolina).

  8. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  9. The Distribution and Abundance of Mercury Methylating Microorganisms in Mid-Atlantic Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. F. U.; Gilmour, C. C.; Schwartz, G.; Christensen, G. A.; King, A. J.; Elias, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the genes responsible for microbial methylmercury production, hgcAB, has led to the identification of novel Hg methylators with diverse metabolisms including Fe and SO42- reducing bacteria, syntrophs, and methanogens. We recently developed DNA probes for hgcA in each group of methylators: Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Archaea [Christensen, 2015]. In this study, we use the probes to determine quantity and distribution of hgcA+ organisms in mid-Atlantic marshes and sediments, and in Hg-contaminated wetland soils. We also analyze hgcA distribution over a 28-day soil slurry experiment designed to evaluate the impact of activated carbon on Hg methylation and demethylation [Gilmour, 2015]. Initial soils show Deltaproteobacteria comprise most hgcA+ organisms. Methanogens encompass >45% of the remaining methylators. The addition of SO42- to induce SO42- reducing conditions in slurries caused the number of hgcA+ Deltaproteobacteria to increase and the number of hgcA+ methanogens to decrease to >32%. In soils and slurries, Firmicutes were below detection, suggesting our Firmicute primers are either unrepresentative in natural samples, or that hgcA+ Firmicutes are rare. This observation is interesting as Firmicutes include organisms with divergent metabolisms, and their role in environmental methylation is still unknown. Slurries also show no correlation between hgcA abundance and Hg concentrations. We now plan to explore how hgcA abundance relates to Hg-methylation and electron acceptor availability. Our results offer initial insights into the natural distribution of hgcA, supporting the idea that the distribution of different methylators is related to electron acceptors and redox chemistry. Christensen, G., Wymore, AM, King, A, Pdar, M, Hurt Jur, RA, Santillan, EFU, Gilmour, CC, Brandt, CC, Brown, SD, Palumbo, AV, Elias, DA (2015), A Study of Mercury Methylation Genetics: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of hgcAB in Pure Culture, paper presented

  10. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fei; Xu, Min; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Yu, Jiang; Xu, Weiguo; Moussalli, Micheline J.; Elias, Elias; Li, Haiyan S.; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Shureiqi, Imad

    2015-01-01

    The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate–induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.—Mao, F., Xu, M., Zuo, X., Yu, J., Xu, W., Moussalli, M. J., Elias, E., Li, H. S., Watowich, S. S., Shureiqi, I. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:25713055

  11. Hydrological changes prints in subarctic watersheds discharge records: a case study in the Duke River watershed, Yukon, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, A.; Baraer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological changes from alpine glacierized watersheds have been reported from almost all the regions of the world. In most cases those changes have, or are foreseen to have, marked impacts on water resources with implications for downstream population and ecosystems. One of the ways to assess climate change impacts on glacierized watersheds is to conduct appropriate statistical analyses on historical hydrometric data where long and accurate time series exist. In the Yukon, Canada, a fair number of hydrometric time series are made accessible by institutions such as Environment Canada or the Yukon National Parks Organisation. Some of those time series have been studied previously at a regional scale in the territory. In the present study, focusing on the Duke River watershed area, we reanalyse these datasets based on a larger number of discharge characteristics and compare results with regional meteorological data analysis. We perform non-parametric trend analysis to assess long-term changes in watersheds response to climate-induced variability. Eight watersheds with varying glacierized area were chosen for this study. Main glaciers in the region are situated in St. Elias Mountains and are characterised by ubiquitous mass loss (Arendt et al., 2002; Barrand and Sharp, 2010). Historical hydrometric data analysis shows two distinct hydrological regimes in the area: (i) - snow fed rivers with peak runoff following spring snowmelt, and (ii) - glacier fed rivers with peak runoff following glacier ablation in July. While total discharge during ablation season does not vary significantly between watersheds with different regimes, the difference in late summer runoff is close to 50%. Moreover, trend analysis provides evidence of changes in hydrological regimes in the area. As a response to ubiquitous temperature increase, hydrologically active period for highly glacieized watershed (with glacierized area of 30%) has shifted from the beginning of August to the beginning of

  12. Late Quaternary glacial relief evolution and fracture-density control on erosion revealed by low-temperature thermochronometry and remote sensing (Granite Range, Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, Pierre; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Lowick, Sally; Guralnik, Benny; Shuster, David; Fellin, Giuditta

    2013-04-01

    Long-term erosion and topographic evolution of mountain belts arise from complex coupling between tectonics, climate and surface processes. The Granite Range (Wrangell-St Elias National Park, Alaska) presents an ideal setting to study such interactions. Its alpine landscape, preserving typical glacial features (U-shaped valleys, cirques), appears highly smoothed in the west, and progressively more rugged towards the east. In the field, this is evidenced by minor and only localized faulting of massive bedrock (granite and paragneiss) in the west, while the eastern part shows highly fractured bedrock (penetrative faults, fault gouges). Remote-sensing analysis confirms that fracture density is much higher towards east, and also reveals high post-glacial incision only in areas associated with high fracture density. To quantify our morphometric observations, we sampled four elevation profiles (~15 samples in total) over an 80-km East-West transect for low-temperature thermochrometry. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He dating provides ages between ~10 and 30 Ma, in agreement with published data, and shows apparent low long-term exhumation rates (~0.05-0.1 km/Ma). Preliminary 4He/3He thermochronometry data reveal a more complex exhumation history, with a significant increase since ~6-5 Ma which can be related to either onset of glaciations in Alaska or a major change in tectonic activity occurring at that period. Further data collected within the Granite Range will help to decipher the origin of this late-Miocene acceleration in exhumation. We also performed luminescence thermochronometry measured on feldspar separates from bedrock samples. Our results show a strong East-West gradient in samples saturation ratio. Apparent ages vary from ~250 ka in the western part of the range, towards younger ages of ~30 ka in the east. This pattern reveals spatially variable erosion rates during the late Quaternary associated with a major fracture-density control on erosion, and further supports the

  13. Present-day strain partitioning and strain transfer across the Fairweather and Denali Faults in SW Yukon - SE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marechal, Anaïs; Mazzotti, Stephane; Freymueller, Jeffrey; Elliott, Julie; Ritz, Jean-François; Ferry, Matthieu

    2014-05-01

    In SW Yukon - SE Alaska, the present-day Pacific - North America relative motion (~55 mm/yr) is highly oblique to the main plate boundary, resulting in strong strain-partitioning tectonics that link the Aleutian subduction to the west to Queen Charlotte transform to the south. This transition region is also the site of present-day orogeny (St Elias) and accretion of the allochthonous Yakutat Terrane to the Northern Cordillera. Multiple datasets (GPS, geomorphology, seismicity) are integrated to characterize and quantify strain patterns in this transpressional system, with particular emphasis on strain partitioning between strike-slip and shortening deformation. New campaign and permanent GPS stations straddling the main faults (Denali, Fairweather: vertical lithospheric scale faults) indicate that that 95% of the Pacific-North America strike-slip motion is accommodated on the main plate-boundary Fairweather Fault, leaving near-zero motion on the Denali Fault only ~100 km inboard. In contrast, the fault-perpendicular component is strongly distributed between shortening offshore and in the orogen, and 25% of the convergence transferred inland. This latter strain transfer could explain the seismicity observed in the Mackenzie Mountains 500 - 800 km from the coast. In the region of highest convergence obliquity, GPS data show a diffuse indentor-like deformation, with strong along-strike variations of the main fault slip rates. Preliminary results of a regional geomorphology study give further information about the Denali fault, along which previous data indicate a velocity decrease from 8 mm/yr (Matmon et al.,2006) to 4 mm/yr (Seitz et al., 2010) over 200 km along strike. A high resolution DEM (2m) processed from Pleiades data acquired in September 2013 highlights a significant vertical component on the Denali fault. Systematic metric scale displacements are measured along the "inactive" part of the fault, showing recent deformation since the Last Glacial Maximum in

  14. Ert Applied to the Characterization of Subsidence in Mexico City: Ancient Structures Affecting Urban Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, C.; Chavez, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Hernández-Quintero, E.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of subsidence in Mexico City is basically due to the rapid extraction of groundwater for water supply in addition to the geological conditions. The most typical manifestations of the phenomena are presented as cracks and fractures due to compaction of ancient lake clayish sediments. This phenomenon has caused major affectations to city infrastructure because of the differential subsidence. Fractured buildings, sinkholes, among others manifestations, are potentially sources of collapses, which exposes the population to a serious risk. A small portion of Iztacalco County is being affected by this problem, specifically, in a crossroad formed by two important avenues: La Viga and Plutarco Elias Calles, where the area apparently increases its topographical level. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography technique was selected in order to obtain a resistivity image of the subsoil, which allows identify the main features associated to the terrain uprising. Three (ERT) profiles 200 m, were deployed on the mentioned crossroad in order to characterize the subsurface structures affecting the topographical level of the avenues. A big resistivity anomaly (~ 1000 ohm-m) could be observed towards the central part of the crossroad, coinciding with the major lifting level on surface. This feature appears at 15 m deep in all the profiles and depicts an approximate extension of 100 m in the E-W direction and 60 m in N-S axis. On the other hand, the surrounding material seems to correspond to a higher-saturated environment (lacustrine sediments <10 ohm-m). Shallow anomalies were also detected related to urban artifacts (pipes, sewers, etcetera). The apparently terrain uprising can be associated to a differential subsidence. However, the mentioned avenues were ancient water channels since pre-Hispanic times, where the caudal was enough to allow small steam boating at late nineteenth century. These waterways served as main routes for the exchange of goods during colonial times

  15. Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    Acknowledgements This conference would not have been possible without the generous support from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the George Washington University INS and IMPACT institutes, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Office of Vice-President for Research, and the Department of Physics. We thank them wholeheartedly. We are also very grateful for the support of our colleagues on the local organizing committee, Walter Freeman and Frank Lee, and on the International Advisory Committee: Simon Hands, Tetsuo Hatsuda, Frithjof Karsch, Maria Paola Lombardo, Tereza Mendes, Atsushi Nakamura, Owe Philipsen, Claudia Ratti, Paul Romatschke, Misha Stephanov, and Nu Xu. List of participants Alexandru, Andrei George Washington University Bazavov, Alexei Brookhaven National Laboratory Bloch, Jacques University of Regensburg Braun-Munzinger, Peter EMMI, GSI Breto Rangel, Guillermo CMS/UC Davis D'Elia, Massimo University of Pisa, INFN Dexheimer, Veronica UFSC - Federal University of Santa Catarina Ding, Heng-Tong Brookhaven National Laboratory Dion, Alan Stony Brook University Dumitru, Adrian RBRC and Baruch College, CUNY Freeman, Walter George Washington University Gavai, Rajiv Tata Institute (TIFR), Mumbai Hanada, Masanori KEK Theory Center Hands, Simon Swansea University Hegde, Prasad Brookhaven National Laboratory Heinke, Craig University of Alberta Horvath, Ivan University of Kentucky Karsch, Frithjof Brookhaven National Laboratory Krieg, Stefan Wuppertal University Lattimer, James Stony Brook University Lee, Frank George Washington University Li, Anyi Institute for Nuclear Theory Liu, Keh-Fei University of Kentucky Lombardo, Maria Paola INFN - LNF Lottini, Stefano Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main Maezawa, Yu Brookhaven National Laboratory Miura, Kohtaroh Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN Monnai, Akihiko The University of Tokyo Mukherjee, Swagato Brookhaven National Laboratory Myers, Joyce University of Groningen Nakamura, Atsushi RIISE, Hiroshima

