Science.gov

Sample records for eliciting public attitudes

  1. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  2. A "Frightening" Public Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Reviews conclusions about public attitudes toward science and technology drawn by the director of the National Science Foundation, John B. Slaughter, from a recent survey conducted by the National Science Foundation. Slaughter's comments about the United States' slowing rate of investment in research and development are also included. (SR)

  3. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  4. Public attitudes about radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    Public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable. That is my conclusion from eight years of social science research which I have directed on this topic. The fact that public attitudes about radioactive waste are changeable is well-known to the hands-on practitioners who have opportunities to talk with the public and respond to their concerns-practitioners like Ginger King, who is sharing the podium with me today. The public`s changeability and open-mindedness are frequently overlooked in studies that focus narrowly on fear and dread. Such studies give the impression that the outlook for waste disposal solutions is dismal. I believe that impression is misleading, and I`d like to share research findings with you today that give a broader perspective.

  5. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. Abstract The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  6. Public awareness, understanding & attitudes toward epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, S K; Kumar, V; Singhi, P D; Goel, R C

    1995-07-01

    The public awareness, understanding and attitudes towards epilepsy were evaluated in a north Indian population in 1992 by personal interview method. The study revealed that 92 per cent of the respondents had read or heard about epilepsy. More than 55 per cent knew someone and had seen a case of seizure. Eighty five per cent of the respondents were not aware of the cause of epilepsy or had wrong beliefs. Eighteen and 15 per cent thought epilepsy to be a hereditary disorder and a form of insanity respectively. About 40 per cent of the respondents felt that children with epilepsy should not be sent to school and also objected to their children's contact with epileptics at school or at play. Two-thirds of the respondents objected to their children marrying a person who had ever had epilepsy. Twenty per cent were ignorant about the manifestation of epilepsy and an equal number were unable to recommend any therapy in case their relatives or friends had epilepsy. Fifty seven per cent did not know what kind of first aid should be given during the epileptic attack. Although the awareness of epilepsy among Indian people was comparable to that of individuals in Western countries, the attitudes of the Indians were much more negative. Better educated people belonging to higher occupational groups were less prejudiced against social contact and schooling of their children with epileptic children compared to low educational and occupational groups.

  7. 75 FR 76467 - Draft Concept for Government-Wide “ExpertNet” Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Draft Concept for Government-Wide ``ExpertNet'' Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...) requests input, comment, and ideas from the public on a draft concept for next-generation citizen consultation, namely a government- wide software tool and process to elicit expert public...

  8. Factors influencing Malaysian public attitudes to agro-biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Ahmad, Jamil; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md; Osman, Mohamad; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.

  9. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M. Granger

    2014-01-01

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making. PMID:24821779

  10. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...-gathering activity is to gain a better understanding of public knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values,...

  11. Attitudes of the Public toward Educational Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 377 adults at a small city shopping mall showed positive attitudes toward mainstreaming of handicapped students with normal potential for learning, and less favorable attitudes toward students exhibiting disruptive behavior. Subjects showed attitudinal differences based on their race, age, and child in school, but not their gender.…

  12. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  13. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  14. A quantitative examination of public school student attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchman, Matthew

    There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social aspects, how children learn and how teachers teach provided the framework for an examination of public school student attitudes toward science. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in attitudes toward science in Grades 4-12 based on gender and grade level. Using a quantitative one-shot case study preexperimental design, the study described the relationships in student attitudes toward science and how those relationships change with grade and gender. This study investigated the relationship in attitudes toward science in different grade levels, the relationship in male and female attitudes toward science in different grade levels, and the difference in attitudes toward science between male and female students. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the nonparametric independent samples test for gender differences were performed to examine grade level, gender, and attitudes toward science. The convenience sample of 1,008 students was drawn from a population of approximately 1,200 students enrolled in Grades 4 through 12 in a rural, public school district in the northeastern United States. The data analysis revealed no difference in male attitudes toward science, but did reveal a significant difference in female attitudes toward science between different grade levels, (H(8) = 32.773, p < .000). Implications for social change include an improved student attitude toward science, which increases educational opportunities and career options for underrepresented groups.

  15. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  16. Public knowledge and attitudes about diazepam.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, B; Fisher, S

    1984-01-01

    A total of 147 outpatients waiting for a prescription to be filled at a hospital pharmacy were tested on their knowledge about diazepam (Valium). Subjects scored highest on questions about the effects of a small overdose, the drug's interaction with alcohol and hypnotics, and the relative contraindications of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Subjects were least knowledgeable about the drug's generic name, side effects, and interaction with minor stimulants (coffee, tea, cola, and cigarettes). Subjects who had previously used diazepam (N = 97) knew significantly more than subjects who had never taken it, but subjects waiting for a diazepam prescription to be filled (N = 40) were not more knowledgeable than subjects having another type of prescription filled. In contrast to recent findings that increasing patients' drug knowledge via "Patient Package Inserts" (PPIs) may also create an overcautious attitude toward the drug, the present study finds that diazepam knowledge gained experimentally is accompanied by an attitude shift away from such overcautiousness.

  17. Public attitudes to genomic science: an experiment in information provision.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Patrick; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2010-03-01

    We use an experimental panel study design to investigate the effect of providing "value-neutral" information about genomic science in the form of a short film to a random sample of the British public. We find little evidence of attitude change as a function of information provision. However, our results show that information provision significantly increased dropout from the study amongst less educated respondents. Our findings have implications both for our understanding of the knowledge-attitude relationship in public opinion toward genomic science and for science communication more generally.

  18. Energy Problems: Public Beliefs, Attitudes and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Phyllis T.; MacTavish, John

    This survey reported one phase of a larger project. The goals of the project are to plan and conduct a public education program on energy-related concerns that will produce an informed public, willing to support and cooperate with the strategies necessary for the long-term resolution of our energy problems. Reported in this document are the…

  19. Oral Care during Pregnancy: Attitudes of Brazilian Public Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Renata Toledo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida; Costa, Luciane Rezende; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2012-01-01

    There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the independent variables. Respondents were categorized into cluster 1 ‘less favorable’ (n = 159) and cluster 2 ‘more favorable’ (n = 124) attitudes. Professionals that had attended a residency or specialization program (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.15–3.77, p = 0.016) and worked exclusively at the public service (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.10–4.20, p = 0.025) presented more favorable attitudes. Obstetricians/gynecologists (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09–0.54, p = 0.001) and nurses (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, p = 0.013) showed less favorable attitudes than dentists. Health care providers’ attitudes regarding pregnant women’s oral health were related to their occupation, qualification, and dedication to the public service. PMID:23202756

  20. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  1. Houston: Public Attitudes About Crime. A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    These city surveys had a twofold purpose: the assessment of public attitudes about crime and related matters and the development of information on the extent and nature of residents' experiences with selected forms of criminal victimization. Attitudianl information was obtained from interviews with the occupants of 4,866 housing units. Because…

  2. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  3. Altruism and skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.; Fatehi, L.; Kuzma, J.

    2015-03-01

    To better explore and understand the public's perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging technologies and food products, we conducted a US-based focus group study centered on nanotechnology, nano-food, and nano-food labeling. Seven focus groups were conducted in seven locations in two different US metropolitan areas from September 2010 to January 2011. In addition to revealing context-specific data on already established risk and public perception factors, our goal was to inductively identify other nano-food perception factors of significance for consideration when analyzing why and how perceptions and attitudes are formed to nanotechnology in food. Two such factors that emerged—altruism and skepticism—are particularly interesting in that they may be situated between different theoretical frameworks that have been used for explaining perception and attitude. We argue that they may represent a convergence point among theories that each help explain different aspects of both how food nanotechnologies are perceived and why those perceptions are formed. In this paper, we first review theoretical frameworks for evaluating risk perception and attitudes toward emerging technologies, then review previous work on public perception of nanotechnology and nano-food, describe our qualitative content analysis results for public perception toward nano-food—focusing especially on altruism and skepticism, and discuss implications of these findings in terms of how public attitudes toward nano-food could be formed and understood. Finally, we propose that paying attention to these two factors may guide more responsible development of nano-food in the future.

  4. The 41st Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; McNee, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the findings of the 41st Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. The annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools is unique because it's not an advocacy poll, but rather a thoughtful study of Americans' current perceptions of their public schools. Each…

  5. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  6. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  7. Public attitudes toward Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    Charlton Research Company is pleased to present the following summary of findings report for research conducted under contract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This section provides a brief introduction to the specifications of the study, and a guide to the organization of this report. Although the most sophisticated procedures have been used to collect and analyze the information presented here, it must be remembered that qualitative and quantitative research are not predictions. They are designed to measure public opinion within identifiable statistical limits or accuracy at specific points in time. This research is in no way a prediction of opinion or action at any future point in time. Among the topics covered in the surveys are: openness; National Laboratory; health hazards; radioactivity; uses of plutonium; hazardous waste; groundwater pollution; nuclear weapons; Ballistic Missile Defense; and earthquakes.

  8. Why School? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Why school? The 48th Annual PDK Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools included questions about the purpose of schooling, standards, homework, school funding, and parents' relationships with their schools. The 2016 poll, which was conducted by Langer Research Associates, was based on a telephone poll of 1,221 adults during April…

  9. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Results: Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Conclusion: Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others. PMID:26157655

  10. Putting the "Public" First in Public Relations: An Exploratory Study of Municipal Employee Public Service Attitudes, Job Satisfaction and Communication Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A study was conducted to determine (1) which actions municipal employees consider important to a city's overall public relations effort, (2) the attitudes of city employees toward public service activities, (3) the relationship between attitude and job satisfaction, and (4) ways to improve employee attitudes and, perhaps, public service…

  11. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  12. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Gravelle, Timothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents’ ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered – is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US–Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact. PMID:27257305

  13. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents' ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered - is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US-Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact.

  14. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  15. Public Attitude Survey on Solar Energy for Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Daniel

    1984-09-01

    A public attitude survey was taken in June 1984 to measure the support of Portlanders for increased use of solar energy, measures to protect solar access to property from future shade from buildings and vegetation, and programs and financial incentives for promoting solar energy. The survey also identified perceived barriers to making solar investments. Intercept Research Corporation of Portland conducted the random sample telephone survey of 400 residents. The results of the survey are accurate to within a margin of error of plus or minus 5 percentage points.

  16. Public knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Majmaah

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor. PMID:27695227

  17. The Role of the Public Library in Maine: Consumer Needs and Attitudes Towards Public Libraries in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    To assist the Governor's Task Force to study library services in Maine, Arthur D. Little, Inc. was retained to identify the attitudes of the general public toward libraries and how these attitudes affect library use. A series of four panel discussions was conducted; a survey of the general public was made; data was orally presented; and a workshop…

  18. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive

  19. Critical review of the United Kingdom's "gold standard" survey of public attitudes to science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin K; Jensen, Eric A

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, the UK government has funded surveys aimed at understanding the UK public's attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. Known as the Public Attitudes to Science series, these surveys and their predecessors have long been used in UK science communication policy, practice, and scholarship as a source of authoritative knowledge about science-related attitudes and behaviors. Given their importance and the significant public funding investment they represent, detailed academic scrutiny of the studies is needed. In this essay, we critically review the most recently published Public Attitudes to Science survey (2014), assessing the robustness of its methods and claims. The review casts doubt on the quality of key elements of the Public Attitudes to Science 2014 survey data and analysis while highlighting the importance of robust quantitative social research methodology. Our analysis comparing the main sample and booster sample for young people demonstrates that quota sampling cannot be assumed equivalent to probability-based sampling techniques.

  20. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  1. The 38th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2006-01-01

    Rose and Gallup report on the results of the 38th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitude Toward the Public Schools. This year's survey examined No Child Left Behind and the public's perception of the law, the appropriate role of standardized testing, the achievement gap between white students and black and Hispanic students, the…

  2. Make Teaching More Professional: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Americans want higher professional requirements for teachers and believe teacher pay is too low, but they don't like tenure, according to the newest PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes To­ward the Public Schools. Public school parents trust and have confidence in the nation's teachers, and they said communicating with their child's teacher…

  3. Survey of US public attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing.

    PubMed

    Haga, S B; O'Daniel, J M; Tindall, G M; Lipkus, I R; Agans, R

    2012-06-01

    To assess public attitudes and interest in pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing, we conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey of US adults, achieving a response rate of 42% (n=1139). Most respondents expressed interest in PGx testing to predict mild or serious side effects (73±3.29 and 85±2.91%, respectively), guide dosing (91%) and assist with drug selection (92%). Younger individuals (aged 18-34 years) were more likely to be interested in PGx testing to predict serious side effects (vs aged 55+ years), as well as Whites, those with a college degree, and who had experienced side effects from medications. However, most respondents (78±3.14%) were not likely to have a PGx test if there was a risk that their DNA sample or test result could be shared without their permission. Given differences in interest among some groups, providers should clearly discuss the purpose of testing, alternative testing options (if available) and policies to protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

  4. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  5. Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Tor Georg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare…

  6. Creating Positive Attitudes toward Reading in Public Schools and Homeschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick

    Learning environments have an impact on acquiring skills in reading as well as developing positive attitudes toward reading. Another variable that affects attitudes and aptitude toward reading is the "climate" or "environment" in which children learn their skills. This paper concentrates on the phenomenon that is reaching epic proportions in the…

  7. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

  8. An Assessment and Analysis of the General Public's Attitudes Toward Helping Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Douglas D.