  16. A new method for GPS-based wind speed determinations during airborne volcanic plume measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Begun nearly thirty years ago, the measurement of gases in volcanic plumes is today an accepted technique in volcano research. Volcanic plume measurements, whether baseline gas emissions from quiescent volcanoes or more substantial emissions from volcanoes undergoing unrest, provide important information on the amount of gaseous output of a volcano to the atmosphere. Measuring changes in gas emission rates also allows insight into eruptive behavior. Some of the earliest volcanic plume measurements of sulfur dioxide were made using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The COSPEC, developed originally for industrial pollution studies, is an upward-looking optical spectrometer tuned to the ultraviolet absorption wavelength of sulfur dioxide (Millán and Hoff, 1978). In airborne mode, the COSPEC is mounted in a fixed-wing aircraft and flown back and forth just underneath a volcanic plume, perpendicular to the direction of plume travel (Casadevall and others, 1981; Stoiber and others, 1983). Similarly, for plumes close to the ground, the COSPEC can be mounted in an automobile and driven underneath a plume if a suitable road system is available (Elias and others, 1998). The COSPEC can also be mounted on a tripod and used to scan a volcanic plume from a fixed location on the ground, although the effectiveness of this configuration declines with distance from the plume (Kyle and others, 1990). In the 1990’s, newer airborne techniques involving direct sampling of volcanic plumes with infrared spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were developed in order to measure additional gases such as CO2 and H2S (Gerlach and others, 1997; Gerlach and others, 1999; McGee and others, 2001). These methods involve constructing a plume cross-section from several measurement traverses through the plume in a vertical plane. Newer instruments such as open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are now being used to measure the gases in volcanic plumes mostly from fixed

  17. Seasonal evolution of glacier velocity and portraits of basal motion across southeast Alaska via cross-correlation of optical satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. H., Jr.; Anderson, R. S.; Moon, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how glacier geometry and geographic setting govern a glacier's response to meltwater and precipitation inputs. Does the up-glacier limit of enhanced summer basal motion vary across glaciers? Do non-surge glaciers show consistent spatial patterns of basal motion from year to year? We investigate such questions by documenting the seasonal-to-annual evolution of surface velocity for over 25 surge- and non-surge type glaciers in the Wrangell-St Elias ranges of southeast Alaska, USA, during 2013-2015. We use the Python-implemented PYCORR image cross-correlation software to estimate ice surface velocity fields over ~35,000 km2 covered by four Landsat-8 (L8) scenes. PYCORR is an optimized version of IMCORR, and takes less than 5 minutes to process a full L8 scene. This computational efficiency allows us to calculate dozens of velocity fields for each scene to provide high temporal resolution. We automate the extraction of velocity profiles along longitudinal glacier profiles to document their temporal evolution over timespans ranging from 16 days to greater than one year at spatial resolution of several tens to several hundred meters. This method provides much greater spatial coverage than GPS-derived velocities, and succeeds in terrain of rough surface texture and significant temporal elevation change, both of which present substantial challenges for deriving InSAR velocities. Preliminary data on Kennicott Glacier (Figure 1) resolve the annual velocity cycle in which speeds are lowest over winter and highest in summer reflecting meltwater-induced basal motion. We find notable seasonal velocity fluctuations at distances of more than 30 km from the glacier terminus. While longitudinal stress gradient coupling may explain a portion of these velocity variations, local basal motion must contribute, as the relatively thin (~500 m) ice cannot transmit longitudinal stresses over such distances. Regions downstream of tributary junctions show consistently

  18. Simultaneous Assessment of Rotavirus-Specific Memory B Cells and Serological Memory after B Cell Depletion Therapy with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Daniel; Rojas, Olga L.; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Ángel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of serological memory are still unclear. Rotavirus (RV) memory B cells (mBc) are enriched in IgM+ and CD27- subpopulations, which are associated with autoimmune diseases pathogenesis. In patients with autoimmune diseases treated with Rituximab (RTX), some autoantibodies (auto-Abs) decrease after treatment, but other auto-Abs and pathogen-specific IgG Abs remain unchanged. Thus, maintenance of autoimmune and pathogen-specific serological memory may depend on the type of antigen and/or Ab isotype evaluated. Antigen-specific mBc and antigen-specific Abs of different isotypes have not been simultaneously assessed in patients after RTX treatment. To study the relationship between mBc subpopulations and serological memory we characterized total, RV- and tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific mBc by flow cytometry in patients with autoimmune diseases before and after treatment with RTX. We also measured total, RV- and TT-Abs, and some auto-Abs by kinetic nephelometry, ELISA, and EliA tests, respectively. Minor differences were observed between the relative frequencies of RV-mBc in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune disease. After RTX treatment, naïve Bc and total, RV- and TT-specific mBc [IgM+, switched (IgA+/IgG+), IgM+ only, IgD+ only, and CD27- (IgA+/IgG+/IgM+)] were significantly diminished. An important decrease in total plasma IgM and minor decreases in total IgG and IgA levels were also observed. IgM rheumatoid factor, IgG anti-CCP, and IgG anti-dsDNA were significantly diminished. In contrast, RV-IgA, RV-IgG and RV-IgG1, and TT-IgG titers remained stable. In conclusion, in patients with autoimmunity, serological memory against RV and TT seem to be maintained by long-lived plasma cells, unaffected by RTX, and an important proportion of total IgM and serological memory against some auto-antigens seem to be maintained by short-lived plasma cells, dependent on mBc precursors depleted by RTX. PMID:24819618

  19. Simultaneous assessment of rotavirus-specific memory B cells and serological memory after B cell depletion therapy with rituximab.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Daniel; Rojas, Olga L; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Mantilla, Rubén D; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of serological memory are still unclear. Rotavirus (RV) memory B cells (mBc) are enriched in IgM(+) and CD27- subpopulations, which are associated with autoimmune diseases pathogenesis. In patients with autoimmune diseases treated with Rituximab (RTX), some autoantibodies (auto-Abs) decrease after treatment, but other auto-Abs and pathogen-specific IgG Abs remain unchanged. Thus, maintenance of autoimmune and pathogen-specific serological memory may depend on the type of antigen and/or Ab isotype evaluated. Antigen-specific mBc and antigen-specific Abs of different isotypes have not been simultaneously assessed in patients after RTX treatment. To study the relationship between mBc subpopulations and serological memory we characterized total, RV- and tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific mBc by flow cytometry in patients with autoimmune diseases before and after treatment with RTX. We also measured total, RV- and TT-Abs, and some auto-Abs by kinetic nephelometry, ELISA, and EliA tests, respectively. Minor differences were observed between the relative frequencies of RV-mBc in healthy controls and patients with autoimmune disease. After RTX treatment, naïve Bc and total, RV- and TT-specific mBc [IgM(+), switched (IgA(+)/IgG(+)), IgM(+) only, IgD(+) only, and CD27- (IgA(+)/IgG(+)/IgM(+))] were significantly diminished. An important decrease in total plasma IgM and minor decreases in total IgG and IgA levels were also observed. IgM rheumatoid factor, IgG anti-CCP, and IgG anti-dsDNA were significantly diminished. In contrast, RV-IgA, RV-IgG and RV-IgG1, and TT-IgG titers remained stable. In conclusion, in patients with autoimmunity, serological memory against RV and TT seem to be maintained by long-lived plasma cells, unaffected by RTX, and an important proportion of total IgM and serological memory against some auto-antigens seem to be maintained by short-lived plasma cells, dependent on mBc precursors depleted by RTX.

  20. Localized deformation zones in the offshore leading edge of the Yakutat microplate, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, L. A.; Gulick, S. P.; Pavlis, T.; Bruhn, R. L.; Mann, P.

    2006-12-01

    ) transition in deformation style, including a possible eastward jump of the deformation front to the eastern PZ. In addition, images of the Khitrov fault zone south of Kayak Island show possible transpressional faulting and associated surface deformation that may indicate a shift in tectonic style in this corner of the microplate as Yakutat material is constricted west of the PZ. Collision in the leading edge of the Yakutat block therefore appears to be accommodated by deformation along localized fault structures as opposed to a broad zone of deformation. These localized deformation zones correlate with the edges of the large temperate glaciers that are the dominant erosional force in the St. Elias orogeny.

  1. Rock uplift above the subduction megathrust at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Kelly M.

    Deformation related to the transition from strike-slip to convergent slip during flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate has resulted in regions of focused rock uplift and exhumation. In the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains, faulting related to transpressional processes and bending of fault systems coupled with enhanced glacial erosion causes rapid exhumation. Underplating below the syntaxial bend farther west in the Chugach Mountains and central Prince William Sound causes focused, but less rapid, exhumation. Farther south in the Prince William Sound, plate boundary deformation transitions from strike-slip to nearly full convergence in the Montague Island and Hinchinbrook Island region, which is ˜20 km above the megathrust between the Yakutat microplate and overriding North American Plate. Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands are narrow, elongate, and steep, with a structural grain formed by several megathrust fault splays, some of which slipped during the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Presented here are 32 new apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 28 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island regions. Most AHe ages are <5 Ma, with some as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ˜5 Ma to ˜20 Ma and are also younger at the SW end of Montague Island. These ages and corresponding exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island region is a narrow zone of intense deformation probably related to duplex thrusting along one or more megathrust fault splays. I interpret the rates of rock uplift and exhumation to have increased in the last ˜5 My, especially at the southwest end of the island system and farthest from the region dominated by strike-slip and transpressional deformation to the northeast. The narrow band of deformation along these islands likely

  2. Mass balances and dynamic changes of the Bering, Malaspina, and Icy Bay glacier systems of Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald R.