    This study assesses the attitudes held by the general public toward providers of mental health help. Relationships were found to exist between attitudes, demographic variables (sex, education level, religion, age, marital status), indications of past behavior and expressions of future behavioral intentions. The following professions were included:…

  9. "This Is a Public Service Announcement": Evaluating and Redesigning Campaigns to Teach Attitudes and Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erika J.; Lomore, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assignment that requires students to apply their knowledge of the social psychology of attitudes and persuasion to critique and redesign a public service announcement. Students in a 200-level social psychology course evaluated the assignment by indicating their overall attitudes toward the assignment. Students rated the assignment…

  10. Actitudes Haci la Enfermedad Mental: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes toward Mental Illness: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefani, Dorina

    In this work, some of the most important instruments used to measure attitudes toward mental illness were analysed. A revision of different experimental investigations which studied attitudes toward mental illness among general public, mental health professionals and patients and their relatives was made. Some of the strategies applied to change…

  11. Belief in public efficacy, trust, and attitudes toward modern genetic science.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J; Cooper, H; Senior, V

    2007-08-01

    Government and policymakers want to engage the public in a dialogue about the conduct and consequences of science and increasingly seek to actively involve citizens in decision-making processes. Implicit in this thinking is that greater transparency and public inclusion will help dispel fears associated with new scientific advancements, foster greater public trust in those accountable, and ultimately increase the acceptability of new technologies. Less understood, however, are public perceptions about such high-level involvement in science and how these map onto public trust and attitudes within a diverse population. This article uses the concept of public efficacy -- the extent to which people believe that the public might be able to affect the course of decision making -- to explore differences in trust, attentiveness, and attitudes toward modern genetic science. Using nationally representative data from the 2003 British Social Attitudes Survey, we begin by examining the characteristics of those who have a positive belief about public involvement in this area of scientific inquiry. We then focus on how this belief maps on to indicators of public trust in key stakeholder groups, including the government and genetic scientists. Finally, we consider the relationship between public efficacy and trust and attitudes toward different applications of genetic technology. Our findings run contrary to assumptions that public involvement in science will foster greater trust and lead to a climate of greater acceptance for genetic technology. A belief in public efficacy does not uniformly equate with more trusting attitudes toward stakeholders but is associated with less trust in government rules. Whereas trust is positively correlated with more permissive attitudes about technologies such as cloning and gene therapy, people who believe in high-level public involvement are less likely to think that these technologies should be allowed than those who do not.

  12. Speechmaking as a Public Relations Technique: A Descriptive Study of Speechmaking Practices and Attitudes Among Selected Public Relations Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Charles Vasile

    This study surveys speech-making practices and attitudes of practitioners in firms not primarily engaged in providing public relations services. Questionnaires designed to assess the uses of speech making as a public relations technique were sent to the 50 largest United States advertising agencies and to the 34 largest United States business and…

  13. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention 1987-1991. Working Paper Number 840.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard

    This report summarizes key findings of a series of national public opinion polls to determine the public's attitudes and actions with respect to child abuse prevention. Findings are reported for four areas: public attitudes toward specific parental discipline practices; the frequency of specific parental discipline practices; the public's support…

  14. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  15. Changing the Public's Attitude Toward Braille: A Grassroots Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells-Jensen, Sheri; Wells-Jensen, Jason; Belknap, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This study addressed the effect of casual exposure to braille on the attitudes toward blindness and the use of braille of three groups of sighted university students: students in two sections of a general linguistics course for language arts teachers, one taught by a blind instructor (Group 1) and the other taught by a sighted instructor (Group…

  16. Public Attitudes toward Human Genetic Manipulation: A Revitalization of Eugenics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglia, Geremia; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…

  17. A Quantitative Examination of Public School Student Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social…

  18. Construct and Concurrent Validity of a Prototype Questionnaire to Survey Public Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…

  19. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  20. Validation and Exploration of Instruments for Assessing Public Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…

  1. Public Universities in Competition with Private Enterprise: The Attitudes and Behaviors of University Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, David Otto

    2010-01-01

    Public universities undertake business activities sometimes considered by private enterprise as unfairly competitive based on nonprofit advantages. This study was an inquiry into the attitudes and actions of chief business officers at public universities regarding these activities. The research population consisted of the 1862 Morrill Act Land…

  2. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK.

    PubMed

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations.

  3. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Scior, Katrina; Kan, Ka-ying; McLoughlin, Anna; Sheridan, Joel

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities among the general Hong Kong Chinese population and compared these to a White British sample, using the Community Living Attitudes Scale-Mental Retardation form (CLAS-MR; D. Henry, C. Keys, F. Balcazar, & D. Jopp, 1996 ). As predicted, attitudes among the Hong Kong Chinese public (n = 149) were less favorable than the British sample (n = 135). The former were less opposed to the exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities, less likely to view them as similar to themselves and more in favor of sheltering such individuals. Of all demographic variables examined, ethnicity was the strongest predictor of attitudes, although it only accounted for a small part of the variance in attitudes. The results are discussed in terms of policy implementation and additional research.

  4. Public attitudes to the promotion of genomic crop studies in Japan: correlations between genomic literacy, trust, and favourable attitude.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Maiko; Maeda, Tadahiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nagai, Akiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to assess public attitudes in Japan to the promotion of genomic selection in crop studies and to examine associated factors. We analysed data from a nationwide opinion survey. A total of 4,000 people were selected from the Japanese general population by a stratified two-phase sampling method, and 2,171 people participated by post; this survey asked about the pros and cons of crop-related genomic studies promotion, examined people's scientific literacy in genomics, and investigated factors thought to be related to genomic literacy and attitude. The relationships were examined using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Survey results showed that 50.0% of respondents approved of the promotion of crop-related genomic studies, while 6.7% disapproved. No correlation was found between literacy and attitude towards promotion. Trust in experts, belief in science, an interest in genomic studies and willingness to purchase new products correlated with a positive attitude towards crop-related genomic studies.

  5. Changing Expectations of College: The 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This installment reporting on the 47th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of American's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools focuses on American's views of the value of a high school and a college education and the affordability of college. It is the first year the poll included enough respondents to be able to break out sentiments of specific demographic…

  6. Attitudes to biotechnology: estimating the opinions of a better-informed public.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Patrick; Cooper, Helen; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Public familiarity with basic scientific concepts and principles has been proposed as essential for effective democratic decision-making (Miller, 1998). Empirical research, however, finds that public 'scientific literacy' is generally low, falling well short of what normative criteria would consider 'acceptable.' This has prompted calls to better engage, educate and inform the public on scientific matters, with the additional, usually implicit assumption that a knowledgeable citizenry should express more supportive and favourable attitudes toward science. Research investigating the notion that 'to know science is to love it' has provided only weak empirical support and has itself been criticised for representing science and technology as a unified and homogenous entity. In practice, it is argued, how knowledge impacts on the favourability of attitudes will depend on a multiplicity of actors, not the least of which is the particular area of science in question and the technologies to which it gives rise (Evans & Durant, 1992). This article uses a new method for examining the knowledge-attitude nexus on a prominent area of 21st century science--biotechnology. The idea that greater scientific knowledge can engender change in the favourability of attitudes toward specific areas of science is investigated using data from the 2000 British Social Attitudes Survey and the 1999 Wellcome Consultative Panel on Gene Therapy. Together the surveys measure public opinion on particular applications of genetic technologies, including gene therapy and the use of genetic data, as well as more general attitudes towards genetic research. We focus our analysis on how two different measures of knowledge impact on these attitudes; one a more general measure of scientific knowledge, the other relating specifically to knowledge of modern genetic science. We investigate what impact these knowledge domains have on attitudes toward biotechnology using a regression-based modelling technique

  7. The public debate on psychotropic medication and changes in attitudes 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Matschinger, Herbert; Carta, Mauro G; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schomerus, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 25 years, the appraisal of psychotropic drugs within the scientific community and their representation in the media has changed considerably. The initial optimism in the wake of the introduction of second-generation drugs has increasingly made room for a more critical evaluation of alleged advantages of these drugs. The question arises as to what extent this is reflected in similar changes in the public's attitudes towards psychiatric medication. Three representative population surveys on attitudes towards psychotropic medication were carried out in Germany in 1990 (N = 3075), 2001 (N = 2610) and 2011 (N = 1223), using the same sampling procedure, interview mode and instrument for assessing attitudes. In order to disentangle time-related effects, an age-period-cohort analysis was performed. Over the time period of 21 years, the German public's evaluation of psychotropic medication has become markedly more favourable. This change was mostly due to a period effect, i.e. concurrent influences of the social environment people are exposed to. Changes were much more pronounced in the 1990s, while over the following decade only a small, although statistically significant, increase in the favourable appraisal of medication was found. Age and birth cohort had only a minor effect on public attitudes. Our findings suggest that changes in the evaluation of the effects of psychotropic drugs within the psychiatric community and their representation in the media also affect public opinion. Given the ongoing debate about side effects and efficacy of psychiatric medication, future changes of public opinion can be expected.

  8. Assessment of Public Attitude Changes toward Exceptional Children as a Result of Public Newspaper Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sterling; Ogley, Peter

    1981-01-01

    To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)

  9. Preferences for public involvement in health service decisions: a comparison between best-worst scaling and trio-wise stated preference elicitation techniques.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny

    2016-12-10

    Stated preference elicitation techniques, such as discrete choice experiments and best-worst scaling, are now widely used in health research to explore the public's choices and preferences. In this paper, we propose an alternative stated preference elicitation technique, which we refer to as 'trio-wise'. We explain this new technique, its relative advantages, modeling framework, and how it compares to the best-worst scaling method. To better illustrate the differences and similarities, we utilize best-worst scaling Case 2, where individuals make best and worst (most and least) choices for the attribute levels that describe a single profile. We demonstrate this new preference elicitation technique using an empirical case study that explores preferences among the general public for ways to involve them in decisions concerning the health care system. Our findings show that the best-worst scaling and trio-wise preference elicitation techniques both retrieve similar preferences. However, the capability of our trio-wise method to provide additional information on the strength of rank preferences and its ability to accommodate indifferent preferences lead us to prefer it over the standard best-worst scaling technique.

  10. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  11. Consulting the community: public expectations and attitudes about genetics research

    PubMed Central

    Etchegary, Holly; Green, Jane; Dicks, Elizabeth; Pullman, Daryl; Street, Catherine; Parfrey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genomic discoveries and technologies promise numerous opportunities for improving health. Key to these potential health improvements, however, are health-care consumers' understanding and acceptance of these new developments. We identified community groups and invited them to a public information-consultation session in order to explore public awareness, perception and expectations about genetics and genomics research. One hundred and four members of seven community groups in Newfoundland, Canada took part in the community sessions. Content analysis of participant comments revealed they were largely hopeful about genetics research in its capacity to improve health; however, they did not accept such research uncritically. Complex issues arose during the community consultations, including the place of genetics in primary care, the value of genetics for personal health, and concerns about access to and uses of genetic information. Participants unequivocally endorsed the value of public engagement with these issues. The rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research offers exciting opportunities to improve population health. However, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. Our findings suggest that regular, transparent dialog between researchers and the public could allow a greater understanding of the research process, as well as assist in the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them. PMID:23591403

  12. Public speaking attitudes: does curriculum make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stone, Matthew D; Brundage, Shelley B; Zeigler, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    In light of infamous levels of fear associated with public speaking, businesses are training staff in communication effectiveness and universities are requiring courses in public speaking. A variety of approaches to individual training are available, but few studies have assessed effectiveness of group instruction, as in academic curricula. The specific purpose of this study was to compare changes in scores on measures of self-perceived confidence, competence, and apprehension associated with public speaking after two types of courses: one focused on knowledge of the vocal mechanism and mastering vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate, quality), and one addressing general communication theory and public speaking. Seventy-one undergraduate students enrolled in "Voice and Diction" at George Washington University (GWU) and 68 enrolled in "Fundamental Speech" at Florida State University completed questionnaires before and after the courses. Scores on Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale, Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, and Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24, were compared within subjects (ie, prepost course) and between courses. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found on all measures: students reported less apprehension and more confidence and competence after the courses. No differences were found between the two courses when comparing the mean changes from pre- to postscore. Traditional public speaking curriculum of how to design and deliver a speech and curriculum tailored to the voice and speech mechanism succeeded in reducing public speaking apprehension and increasing feelings of confidence and competency for these undergraduate students.

  13. Gender Difference in Achievement and Attitude of Public Secondary School Students towards Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatelure, Temitayo Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the gender difference in attitude and academic performance of students in selected public secondary schools in Akoko Land. The population for this study was made up of all the Junior Secondary Schools Three (JSS3) students in Akoko Land. Three hypotheses were raised to guide this study. 1626 student, (810 males, 816…

  14. The Role of Public and Self-Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, David L.; Shechtman, Zipora; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Public and self-stigmas have been implicated as factors in the underutilization of individual counseling. However, group counseling is also underutilized, and yet scholars know very little about the role of different types of stigma on attitudes toward seeking group counseling. Therefore, the current study examined the relationships between public…

  15. A Statewide Assessment of Public High School Principals' Attitudes Regarding Proficiency Testing in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas

    A questionnaire was developed to assess high school principals' attitudes regarding the Tennessee Proficiency Test. The questionnaires were distributed statewide to the 147 public high school principals; 121 principals responded. Questionnaire items dealt with issues such as policy statements, remedial activities, graduation requirements, and…

  16. Washington, D.C.: Public Attitudes About Crime. A National Crime Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    These city surveys had a twofold purpose: the assessment of public attitudes about crime and related matters and the development of information on the extent and nature of residents' experiences with selected forms of criminal victimization. Attitudinal information was obtained from interviews with the occupants of 4,676 housing units. Even though…

  17. Attitudes of German Teachers and Students towards Public Online Ratings of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinz, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Rating scales evaluating the quality of teaching are widely used by academic institutions and have become increasingly popular in the World Wide Web. This study examines teachers' and teacher-education students' knowledge and experience with public online ratings of teaching quality and their attitude towards them. Method: Based on…

  18. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  19. Attitudes toward Euthanasia in Hong Kong--A Comparison between Physicians and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Alice Ming-lin; Fok, Shiu-yeu

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that compared the attitudes of 618 respondents of a general household survey and a random sample of 1,197 physicians toward different types of euthanasia in Hong Kong. The general public was found to agree with active euthanasia and non-voluntary euthanasia and was neutral about passive…

  20. Faculty Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of higher education (HE) faculty members towards inclusion of students with disabilities at one large public University in Jordan using a survey approach. A total of 170 faculty members completed the survey. The most important findings of this study are: (a) regardless of the academic discipline, the majority of…

  1. Public Attitudes toward Adult Education in New Brunswick: Research Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Linda

    In 1989, a province-wide survey was conducted to assess public opinion concerning adult education and the New Brunswick Community College System (NBCCS). A random sample of 800 respondents between the ages of 18 and 65 was surveyed regarding the quality of education, the quality of job-related education and training, experiences within the…

  2. Public Attitudes toward the Apollo Space Program, 1965-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Herbert E.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the decline in public support for the Apollo Space Program from 1965 to 1975 in spite of generally positive media coverage. Using data from 31 telephone surveys during the period, concludes that the Moon landing polarized both opponents and proponents and increased opposition because "there was nothing more to be done." (JMF)

  3. Public Attitude toward Optician Education as Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Steven J.; Woods, Thomas A.; White, Debra R.; Hill, Roger S.

    A study sought to identify what the public thinks about the appropriate level of education and training for opticians. A 10% random sample of 1,510 New York State customers (n=151) of a large multinational opticianry corporation was surveyed. Two categories of data were social background (combined annual family income, age, marital status, race,…

  4. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  5. Public Knowledge and Attitudes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng; Wang, Yue; Li, Xuan; Hou, Lina; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual's willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6%) of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3%) were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2%) were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance. PMID:28367441

  6. Public attitudes toward programs of large-scale technological changes: Some reflections and policy prescriptions, appendix E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shostak, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The question of how ready the public is for the implementation of large-scale programs of technological change is considered. Four vital aspects of the issue are discussed which include: (1) the ways in which the public mis-perceives the change process, (2) the ways in which recent history impacts on public attitudes, (3) the ways in which the public divides among itself, and (4) the fundamentals of public attitudes towards change. It is concluded that nothing is so critical in the 1970's to securing public approval for large-scale planned change projects as is securing the approval by change-agents of the public.

  7. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds’ welfare and consumer behaviour is poorly understood. We therefore conducted a survey of the public in SE Queensland, Australia, from which we determined that industry knowledge was limited. Where it existed, it related to an empathetic attitude towards chicken welfare and an increase in chicken consumption. This suggests that consumers who eat more chicken believe that they should understand the systems of production of the animals that they are consuming. Abstract Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds’ welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents’ self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public’s knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken. PMID:28282911

  8. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, E. B.; Fraser, D.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow’s ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use. PMID:26559417

  9. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p < .01). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that components of public perception about HIV/AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  10. [Knowledge and attitude of the general public regarding symptoms, etiology and possible treatments of depressive illnesses].

    PubMed

    Althaus, D; Stefanek, J; Hasford, J; Hegerl, U

    2002-07-01

    Within the German research network on depression, the Nuremberg Alliance against Depression aims at informing the public about depressive illness and preventing suicidality by carrying out a city-wide information campaign. Before the prevention program started, public attitudes and knowledge had been assessed in a public opinion survey in Nuremberg and in a control region. A total of 1426 randomly chosen inhabitants of Nuremberg and Würzburg completed a computer-assisted telephone interview during November and December 2000. They were asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards symptoms, causes, and treatment of depression. No relevant differences between Nuremberg and Würzburg were found. Depression is regarded as a serious illness. People seemed to be more knowledgeable as compared to the results of earlier surveys, but there are still important information deficits. This is especially true for males over 60, who show unfavorable attitudes. Eighty percent of the population consider antidepressants to be addictive, and 69% were convinced that the use of antidepressants would lead to personality changes. Future information campaigns should aim at describing depression as an often chronic disease similar to hypertonia or diabetes. Public knowledge about antidepressants must be improved.

  11. Drivers of Public Attitudes towards Small Wind Turbines in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Tatchley, Cerian; Paton, Heather; Robertson, Emma; Minderman, Jeroen; Hanley, Nicholas; Park, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Small Wind Turbines (SWTs) are a growing micro-generation industry with over 870,000 installed units worldwide. No research has focussed on public attitudes towards SWTs, despite evidence the perception of such attitudes are key to planning outcomes and can be a barrier to installations. Here we present the results of a UK wide mail survey investigating public attitudes towards SWTs. Just over half of our respondents, who were predominantly older, white males, felt that SWTs were acceptable across a range of settings, with those on road signs being most accepted and least accepted in hedgerows and gardens. Concern about climate change positively influenced how respondents felt about SWTs. Respondent comments highlight visual impacts and perceptions of the efficiency of this technology are particularly important to this sector of the UK public. Taking this into careful consideration, alongside avoiding locating SWTs in contentious settings such as hedgerows and gardens where possible, may help to minimise public opposition to proposed installations. PMID:27011356

  12. Similar pressures, different contexts: public attitudes toward government intervention for health care in 21 nations.

    PubMed

    Kikuzawa, Saeko; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Pescosolido, Bernice A

    2008-12-01

    Health care systems worldwide are experiencing similar pressures such as rising cost, aging populations, and increased burden of disease. While policy makers in all countries face these challenges, their responses must consider local pressures, particularly the implicit social contract between the state, medicine, and insurers. We argue that public attitudes provide a window into the social context in which policy decisions are embedded. Using data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), we compare public attitudes toward government involvement in health care in 21 countries, testing the associations between various national-level variables (e.g., health care expenditures, aging of population, health care traditions) and public opinions. Specifically, we posit four national-level hypotheses ("health care traditions," "expenditure crisis," "demographic crisis," "changing disease profile crisis"), one individual-level hypothesis ("individual vulnerability"), and two cross-level hypotheses ("cultural socialization" and "health care need"). Our findings indicate that public attitudes cluster around the historical organization of health care, but also relate to current economic and demographic realities. Individuals in countries adopting the "National Health Service Model" (the state directly provides health care but complete state control is absent) or the "Centralized Model" (the state directly provides health care and has much control) are more supportive of government involvement in health care than those in the "Insurance Model" (the state is limited to maintenance of the system) countries. However citizens in countries currently spending more on health care and having a greater burden of chronic illness are less supportive. Our results cast doubt on arguments that increased cost will result in a questioning of the contract between the state and citizens in the social provision of health care. We end by discussing implications for recent work in

  13. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  14. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions – stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes. PMID:27471477

  15. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  16. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  17. Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Marwan

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…

  18. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  19. Attitudes, psychology, and risk taking of potential live kidney donors: strangers, relatives, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Boulware, L Ebony; Ratner, Lloyd E; Troll, Misty U; Chaudron, Alexis; Yeung, Edwina; Chen, Shirley; Klein, Andrew S; Hiller, Janet; Powe, Neil R

    2005-07-01

    It is unclear whether potential living kidney donors and the general public differ in attitudes and psychological characteristics. We performed a case-control study to explore differences in these groups using a standardized questionnaire (analyzed using conditional logistic regression). Strangers (N = 42) were more willing than controls (N = 126) to incur risks: 64% strangers versus 35% controls accepting >50% medical complications (MC) risk; 90% strangers versus 61% controls accepting >8 days hospitalization; 71% strangers versus 43% controls accepting >3 months unpaid; 55% strangers versus 16% controls accepting 100% kidney failure (KF) risk; 70% strangers versus 34% controls accepting < or =10% likelihood of successful transplant (all p < 0.01). Relatives (N = 251) were also more willing than controls (N = 251) to incur risks. Strangers were most willing to incur MC, KF and transplant failure. Groups did not differ in attitudes, depression or anxiety. Potential stranger and related donors are willing to undergo greater risks with donation than the general public, but do not differ in other attitudes, depression or anxiety. This should help reassure transplant centers and the public that both forms of live donation do not necessarily involve increased ethical risks of donor coercion or irrational thought processes. Still, careful attention to communication of all risks of donation is warranted.

  20. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    PubMed

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  1. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  2. Public perceptions regarding water quality and attitudes toward water conservation in the Lower Fraser Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniels, Timothy L.; Axelrod, Lawrence J.; Cavanagh, Nigel

    1998-05-01

    This paper concerns public judgments regarding water quality, public attitudes about water conservation, and related issues in the Lower Fraser Basin of southwest British Columbia, Canada. A written survey was administered to 183 lay subjects in four communities within the Lower Fraser Basin. The results show that subjects generally perceive water quality in specific water bodies as worse than indicated in technical studies of those water bodies. Respondents also indicated a high willingness to engage in water conservation activities. Discussion and conclusions complete the paper.

  3. The sexual attitudes and behavior of private and public school students: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Baker, B

    1987-01-01

    This study reports the results of a questionnaire and interview-based study designed to test the often-stated claims of college preparatory schools, i.e., "prep schools" that, along with a high-quality education, they also instill a superior system of values than is possible in a public school. Comparisons are made between "preppies" and college-bound public school students in terms of sexual attitudes and behavior as well as with the earlier studies of Kinsey, Pomeroy et al., Sorensen, and Haas. The results indicate that, even when measured by the standards of the schools themselves, preppies rank lower in many areas, especially attitudinal, than their public school counterparts. Despite the enormous amount of faculty energy expended to prevent it, the sexual activity of the prep school student, both in amount and degree of sophistication, is significantly greater than is found in public school students. Further, in terms of sex-related drug use, exploitiveness, female self-image, homophobia and sexism, preppies do not compare favorably with public school students. Hypotheses are advanced to account for the differences detected and suggestions made for future research. It is also suggested that the research technique used in this study has great potential for future study of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior that, in the past, have been extremely difficult to perform.

  4. Who is willing to pay for science? On the relationship between public perception of science and the attitude to public funding of science.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Carolina; Luján, José Luis

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between the general public's understanding of science and the attitude towards public funding of scientific research. It applies a multivariate and discriminant analysis (Wilks' Lambda), in addition to a more commonly used bivariate analysis (Cramer's V), to data compiled from the Third National Survey on the Social Perception of Science and Technology in Spain (FECYT, 2006). The general conclusion is that the multivariate analysis produces information complementary to the bivariate analysis, and that the variables commonly applied in public perception studies have limited predictive value with respect to the attitude towards public funding of scientific research.

  5. Attitude toward Public Health Dentistry as a career among dental students in Odisha: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Among 886 respondents, 302 (34.08%) were males and 584 (65.91%) were females. One-third (33.52%) of them had a positive attitude toward selecting public health dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073

  6. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K.; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. Results: About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term “plagiarism” was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. Conclusion: About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence. PMID:26604598

  7. FACOTRS TO DETERMINE RISK PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADAPTATION POLICY OF THE PUBLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kenshi; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kubota, Hiromi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    This study clarifies the factors to determine risk perception of climate change and attitudes toward adaptation policy by analyzing the data collecting from Internet survey to the general public. The results indicate the followings: 1) more than 70% people perceive some sort of risk of climate change, and most people are awaken to wind and flood damage. 2) most people recognize that mitigation policy is much more important than adaptation policy, whereas most people assume to accept adaptation policy as self-reponsibility, 3) the significant factors to determinane risk perception of climate chage and attitude towerd adaptation policy are cognition of benefits on the policy and procedural justice in the policy process in addion to demographics such as gender, experience of disaster, intension of inhabitant.

  8. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.

  9. Effects of attitudes and demography on public support for endangered species conservation.

    PubMed

    Liordos, Vasilios; Kontsiotis, Vasileios J; Anastasiadou, Magdalini; Karavasias, Efstathios

    2017-04-01

    It is critical for managers to understand how attitudes and demography affect public's preferences for species protection for designing successful conservation projects. 1080 adults in Greece were asked to rate pictures of 12 endangered species on aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and intention to support their conservation. Factor analysis identified a group of animals for which respondents indicated high levels of support for their conservation (red deer, loggerhead sea turtle, brown bear, common pheasant, European ground squirrel, glossy ibis) and a group of animals for which respondents indicated low levels of support (black vulture, great white shark, fire-bellied toad, western barbastelle, Cretan tube web spider, Milos viper). The species that received the highest support were also rated as the most attractive and safest, excluding the fearsome brown bear. Structural models revealed that aesthetic, moralistic and negativistic attitudes were the stronger predictors of support. Aesthetic and moralistic attitudes were positively, and negativistic attitudes negatively, correlated with support for conservation in both groups. Consumptive users scored lower in aesthetics and were less supportive of protection in the high support group, while nonconsumptive users showed the opposite trend. Respondents residing in urban areas deemed animals of high support more attractive and less fearsome and were more supportive of conservation than rural residents in both groups. Females of higher education viewed animals of low support as fearsome, however they supported their conservation. Our study identified popular species that can be used as flagship species to facilitate the implementation of conservation projects. The results of this study could also be used to design a communication and outreach campaign to raise awareness about the ecosystem value of less attractive species.

  10. Attitudes of the German public to restrictions on persons with mental illness in 1993 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, M C; Matschinger, H; Schomerus, G

    2014-09-01

    Aims. In recent years, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the Mental Health Declaration for Europe and other initiatives laid the ground for improving the rights of persons with mental illness. This study aims to explore to what extent these achievements are reflected in changes of public attitudes towards restrictions on mentally ill people. Methods. Data from two population surveys that have been conducted in the 'new' States of Germany in 1993 and 2011 are compared with each other. Results. The proportion of respondents accepting compulsory admission of mentally ill persons to a psychiatric hospital remained unchanged in general, but the proportion opposing compulsory admission on grounds not sanctioned by law declined. In contrast, more respondents were opposed to permanently revoking the driver's license and fewer supported abortion and (voluntary) sterilisation in 2011. Concerning the right to vote and compulsory sterilisation, the proportion of those who did not give their views increased most. Conclusions. Two divergent trends in public attitudes towards restrictions on people with mental disorders emerge: While, in general, people's views on patients' rights have become more liberal, the public is also more inclined to restricting patients' freedom in case of deviant behaviour.