    The Bering and the Malaspina Glacier systems of south-central Alaska, U.S.A., and southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, in the Saint Elias Mountains constitute the two largest temperate surge-type piedmont glaciers on Earth. This is largest region of glaciers and icefields in continental North America. Determining and understanding the causes of wastage of these two glaciers is important to understanding the linkages of glacier mass balance to climate change, glacier dynamics, and the contributions of the glaciers of northwestern North America to rising sea level. Presented are the first detailed estimate of the net mass balances of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems, the effects of glacier dynamics on their accumulation areas, and the wastage of the tidewater glaciers of Icy Bay. The combined wastage of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems from 1972 to 2003, 254 +/- 16 km 3 water equivalent over a glacier area of 7734 km2, is equivalent to an area-average mass balance of -1.06 +/- 0.07 m/y over that time period. This represents a contribution to global sea-level rise of 0.70 +/- 0.05 mm, 0.023 +/- 0.002 mm/yr from 1972 to 2003. This is roughly 0.8% of the modern sea-level rise as estimated from tide-gauges and satellites, and roughly 9% of the contribution from non-polar glaciers and ice caps. Glacier wastage has been caused by climate warming (negative mass balance) superimposed on the effects of glacier dynamics. Near-concurrent surge of the three largest glaciers of the Malaspina Glacier piedmont were observed during 1999 to 2002. In addition, the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, whose retreat since 1910 was interrupted in 1964 by a major surge, also surged during 1999 to 2002. These four surges have occurred roughly 23 years after the 1976/77 shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its current warm-wet phase. Despite the increase of high-elevation snow accumulation observed on Mt. Logan, the accumulation areas of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems

  3. Dynamics and internal structure of an Alaskan debris-covered glacier from repeat airborne photogrammetry and surface geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, John; Levy, Joseph; Petersen, Eric; Larsen, Chris; Fahnestock, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers encompass a range of compositions and activity, and can be useful paleoclimate indicators. They also respond differently to ongoing climate change than glaciers without a protective cover. Their flow dynamics are not well understood, and their unique surface morphologies, including lobate fronts and arcuate ridges, likely result from viscous flow influenced by a combination of composition, structure, and climatic factors. However, basic connections between flow kinematics and surface morphology have not yet been established, limiting our ability to understand these features. In order to begin to address this problem we have undertaken airborne and surface studies of multiple debris-covered glaciers in Alaska and the western U.S. Sourdough Rock Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska, is completely debris-covered and exhibits numerous transverse compressional ridges. Its trunk also exhibits highly regular bumps and swales with a wavelength of ~175 m and amplitudes up to 12 m. In the middle trunk, lineations (boulder trains and furrows) bend around a point roughly 200m from the eastern edge. We acquired five high-resolution airborne surveys of Sourdough Rock Glacier between late 2013 and late 2015 using lidar and photogrammetry to assess annual and seasonal change at the sub-meter level. Differencing the DTMs provides vertical change while feature tracking in orthophotos provide horizontal velocities that indicate meters of annual motion. The flow field is highly correlated with surface features; in particular, compressional ridges in the lower lobe. Stranded, formerly active lobes are also apparent. Surface geophysical studies were undertaken to constrain internal structure and composition using a combination of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) at 50 and 100 MHz in six transects, and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements at 47 locations, primarily in an along-flow transect and two cross-flow transects. We infer

  4. Crustal deformation associated with glacial fluctuations in the eastern Chugach Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauber, Jeanne; Plafker, George; Molnia, Bruce F.; Bryant, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    significant in relation to the stress drops in recent earthquakes (≈ 2 to 10 MPa) but small in relation to the estimated tectonic stress magnitude. Therefore the occurrence of an earthquake such as the St. Elias (1979, MS = 7.2) may have been advanced in time; however, most of the ongoing stress accumulation would be primarily due to tectonic forces.

  5. IMPROVING SCIENCE EDUCATION AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA:The Synergistic Connection between Educational Outreach Efforts in the Copper Valley, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; McCarthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Education Outreach is to enhance the science education opportunities in the Copper Valley region in Alaska. In the process, we also educate local residents about HAARP and its research. Funded jointly by US Air Force and Navy, HAARP is located at Gakona Alaska, a very rural region of central Alaska with a predominantly Native population. The main instrument at HAARP is a vertically directed, phased array RF transmitter which is primarily an ionospheric research tool, however, its geophysical research applications range from terrestrial to near-space. Research is conducted at HAARP in collaboration with scientists and institutions world-wide. The HAARP Education Outreach Program, run through the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been active for over six years and in that time has become an integral part of science education in the Copper Valley for residents of all ages. HAARP education outreach efforts are through direct involvement in local schools in the Copper River School District (CRSD) and the Prince William Sound Community College (PWSCC), as well as public lectures and workshops, and intern and student research programs. These outreach efforts require cooperation and coordination between the CRSD, PWSCC, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Physics Department and the NSF sponsored Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) and HAARP researchers. The HAARP Outreach program also works with other organizations promoting science education in the region, such as the National Park Service (Wrangell- St. Elias National Park) and the Wrangell Institute for Science and Environment (WISE) a newly formed regional non-profit organization. We work closely with teachers in the schools, adapting to their needs and the particular scientific topic they are covering at the time. Because of time and logistic constraints, outreach visits to schools are episodic, occurring roughly

  6. Introducing litter quality to the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS: Effects on short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Hanspeter; Wolf, Annett; Rühr, Nadine; Bugmann, Harald

    2010-05-01

    and 2007 [Rühr(2009)] and present soil carbon stocks [Heim et al.(2009)]. Our Results show, that for short-term soil carbon dynamics, e.g. estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration on an annual basis, the inclusion of the dependency on litter quality is not necessary, as the differences are minor only. However, when considering long-term soil carbon dynamics, e.g. simulated estimates of present soil carbon content, the dependency on litter quality shows effect, as there are correlations with specific site factors such as site location and forest type. The inclusion of the dependence on litter quality therefore may be of importance for the projection of future soil carbon dynamics, as forest types may well be altered due to climatic change. References [Heim et al.(2009)] A. Heim, L. Wehrli, W. Eugster, and M.W.I. Schmidt. Effects of sampling design on the probability to detect soil carbon stock changes at the swiss CarboEurope site Lägeren. Geoderma, 149(3-4):347-354, 2009. [Rühr(2009)] Nadine Katrin Rühr. Soil respiration in a mixed mountain forest : environmental drivers and partitioning of component fluxes. PhD thesis, ETH, 2009. [Smith et al.(2001)] Benjamin Smith, I. Colin Prentice, and Martin T. Sykes. Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: comparing two contrasting approaches within european climate space. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10(6):621-637, 2001. [Tuomi et al.(2008)] Mikko Tuomi, Pekka Vanhala, Kristiina Karhu, Hannu Fritze, and Jari Liski. Heterotrophic soil respiration-Comparison of different models describing its temperature dependence. Ecological Modelling, 211(1-2): 182-190, 2008.

  7. Characterization of residuals from ice particles and droplets sampled in mid-latitude natural and aviation-influenced cirrus and in tropical deep convective cloud systems during ML-CIRRUS and ACRIDICON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schulz, Christiane; Klimach, Thomas; Krüger, Mira; Schneider, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Airborne sampling of cloud particles inside different cirrus cloud types and inside deep convective clouds was conducted during the HALO missions ML-CIRRUS over Europe in March/April 2014 and ACRIDICON over Amazonia in September 2014. ML-CIRRUS aims at the investigation of the for-mation, evolution, microphysical state and radiative effects of different natural and aviation-induced cirrus clouds in the mid-latitudes. The main objectives of ACRIDICON are the microphysical vertical profiling, vertical aerosol transport and the cloud processing of aerosol particles (compari-son in- and outflow) of tropical deep convective cloud systems in clean and polluted air masses and over forested and deforested regions. The hydrometeors (drops and ice particles) are sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) which has to be installed in the front part of the upper fuselage of the HALO aircraft. Such an intake position implies a size dependent abundance of cloud particles with respect to ambient conditions that was studied by particle trajectory simulations (Katrin Witte, HALO Technical Note 2008-003-A). On the other hand, this sampling location avoids that large ice crystals which could potentially bias the cloud particle sampling by shattering and break-up at the inlet shroud and tip enter the inlet. Both aspects as well as the flight conditions of HALO were taken into account for an optimized CVI design for HALO (HALO-CVI). Interstitial particles are pre-segregated and the condensed phase is evaporated/sublimated by the CVI, such that the residuals from cloud droplets and ice particles (CDR and IPR) can be microphysically and chemically analyzed by respective aerosol sensors located in the cabin. Although an even more comprehensive characterization of CDR and IPR was carried out, we like to report on the following measurements of certain aerosol properties. Particle number concentra-tion and size distribution are measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an

  8. Winter speed-up of ice flow at quiescent surge-type glaciers in Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Abe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier surge exhibits order-of-magnitude faster velocity and km-scale terminus advance during its short active phase after a long quiescent period. The observations of glacier surge are still limited, and the mechanisms of glacier surge cycle remain elusive. Moreover, with the exception of several well-examined glaciers, the glacier dynamics during their quiescent periods remains even more uncertain due to the paucity of surface velocity measurement data. Here we examined spatial-temporal changes in the ice surface velocity of surge-type glaciers in the St. Elias Mountains near the border of Alaska and Yukon during the period from December 2006 to March 2011. We applied the offset-tracking (feature-tracking) technique to the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images derived from the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS). The Chitina, Anderson, Walsh, and Logan Glaciers, the major subpolar surge-type glaciers of the Chitina River valley system, could be examined with the highest temporal resolution because of the overlap of multiple satellite tracks. We have found significant upstream accelerations from fall to winter at a number of glaciers during their quiescence. Moreover, whereas the upstream propagating summer speed-up was observed, the winter speed-up propagated from upstream to downglacier. Although the winter speed-up seems to be at odds with the well-known summer speed-up, these observations are consistent with the fragmentary but well-known fact of glacier surge that often initiates in winter, suggesting that some of the mechanisms would be valid even during quiescent phases. Ice surface velocity at mountain glaciers and ice sheets typically exhibits the greatest acceleration from spring to early summer, followed by deceleration in mid-summer to fall, and is slowest in winter. These short-term velocity changes are attributed to subglacial slip associated with water pressure changes that occur because of the seasonal variability of

  9. Confidence intervals in Flow Forecasting by using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Tsekouras, George

    2014-05-01

    variable of different ANN structures [3]. The performance of each ANN structure is evaluated by the voting analysis based on eleven criteria, which are the root mean square error (RMSE), the correlation index (R), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), the mean percentage error (MPE), the mean percentage error (ME), the percentage volume in errors (VE), the percentage error in peak (MF), the normalized mean bias error (NMBE), the normalized root mean bias error (NRMSE), the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) and the modified Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E1). The next day flow for the test set is calculated using the best ANN structure's model. Consequently, the confidence intervals of various confidence levels for training, evaluation and test sets are compared in order to explore the generalisation dynamics of confidence intervals from training and evaluation sets. [1] H.S. Hippert, C.E. Pedreira, R.C. Souza, "Neural networks for short-term load forecasting: A review and evaluation," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, 2001, pp. 44-55. [2] G. J. Tsekouras, N.E. Mastorakis, F.D. Kanellos, V.T. Kontargyri, C.D. Tsirekis, I.S. Karanasiou, Ch.N. Elias, A.D. Salis, P.A. Kontaxis, A.A. Gialketsi: "Short term load forecasting in Greek interconnected power system using ANN: Confidence Interval using a novel re-sampling technique with corrective Factor", WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing, (CSECS '10), Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, December 29-31, 2010. [3] D. Panagoulia, I. Trichakis, G. J. Tsekouras: "Flow Forecasting via Artificial Neural Networks - A Study for Input Variables conditioned on atmospheric circulation", European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2012 (NH1.1 / AS1.16 - Extreme meteorological and hydrological events induced by severe weather and climate change), Vienna, Austria, 22-27 April 2012.