  11. Try It Again, Uncle Sam: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. [Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools reveals that Americans say they know a lot more this year about the Common Core State Standards than they indicated a year ago, and they like it a lot less. Americans also say local school boards should have the greatest influence in deciding what is taught in the…

  12. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  13. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  14. The challenge of vaccinating adults: attitudes and beliefs of the Canadian public and healthcare providers

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, Li; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Vaccine coverage for recommended vaccines is low among adults. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of adults and healthcare providers related to four vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, zoster, pneumococcus and influenza). Design We undertook a survey and focus groups of Canadian adults and healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, pharmacists). A total of 4023 adults completed the survey and 62 participated in the focus groups; 1167 providers completed the survey and 45 participated in the focus groups. Results Only 46.3% of adults thought they were up-to-date on their vaccines; 30% did not know. In contrast, 75.6% of providers reported being up-to-date. Only 57.5% of adults thought it was important to receive all recommended vaccines (compared to 87.1–91.5% of providers). Positive attitudes towards vaccines paralleled concern about the burden of illness and confidence in the vaccines, with providers being more aware of disease burden and confident in vaccine effectiveness than the public. Between 55.0% and 59.7% of adults reported willingness to be vaccinated if recommended by their healthcare provider. However, such recommendations were variable; while 77.4% of the public reported being offered and 52.8% reported being recommended the influenza vaccine by their provider, only 10.8% were offered and 5.6% recommended pertussis vaccine. Barriers and facilitators to improved vaccine coverage in adults, such as trust-mistrust of health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and national recommendations, autonomy versus the public good and logistical issues (such as insufficient time and lack of vaccination status tracking), were identified by both the public and providers. Conclusions Despite guidelines for adult vaccination, there are substantial gaps in knowledge and attitudes and beliefs among both the public and healthcare providers that lead to low vaccine

  15. Implementing HPV vaccines: public knowledge, attitudes, and the need for education.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrita

    This article reviews qualitative research on public knowledge and attitudes to HPV vaccines, focusing on socio-economically challenged populations. Keyword searches were conducted on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for relevant peer-reviewed literature in English. A high acceptance of HPV vaccines was found despite low knowledge about HPV (types, prevalence, transmission, health risks, and cervical screening). Facilitators of HPV vaccine uptake included fear of cancer and desire to protect children's health. Barriers included low knowledge levels, perception of HPV vaccines as potential causes of sexual disinhibition, concerns about vaccine costs, social stigma, adverse effects, and parental unwillingness to permit vaccination of pre-adolescent children. Despite acceptance of HPV vaccines, implementation in low-resource settings faces social and economic difficulties. To pursue and strengthen cervical screening in these settings, public education about HPV is key.

  16. Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding the Use of Antibiotics in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Francesco; Izzo, Maria Teresa; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics of the general population in Italy, and to assess the correlates of these outcomes of interest. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 630 parents of students attending nine randomly selected public primary and secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, attitudes and behaviors towards antibiotic use, and sources of information. Results A total of 419 parents participated. Only 9.8% knew the definition of antibiotic resistance and 21.2% knew when it was appropriate to use antibiotics. Respondents with higher education, employed, with a family member working in the health care sector, and with no need for additional information on antibiotics were more likely to know the definition of antibiotic resistance. One third (32.7%) self-classified them as users of self-medication with antibiotics and those with a lower self-rated health status, who did not use the physician as source of information on antibiotics, and who have attended a physician in the last year were more likely to use self-medication. One-fourth (22.7%) of those who had never been self-medicated would be willing to take an antibiotic without a prescription of a physician. Respondents were more likely to be willing to take antibiotics without a prescription if they were under 40 years of age, if they had a lower self-rated health status, if they did not know that antibiotics are not indicated for treating flu and sore throat, and if they knew that antibiotics are not indicated for treating colds. Conclusions The survey has generated information about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics in the general population and effective public education initiative should provide practical and appropriate means to change their

  17. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Eunice; Quintino, Victor; Palhas, Jael; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Teixeira, José

    2016-01-01

    Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The “Ponds with Life” environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students’ knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession. PMID:27148879

  18. Public attitudes to laws for smoke-free private vehicles: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G; Wilson, N

    2009-08-01

    As smoke-free car policy is a frontier domain for tobacco control, attitudes to smoke-free private car laws are briefly reviewed. Medline and Google Scholar searches for the period up to mid-November 2008, from English language sources, were undertaken. Studies were included that contained data from national and subnational populations (eg, in states and provinces), but not for smaller administrative units, eg, cities or councils. Jurisdiction, sample size and survey questions were assessed. One reviewer conducted the data extraction and both authors conducted assessments. A total of 15 relevant studies (from 1988) were identified, set in North America, the UK and Australasia. The available data indicates that, for the jurisdictions with data, there is majority public support for laws requiring cars that contain children to be smoke free. There appears to be an increase over time in this support. In five surveys in 2005 or since (in California, New Zealand and Australia), the support from smokers was 77% or more. The high levels of public (and smoker) support for smoke-free car laws found in the studies to date suggest that this can be a relatively non-controversial tobacco control intervention. Survey series on attitudes to such laws are needed, and surveys in jurisdictions where the issue has not been investigated to date.

  19. Americans Put Teacher Quality on Center Stage: The 46th Annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Calderon, Valerie J.

    2014-01-01

    In this, the second installment of a two-part report of the 46th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools, the report unveils what Americans are thinking about public schools--in particular their views of teachers and the classrooms where they work. Some findings were surprising, others were not. For example,…

  20. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior.

    PubMed

    Nash, Robert A; Berkowitz, Shari R; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting 'beneficial' false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional 'false-memory therapy' that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale-rating (both studies) and open-text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute.

  1. Health communication, information technology and the public's attitude toward periodic general health examinations.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodic general health examinations (GHEs) are gradually becoming more popular as they employ subclinical screenings, as a means of early detection. This study considers the effect of information technology (IT), health communications and the public's attitude towards GHEs in Vietnam. Methods: A total of 2,068 valid observations were obtained from a survey in Hanoi and its surrounding areas. Results: In total, 42.12% of participants stated that they were willing to use IT applications to recognise illness symptoms, and nearly 2/3 of them rated the healthcare quality at average level or below. Discussion: The data, which was processed by the BCL model, showed that IT applications (apps) reduce hesitation toward GHEs; however, older people seem to have less confidence in using these apps. Health communications and government's subsidy also increased the likelihood of people attending periodic GHEs. The probability of early check-ups where there is a cash subsidy could reach approximately 80%.

  2. Japanese Americans and the Public School Americanization Program of the Progressive Era: The Seattle Public Schools' Official Attitude, 1916-1942.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Yoon K.

    This comparative historical analysis examines the official attitude of the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools toward Americanization and ethnic groups, specifically Japanese Americans, between 1916 and 1942. The paper contains seven major sections including: (1) "Objective and Rationale for Studying Seattle"; (2) "Methodology and…

  3. Survey II of Public and Leadership Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Development in the United States. Study No. 2628.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication details a national survey done by Louis Harris and Associates, similar to one done in 1975, to assess attitudes toward nuclear power in the United States. The survey consisted of three parts. The first part was in-person, door-to-door interviews with 1,597 randomly selected households nationwide. The second part was 309…

  4. Achievement Anxiety of Prospective Teachers: A Research in the Context of Their Attitudes towards Public Staff Selection Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ümmet, Durmus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the achievement anxiety of prospective teachers according to their attitudes to Public Staff Selection Examination (KPSS) and some demographic variables. The study group consists of 312 graduated and final year prospective teachers studying at different faculties of education and science and literature in…

  5. The Effects of Public and Individual Language Attitudes on Intra-Speaker Variation: A Case Study of Style-Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Campoy, Juan Manuel; Cutillas-Espinosa, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the language attitudes underlying patterns of stylistic variation in the speech of a female former President of the Spanish local Government of Murcia. We build on previous quantitative work demonstrating that this speaker shows unexpectedly high usage levels for nonstandard Murcian Spanish features in public speech,…

  6. Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban Public Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Peterca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Publicly funded single-sex schooling (SSS) has proliferated in recent years and is touted as a remedy to gaps in academic attitudes and achievement, particularly for low-income students of color. Research on SSS is rife with limitations, stemming from selective admissions processes, selection effects related to socioeconomic status, a lack of…

  7. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  8. Attitudes of the Public and Citizen Advisory Committee Members Toward Land and Water Resources in the Maumee River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Calvin Lee

    The reported study was conducted to determine the extent to which active participants of a Citizen's Advisory Committee (CAC) were representative of the general public in land and water resource attitudes. All 39 members of the Maumee River Basin Level B CAC and a random sample of 400 Basin residents were given a Likert-type scale to measure their…

  9. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  10. Teachers' Demographic Factors on Attitude towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Public Primary Schools of Kimilili Subcounty, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasilumbi, Wesonga Joanne; Jenniffer, Munyau K.; Prisca, Tarus

    2016-01-01

    The government of Kenya through the Ministry of education banned corporal punishment in schools. This necessitated strengthening of guidance and counseling (G&C) services in schools. This study aimed to: determine the teachers' attitude towards guidance and counseling services in public primary schools in Kimilili Sub-County and determine the…

  11. A Survey of Public and Leadership Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Development in the United States. Study No. 2515.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication details a study done by Louis Harris and Associates in 1975 to assess attitudes toward nuclear power in the United States. The survey consisted of three parts. The first part was in-person, door-to-door interviews with 1,537 scientifically selected households nationwide. The second part was 301 personal interviews, about 1 hour…

  12. Public Attitudes toward People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scior, Katrina; Kan, Ka-ying; McLoughlin, Anna; Sheridan, Joel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities among the general Hong Kong Chinese population and compared these to a White British sample, using the Community Living Attitudes Scale-Mental Retardation form (CLAS-MR; D. Henry, C. Keys, F. Balcazar, & D. Jopp, 1996). As predicted, attitudes among the Hong Kong…

  13. Actitud Hacia las Matematicas: Revision Bibliografica (Attitudes Toward Mathematics: Revised Bibliography). Publication No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Feijoo, Nelida

    Investigations about attitudes toward mathematics carried out in the past decade were revised. The instruments used to measure attitudes toward mathematics were analysed as well as the attitudes toward different aspects of mathematics, their relation with other school subjects and their stability through time. Opinions about the influence of…

  14. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  15. Changes in beliefs and attitudes toward people with depression and schizophrenia - results of a public campaign in Germany.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Anna C; Mnich, Eva E; Ludwig, Julia; Daubmann, Anne; Bock, Thomas; Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-03-30

    We examined the impact of a mental health awareness campaign on public attitudes. The campaign was embedded in the project psychenet - Hamburg Network for Mental Health. Beliefs and attitudes were examined before and after specific awareness measures in Hamburg (intervention region) and Munich (control region). Analyses were based on representative surveys (2011: N=2014; 2014: N=2006). Vignettes with symptoms suggestive of depression respectively schizophrenia were presented, followed by questions on social distance, beliefs and emotional reactions. Analyses of variance tested variations between regions over time and differences between those aware of the campaign and those not aware. In 2014, 7.3% (n=74) of the Hamburg respondents were aware of the psychenet campaign. Regarding the total sample, there were minor changes in attitudes. Differentiated according to campaign awareness among Hamburg respondents, those who were aware showed less desire for social distance toward a person with depression. Moreover, respondents aware of the campaign stated less often that a person with schizophrenia is in need of help. The campaign had small impact on attitudes. A substantial change in ingrained attitudes toward persons with mental health problems is difficult to achieve with interventions targeting the general public.

  16. Impact of information about sentencing decisions on public attitudes toward the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    St Amand, M D; Zamble, E

    2001-10-01

    Research reveals public dissatisfaction with perceived leniency of the criminal justice system. However, when asked to sentence hypothetical offenders, members of the public tend to choose dispositions similar to what current court practices prescribe. In two studies reported here, subjects completed a mock sentencing exercise and a general attitude survey. In an initial pilot study, they expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but the relative punitiveness of their sentences (in terms of their perceptions of how severe various sentencing options are) was only slightly elevated above a set of reference sentences. Providing a typical judge's sentencing decisions did not decrease dissatisfaction but was associated with an anchoring effect. This effect was explored in the main study by manipulating the provided reference sentences to be either lenient, moderate, or punitive. Again, participants expressed general dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system but prescribed generally moderate sentences, anchoring their sentences to the information provided. However, only those exposed to moderate "typical" sentences subsequently reported reduced dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system.

  17. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of modified-release prednisone in the treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis with morning stiffness based on directly elicited public preference values

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, William; Iqbal, Itrat; Khan, Ifty; Ouwens, Mario; Heron, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the cost-effectiveness of treatments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of growing importance due to the chronic nature of the disease, rising treatment costs, and budget-constrained health care systems. This analysis assesses the cost-effectiveness of modified-release (MR) prednisone compared with immediate-release (IR) prednisone for the treatment of morning stiffness due to RA. Methods A health state transition model was used to categorize RA patients into four health states, defined by duration of morning stiffness. The model applied a 1-year time horizon and adopted a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Health benefits were measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the final output was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Efficacy data were derived from the CAPRA-1 (Circadian Administration of Prednisone in Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, drug costs from the British National Formulary (BNF), and utility data from a direct elicitation time-trade-off (TTO) study in the general population. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Mean treatment costs per patient were higher for MR-prednisone (£649.70) than for IR-prednisone (£46.54) for the duration of the model. However, the model generated an incremental QALY of 0.044 in favor of MR-prednisone which resulted in an ICER of £13,577. Deterministic sensitivity analyses did not lead to significant changes in the ICER. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reported that MR-prednisone had an 84% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY. The model only considers drug costs and there was a lack of comparative long-term data for IR-prednisone. Furthermore, utility benefits were not captured in the clinical setting. Conclusion This analysis demonstrates that, based on the CAPRA-1 trial and directly elicited public preference values, MR-prednisone is a cost-effective treatment option when compared with IR-prednisone for RA

  19. The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter?

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese persons are frequently stigmatized in news media. The present study is the first to systematically compare public reactions to positive and negative images of obese persons accompanying news reports on obesity (while manipulating gender and race of the target)and their effects on generalized attitudes and social distance toward obese persons. The authors conducted 3 randomized experimental studies using online surveys to assess public perceptions of positive versus stereotypical images of obese adults (who varied by gender and race) accompanying a neutral news report about obesity. The sample included 1,251 adults, who were recruited through a national survey panel during May of 2010. Participants who viewed negative, stereotypical images of obese targets increased social distance, antifat attitudes, and ratings of laziness and dislike toward obese persons, whereas positive, nonstereotypical images induced more positive attitudes. These findings remained consistent when accounting for sociodemographic variables. African American female obese targets portrayed in images evoked higher ratings of dislike and social distance compared with Caucasian targets, but ratings were similar for male and female targets. This study provides evidence that images of obese person accompanying written media influence public attitudes toward obese people, and may reinforce weight stigmatization if images contain stereotypical portrayals of obese persons. Implications for efforts to report about obesity in the news media are discussed.