  10. The Mount Logan (Yukon) Ice Cores: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    Three ice cores were taken at different elevations on or near My Logan in the years 2001 and 2002. The summit core (PRCol) comes from the summit plateau ( 5340 masl, length 187 m to bedrock, mean temperature -29 C ) and was done by the Geological Survey of Canada. The NIPR group cored 210m on the flanks of the mountain at King Col (4200 masl mean temperature -16C) and the UNH group cored 20 km from the mountain at Eclipse "Dome" (3015 masl,length 345 m mean temperature -5C) . The three cores were done cooperatively by GSC, NIPR and UNH and cover nominally 30 ka, 1 ka and 2ka respectively . Located very close to the Gulf of Alaska these core records are thought to reflect the climate history of the Pacific Ocean and having three widely spaced elevations, the sites "see" different distances to different sources. The lowest site (Eclipse) has excellent seasonals but a very muted δ 18O history with no obvious little ice age, whereas the most recent 1ka of the PRCol summit sites contains two very large and sudden δ 18O and d (deuterium excess) shifts at 1850 AD and ~ 800 AD. The δ 18O shifts which happen from one year to the next are about 4 o/oo . The summit site (PRCol) δ 18O response is "backwards", ie the Little Ice Age δ 18O values are 4 o/oo more positive than recent ones. The PRCol δ 18O and d suggest that the source water can either be ëlocalí (Gulf of Alaska) or very distant (tropics) . The Eclipse site seems only to get the local water . A massive dust storm originating in central Asia (Gobi) in April 2001 dumped a visible layer all over the St Elias Mountains and this layer was sampled, to provide a calibration "Asian dust event". The satellite and isotoic signatures both agreed that Gobi was the source. The PRCol record covers the Holocene and well back into the ice age. The transition is defined by a sudden ECM shift on the flanks of a more gradual O18 shift. Acknowledgements. Logan consortium consists of : Geological Survey of Canada : Jocelyne

  11. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Bernardo, Wagner Luis de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Höfling, José Francisco

    2003-01-01

    dissemination route of these microorganisms in some groups of healthy scholars, which may be dependent of either socioeconomic categories or geographic site of each child. In contrast to the higher similarity, the lower similarity or higher polymorphism degree (0.499 < or = SD < 0.788) of protein profiles was shown in 23 (30.6%) C. albicans oral isolates. Considering the social epidemiological aspect, 42.1%, 41.7%, 26.6%, 23.5%, and 16.7% were isolates from children concerning to socioeconomic categories A, D, C, B, and E, respectively, and geographically, 63.6%, 50%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 30%, 25%, and 14.3% were isolates from children from schools LAE (Liceu Colégio Albert Einstein), MA (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Elias de Melo Ayres"), CS (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Carlos Sodero"), AV (Alphaville), HF (E.E.P.S.G. "Honorato Faustino), FMC (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Francisco Mariano da Costa"), and MEP (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Manasses Ephraim Pereira), respectively. Such results suggest a higher protein polymorphism degree among some strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic strata or geographic sites. Complementary studies, involving healthy students and their families, teachers, servants, hygiene and nutritional habits must be done in order to establish the sources of such colonization patterns in population groups of healthy children. The whole-cell protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide additional criteria for the taxonomic and epidemiological studies of C. albicans.

  12. Observing Weather in Venus's Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. F.; Bullock, M. A.; Chanover, N. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2003-05-01

    References Carlson, R.W., K.H. Baines, T. Encrenaz, F.W. Tay-lor, P. Drossart, L.W. Kamp, J.B. Pollack, E. Lellouch, A.D. Collard, S.B. Calcutt, D.H. Grinspoon, P.R. Weissman, W.D. Smythe, A.C. Ocampo, G.E. Danielson, F.P. Fanale, T.V. Johnson, H.H. Kieffer, D.L. Matson, T.B. McCord, and L.A. Soderblom, Galileo infrared imaging spectrometer measurements at Venus, Science, 253, 1541-1548, 1991. Chanover, N.J., D.A. Glenar, and J.J. Hillman, Multispectral near-IR imaging of Venus nightside cloud features, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 31,335-31,348, 1998. Crisp, D., S. McMuldroch, S.K. Stephens, W.M. Sinton, B. Ragent, K.W. Hodapp, R.G. Probst, L.R. Doyle, D.A. Allen, and J. Elias, Ground-based near-infrared imaging observations of Venus during the Galileo encounter, Science, 253, 1538-1541, 1991b.

  13. Repeat Photography of Alaskan Glaciers and Landscapes as Both Art and as a Means of Communicating Climat Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    , Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Denali National Park and Preserve, the northern and northwestern Prince William Sound area of the Chugach National Forest, and the Mendenhall Glacier area of the Tongass National Forest to document and determine the extent of changing glaciers and landscapes. The use of repeat photography to document temporal change is not new. It originated as a glacier-monitoring technique in the European Alps more than 150 years ago. What is unique in this Alaskan application of repeat photography is the systematic approach being used to obtain photographic documentation of glacier and landscape change for every glacier-hosting fiord in western southcentral Alaska, as well as at many Alaskan valley glacier sites. What is also unique is the development of an annotated website which presents many pairs of these photographs as well as ancillary materials to help convey the basics of Alaskan glaciers and climate change. The website, titled 'Glacier and Landscape Change in Response to Changing Climate', (http://www.usgs.gov/climate_landuse/glaciers/) was awarded the 2010 USGS Shoemaker External Communications Award.

  14. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    reinforce the benefits of reducing low level speeding - the central message of "Wipe Off 5". These strategies were implemented across the entire state of Victoria with the intention of covering as many road users as possible. This study aimed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the speed-related package. The study objectives were: to document the increased speed camera activity in each speed limit zone and in Melbourne compared with the rest of Victoria; to evaluate the overall effect on crash outcomes of the package; to account as far as possible for the effect on crash outcomes of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors, which would otherwise influence the speed-related package evaluation; and to examine speed trends in Melbourne and on Victorian rural highways, especially the proportions of vehicles travelling at excessive speeds. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the overall impact on crash outcomes associated with the speed-related package, after adjusting as far as possible for the effect of non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. D'Elia, Newstead and Cameron (2007) document the study results in full.

  15. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on various communities: Chapter G in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben; Eckel, Edwin B.; Mayo, Lawrence R.

    1969-01-01

    more than 60 feet, that occurred in the Prince William Sound region during the earthquake. A train of long-period seismic sea waves that began about 20 minutes after the start of the earthquake inundated shores along the Gulf of Alaska coast to a maximum height of 35 feet above tide level. At the communities described, they virtually destroyed two logging camps at Whidbey Bay and Puget Bay on the south coast of the Kenai Peninsula, caused moderate damage to boat harbors and docks at Seldovia and Cordova, floated away some beach cabins in the Cordova area, and drowned two people, one at Point Whitshed near Cordora and one at the Cape Saint Elias Light Station. The seismic sea waves were generated by regional tectonic uplift of the sea floor on the Continental Shelf. Vertical tectonic displacements of the land relative to sea level that accompanied the earthquake affected virtually all the coastal communities. Tectonic subsidence of 5 to 6 feet, augmented locally by surficial subsidence of unconsolidated deposits required either the relocation or raising of structures at Portage, Girdwood, and Hope on Turnagain Arm. Shoreline submergence resulting from about 3½ feet of tectonic subsidence at Seldovia necessitated raising all waterfront facilities and the airstrip above the level of high tides. On the other hand, tectonic uplift of the land in the Prince Williams Sound region required deepening of the small-boat harbors at Cordora and Tatitlek, dredging of the waterways in the Cordova area, and lengthening of some docks or piers at Cordova, the Cape Hinchinbrook Light Station, and in Sawmill Bay. Significant structural damage from direct seismic shaking was largely confined to fluid containers and a pier facility near Kenai. Indirect damage from fissuring and differential settling of foundation mterials in the vicinity of the Cordova airfield mused damage to a building, underground utilities, an airfield fill, and the highway. Minor amounts of direct and indirect damage

  16. Recent Elevation Changes on Bagley Ice Valley, Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, Alaska, from ICESat Altimetry, Star-3i Airborne, and SRTM Spaceborne DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, R. R.; Sauber, J. M.; Lingle, C. S.; Rabus, B. T.; Tangborn, W. V.; Echelmeyer, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Three- to 5-year surface elevation changes on Bagley Ice Valley, Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, in the eastern Chugach and St. Elias Mtns of south-central Alaska, are estimated using ICESat-derived data and digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. The surface elevations of these glaciers are influenced by climatic warming superimposed on surge dynamics (in the case of Bagley Ice Valley) and tidewater glacier dynamics (in the cases of Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers) in this coastal high-precipitation regime. Bagley Ice Valley / Bering Glacier last surged in 1993-95. Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, as well as the nearby Tyndell Glacier, have experienced massive tidewater retreat during the past century, as well as during recent decades. The ICESat-derived elevation data we employ were acquired in early autumn in both 2003 and 2004. The NASA/NIMA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM that we employ was derived from X-band InSAR data acquired during this 11-22 Feb. 2000 mission and processed by the German Aerospace Center. This DEM was corrected for estimated systematic error, and a mass balance model was employed to account for seasonal snow accumulation. The Star-3i airborne, X-band, InSAR-derived DEM that we employ was acquired 4-13 Sept. 2000 by Intermap Technologies, Inc., and was also processed by them. The ICESat-derived profiles crossing Bagley Ice Valley, differenced with Star-3i DEM elevations, indicate preliminary mean along-profile elevation increases of 5.6 ± 3.4 m at 1315 m altitude, 7.4 ± 2.7 m at 1448 m altitude, 4.7 ± 1.9 m at 1557 m altitude, 1.3 ± 1.4 m at 1774 m altitude, and 2.5 ± 1.5 m at 1781 m altitude. This is qualitatively consistent with the rising surface on Bagley Ice Valley observed by Muskett et al. [2003]. The ICESat-derived profiles crossing Yahtse Glacier, differenced with the SRTM DEM elevations, indicate preliminary mean elevation changes (negative implies decrease) of -0.9 ± 3

  17. Doping, Strain, Orientation and Disorder of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2009-03-01

    graphene[12]. [4pt] 1. A. C. Ferrari, J. Robertson (eds), Raman spectroscopy in carbons: from nanotubes to diamond, Theme Issue, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 362, 2267 (2004). 2. F. Tuinstra, J.L. Koening, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 1126(1970). 3. A. C. Ferrari, J. Robertson Phys Rev B 61, 14095 (2000); 64, 075414 (2001) 4. A. C. Ferrari Solid State Comm.143, 47 (2007) 5. S. Piscanec et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 185503 (2004) 6. A. C. Ferrari et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006) 7. S. Pisana et al. Nature Mater. 6, 198 (2007) 8. A. Das et al, Nature Nano 3, 210 (2008). 9. A. Das et al., arXiv:0807.1631v1 (2008) 10. A. C. Ferrari et al. submitted (2008) 11. C. Casiraghi et al. Appl. Phys Lett. 91, 233108 (2007) 12. Elias et al. arXiv:0810.4706 (2008)