  20. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  1. Possible Biases of Researchers’ Attitudes Toward Video Games: Publication Trends Analysis of the Medical Literature (1980–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Mitchell; Appel, David Ian; Abrams, Aaron W; Rotem, Michal; Bloch, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of video games is expanding, and so is the debate regarding their possible positive and deleterious effects. As controversies continue, several researchers have expressed their concerns about substantial biases existing in the field, which might lead to the creation of a skewed picture, both in the professional and in the lay literature. However, no study has tried to examine this issue quantitatively. Objective The objective of our study was to examine possible systematic biases in the literature, by analyzing the publication trends of the medical and life sciences literature regarding video games. Methods We performed a complete and systematic PubMed search up to December 31, 2013. We assessed all 1927 articles deemed relevant for their attitude toward video games according to the focus, hypothesis, and authors’ interpretation of the study results, using a 3-category outcome (positive, negative, and neutral). We assessed the prevalence of different attitudes for possible association with year of publication, location of researchers, academic discipline, methodological research, and centrality of the publishing journals. Results The attitude toward video games presented in publications varied by year of publication, location, academic discipline, and methodological research applied (P<.001 for all). Moreover, representation of different attitudes differed according to centrality of the journals, as measured by their impact factor (P<.001). Conclusions The results suggest that context, whether scientific or social, is related to researchers’ attitudes toward video games. Readers, both lay and professional, should weigh these contextual variables when interpreting studies’ results, in light of the possible bias they carry. The results also support a need for a more balanced, open-minded approach toward video games, as it is likely that this complex phenomenon carries novel opportunities as well as new hazards. PMID:27430187

  2. Free-Roaming Dogs in Nepal: Demographics, Health and Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

    PubMed

    Massei, G; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L; Callaby, R; Sharma, K; Dhakal, I P; Dahal, U

    2017-02-01

    In Nepal, most dogs are free to roam and may transmit diseases to humans and animals. These dogs often suffer from malnutrition and lack basic health care. Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. We carried out a study in Chitwan District (central Nepal), to collect baseline data on free-roaming owned dog demographics, assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of dog owners concerning dogs and rabies, evaluate rabies vaccination coverage and anthelmintic treatment of dogs, measure dogs' response to rabies vaccination and assess dog health through body condition scores and parasites. We conducted household interviews with owners of free-roaming female dogs (n = 60) and administered dogs with rabies vaccination and anthelmintics. Dog owners regularly fed free-roaming dogs but provided minimal health care; 42% of respondents did not claim ownership of the dog for which they provided care. We collected skin, faecal and blood samples for parasite identification and for measuring rabies virus-specific antibodies. Ninety-two per cent of dog owners were aware of the routes of rabies virus transmission, but only 35% described the correct post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following a dog bite. Twenty-seven per cent of the dogs had measurable rabies virus-specific antibody titres and 14% had received anthelmintics in the previous year. Following rabies vaccination, 97% of dogs maintained an adequate antibody titre for ≥6 months. Most dogs appeared healthy, although haemoprotozoans, endoparasites and ectoparasites were identified in 12%, 73% and 40% of the dogs, respectively. Poor skin condition and parasite load were associated. Seventy-four per cent of the females had litters in 1 year (mean litter size = 4.5). Births occurred between September and February; we estimated 60% mortality in puppies. We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be

  3. Value predispositions as perceptual filters: Comparing of public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuan; Ho, Shirley S; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Anderson, Ashley A; Hao, Xiaoming; He, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    This study compares public attitudes toward nanotechnology in the United States and Singapore, using large-scale survey data in both countries. Results indicate that Singaporeans tend to be more knowledgeable about and familiar with nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Singaporeans tend to perceive greater benefits and fewer potential risks of nanotechnology, and to indicate greater support for government funding for nanotechnology than the U.S. public. Between the two countries, perceived familiarity with nanotechnology and the benefits and risks of the emerging technology tend to be interpreted differently through the lens of value predispositions (religiosity and deference to scientific authority) and therefore they indirectly affect public support. Specifically, the U.S. public tends to use religiosity to interpret benefits and Singaporeans are inclined to use religiosity to think about risks. Deference to scientific authority also moderates the impact of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology on funding support for the technology among the U.S. public.

  4. Attitudes and Relationship between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry in a Public General Hospital in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Gentille, Cesar; Davalos, Long; Huayanay, Leandro; Malaga, German

    2014-01-01

    Background The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. Objective To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. Results 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%), promotional material (87.8%) and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%). Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. Conclusions A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received and ethically accepted

  5. Public attitudes regarding large-scale solar energy development in the U.S.

    DOE PAGES

    Carlisle, Juliet E.; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; ...

    2015-08-01

    Using data collected from both a National sample as well as an oversample in U.S. Southwest, we examine public attitudes toward the construction of utility-scale solar facilities in the U.S. as well as development in one’s own county. Our multivariate analyses assess demographic and sociopsychological factors as well as context in terms of proximity of proposed project by considering the effect of predictors for respondents living in the Southwest versus those from a National sample.We find that the predictors, and impact of the predictors, related to support and opposition to solar development vary in terms of psychological and physical distance.more » Overall, for respondents living in the U.S. Southwest we find that environmentalism, belief that developers receive too many incentives, and trust in project developers to be significantly related to support and opposition to solar development, in general. When Southwest respondents consider large-scale solar development in their county, the influence of these variables changes so that property value, race, and age only yield influence. Differential effects occur for respondents of our National sample.We believe our findings to be relevant for those outside the U.S. due to the considerable growth PV solar has experienced in the last decade, especially in China, Japan, Germany, and the U.S.« less

  6. Surveying Resident and Faculty Physician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences in Response to Public Lead Contamination.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D Kay; Lepisto, Brenda Lovegrove; Lecea, Nicolas; Ghamrawi, Ranine; Bachuwa, Ghassan; LaChance, Jenny; Hanna-Attisha, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health crises can appear anywhere and without warning. After research revealed a significant incidence of elevated pediatric blood lead levels following a water source change, Genesee County declared a public health emergency in Flint, Michigan. Hospital patients and family members began approaching Hurley Medical Center's physicians with questions regarding the health implications of the lead contamination. Many of the physicians voiced concerns about responding appropriately to patient needs and increasing demands for information. As a result, a Hurley research team decided to conduct an informal survey across training programs to determine the need for added education.Because of heightened patient anxiety, it was necessary for the timeline to progress quickly. In creating the survey, the team's objective was to assess resident and faculty physician knowledge, attitudes, and experiences concerning lead contamination. The results revealed a critical need for supplementary training. Therefore, Hurley embarked on an education campaign for its graduate medical education programs, benefiting physicians and patients alike.Patient and physician needs may change drastically following an environmental health emergency. It is the duty of medical centers to ensure their clinicians are well equipped to confront such threats. As prompt treatment is often a key to positive health outcomes, the authors stress the importance of acting quickly and suggest conducting informal surveys to identify gaps in physician knowledge. Likewise, the authors encourage medical educators nationwide to examine their environmental health curricula. It appears lead-contaminated water is not just a Flint problem but may have far-reaching implications for many cities.

  7. Public attitudes regarding large-scale solar energy development in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, Juliet E.; Kane, Stephanie L.; Solan, David; Bowman, Madelaine; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-08-01

    Using data collected from both a National sample as well as an oversample in U.S. Southwest, we examine public attitudes toward the construction of utility-scale solar facilities in the U.S. as well as development in one’s own county. Our multivariate analyses assess demographic and sociopsychological factors as well as context in terms of proximity of proposed project by considering the effect of predictors for respondents living in the Southwest versus those from a National sample.We find that the predictors, and impact of the predictors, related to support and opposition to solar development vary in terms of psychological and physical distance. Overall, for respondents living in the U.S. Southwest we find that environmentalism, belief that developers receive too many incentives, and trust in project developers to be significantly related to support and opposition to solar development, in general. When Southwest respondents consider large-scale solar development in their county, the influence of these variables changes so that property value, race, and age only yield influence. Differential effects occur for respondents of our National sample.We believe our findings to be relevant for those outside the U.S. due to the considerable growth PV solar has experienced in the last decade, especially in China, Japan, Germany, and the U.S.

  8. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Shari R.; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting ‘beneficial’ false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional ‘false‐memory therapy’ that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale‐rating (both studies) and open‐text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28111495

  9. Social-physhological analysis of the public attitude to radiation and other factors of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Gushcin, V.A.; Pakhomova, N.V.; Sappa, N.N.

    1993-12-31

    The aim of the present study has been to clarify the attitudes of different groups of respondents to the choice between risk and use brought out by radiation medicine, nuclear power plants, and also against this background, the attitude to other most prominant factors caused by civilazations.The object of our studies was Kharkov.The opinions of 152 people were studied.

  10. Teacher Attitudes on Coping with Grief in the Public School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jon K.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Study replicates a previous study with early childhood teachers while also including the Death Attitude Profile-Revised. This study establishes teacher attitudes toward death and dying and their self-perceived ability to assist grieving students. Both quantitative and qualitative findings indicate need for further teacher preparation in dealing…

  11. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 3: Public Attitude Toward Poverty and the Characteristics of the Poor and the Near Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.

    Volume 3 of a four volume collection, this document addresses the extent and the depth of public support in America for domestic social welfare programs and the social, moral, and economic attitudes of the poor and near poor. Specifically, three major sections focus on: the national morale and support for domestic reform; attitudes toward welfare,…

  12. An empirical analysis of the public's attitudes toward advertising hospital services: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.

  13. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  14. Public attitudes towards motorcyclists' safety: a qualitative study from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Musselwhite, Charles B A; Avineri, Erel; Susilo, Yusak O; Bhattachary, Darren

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the reported research was to examine the perceptions of road user safety amongst different road users and examine the link between attitudes, empathy and skill in motorcycle safety behaviour. Motorcyclists were perceived by the study participants, members of the public at four different locations at the UK (including motorcyclists and non-motorcyclists), as a group be at a high risk of accidents on the road. This was due to perceived behavioural characteristics of motorcyclists--who were viewed as 'thrill seekers'--as well as observed behaviours on the road. This, coupled with the physical vulnerability and excessive speeds, meant that motorbike driving was considered by the study participants as the least safe form of road use. There was broad agreement that motorcycling was dangerous as a whole, but not all motorcyclists were necessarily risky riders. The issue of 'competitive space' emerged between car drivers and motorcyclists in particular and it was suggested that there was a lack of mutual awareness and considerations between the two groups. Generally, greatest empathy comes from drivers who are motorcyclists themselves. Engineering, education, enforcement interventions were investigated. These were aimed at two main areas: normalising safer driving behaviours for motorcyclists and increasing awareness of bikes for motorists--particularly in relation to reducing speed limits at urban junctions. Finally, the idea of risk mapping and reduced speed limits on rural roads was seen as potentially effective--particularly as certain motorcyclists highlighted that they changed their riding behaviours by increasing speed and taking greater risks on these roads.

  15. Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schofield, Lee; Mysterud, Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Coulson, Tim

    2007-04-07

    Reintroductions are important tools for the conservation of individual species, but recently more attention has been paid to the restoration of ecosystem function, and to the importance of carrying out a full risk assessment prior to any reintroduction programme. In much of the Highlands of Scotland, wolves (Canis lupus) were eradicated by 1769, but there are currently proposals for them to be reintroduced. Their main wild prey if reintroduced would be red deer (Cervus elaphus). Red deer are themselves a contentious component of the Scottish landscape. They support a trophy hunting industry but are thought to be close to carrying capacity, and are believed to have a considerable economic and ecological impact. High deer densities hamper attempts to reforest, reduce bird densities and compete with livestock for grazing. Here, we examine the probable consequences for the red deer population of reintroducing wolves into the Scottish Highlands using a structured Markov predator-prey model. Our simulations suggest that reintroducing wolves is likely to generate conservation benefits by lowering deer densities. It would also free deer estates from the financial burden of costly hind culls, which are required in order to achieve the Deer Commission for Scotland's target deer densities. However, a reintroduced wolf population would also carry costs, particularly through increased livestock mortality. We investigated perceptions of the costs and benefits of wolf reintroductions among rural and urban communities in Scotland and found that the public are generally positive to the idea. Farmers hold more negative attitudes, but far less negative than the organizations that represent them.

  16. Public attitudes to GM foods. The balancing of risks and gains.

    PubMed

    Hudson, John; Caplanova, Anetta; Novak, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we study the variables influencing attitudes to the use of two biotechnologies related to gene transfer within apples. Using Eurobarometer 73.1 survey data on biotechnology, science and technology, with 15,650 respondents, we study the extent these attitudes are determined by socio-economic and other variables. We found that attitudes to the risks and gains are determined by socio-economic variables and also by the individual's knowledge, scientific background, their parent's education in science and their religion. Perceptions of naturalness and of environmental impact combined with perceived risks and gains in determining overall approval, proxied by views on whether the technologies should be encouraged, for GMTs. However there are substantial differences in attitudes to transgenesis and cisgenesis.

  17. Public attitudes toward larger cigarette pack warnings: Results from a nationally representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act. PMID:28253257

  18. Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com).

  19. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population.

  20. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  1. An Exploration of Public Attitudes Toward LGBTI Rights in the Gauteng City-Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Faraaz; Trangoš, Guy

    2016-10-01

    South Africa's legal framework on the rights of sexual minorities is one of the most progressive in the world. Despite this, discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people continues to be a challenge. Using large-scale survey data gathered in the Gauteng City-Region, this study examines public attitudes related to homosexuality. Most respondents to the survey felt that sexual minorities should have equal rights. However, a considerable proportion of respondents also held negative views toward gay and lesbian individuals, with close to two fifths of respondents believing that homosexuality is against the values of their community, and over 12% of participants holding the view that it is acceptable to be violent toward gays and lesbians. Further analysis also consists of an examination of responses cross-tabulated with the variables of race, gender, age, and education, revealing that younger, well-educated South Africans tend to be the most tolerant, but also exhibiting large variances in attitudes within groups.

  2. The 31st Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    1999-01-01

    Public support for improving public schools over seeking alternatives remains high (70%). Opposition to private contracting is growing. Fully 79% of public-school parents think schools effectively prepare students for the labor market; 72% want higher promotion standards. Inadequate discipline, violence, and scanty funding remain top problems.…

  3. Relationship between public attitudes toward genomic studies related to medicine and their level of genomic literacy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, Izumi; Nagai, Akiko; Muto, Kaori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kokado, Minori; Mimura, Kyoko; Tanzawa, Tetsuro; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess public attitudes toward the promotion of genomic studies related to medicine and to examine the relationship between public attitudes and the level of genomic literacy by analyzing data from a nationwide opinion survey. The participants comprised 4,000 people (age, 20-69) selected from the Japanese general population by using the two-step stratified random sampling method. They were queried on the following topics in a mail survey: (1) pros and cons of the promotion of genomic studies related to medicine, (2) level of scientific literacy in genomics, (3) demographic and socioeconomic background, and (4) knowledge and attitudes toward science in general and genetic testing in particular. We examined the relationship between the approval of promotion and literacy level, using logistic regression models stratified by gender. Our results showed the response rate was 54.3% (2,171/4,000), and 69.4% participants favored the promotion of genomic studies related to medicine. Only 1.3% participants expressed a negative attitude. Multivariate analysis revealed that approval of promotion was related to a high literacy score. This relationship was stronger in males than in females (the highest quartile of score vs. the lowest: adjusted odds ratio, 3.36 for males and 1.86 for females; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-5.98 for males and 1.17-2.95 for females). We determined that a majority of the Japanese participants currently approved of the promotion of genomic studies related to medicine and that people with a high level of genomic literacy tended to approve the promotion.

  4. The impact of an environmental health education intervention on the knowledge and attitudes of students of public health graduate programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron Martinez, Edna L.

    The principal aim of this study is to ascertain any changes, if any, in the level of environmental knowledge and attitudes among graduate students, after being exposed to a Core Course in Public Health that included Environmental Health topics, as compared with a group of students that did not take courses in said field. The investigation followed a quasi-experimental design. A questionnaire derived from, The Survey of Environmental Issue Attitudes and The New Environmental Paradigm Growth and Technology Scale, was distributed through a pre- and post-test method. The total sample consisted of 75 students of Graduate Programs in the University of Puerto Rico. Forty-one students (experimental group) were selected at random, while 34 students (control group) were chosen by availability. The results of this study showed that the education pursued in the field of Environmental Health had no significant effects on students, as to any changes in their attitudes toward the environment, as compared with the control group. Forty-nine of the students, that is, 65%, showed attitudes corresponding to a level of neutrality, which usually leads to egocentric attitudes. Significant differences were demonstrated, on a scale from 1 to 100, regarding the relative importance given to several issues, 8.82 points were scored for the topic of population control, 15.16 for the subject of water quality improvement, 14.59 for the deterring of global warming, and 13.97 for the improvement of air quality. As to the measurement of ecocentric attitudes there was a significant difference, p < .05, in the average scoring obtained by females, who scored 30.7 points, and males, who scored 27.6 points. These results showed a more marked tendency towards egocentric attitudes among males. The average scoring on knowledge (1--10 scale) among male students (6.4) was higher in comparison with that of female students (5.4). Forty-eight participants, which was the majority (66.6%), indicated (during the

  5. Help Seeking Attitudes Among Cambodian and Laotian Refugees: Implications for Public Mental Health Approaches.

    PubMed

    Thikeo, Manivone; Florin, Paul; Ng, Chee

    2015-12-01

    This is a pilot study of demographic and acculturation factors in relation to attitudes toward seeking psychological help among Lao and Cambodian refugees and immigrants in the United States of America. Cambodian and Laotian American adults in the United States of America were approached to complete help-seeking attitudes and acculturation scales. T test and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the relationships between the demographic and acculturation variables, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Out of 270 target subjects approached there were 108 respondents. Of the demographic variables, gender was associated with favorable attitudes towards psychological help-seeking. As expected, women were significantly more likely than men to recognize the need for help, to seek psychological help, to be more open to discussing mental health problems, and have more confidence in professional services. Acculturation was more powerfully associated with help- seeking attitudes than any of the demographic variables. In hierarchical multiple regression, acculturation contributed significant unique variance over and beyond the entire set of demographic variables to openness to discussing problems and having confidence in professional help. The findings of this pilot study suggest that there are significant barriers to seeking psychological help among Lao and Cambodian Americans. Attention to the issues of gender and levels of acculturation may improve access.

  6. South Mississippi public elementary school teachers' implementation of and attitudes toward inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumrall, Thomas Franklin

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the dependent variables of K-5 elementary teachers' attitudes toward inquiry-based science, implementation of National Science Education Standards concerning inquiry-based science, and the number of inquiry-based lessons taught with the predictor variables of gender, school district teaching, ethnic group, educational level, experience, grade level teaching, and number of science courses taken. Four hundred thirty teachers of grades K through 5 from seven school districts in south Mississippi were surveyed using the Revised Science Attitude Scale (Bitner, 1994), Inquiry Beliefs and Practices survey (Jeanpierre, 2006), and a demographic questionnaire. A total of 814 teachers were invited to participate in the study. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to test the hypotheses of this study at a .05 level. Results indicate that number of courses taken is a predictor for all subscales of attitude toward inquiry-based science. Grade level teaching was a significant predictor for two subscales of attitude and gender along with school district were predictors for one subscale for attitude. Results also indicate that school district, ethnic group, and grade level teaching are significant predictors of the complex skills subscale for implementation of inquiry-based lessons. The predictors of gender, school district, and number of courses taken were found to be significant concerning the number of inquiry-based lessons taught. Positive correlations were found between the four subscales for attitude, the two subscales for inquiry beliefs and practices, and the number of inquiry-based lessons taught. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations for future research are included.

  7. Surveys of public knowledge and attitudes with regard to antibiotics in Poland: Did the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns change attitudes?

    PubMed Central

    Mazińska, Beata; Strużycka, Izabela; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2017-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Monitoring the level of knowledge regarding antibiotics is a part of the European Union Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance. Objective To assess knowledge by the general public in Poland regarding antibiotics, AMR, and the impact of the European Antibiotic Awareness Day campaigns. Methods The repeated cross-sectional study was developed and carried out among the general public in Poland (in 5 waves between 2009 and 2011, embracing a total of 5004 respondents). The survey was based on a self-designed questionnaire, and carried out by Millward Brown SMG/KRC, using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). Results A high percentage of Polish adults had used antibiotics within the 12 months preceding their participation in the study (38%). Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the respondents’ gender, age, education and employment status. The majority of the antibiotics used were prescribed by physicians (90%). In all five waves, 3% of the respondents purchased an antibiotic without a prescription. Prescriptions were mostly obtained from a general practitioner. The prevailing reasons for taking antibiotics were the common cold, sore throat, cough and flu. Approximately 40% of the respondents expected a prescription for an antibiotic against the flu. The vast majority knew that antibiotics kill bacteria (80%) but at the same time 60% of respondents believed antibiotics kill viruses. Physicians, pharmacists, hospital staff and nurses were mentioned as the most trustworthy sources of information. A third of the respondents declared to have come across information on the prudent use of antibiotics in the preceding 12 months. In the fifth wave, nearly half of the participants (48%), who had come across information about antibiotics in the preceding 12 months declared that the information resulted in a change in their attitude towards antibiotic use. Conclusion

  8. Dispelling the Myths: Can Psychoeducation Change Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Holly; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The public desires more punitive sentencing for sex offenders; however, treatment has been shown to be most effective in increasing public safety. It has been suggested that public education about the benefits of sex offender treatment could influence public policy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief psychoeducational…

  9. Attitudes of College Undergraduates Towards Coyotes (Canis latrans) in an Urban Landscape: Management and Public Outreach Implications.

    PubMed

    Draheim, Megan M; Patterson, Katheryn W; Rockwood, Larry L; Guagnano, Gregory A; Parsons, E Christien M

    2013-01-10

    Understanding and assessing the public's attitudes towards urban wildlife is an important step towards creating management plans, increasing knowledge and awareness, and fostering coexistence between people and wildlife. We conducted a survey of undergraduate college students in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area-where coyotes are recent arrivals-to determine existing attitudes towards coyotes and coyote management methods. Amongst other findings, we found that the more a person feared coyotes, the less likely they were to support their presence (p < 0.001), and the less likely they were to believe that pet owners should be directly responsible for protecting their pets (p < 0.001). Respondents demonstrated major gaps in their understanding of basic coyote biology and ecology. Respondents broke wildlife management practices into two categories: those that involved an action on coyotes (both lethal or non-lethal; referred to as "Coyote"), and those that restricted human behavior (referred to as "Human"); the "Human" methods were preferred. We found important differences between key demographic groups in terms of attitudes and management preferences. Our study suggests that wildlife professionals have unique opportunities in urban areas to prevent and reduce conflict before it escalates, in part by targeting tailored outreach messages to various demographic and social groups.

  10. Public Knowledge and Attitudes on Drug Abuse in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; Snow, Mary

    The New York State Narcotic Addiction Control Commission undertook a survey of the state to gather information on community attitudes and knowledge of drugs and drug abuse. An extensive questionnaire (see TM 001 085) was administered to a sample of 6105 persons, representative of the state, who were 13 years old or older. The research findings and…

  11. Public Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Comparison of White British & South Asian People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of…

  12. Students Opinions and Attitudes towards Physical Education Classes in Kuwait Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Heyam Reda; Mohammad, Mona Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate student opinion and attitude toward physical education classes. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) students answered the survey: 1239 (45.3%) were male students and 1497 (54.7%) were female from Kuwait six districts: Al_Hawalli, Al_Asimah, Al_Jahra, Al_Mobarak, Al_Farwniah, Al_Ahmadi. Weight Status was determined…

  13. Public Attitudes toward Engineering and Technology--Part 1: An Analysis of Existing Survey Data for the National Academy of Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarnicki, Mary; Doble, John

    This report presents an analysis of public and leadership opinion survey data about engineering and technology over the past 10-15 years. It examines public attitudes toward technology and engineering, and provides implications about views concerning specific issues related to these general subjects. The volume is organized thematically, into…

  14. A pilot study of medical student attitudes to, and use of, commercial movies that address public health issues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An innovative approach to learning public health by using feature-length commercial movies was piloted in the fourth year of a medical degree. We aimed to explore how students responded to this approach and the relative effectiveness of two promotional strategies. Firstly we placed DVDs of 15 movies (with public health-related content) in the medical school library. Then alternating groups of students (total n = 82 students) were exposed to either a brief promotional intervention or a more intensive intervention involving a class presentation. The response rates were 99% at baseline and 85% at follow-up. Findings The level and strength of support for using movies in public health training increased after exposure to the public health module with significantly more students "strongly agreeing". Student behaviour, in terms of movies viewed or accessed from the library, also suggested student interest. While there were no statistically significant differences in median viewing or library access rates between the two intervention groups, the distribution of viewing patterns was shifted favourably. Those exposed to the more intensive intervention (class presentation) were significantly more likely to have reported watching at least one movie (97% vs. 81%; p = 0.033) or to having accessed at least one movie from the library (100% vs. 70%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions This pilot study found that the students had very positive attitudes towards viewing public health-related commercial movies. Movie access rates from the library were also favourable. PMID:21473773

  15. Cross-sectional assessment of patient attitudes towards participation in clinical trials: does making results publicly available matter?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher W; Braz, Valerie A; McBride, Stephen M; Roberts, Brian W; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have shown that a majority of patients cite altruistic motives, such as contributing to generalisable medical knowledge, as factors motivating clinical trial participation. We sought to examine the impact of making trial results publicly available on patients' willingness to participate in clinical research. Design Cross-sectional analysis using a questionnaire developed by a panel with expertise in publication bias, informed consent and survey design. Setting A single urban, academic emergency department (ED) in the Northeastern USA. Participants 799 ED patients. Outcome Measures We assessed (1) participants' attitudes towards clinical trial participation, and (2) the impact of whether study results would eventually be made publicly available or not on willingness to participate in a trial. Results Of 799 patients surveyed, 36% (95% CI 32% to 39%) reported that they would generally like to participate in a trial, and another 50% (95% CI 47% to 54%) reported that they would consider participation depending on study details. For the majority of participants, the publication of trial results was either important (36%; 95% CI 33% to 40%) or very important (48%; 95% CI 44% to 51%). Most (63%; 95% CI 59% to 66%) reported they would be less likely to participate in a trial if investigators had not publicly released results from a prior study. Additionally, 85% (95% CI 82% to 87%) felt that it was important or very important to receive information about the publication track record of sponsors and investigators during the informed consent process. Conclusions The majority of patients in this sample would consider participation in a clinical trial. Patients value the public release of trial results, and believe that the informed consent process should address the possibility of non-publication. PMID:27884854

  16. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.