  18. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  19. Investigating Cenozoic climate change in tectonically active regions with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd; Li, Jingmin; Werner, Martin; Stepanek, Christian; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Cenozoic palaeo-climates contribute to our understanding of contemporary climate change by providing insight into analogues such as the Pliocene (PLIO), and by evaluation of GCM (General Circulation Models) performance using the Mid-Holocene (MH) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Furthermore, climate is a factor to be considered in the evolution of ecology, landscapes and mountains, and in the reconstruction of erosion histories. In this study, we use high-resolution (T159) ECHAM5 simulations to investigate pre-industrial (PI) and the the above mentioned palaeo-climates for four tectonically active regions: Alaska (St. Elias Range), the US Northwest Pacific (Cascade Range), western South America (Andes) and parts of Asia (Himalaya-Tibet). The PI climate simulation is an AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) style ECHAM5 experiment, whereas MH and LGM simulation are based on simulations conducted at the Alfred Wegner Institute, Bremerhaven. Sea surface boundary conditions for MH were taken from coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (Wei and Lohmann, 2012; Zhang et al, 2013) and sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentration for the LGM are based on GLAMAP project reconstructions (Schäfer-Neth and Paul, 2003). Boundary conditions for the PLIO simulation are taken from the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) project and the employed PLIO vegetation boundary condition is created by means of the transfer procedure for the PRISM vegetation reconstruction to the JSBACH plant functional types as described by Stepanek and Lohmann (2012). For each of the investigated areas and time slices, the regional simulated climates are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability of precipitation, 2m air temperature and the intra-annual amplitude of the values. Results indicate the largest differences to a PI climate are observed for LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and warming

  20. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    of fish sampled were above a benchmark for risk to highly sensitive avian consumers (90 ng/g ww), and THg concentrations in 68 percent of fish sampled were above exposure levels recommended by the Great Lakes Advisory Group (50 ng/g ww) for unlimited consumption by humans. Of the fish assessed for risk to human consumers (that is, species that are large enough to be consumed by recreational or subsistence anglers), only one individual fish from Yosemite National Park had a muscle Hg concentration exceeding the benchmark (950 ng/g ww) at which no human consumption is advised. Zion, Capital Reef, Wrangell-St. Elias, and Lake Clark National Parks all contained sites in which most fish exceeded benchmarks for the protection of human and wildlife health. This finding is particularly concerning in Zion and Capitol Reef National Parks because the fish from these parks were speckled dace, a small, invertebrate-feeding species, yet their Hg concentrations were as high or higher than those in the largest, long-lived predatory species, such as lake trout. Future targeted research and monitoring across park habitats would help identify patterns of Hg distribution across the landscape and facilitate management decisions aimed at reducing the ecological risk posed by Hg contamination in sensitive ecosystems protected by the National Park Service.

  1. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.

  2. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by the global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region, which are generated by dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere. Recently, Elias et al. [2010] reported that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes in a period of 1961-2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is due to ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effect in the thermosphere due to increasing greenhouse gas. In the present study, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 solar flux as a good indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range as well as geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour observed at 184 geomagnetic stations. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum every day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude at all the geomagnetic stations shows a strong correlation with the solar F10.7 flux which depends on 11-year solar activity. The relationship between the Sq amplitude and F10.7 flux was not linear but nonlinear. This nonlinearity could be interpreted as the decrease of production rate of electrons and ions in the ionosphere for the strong EUV and UV fluxes as already reported by Balan et al. [1993]. In order to minimize the solar

  3. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the amplitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsuda, T.

    2011-12-01

    It has been well-known that geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation is produced by global ionospheric currents flowing in the E-region from middle latitudes to the magnetic equator. These currents are generated by a dynamo process via interaction between the neutral wind and ionospheric plasma in a region of the thermosphere and ionosphere. From the Ohm's equation, the ionospheric currents strongly depend on the ionospheric conductivity, polarization electric field and neutral wind. Then, to investigate the Sq amplitude is essential for understanding the long-term variations in the ionospheric conductivity and neutral wind of the thermosphere and ionosphere. Elias et al. [2010] found that the Sq amplitude tends to increase by 5.4-9.9 % in the middle latitudes from 1961 to 2001. They mentioned that the long-term variation of ionospheric conductivity associated with geomagnetic secular variation mainly determines the Sq trend, but that the rest component is ionospheric conductivity enhancement associated with cooling effects in the thermosphere due to increasing the greenhouse gases. In this talk, we clarify the characteristics of the long-term variation in the Sq amplitude using the long-term observation data of geomagnetic field and neutral wind. These observation data have been provided by the IUGONET (Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork) project. In the present analysis, we used the F10.7 flux as an indicator of the variation in the solar irradiance in the EUV and UV range, geomagnetic field data with time resolution of 1 hour. The definition of the Sq amplitude is the difference of the H-component between the maximum and minimum per day when the Kp index is less than 4. As a result, the Sq amplitude at all the stations strongly depends on 11-year solar activity, and tends to enhance more during the high activities (19- and 22- solar cycles) than during the low activity (20-solar cycle). The Fourier spectra of the F10.7 flux and Sq

  4. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    quite fruitful, enjoyable 'Mediterranean' atmosphere for the exchange of ideas and discussion. It is a pleasure to thank our administrative and technical staff Georgia Angelopoulou, Athina Pouri, Mando Zambeli and Manolis Zoulias for their untiring assistance. We also thank the staff of the OAC for the enthusiastic support and their hospitality. We are grateful to the Academy of Athens and the Tomalla Foundation for their generous financial support which made MCCQG possible. Finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting. The success of the MCCQG is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors March 2010 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Spyros Basilakos (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Mariano Cadoni (University and INFN Cagliari, Italy) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi, USA) Theodosios Christodoulakis (University of Athens, Greece) Elias Vagenas (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Advisory Committee Ignatios Antoniadis (CERN, Switzerland) Orfeu Bertolami (IST, Lisbon, Portugal) Loriano Bonora (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) George Contopoulos (Academy of Athens, Greece) Ruth Durrer (Geneva University, Switzerland) Enrique Gaztanaga (IEEC, Barcelona, Spain) Gabriela Gonzalez (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA) Marc Henneaux (Brussels University, Belgium) Roman Jackiw (MIT, USA) Claus Kiefer (Cologne University, Germany) Stefano Liberati (SISSA, Trieste, Italy) Ofer Lahav (University College London, UK) Roy Maartens (University of Portsmouth, UK) Don Marolf (UC Santa Barbara, USA) Hermann Nicolai (AEI, Potsdam, Germany) Augusto Sagnotti (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy) Mairi Sakellariadou (King's College London, UK) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Valdivia, Chile) SPONSORS Academy of Athens The Tomalla Foundation Università di Cagliari University of Mississippi University of Athens LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Abdalla, Elcio (Instituto de

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  6. New VLA Images Unlocking Galactic Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    start the process of star formation. "Using the data from THINGS in combination with observations from NASA's space telescopes has allowed us to investigate how the processes leading to star formation differ in big spiral galaxies like our own and much smaller, dwarf galaxies," said Adam Leroy and Frank Bigiel of the Max-Planck Insitute for Astronomy at the Austin AAS meeting. Because atomic hydrogen emits radio waves at a specific frequency, astronomers can measure motions of the gas by noting the Doppler shift in frequency caused by those motions. "Because the THINGS images are highly detailed, we have been able to measure both the rotational motion of the galaxies and non-circular random motions within the galaxies," noted Erwin de Blok of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Galaxy Dynamics in THINGS The motion measurements are providing new information about the mysterious, unseen "dark matter" in the galaxies. "The non-circular motions revealed by the THINGS observations, turn out to be too small to solve a long-standing problem in cosmology, namely the inability of state-of-the-art computer simulations to describe the distribution of dark matter in disk galaxies. It was thought that random motions could explain that inability, but our data show otherwise," de Blok explained. The THINGS images revealed what Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire, UK, called a "stunning complexity of structures in the tenuous interstellar medium of the galaxies." These structures include large shells and "bubbles," presumably caused by multiple supernova explosions of massive stars. Analyzing the detail of these complex structures will help astronomers better understand the differences in star formation processes in the varied types of galaxies. Even such a simple question such as how big are the disks of gas in spiral galaxies had largely eluded astronomers previously. "The quality and sensitivity of the THINGS images has allowed us to see the actual edges of these

  7. Saccharide Composition in Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Soils in Central Arizona and Use of Saccharides as Molecular Markers for Source Apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.; Clements, A.; Fraser, M.

    2009-04-01

    were analyzed in size segregated soil and ambient PM samples at Higley; intra- and inter- comparisons were made between the ambient PM and three types of soil dust samples (agricultural soil, native soil, road dust) based on the particle size (fine vs. coarse), seasonality, and relative composition of 12 saccharide compounds. Based on the ambient concentrations of major saccharides and a number of other specific compounds (including elemental and organic carbon, ions, metals, alkanes, organic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) that are simultaneously resolved in Higley PM samples, a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was performed to determine the key contributors to PM10 and PM2.5 levels. Six distinct factors were isolated, with two factors dominated by the enrichment of saccharide compounds. There was not consistency between the source profiles of these two saccharide rich source factors with the saccharide composition of the local size-segregated soil samples, which implies that there may be other major sources contributing to ambient PM saccharides. One possible alternative is that PBAPs that are injected directly into the atmosphere instead of residing in the surface soil and being re-entrained through soil erosion or agricultural processing. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to compare the saccharide composition between the fine and coarse fraction of different soils types in two seasons, and to relate the contribution from soil dust to ambient PM using saccharide species. REFERENCE [1] AirData: Access to Air Pollution data. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://www.epa.gov/air/data/index.html [2] Allergy and Asthma in the Southwestern United States. [cited 2009 Jan 11, 2009]; Available from: http://allergy.peds.arizona.edu/southwest/swpollen.html [3] Cox, C.S., Wathes, C.M., 1995. Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, NY [4] Simoneit, B.R.T., Elias, V.O., et al., 2004. "Sugars - Dominant water-soluble organic

  8. The Gobbling Dwarf that Exploded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    100 is available as ESO Press Photo 08a/06. More Information These results are reported in a paper in Science Express published on 12 July 2007 ("Detection of circumstellar material in a normal Type Ia Supernova", by F. Patat et al.). The team is composed of F. Patat and L. Pasquini (ESO), P. Chandra and R. Chevalier (University of Virginia, USA), S. Justham, Ph. Podsiadlowski , and C. Wolf (University of Oxford, UK), A. Gal-Yam and J.D. Simon (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA), I.A. Crawford (Birkbeck College London, UK), P.A. Mazzali, W. Hillebrandt, and N. Elias-Rosa (Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), A.W.A. Pauldrach (Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany), K. Nomoto (University of Tokyo, Japan), S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, A. Renzini , F. Sabbadin, and M. Turatto (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy), D.C. Leonard (San Diego State University, USA), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University Belfast, UK). P.A. Mazzali is also associated with INAF/Trieste, Italy.

  9. Global snowline and mountain topography: a contrasted view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Herman, Frédéric; Valla, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    topography and the rate of rock column uplift: a global perspective, Geomorphology, 122, 129-139, 10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.06.005, 2010. Porter, S. C.: Some geological implications of average Quaternary glacial conditions., Quaternary Research, 32, 245-261, 1989. Spotila, J. A., and Berger, A. L.: Exhumation at orogenic indentor corners under long-term glacial conditions: Example of the St. Elias orogen, Southern Alaska, Tectonophysics, 490, 241-256, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.05.015, 2010.

  10. Strong and Electroweak Matter 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskola, Kari J.; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, Kari

    results confront models / M. D'Elia and M. P. Lombardo -- Singlet free energies of a static quark-antiquark pair / K. Petrov -- Contributions to transport theory from multi-particle interactions and production processes / M. E. Carrington -- Transport coefficients and the 2PI effective action in the large N limit / G. Aarts and J. M. Martinez Resco -- Thermal features far from equilibrium: prethermalization / S. Borsányi -- QCD phase diagram at small Baryon densities from imaginary [symbol]: status report / O. Philipsen and Ph. de Forcrand -- Two loop renormalisation of the magnetic coupling in hot QCD and spatial Wilson loop / P. Giovannangeli -- Thermodynamics of deconfined QCD at small and large chemical potential / A. Ipp -- Evading the infrared problem of thermal QCD / Y. Schroder -- Chiral mesons in hot matter / A. Gómez Nicola, F. J. Llanes-Estrada and J. R. Peláez -- Thermal production of axinos in the early universe / A. Brandenburg and F. D. Steffen -- The 2-PI-1/N approximation applied to tachyonic preheating / A. Tranberg, A. Arrizabalaga and J. Smit -- Nonequilibrium dynamics in scalar hybrid models / J. Baacke and A. Heinen -- Photon mass in inflation and nearly minimal magnetogenesis / T. Prokopec -- Transport equations for chiral fermions to order [symbol] and electroweak Baryogenesis / S. Weinstock, M. G. Schmidt and T. Prokopec -- The gapless 2SC phase / M. Huang and I. A. Shovkovy -- Gapless CFL and its competition with mixed phases / M. Alford, C. Kouvaris and K. Rajagopal -- Transport coefficients in color superconducting quark matter / C. Manuel -- Renormalization and resummation in finite temperature field theories / A. Jakovác and Zs. Szép -- Renormalization and gauge symmetry for 2PI effective actions / U. Reinosa -- Out-of-equilibrium massless Schwinger model / R. F. Alvarez-Estrada -- Selfconsistent calculations of hadrons at finite temperature / C. Beckmann -- Fermion production in classical fields / D. D. Dietrich -- Numerical study of

  11. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    AbeTakashiUniversity of Tokyotabe@nt.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp AmusiaMironRacah Institute of Physics, Jerusalemamusia@vms.huji.ac.il BaldoMarcelloINFN Cataniabaldo@ct.infn.it BansalManiePanjab University, Chandigarhbansalmanni@gmail.com BarrancoFranciscoUniversity of Sevillebarranco@us.es BertschGeorgeUniversity of Washington, Seattlebertsch@u.washington.edu BhagwatAmeeyaCBS Mumbaiameeya@kth.se BorderieBernardIPN Orsayborderie@ipno.in2p3.fr CarbonellJaumeLPSC Grenoblejaume.carbonell@lpsc.in2p3.fr CarlsonJoeLos Alamos National Laboratorycarlson@lanl.gov ColòGianlucaINFN - Università degli Studi di Milanocolo@mi.infn.it DanielewiczPawelNSCL, Michigan State Universitydanielewicz@nscl.msu.edu DescouvemontPierreUniversité Libre de Bruxellespdesc@ulb.ac.be Dohet-EralyJérémyUniversité Libre de Bruxellesjdoheter@ulb.ac.be DraayerJerryLouisiana State Universitydraayer@lsu.edu DufourMarianneIPHC, Université de Strasbourgmarianne.dufour@ires.in2p3.fr DuguetThomasCEA Saclaythomas.duguet@cea.fr DukelskyJorgeCSIC Madriddukelsky@iem.cfmac.csic.es EbranJean-PaulCEA-DAM, Arpajonebran@ipno.in2p3.fr FreerMartinUniversity of Birminghamm.freer@bham.ac.uk FujiiShinichiroUniversity of Tokyosfujii@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp FunakiYasuroRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakofunaki@riken.jp GrassoMarcellaIPN Orsaygrasso@ipno.in2p3.fr HaginoKouichiTohoku Universityhagino@nucl.phys.tohoku.ac.jp HansenHubertUniversité Claude Bernard Lyon 1hansen@ipnl.in2p3.fr HolzmannMarkusLPMMC Grenoblemarkus@lptl.jussieu.fr HoriuchiHisashiRCNP, Osaka Universityhoriuchi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp HoriuchiWataruGSI Darmstadtw.horiuchi@gsi.de HupinGuillaumeGANIL, Caenhupin@ganil.fr JinMengHuazhong Normal University, Wuhanjinm@iopp.ccnu.edu.cn KamimuraMasayasuRIKEN Nishina Center, Wakomkamimura@riken.jp Kanada-En'yoYoshikoKyoto Universityyenyo@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KatoKiyoshiHokkaido University, Sapporokato@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp KawabataTakahiroKyoto Universitykawabata@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp KhanEliasIPN Orsaykhan@ipno.in2p3.fr

  12. In situ measurement of the Icelandic Holuhraun/ Bárðarbunga volcanic plume in an early "young state" using a LOAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, Damien; Roberts, Tjarda; Carboni, Elisa; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Dagsson Waldhauserovà, Pavla; Berthet, Gwenael; Jegou, Fabrice; Baptiste Renard, Jean; Olafsson, Haraldur; Bergsson, Baldur; Yeo, Richard; Fannar Reynisson, Njall; Grainger, Roy; Pfeffer, Melissa; Lurton, Thibaut; Duverger, Vincent; Coute, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    analysis of IASI satellite remote sensing data, thus demonstrating in-situ validation of this recent satellite algorithm (Carboni et al. 2015). This experimentation shows that under such difficult field campaign conditions (strong wind, low temperatures, only car batteries for power supply, night time and active volcano close to the launch site) it is possible to launch meteorological balloons with novel payloads to directly sample in-situ the near-source plume, determine the plume altitude, identify dynamical phases of the plume and document the size distribution of particles inside a plume which is only a quarter of an hour old. Carboni, E., Grainger, R., Walker, J., Dudhia, A., Siddans, R.: A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11417-11434, 2012/doi:10.5194/acp-12-11417-2012, 2012. Gíslason, S.R., Stefánsdóttir, G., Pfeffer, M.A., Barsotti, S., Jóhannsson, Th., Galeczka, I., Bali, E., Sigmarsson, O., Stefánsson, A., Keller, N.S., Sigurdsson, Á., Bergsson, B., Galle, B., Jacobo, V.C., Arellano, S., Aiuppa, A., Jónasdóttir, E.B., Eiríksdóttir, E.S., Jakobsson, S., Guðfinnsson, G.H., alldórsson, S.A., Gunnarsson, H., Haddadi, B., Jónsdóttir, I., Thordarson, Th., Riishuus, M., ögnadóttir, Th., Dürig, T., Pedersen, G.B.M., Höskuldsson, Á., Gudmundsson, M.T.: Environmental pressure from the 2014-15 eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland. Geochem. Persp. Let. 1, 84-93, 2015. Renard, J.B., Dulac, F., Berthet, G., Lurton, T., Vignelles, D., Jégou, F., Tonnelier, T., Thaury, C., Jeannot, M., Couté, B., Akiki, R., Verdier, N., Mallet, M., Gensdarmes, F., Charpentier, P., Duverger, V., Dupont, J.V., Mesmin, S., Elias, T., Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Giacomoni, J., Gobbi, M., Hamonou, E., Olafsson, H., Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Camy-Peyret, C., Mazel, C., Décamps, T., Piringer, M., Surcin, J., and Daugeron, D.: LOAC: a small aerosol optical

  13. Sleep on the right side-Get cancer on the left?

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer frequently occurs in the left breast among both women and men [R. Roychoudhuri, V. Putcha, H. Møller, Cancer and laterality: a study of the five major paired organs (UK), Cancer Causes Control 17 (2006) 655-662; M.T. Goodman, K.H. Tung, L.R. Wilkens, Comparative epidemiology of breast cancer among men and women in the US, 1996 to 2000, Cancer Causes Control 17 (2006) 127-136; C.I. Perkins, J. Hotes, B.A. Kohler, H.L. Howe, Association between breast cancer laterality and tumor location, United States, 1994-1998, Cancer Causes Control 15 (2004) 637-645; H.A. Weiss, S.S. Devesa, L.A. Brinton, Laterality of breast cancer in the United States, Cancer Causes Control 7 (1996) 539-543; A. Ekbom, H.O. Adami, D. Trichopoulos, M. Lambe, C.C. Hsieh, J. Pontén, Epidemiologic correlates of breast cancer laterality (Sweden), Cancer Causes Control 5 (1994) 510-516]. Moreover, recent results showed that the left side of the body is more prone to melanoma than the right side [D.H. Brewster, M.J. Horner, S. Rowan, P. Jelfs, E. de Vries, E. Pukkala, Left-sided excess of invasive cutaneous melanoma in six countries, Eur. J. Cancer 43 (2007) 2634-2637]. Current explanations for left-sided breast cancer include handedness [L. Titus-Ernstoff, P.A. Newcomb, K.M. Egan, et al., Left-handedness in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, Epidemiology 11 (2000) 181-184; M.A. Kramer, S. Albrecht, R.A. Miller, Handedness and the laterality of breast cancer in women, Nurs. Res. 34 (1985) 333-337; M.K. Ramadhani, S.G. Elias, P.A. van Noord, D.E. Grobbee, P.H. Peeters, C.S. Uiterwaal, Innate left handedness and risk of breast cancer: case-cohort study, BMJ 331 (2005) 882-883], size difference, nursing preference, and brain structure. However, men are affected even more by left laterality than women, thus many of these explanations are unconvincing. Increasing rates of skin melanoma have been associated with immune-disruptive radiation from FM/TV transmitters [O