  17. Comparing the knowledge, attitude and practices of health care workers in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos State on Ebola virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Bilqisu Jibril; Inem, Victor; Balogun, Mobolanle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The West African sub-region is currently witnessing an outbreak of EVD that began in December 2013. The first case in Nigeria was diagnosed in Lagos, at a private medical facility in July 2014. Health care workers are known amplifiers of the disease. The study aimed to determine and compare EVD knowledge, attitude and practices among HCWs in public and private primary care facilities in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Seventeen public and private primary care facilities were selected from the 3 senatorial districts that make up Lagos State. 388 respondents from these facilities were selected at random and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Proportion of respondents with good knowledge and practice among public HCWs was 98.5% and 93.8%; and among private HCW, 95.9% and 89.7%. Proportion of respondents with positive attitude was 67% (public) and 72.7% (private). Overall, there were no statistically significant differences between the knowledge, attitude and preventive practices of public HCWs and that of private HCWs, (p≤0.05). Conclusion Timely and intense social mobilization and awareness campaigns are the best tools to educate all segments of the community about public health emergencies. There exists significant surmountable gaps in EVD knowledge, negative attitude and sub-standard preventive practices that can be eliminated through continued training of HCW and provision of adequate material resources. PMID:26740847

  18. IT Governance and the Public Sector: A Survey of Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of Federal Public Sector IT Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    IT governance has become an important topic as both public and private organizations struggle to meet the challenge of aligning complex IT systems with operational needs. Without effective IT governance, organizations fail to gain strategic benefits that come by the proper strategic alignment of IT resources with the larger organizational mission.…

  19. Public Beliefs and Attitudes towards Depression in Italy: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Munizza, Carmine; Argentero, Piergiorgio; Coppo, Alessandro; Tibaldi, Giuseppe; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Rucci, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that attitudes towards depression may be influenced by country-specific social and cultural factors. A survey was carried out to collect beliefs on and attitudes toward depression in Italy, which has an established community-based mental health system. Methods A telephone survey was carried out in a probabilistic sample aged ≥15 years. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to explore knowledge of depression, stigma, causal beliefs, treatment preference, and help-seeking attitudes. Results Of the 1001 participants, 98% were aware of depression, and 62% had experienced it, either directly or indirectly. A widespread belief (75%) was that people suffering from depression should avoid talking about their problem. A minority of the sample viewed depression as a condition that should be managed without recourse to external help or a “socially dangerous” illness. Among perceived causes of depression, most respondents mentioned life stressors or physical strains. Psychologists were often indicated as an adequate source of professional help. Half of the sample believed that depression should be pharmacologically treated, but drugs were often seen as addictive. Referring to a primary care physician (PCP) was considered embarrassing; furthermore, many people thought that PCPs are too busy to treat patients suffering from depression. Conclusions Our findings indicate that depression is seen as a reaction to significant life events that should be overcome with the support of significant others or the help of health professionals (mainly psychologists). However, there are still barriers to the disclosure of depressive symptoms to PCPs, and concerns about the addictive effect of antidepressants. In the presence of a gap between people’s beliefs and what health professionals consider appropriate for the treatment of depression, a “shared decision making” approach to treatment selection should be adopted taking into account the

  20. Psychology of the scientist: LXXX. Attitudes regarding authorship issues in psychological publications.

    PubMed

    Bartle, S A; Fink, A A; Hayes, B C

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore empirically issues and attitudes surrounding the assignment of credit for authorship in psychological research. A survey consisting of research tasks, vignettes, and questions relating to collaborations between faculty and students was completed by 203 individuals (23.3% response rate) from a national, random sample of faculty and graduate students. Analysis indicated that tasks related to manuscript writing, developing research ideas, and research design were important criteria for assigning credit of authorship. Status, seniority, and data collection were rated as unimportant to the assignment of credit. The issues surrounding collaborations between faculty and students were also examined.

  1. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicines among pharmacy students of a Malaysian Public University

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866

  2. Communication Behaviors and Attitudes of Environmental Publics: Two Studies. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    Two studies were conducted to test the situational theory of communication while at the same time using the theory to determine the nature of different environmental publics, the cognitive strategies they use to resolve environmental issues, and their demographic characteristics. One study identified and examined urban environmental publics, while…

  3. Public Attitudes toward Education in Ontario. 1984. Fifth OISE Survey. Informal Series/62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, D. W.; And Others

    This survey involved a representative sample of 1,046 adults who were interviewed, and a special sample of corporate executives (127) who responded to a mailed questionnaire. Chapter 1 presents findings on the Ontario public's general assessments of the quality of high school education and their dispositions toward public expenditures on various…

  4. The effect of violent attacks by schizophrenic persons on the attitude of the public towards the mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, M C; Matschinger, H

    1996-12-01

    This paper tests Scheffs proposition that selective media reporting has a reinforcing effect on the stereotype of mental illness. Based on several population surveys carried out in the "old" Federal Republic of Germany it can be shown that in 1990 there was a marked increase in desired social distance from mentally ill people immediately following violent attacks, by two individuals suffering from schizophrenia, against prominent German politicians. Both events were widely covered in the media. During the following two years expressed social distance decreased slowly. At the close of 1992, however, it was still elevated when compared with the situation in early 1990 before the first assassination attempt had occurred. There was a corresponding trend in the tendency of the public to ascribe the attributes "dangerous" and "unpredictable" to psychiatric patients. Thus, our findings do support Scheffs contention that selective reporting does indeed have an impact on the attitudes of the public as it confirms the stereotype of insanity, which has important implications for public policy issues.

  5. [Knowledge and attitudes of a public school's adolescents on sexual transmission of HIV].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Ana Clara Patriota; Bezerra, Elys Oliveira; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Wolfgang, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    The research objectives were to describe the knowledge about the transmission of HIV/AIDS, analyze the sexual behavior and attitudes towards condom use among adolescents. Exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with 234 students of a school in Fortaleza, Brazil. We used semi - structured questionnaire and Likert Scale. The results showed that 46.6% of the sample have already initiated sexual life, 40.7% and 29.5% did not use condoms at the first or last intercourse, respectively, due to various reasons like not having a condom at the time (27.3%), use of contraceptive pill (15.2%) and trust in their partner (15.2%). These teenagers have questions about HIV transmission. Women were more favorable to condom use than men. One conclude that early initiation of sexual life, doubts about HIV transmission and ineffective condom use are factors that make young people's vulnerability.

  6. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  7. A cross-sectional study of public attitudes towards safer drug use practices in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Harm reduction programs are often vulnerable to political and vocal opposition despite documented evidence of their effectiveness and economic benefit. It is not well understood if opponents to harm reduction represent the general public’s attitudes. Objective To understand the attitudes of the people of British Columbia (BC) towards various harm reduction strategies and services, and factors associated with support for harm reduction. Methods A random-digit dialing telephone survey assessing attitudes towards various harm reduction strategies was administered to British Columbians in August 2011 (n = 2000). We compared the level of support for general harm reduction by sex, age, education level, and area of residence (Health Authority region) (χ2). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess odds of support for harm reduction. Results Overall support for general harm reduction among participants was 76%; needle distribution 72%; needle distribution in one’s local community 65%; and safer inhalation equipment distribution 52%. In the multivariate analysis, those with significantly lower odds of supporting harm reduction were male, older, had equal or less than high school education or completed a certificate/diploma program, and resided in the Fraser Health Authority region. The Health Authority region with a municipality that has introduced a bylaw prohibiting the implementation of harm reduction services was found to have 69% support for harm reduction. Another Health Authority region with a municipality that closed a long-standing needle distribution site was found to have over 78% support. Conclusion In contrast to some local policies, our results show the British Columbians surveyed in our study support harm reduction. It is unclear whether policy makers are swayed by a vocal minority or block harm reduction activities for other reasons. Tailoring messages towards segments of the public less likely to support harm reduction, as well

  8. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  9. The Attitudes of Public School Principals in the State of Texas toward United States Supreme Court Decision Concerning Conditions of Pregnancy of Professional Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwanne, Andrew I.

    This study examined the attitudes of Texas public school principals toward the United States Supreme Court decision "Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur," which prohibited local school boards from establishing mandatory cutoff dates for pregnant teachers to stop and/or return to work. The population of the study consisted of all the…

  10. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  11. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  12. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats.

  13. Interest Inventory Items as Attitude Eliciting Stimuli in Classical Conditioning: A Test of the A-R-D Theory. Language, Personality, and Cross-Cultural Study and Measurement of the Human A-R-D (Motivational) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael C.; Staats, Arthur W.

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that interest inventory items elicit classically conditionable attitudinal responses. A higher-order conditioning procedure was used in which items from the Strong Vocational Interest Blank were employed as unconditioned stimuli and nonsense syllables as conditioned stimuli. Items for which the…

  14. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  15. Public attitude and justification to purchase antibiotics in the Eastern region Al Ahsa of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Emeka, Promise M; Al-Omar, Mokhtar; Khan, Tahir M

    2014-12-01

    Use of non-prescription antibiotics can portend danger and predispose the populace to changes in bacterial resistance pattern. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of residents of Al-Ahsa community, Saudi Arabia on the use of non-prescribed antibiotics. (b) To identify possible predictors (if any) for self-medication within the community. A cross-sectional survey study, using self-administered questionnaire was conducted in two sections; demographics and self-medication attitude (in form of self-antibiotic use). Questions contained the following outcomes; for demographics; gender, age, education level and common disease within the community. Whereas the second part evaluated sources of information, knowledge of antibiotics, frequency/duration of use, underlined illness in which drug use was employed, names of antibiotics used and awareness of adverse effects of antibiotics. Results revealed that the adult population in the 18-40 year age range constituted about 82.5% of the respondents. Also 18-29 age group made of 60.5% of the respondents and that 56.8% the respondents are university graduates. Cold (18.8%) and sore throat (13.0%) were the diseases commonly found among the community that drove them to using non-prescribed antibiotics. About 337 (72.8%) of the respondent mention the use of antibiotics to treat the illness, and 21 (4.5%) were aiming to prevent the illness. While, 19.4% of the respondents admitted to taking non-prescribed antibiotics for both prevention and treatment of illness. 43.6% of the respondents disclosed that they are not aware of the dangers of using non-prescribed antibiotics. In conclusion the use of non-prescribed antibiotics in this community is evident, as a significant number use them from previous experience for prevention and treatment of illness. Therefore introduction of rational use of drugs will help in limiting the attendant development of bacterial resistance.

  16. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  17. Gender Differences in Public Relations Students' Career Attitudes: A Benchmark Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Betty; Waugh, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Explores students' perceptions of gender issues in public relations. Finds that there were no statistically significant differences in male and female students' desires to perform managerial activities, but there were statistically significant differences in several areas (i.e. female students expect to earn less money starting out and to be…

  18. The State of Public Opinion Research on Attitudes and Understanding of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besley, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a critical and global overview of current research into public opinion about science and technology (S&T). Although several sets of high-quality data exist, there remains a lack of international coordination and irregular release of new data in forms that can be widely used. The article highlights a range of key…

  19. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  20. Racial Attitudes and Racial Balance in Public Schools: A Case Study of Lynchburg, Virginia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, J. Kenneth

    Beginning with the 1971-72 school term, the public schools of Lynchburg, Virginia, were racially balanced. In the elementary and junior high schools, this was achieved by busing; in the high schools it was achieved by having all ninth and tenth grade students attend the same school, and by having all eleventh and twelfth graders attend the same…

  1. Evaluation of public awareness and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in a Nigerian rural community

    PubMed Central

    Anochie, Philip Ifesinachi; Onyeneke, Edwina Chinwe; Onyeozirila, Anthony Chidiebere; Igbolekwu, Leonard Chibuzo; Onyeneke, Bestman Chukwuemeka; Ogu, Angelina Chinyere

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Community based interventions have long been linked to tuberculosis control efforts. Effectively treated and cured patients living within their home communities are often the best advocates and may become the drivers of social mobilization to support control of tuberculosis. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional knowledge, attitude, behavioral and practice (KABP) survey on tuberculosis was carried out in a rural Nigerian community. We used the multi-stage sampling method for subject selection. We administered an interview schedule consisting of a pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, together with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results We applied the questionnaire to 1186 people in designated rural households. Most of the participants, (1154, 97.3%) had prior knowledge and awareness about tuberculosis as a disease, 612 (51.6%) considered tuberculosis a result of HIV/AIDS epidemics or malnutrition, and 451 (38%) believed that it can be cured by Western medicine. The unwillingness of respondents to relate with TB patients was generally high (97%, 1150), even where levels of awareness and knowledge were high. Conclusion These results should be used to orient tuberculosis control programs, especially those aimed at mobilizing people for tuberculosis control and eradication. PMID:24432287

  2. Attitudes, awareness and perceptions on evidence based dentistry and scientific publications among dental professionals in the county of Halland, Sweden: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Per; Holmén, Anders; Sjögren, Petteri

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to identify dental professionals' attitudes and awareness on evidence based dentistry (EBD), and to elucidate perceived barriers and views on how to move towards EBD. A questionnaire was sent to 290 dental professionals (dental hygienists, general dentists, specialist dentists) in the county of Halland, Sweden. The questionnaire consisted of closed questions and free text sections, related to attitudes, awareness and skills on databases, EBD, and terms related to scientific publications, as well as perceived barriers towards EBD. A majority of the respondents had a welcoming attitude towards EBD. The respondents perceived their colleagues less positive towards EBD. The respondents considered EBD, at least partly, useful in daily dental practice. With the exception of general dentists in private practice, a vast majority of the dental professionals thought that EBD would improve the care of their patients. Dental professionals in the county of Halland, in Sweden, had a welcoming attitude towards EBD, and indicated an open attitude for learning more about interpretation of evidence from scientific publications. The most commonly perceived barriers towards EBD, were 'lack of time' and 'poor availability of evidence'.

  3. Moving from Misinformation Derived from Public Attitude Surveys on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage toward Realistic Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Dooley, James J.; Bradbury, Judith A.

    2010-03-01

    Stakeholder involvement can include many activities, from providing information on a website to one-on-one conversations with people confronting an issue in their community. For carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) a major tool of SI to date has been the survey. Recent surveys and other research into stakeholder involvement focused on the nascent commercial deployment of CCS technologies have provided valuable information about the state of general knowledge and attitudes toward these technologies. Most importantly, these research efforts reveal that the general public has relatively little knowledge about CCS. Given this lack of knowledge with respect to the concept of CCS let alone first-hand experiential knowledge derived from seeing these technologies deployed in local communities this paper critiques the methodology and results of the survey research. Then the framing of SI in CCS is examined, including the assumption that clear stakeholder acceptance is a realistic goal and that the public has a decisive say in choosing the energy technologies of the present and the future. Finally, a broader suite of SI activities is recommended as more suited to realistic and contextual goals.