  14. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    funded projects (always with international participation) in the United States, Russian Federation, China, European Union, Japan, and Canada have been mutually united to explore the scientifically significant Northern Eurasian region. NEESPI scientists have been quite productive during the past two years (2005 2006) publishing more than 200 books, book chapters, and papers in refereed journals. NEESPI sessions at international conferences are open to everyone who works on environmental and climate change problems in Northern Eurasia and the circumpolar boreal zone. This thematic issue brings together articles from the authors who presented their latest results at the Annual Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco (December 2006). The research letters in this issue are preceded by two editorial papers (Leptoukh et al and Sherstyukov et al) devoted to informational support of research in the NEESPI domain that is critical to the success of the Initiative. The following papers are quite diverse and are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions in the NEESPI domain and the circumpolar boreal zone. Focus on Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Editorials NASA NEESPI Data and Services Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Information Gregory Leptoukh, Ivan Csiszar, Peter Romanov, Suhung Shen, Tatiana Loboda and Irina Gerasimov NEESPI Science and Data Support Center for Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia B G Sherstyukov, V N Razuvaev, O N Bulygina and P Ya Groisman Climate and hydrology Changes in the fabric of the Arctic's greenhouse blanket Jennifer A Francis and Elias Hunter Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973 2005 Heejun

  15. "Missing Mass" Found in Recycled Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    remains a mystery. "Still, this new information about the matter comprising galactic disks should help us work toward a better understanding of their formation and evolution," Bournaud concluded. Bournaud and Duc worked with Mederic Boquien, also of the AIM laboratory (CEA/CNRS); Elias Brinks of the University of Hertfordshire in the UK; Phillipe Amram of the Astronomical Observatory of Marseille-Provence; Ute Lisenfeld of the University of Granada, Spain; Barbel S. Koribalski of the Australia Telescope National Facility; Fabian Walter of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany; and Vassilis Charmandaris of the University of Crete, Greece. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The California Institute of Technology leads the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission and is responsible for science operations and data analysis. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech, manages the mission and built the science instrument, and also manages the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  16. Spirochete motility and morpholgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Nyles

    2004-03-01

    . burgdorferi during chemotaxis. In translational motility, the bundles of periplasmic flagella rotate in opposite directions. When not translating, they rotate in the same direction, and the cells flex. We present evidence that asymmetrical rotation of the bundles during translation does not depend upon the chemotaxis signal transduction system. The histidine kinase CheA is known to be an essential component in the signaling pathway for bacterial chemotaxis. Mutants of cheA in flagellated bacteria continually rotate their flagella in one direction. B. burgdorferi has two copies of cheA. We reasoned that if chemotaxis were essential for asymmetrical rotation of the flagellar bundles, and if the flagellar motors at both cell ends were identical, inactivation of the two cheA genes should result in cells that constant flex. To test this hypothesis, the signaling pathway was completely blocked by construction of a double cheA mutant. This mutant was completely deficient in chemotaxis. Rather than flexing, it failed to reverse, and it continually translated only in one direction. The results indicate that asymmetrical rotation does not depend upon the chemotaxis system but rather upon differences between the two flagellar bundles. We propose that certain factors within the spirochete localize at flagellar motors at one end of the cell to effect this asymmetry (3). References: 1. Charon, N.W. and S.F. Goldstein. 2002. The genetics of motility and chemotaxis of a fascinating group of bacteria: the spirochetes. Ann. Rev. Genetics. 36: 47-73. 2. Motaleb M.A., L. Corum, J.L Bono, A.F. Elias, P. Rosa, D.S. Samuels, N.W. Charon. 2000. Borrelia burgdorferi periplasmic flagella have both skeletal and motility functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000 97:10899-10904. 3. Li, C. R. Bakker, M. Motaleb, F. Cabello, M.L. Sartakova, and N.W. Charon. 2002. Asymmetrical flagellar rotation in Borrelia burgdorferi non-chemotaxis mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:6169-6174.

  17. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    A remarkable sedimentary record that extends from the Miocene to the late Pleistocene/Holocene has been drilled during IODP Expedition 341 (May - July 2013) in the Gulf of Alaska. The recovery and examination of sediments along a transect of five drill sites (U1417 - U1421) from the deep ocean towards the continental slope and shelf offshore the St. Elias Mountains enables the reconstruction of the palaeoceanographic and environmental development in the NE Pacific during a period of significant global cooling and directly addresses the overall research objectives of the IODP programme. The knowledge about palaeo sea surface conditions and their relation to climate changes in the subpolar NE Pacific is relatively scarce and mainly confined to the past 17 ka BP (Barron et al., 2009; Davies et al., 2011; Addison et al., 2012). Biomarker based reconstructions of the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice coverage, marine primary productivity) that characterised the subpolar NE Pacific during critical time intervals of Plio- and Pleistocene climate change may provide new information on oceanic and atmospheric feedback mechanisms and further enable the identification of teleconnections between the palaeoceanographic evolution in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Here we present preliminary biomarker data obtained from sediments from the distal deepwater site U1417 and the proximal site U1419 located at the Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Variability in the distribution and abundance of short- and long-chain n-alkanes, sterols, and C25-highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs) is interpreted to reflect changes in the environmental setting. These data provide insight in marine primary productivity changes (in response to cooling and warming intervals) and the variable input of terrigenous organic matter via meltwater and/or iceberg discharge events. The C25-HBI diene/triene ratio - hitherto used as a sea ice proxy in the Southern Ocean

  18. FOREWORD: International Summer School for Advanced Studies 'Dynamics of open nuclear systems' (PREDEAL12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.

    2013-02-01

    the status of the equation of state, hyperonic and quark matter and neutrino physics, as well as the applications of nuclear structure in astrophysics, were also on the School's agenda. There were many discussions and questions both during and after presentations. An open and friendly atmosphere characterized our School, although different opinions quite often divided the participants. Many discussions continued during coffee breaks and excursions organized in the beautiful surroundings. We hope that this proceedings volume will be useful for future reference to both young scientists and senior researchers working in various fields of nuclear physics. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to the National Authority for Scientific Research and the Romanian Academy (Elias Foundation) for their financial support. We acknowledge the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering and Bioterra University for their important contribution in organizing the School. Guest Editors D S Delion, N V Zamfir, A R Raduta and F Gulminelli First Week International Summer School on Nuclear Physics: First Week Second Week International Summer School on Nuclear Physics: Second Week Sponsors Sponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logoSponsor logo

  19. Variations of marine pore water salinity and chlorinity in Gulf of Alaska sediments (IODP Expedition 341)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    März, Christian; Mix, Alan C.; McClymont, Erin; Nakamura, Atsunori; Berbel, Glaucia; Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Schneider (LeVay), Leah

    2014-05-01

    of pore waters in continental margin settings has been reported in association with dissociating gas hydrate deposits (Hesse, 2003), but neither seismic profiles nor sediment records showed any indications for the presence of gas hydrates at the Gulf of Alaska sites. An alternative and intriguing explanation for these almost brackish waters in the glaciomarine shelf and slope deposits is the presence of glacial meltwater that could either be "fossil" (stored in the glaciomarine sediments since the last glacial termination) or "recent" (i.e., actively flowing from currently melting glaciers of the St. Elias Mountain Range along permeable layers within the shelf deposits). As these relatively fresh waters are found at three distinct drill sites, it can be assumed that they are distributed all along the Gulf of Alaska shelf and slope, and similar findings have been reported at other glaciated continental margins, e.g., off East Greenland (DeFoor et al., 2011) and Antarctica (Mann and Gieskes, 1975; Chambers, 1991; Lu et al., 2010). While a recent review has highlighted the importance of fresh and brackish water reservoirs in continental shelf deposits worldwide (Post et al., 2013), we suggest that climatic and depositional processes affecting glaciated continental margins (e.g., the release of huge amounts of fresh water from ice sheets and glaciers during glacial terminations, and the rapid deposition of unconsolidated sediments on the adjacent shelf) are particularly favourable for the storage and/or flow of meltwater below the present sea floor. Adkins JF, McIntyre K, Schrag DP (2002) The salinity, temperature, and d18O of the glacial deep ocean. Science 298, 1769-1773. Chambers SR (1991) Solute distributions and stable isotope chemistry of interstitial waters from Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program 119, 375-392. DeFoor W, Person M, Larsen HC, Lizarralde D, Cohen D, Dugam B (2011) Ice sheet-derived submarine groundwater discharge on

  20. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Zakrzewski, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    the meeting was that all plenary talks presented the state-of-the-art and were at the same time educational and exciting, promoting the multidisciplinary aspects of the research, and thus were inspirational for young scientists considering work in these fields. The plenary talks, each lasting 1 hour, were given by distinguished world experts and some young 'rising stars': Richard Ward, Ulf Leonhardt, Jens Eisert, Michael Berry, Shahn Majid, Arndt von Haeseler, Michio Jimbo, Katrin Wendland, Raymond Goldstein, Mark Trodden, Maria Vozmediano and Giulio Chiribella. The public lecture was given by Francesco Iachello and was open to participants and other people from the Newcastle-Durham region. In addition, talks of 30 minutes duration each and including more technical content, were given in four parallel sessions. Each parallel session had a designated time for informal interaction with the speakers, discussions of new directions of research and for forming new collaborations. The poster session, in a room where posters were exhibited for the duration of the conference, was easily accessible, and had a friendly and relaxed atmosphere, encouraging discussions of work and exchanges of new ideas. To secure a high quality scientific programme, all contributions were reviewed. Another interesting feature of the conference was the Open Forum on the Friday afternoon, which was lively and well attended. It took the form of a question and answer session with a panel chaired by Allan Solomon, with the following members: Gerald Goldin, Jean-Pierre Gazeau, Mark Trodden and Giulio Chiribella. The focus was on new directions of research, novel applications and the further development of group theory, education, training and career opportunities for young researchers. The participants were asked to submit questions in advance; examples are: "What is the role of symmetries and conservation principles in deducing underlying physics from experimental data?" and "What are the most

  1. a Passage to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    a concluding Press Conference , during which the outcome of this unique event will be summarized by the participants and the organisers: Monday, November 20, 1995, 15:30 pm, at the ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany List of National First-Prize Winners Belgium: Mr. Freddy Allemeersch (Teacher), Mr. Pieter De Ceuninck, Mr. Jeroen Staelens (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwecollege, Brugge) Denmark: Mr. Joern C. Olsen, Mr. Henrik Struckmann, Mr. Uffe A. Hansen, Mr. Mogens Winther (Teacher) (Soenderborg Amtsgymnasium) Finland: Mr. Reima Eresmaa, Ms. Laura Elina Nykyri, Ms. Reetamaija Janhonen (Cygnaeues-Lukeo, Jyvaeskylae and Jyvaeskylaen Lyseon Lukeo) France: Mr. Rene Cavaroz (Teacher), Mr. Vincent Hardy, Mr. Antoine Lesuffleur (Lycee Chartier, Bayeux) Germany: Ms. Dorothee Barth, Mr. Walter Czech (Teacher), Mr. Uwe Kranz, Ms. Karin Wieland (Immanuel-Kant-Gymnasium, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Baden-Wuerttemberg) Greece: Ms. Agni Ioannidi, Ms. Elena Katifori, Mr. Vassilis Samiotis, Mr. Vassillos Tzotzes (Teacher) (Second Varvakelo Experimental Lyceum, Athens) Ireland: Mr. Declan Maccuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm Mcloughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. Klaas Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, Rosendaal) Spain: Mr. Aritz Atela Aio, Mr. Julen Sarasola Manich (Teacher), Mr. Jon Huertas Rodriquez (Txorierri Batxilergoko Institua, Derio Bizkaia) Sweden: Mr. Rahman Amanullah, Mr. Kjell L. Bonander (Teacher), Mr. Tomas Oppelstrup, Ms. Christin Wiedemann (Saltsjoebadens Samskola, Saltsjoebaden) United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Dr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) National Committees Further information about the national contests may be obtained from the National Committees: Belgium: Dr. C. Sterken, Vrije Universiteit

  2. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    revitalization of ecosystem services Key Message 6: Meeting the Challenge To achieve the societal transformation required to meet the climate change challenge, we must overcome a number of significant constraints and seize critical opportunities These include reducing inertia in social and economic systems; building on a growing public desire for governments to act on climate change; removing implicit and explicit subsidies; reducing the influence of vested interests that increase emissions and reduce resilience; enabling the shifts from ineffective governance and weak institutions to innovative leadership in government, the private sector and civil society; and engaging society in the transition to norms and practices that foster sustainability The editors of the volume are all the session chairs: Professor Agus Sari Dr Aled Jones Science Manager Anders Viksø-Nielsen Dr Andreas Barkman Professor Anette Reenberg Professor Ann Henderson-Sellers Professor Anthony J McMichael Dr Anthony Patt Dr Bette Otto-Bliesner Dr Cameron Hepburn Dr Carlos Nobre Dr Carol Turley Dr Chris Hope Professor Chris Turney Professor Claus Felby Professor Coleen Vogel Professor Dale Jamieson Professor Daniel M Kammen Senior Scientist Detlef F Sprinz Professor Diana Ürge-Vorsatz Professor Dorthe Dahl-Jensen PhD Fatima Denton Director Generel Frances Seymour Dr Frank Jotzo Professor Harold Mooney Director Henrik Bindslev Mr Jamie Pittock Professor Jacquie Burgess Dr James E Hansen Professor Jiahua Pan Dr Jill Jäger Professor Jim Skea Professor Johan Rockström Dr John Christensen Professor John Mitchell Professor John R Porter Professor Joyeeta Gupta Professor Jørgen E Olesen Professor Karen O'Brien Dr Kazuhiko Takeuchi Dr Katrine Krogh Andersen Professor Keith Paustian Professor Ken Caldeira Professor Kevin Anderson Dr Koko Warner Professor Konrad Steffen Professor Liping Zhou Professor Louise Fresco Professor Maria Carmen Lemos Professor Mark Ashton Dr Mark Stafford-Smith Dr Martin Claussen Dr Martin

  3. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    somewhat similar to the Earth, but it is too cold for life as we know it, and because of its comparatively small size, the atmospheric pressure is very low. It would in principle be possible to detect the outermost planet with the HST, if the distance to this planetary system was less than about 30 light-years. Ireland: Mr. Declan MacCuarta (Teacher), Mr. Colm McLoughlin (St. Peter's College, Wexford, Co. Wexford) The nearest star, Alpha Centauri, is a double star and a hypothetical planetary system around the A-component, a solar-type star, is studied in some detail. The presence of the companion star makes some planetary orbits unstable. In this project, 4 planets are placed within 2 AU (300 million km) of the central star; 3 of these are terrestrial (no. 3 is Earth-like) and the outermost is a small gaseous planet. Cometary orbits may be very complex in this gravitatinal field. A planetary system like the one described may be barely observable with the Hubble Space Telescope, and only if one of the planets passes in front of the star (an `occultation') and its light diminishes accordingly. Italy: Mr. Pasquale Ciarletta, Ms. Francesca D'elia, Ms. Ada Fortugna (Teacher), Mr. Alfredo Pudano (Liceo Scientifico `Leonardo da Vinci', Reggio Calabria) This group built a spectrograph from scratch, with a grating and all the usual optical parts. They were able to calibrate the solar spectrum with the help of standard lamps and in this way, they observed several prominent, solar absorption lines. Among them were the H-alpha line at 6562 A, the sodium D-lines at 5890--96 And the magnesium triplet near 5175 A. These observations were made with the eye and also with the photographic recording technique. They were planning to observe the spectra of some stars also, but in the end time was too short and they had to hurry to send in the report. The Netherlands: Mr. Alex De Beer, Mr. KlAs Huijbregts, Mr. Ruud Nellen (Norbertuscollege, RosendAl) This team has designed their own planetary

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    Elastic theory for the vortex-lattice melting in iron-based high-Tc superconductors Q-H Chen, Q-M Nie, J-P Lv and T-C Au Yeung Electronic properties of LaO1-xFxFeAs in the normal state probed by NMR/NQR H-J Grafe, G Lang, F Hammerath, D Paar, K Manthey, K Koch, H Rosner, N J Curro, G Behr, J Werner, N Leps, R Klingeler, H-H Klauss, F J Litterst and B Büchner AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu) and SrFe2-xTMxAs2 (TM = Mn, Co, Ni): crystal structure, charge doping, magnetism and superconductivity Deepa Kasinathan, Alim Ormeci, Katrin Koch, Ulrich Burkhardt, Walter Schnelle, Andreas Leithe-Jasper and Helge Rosner Impurity states in a family of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides Qiang Han and Z D Wang Coherence-incoherence crossover in the normal state of iron oxypnictides and importance of Hund's rule coupling K Haule and G Kotliar Electronic structure of heavily electron-doped BaFe1.7Co0.3As2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission Y Sekiba, T Sato, K Nakayama, K Terashima, P Richard, J H Bowen, H Ding, Y-M Xu, L J Li, G H Cao, Z-A Xu and T Takahashi Absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of rare-earth oxypnictides T Kroll, F Roth, A Koitzsch, R Kraus, D R Batchelor, J Werner, G Behr, B Büchner and M Knupfer Superconductivity in LnFePO (Ln = La, Pr and Nd) single crystals R E Baumbach, J J Hamlin, L Shu, D A Zocco, N M Crisosto and M B Maple Unconventional pairing originating from disconnected Fermi surfaces in the iron-based superconductor Kazuhiko Kuroki, Seiichiro Onari, Ryotaro Arita, Hidetomo Usui, Yukio Tanaka, Hiroshi Kontani and Hideo Aoki Near-degeneracy of several pairing channels in multiorbital models for the Fe pnictides S Graser, T A Maier, P J Hirschfeld and D J Scalapino Investigation of superconducting gap structure in TbFeAsO0.9F0.1 using point contact Andreev reflection K A Yates, K Morrison, J A Rodgers, G B S Penny, J-W G Bos, J P Attfield and L F Cohen Competition of magnetism and superconductivity in underdoped (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 Marianne Rotter, Marcus

  5. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY, Hamburg Christian Hillmann Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Potsdam Stephan Hoehne Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Carlos Hoyos University of Wales, Swansea Mechthild Huebscher Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid Matthias Ihl University of Texas at Austin Emiliano Imeroni University of Wales, Swansea Nikos Irges University of Crete Negru Iulian University of Craiova Matthias Kaminski Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Stefanos Katmadas Universiteit Utrecht Shoichi Kawamoto Oxford University Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Arjan Keurentjes Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Sadi Khodaee Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran Michael Kiermaier Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and University of Crete Ingo KirschEidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Johanna Knapp CERN, Geneva Paul Koerber Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Simon Koers Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Anatoly Konechny Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Peter Koroteev Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow Daniel KreflLudwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Chethan KrishnanUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Stanislav Kuperstein Université Libre de Bruxelles Alberto Lerda Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Roman Linares Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, México Maria A Lledo Universidad de Valencia Dieter Luest Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Joseph Lykken Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, IL Carlo Maccaferri Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Oscar Macia Universidad de Valencia Tristan Maillard Centre de

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    MoralIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Valentina Giangreco Marotta PulettiUppsala University Valeria L GiliQueen Mary, University of London Luciano GirardelloUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Gian GiudiceCERN, Geneva Kevin Goldstein Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Pietro Antonio GrassiUniversità del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Viviane GraßLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Johannes GrosseJagiellonian University, Krakow Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Norberto Gutierrez RodriguezUniversity of Oviedo Babak HaghighatPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Robert HaslhoferEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Tae-Won HaPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Alexander HauptImperial College London and Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marc HenneauxUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Johannes HennLAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux Shinji HiranoNiels Bohr Institute, København Stefan HoheneggerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Jan HomannLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Joost HoogeveenInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Mechthild HuebscherUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid Chris HullImperial College London Carmen-Liliana IonescuUniversity of Craiova Ella JasminUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Konstantin KanishchevInstitute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw Stefanos Katmadas Utrecht University Alexandros KehagiasNational Technical University of Athens Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Patrick Kerner Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Rebiai KhaledLaboratoire de Physique Mathématique et Physique Subatomique, Université Mentouri, Constantine Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique,

  7. EDITORIAL: Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiel, Hillel J.; Thomas, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    -LXIII (London: Royal Society) Ralph T C and Pryde G J 2010 Progress in Optics vol 54, ed E Wolf (New York: Elsevier) pp 209-79 (arXiv:1103.6071) Rashevsky N 1960 Mathematical Biophysics: Physico-Mathematical Foundations of Biology vol 1 3rd edn (New York: Dover) pp 375-462 (first edition 1938) Rinzel J and Ermentrout G B 1989 Analysis of neuronal excitability and oscillations Methods in Neuronal Modeling ed C Koch and I Segev (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) pp 135-69 Rosin B, Nevet A, Elias S, Rivlin-Etzion M, Israel Z and Bergman H 2007 Physiology and pathophysiology of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical networks Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 13 S437-9 Spardy L E, Markin S N, Shevtsova N A, Prilutsky B I, Rybak I A and Rubin J E 2011a A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: I. Rhythm generation J. Neural Eng. 8 065003 Spardy L E, Markin S N, Shevtsova N A, Prilutsky B I, Rybak I A and Rubin J E 2011b A dynamical systems analysis of afferent control in a neuromechanical model of locomotion: II. Phase asymmetry J. Neural Eng. 8 065004 Steane A 1998 Quantum computing Rep. Prog. Phys. 61 117-73 Strogatz S H 1994 Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: with Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering (Cambridge, MA: Perseus) Thomas P J 2011 A lower bound for the first passage time density of the suprathreshold Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process J. Appl. Probab. 48 420-34 White J A, Rubinstein J T and Kay A R 2000 Channel noise in neurons Trends Neurosci. 23 131-7 Wilson H R and Cowan J D 1972 Excitatory and inhibitory interactions in localized populations of model neurons Biophys. J. 12 1-24 Wilson H R and Cowan J D 1973 A mathematical theory of the functional dynamics of cortical and thalamic nervous tissue Biol. Cybern. 13 55-80