  4. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  5. Attitudes and beliefs of the French public about schizophrenia and major depression: results from a vignette-based population survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In their study ‘Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities’ Jean-Luc Roelandt et al. found a huge divide between the French public’s conceptualizations of insanity and depression. The study aims to examine whether such differences can be replicated using modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Methods In 2012, an online survey was conducted using a representative sample drawn from the adult French population (N = 1600). After presentation of a case-vignette depicting a person with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder a fully structured interview was carried out. Results Despite some similarities marked differences between both disorders emerge regarding beliefs and attitudes. While respondents presented with the schizophrenia vignette more frequently defined symptoms as the expression of an illness with a stronger biological component and a less favorable prognosis, demanding psychiatric treatment, respondents presented with the depression vignette considered the occurrence of symptoms more frequently as the consequence of current psychosocial stress, benefitting not only from established but also from alternative treatments. People with schizophrenia were more frequently perceived as unpredictable and dangerous, there was a stronger need to separate one-self from them, they were more frequently met with fear and less frequently reacted to with pro-social feelings, and they also faced more rejection. Conclusions The French public draws a clear line between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. This applies equally to beliefs about both disorders and to attitudes towards the persons afflicted. There is a need for interventions trying to reduce existing misconceptions in order to improve the care of patients. PMID:24252540

  6. RESEARCH: Attitudes of Private- and Public-Land Managers in Wyoming, USA, Toward Beaver.

    PubMed

    McKINSTRY; ANDERSON

    1999-01-01

    / A mail survey concerning beaver (Castor canadensis) management in Wyoming, USA, was sent to 5265 private-land managers and 124 public-land managers during 1993. The survey was developed in response to increasing interest in beaver management and beaver reintroduction possibilities. Private-land managers responding to the survey supplied information on 62,859 km2 of land area and 20,037 km of streams. Primary concerns about beaver damage centered on (in decreasing order of importance) blocked irrigation ditches, girdled timber, blocked culverts, and flooded pastures, roads, crops, and timber. Primary benefits that landowners perceive that beaver give them were, in order of importance, elevated water tables, increased riparian vegetation, and increased stock-watering opportunities. Public-land managers also listed these benefits and detriments among their top concerns for beaver. Over 45% of landowners with beaver on their property and all of the public-land managers displayed an interest in a beaver reintroduction program and in more proactive beaver management. KEY WORDS: Beaver; Beaver management; Castor canadensis; Landowners; Mail surveys; Wildlife values; Wildlife damage

  7. Public attitudes towards genetic testing revisited: comparing opinions between 2002 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Lidewij; Vermeulen, Eric; van El, Carla G; Claassen, Liesbeth; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Cornel, Martina C

    2013-01-01

    Ten years after the Human Genome Project, medicine is still waiting for many of the promised benefits, and experts have tempered their high expectations. Public opinion on genetic testing has generally been favourable but is this still the case? The aim of this study is to compare public experiences, beliefs and expectations concerning genetic testing over the years (2002 vs 2010). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel in 2002 and 2010. Responses to questions in identical wording were compared. In 2002 and 2010, 817 (63%) and 978 (70%) members responded, respectively. Awareness and reported use of genetic tests remained stable over time. In 2010, more respondents expected genetic testing to become more widely applied, believed that knowledge about the genetic background of disease helps people live longer, and that testing should be promoted more intensively. In 2010, they were also more interested in their own genetic make-up. On the one hand, the concern that a dichotomy would emerge between people with ‘good genes' and ‘bad genes' was higher. On the other hand, respondents thought that insurance companies would be less likely to demand a genetic test in order to calculate health insurance premiums. In conclusion, the results suggest that in 8 years, expectations of benefits and potential use of genetic testing have been raised among the public, resulting in more positive opinions. Worries on inequity remain, although worries about premium differentiation by insurance companies have decreased. PMID:23249955

  8. The roles of users personal characteristics and organisational support in the attitude towards using ERP systems in a Spanish public hospital.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Rodriguez, Tomas; Bartual-Sopena, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems enable central and integrative control over all processes throughout an organisation by ensuring one data entry point and the use of a common database. T his paper analyses the attitude of healthcare personnel towards the use of an ERP system in a Spanish public hospital, identifying influencing factors. This research is based on a regression analysis of latent variables using the optimisation technique of partial least squares. We propose a research model including possible relationships among different constructs using the technology acceptance model. Our results show that the personal characteristics of potential users are key factors in explaining attitude towards using ERP systems.

  9. Attitudes of the public and scientists to biotechnology in Japan at the start of 2000.

    PubMed

    Ng, M A C; Takeda, C; Watanabe, T; Macer, D

    2000-07-01

    This survey on biotechnology and bioethics was carried out on national random samples of the public and scientists in November 2000-January 2000 [sic]throughout Japan, and attendees at the Novartis Life Science Forum held on 29 September 1999 in Tokyo. The sample size was 297, 370, and 74 respectively. While there is a better awareness of GMOs in 2000 compared to 1991; the trend shows an increase in the perceived risks of GMOs followed by growing resistance in Japan. While a majority of persons believed genetic engineering would make life better over the next twenty years (57%), the proportion of respondents who thought genetic engineering would make life worse over the next twenty years doubled from 1997 to 2000 (from 12% to 25%). Respondents were asked whether they had heard about applications in several areas and the order of familiarity (high-low) was: pest-resistant crops, human genes in bacteria, mouse to develop cancer, food and drinks, pigs with human hearts and pre-implantation diagnosis. A divide of opinion can be seen when the results on benefit, risk and moral acceptability of applications of biotechnology by the public are compared to the forum and scientist samples. A significant change in the acceptance of the public occurred in 2000 where only 22% agreed on the moral acceptability of GM food compared to 41% in 1997. In 2000 fewer people said they are willing (20%) to buy genetically modified fruits that taste better compared to 1997 (36%). The results show less public support for use of gene therapy than 1993 and twice as many scientists rejected gene therapy than they did in 1991. When asked who is best placed to regulate modern biotechnology, the respondents were overwhelmingly in favor of international regulatory bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organization (72%), rather than national bodies. The comparison between scientists and public is interesting, however the more enthusiastic sample were participants from the

  10. Public attitudes toward risk tradeoffs in energy policy choices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis that will be placed on each of a number of energy policy alternatives will be determined by the tradeoffs among many factors. Important among these factors are public preferences for different levels of power availability and risk to health and safety. Also important in determining support for energy alternatives is public perception of the consequences of those policies. To assess public perception and evaluation of these factors, a number of respondents were selected to answer questions about these issues. Respondents' judgements of the acceptability of thirty-six hypothetical energy policies were analyzed using two complementary methods, discriminant analysis and judgement analysis. The first method is a statistical procedure that examines how well task variables discriminate among groups of respondents. The second method is a procedure which is used to construct models that describe the judgement processes used by respondents. Results of the discriminant analysis showed that differences among respondents' judgements were strongly related to the TECH dimension but only weakly affected by RISK and PA. On the TECH dimension, antinuclear respondents indicated relative acceptance of conservation and solar and relative rejection of nuclear and coal. Although pronuclear respondents showed slightly greater support of nuclear and coal than conservation and solar. The six clusters differed most strongly on nuclear, followed by conservation and solar, then coal. The PA dimension had more effect on the judgements of pronuclear respondents than on the judgements of antinuclear respondents. The analysis of the data indicated that the judgements of pro- and antinuclear respondents were better fit by separate models. The antinuclear respondents placed a slightly greater weight on the more RISK part of the RISK dimension relative to the PA dimension.

  11. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  12. Environmental value considerations in public attitudes about alternative energy development in Oregon and Washington.

    PubMed

    Steel, Brent S; Pierce, John C; Warner, Rebecca L; Lovrich, Nicholas P

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  13. Survey on public awareness, attitudes, and barriers for herpes zoster vaccination in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to assess current public awareness of herpes zoster (HZ) and its vaccine, determine the factors that influence people's intention regarding HZ vaccination, and investigate the barriers for vaccination by changing decisions with sequential questions regarding knowledge, cost, and physician's recommendation in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Korea University Guro Hospital, in South Korea, between August 23 and September 15 of 2013. Among 603 subjects who completed the survey, 85.7% and 43.6% subjects were aware of HZ and HZ vaccination, respectively. Women, younger age group, those with higher income or higher education levels were more likely to be aware of HZ. Overall, 85.8% of subjects aware of HZ were willing to be vaccinated or vaccinate their parents. The main obstacles for the increased acceptance toward vaccination were the high cost and low perceived risk, which decreased acceptance to 60.2%. However, physician's recommendation reversed 69.5% of the refusal to accept HZ vaccine. These results indicate that expanding public education and physician's recommendations are important factors aimed at increasing HZ vaccine coverage rate.

  14. Public attitudes about different types of anti-bullying laws: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; King, Kelly M

    2015-02-01

    State anti-bullying laws have been enacted across the United States to address bullying both by and of youths. Although these statutes can provide critical protection to youth, there is debate about whether such laws should enumerate protected classes of youth. Weight-based bullying is an increasingly prevalent form of harassment and it has been overlooked in policy initiatives. Enumeration in existing laws might help protect overweight victims. As no research has examined this issue, we conducted a national survey of American adults (N=1155) to assess public opinion about enactment of anti-bullying laws that vary according to whether or not they enumerate distinguishing characteristics. Our results demonstrated substantial public agreement (ranging from 2/3 to 3/4 of participants) with enactment of state and federal anti-bullying laws that enumerate distinguishing characteristics, including physical appearance and weight, which are currently absent in most statutes. Our evidence can inform policy and legal approaches to protect youth effectively from bullying.

  15. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  16. Behind the ethnic-civic distinction: Public attitudes towards immigrants' political rights in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2015-09-01

    Public opinion research has sought to distinguish between ethnic and civic conceptions of citizenship and examined the differential associations of these conceptions with policy preferences in the realm of immigration. What has not been examined empirically is why exactly these conceptions are related to people's preferences. In two survey studies conducted among national samples of native Dutch we tested the proposition that the endorsement of ethnic citizenship is related to lower acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights (Study 1) and their political participation (Study 2) because of a weaker normative sense of common national belonging and higher adherence to autochthony (primo-occupancy) beliefs. In contrast, the endorsement of civic citizenship was expected to be associated with higher acceptance of Muslim immigrant rights and their political participation because of a stronger sense of common belonging and lower belief in autochthony. The findings of the two studies are similar and in support of these expectations.

  17. Effect of Public Deliberation on Attitudes toward Return of Secondary Results in Genomic Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gornick, Michele C; Scherer, Aaron M; Sutton, Erica J; Ryan, Kerry A; Exe, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Kim, Scott Y H; Roberts, J Scott; De Vries, Raymond G

    2017-02-01

    The increased use of genomic sequencing in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics makes imperative the development of guidelines and policies about how to handle secondary findings. For reasons both practical and ethical, the creation of these guidelines must take into consideration the informed opinions of the lay public. As part of a larger Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) consortium project, we organized a deliberative democracy (DD) session that engaged 66 participants in dialogue about the benefits and risks associated with the return of secondary findings from clinical genomic sequencing. Participants were educated about the scientific and ethical aspects of the disclosure of secondary findings by experts in medical genetics and bioethics, and then engaged in facilitated discussion of policy options for the disclosure of three types of secondary findings: 1) medically actionable results; 2) adult onset disorders found in children; and 3) carrier status. Participants' opinions were collected via surveys administered one month before, immediately following, and one month after the DD session. Post DD session, participants were significantly more willing to support policies that do not allow access to secondary findings related to adult onset conditions in children (Χ (2) (2, N = 62) = 13.300, p = 0.001) or carrier status (Χ (2) (2, N = 60) = 11.375, p = 0.003). After one month, the level of support for the policy denying access to secondary findings regarding adult-onset conditions remained significantly higher than the pre-DD level, although less than immediately post-DD (Χ (2) (1, N = 60) = 2.465, p = 0.041). Our findings suggest that education and deliberation enhance public appreciation of the scientific and ethical complexities of genome sequencing.

  18. The Public and Professionals Reason Similarly about the Management of Non-Native Invasive Species: A Quantitative Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the ‘deficit-model’ of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists’ views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other’s beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control. PMID:25170957

  19. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M H

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  20. Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of population surveys

    PubMed Central

    Angermeyer, Matthias C.; van der Auwera, Sandra; Carta, Mauro G.; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help‐seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a “crisis” of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015. We found that professional help for mental disorders generally enjoys high esteem. While general practitioners are the preferred source of help for depression, mental health professionals are the most trusted helpers for schizophrenia. If respondents have to rank sources of help, they tend to favor mental health professionals, while open questions yield results more favorable to general practitioners. Psychiatrists and psychologists/psychotherapists are equally recommended for the treatment of schizophrenia, while for depression psychologists/psychotherapists are more recommended, at least in Europe and America. Psychotherapy is consistently preferred over medication. Attitudes towards seeking help from psychiatrists or psychologists/psychotherapists as well as towards medication and psychotherapy have markedly improved over the last twenty‐five years. Biological concepts of mental illness are associated with stronger approval of psychiatric help, particularly medication. Self‐stigma and negative attitudes towards persons with mental illness decrease the likelihood of personally considering psychiatric help. In conclusion, the public readily recommends psychiatric help for the treatment of mental disorders. Psychotherapy is the most popular method of psychiatric treatment. A useful strategy to further improve the public image of psychiatry could be to stress that listening and understanding are at the core of psychiatric

  1. Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys.

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; van der Auwera, Sandra; Carta, Mauro G; Schomerus, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Public attitudes towards psychiatry are crucial determinants of help-seeking for mental illness. It has been argued that psychiatry as a discipline enjoys low esteem among the public, and a "crisis" of psychiatry has been noted. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies examining public attitudes towards various aspects of psychiatric care. Our search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and bibliographies yielded 162 papers based on population surveys conducted since 2000 and published no later than 2015. We found that professional help for mental disorders generally enjoys high esteem. While general practitioners are the preferred source of help for depression, mental health professionals are the most trusted helpers for schizophrenia. If respondents have to rank sources of help, they tend to favor mental health professionals, while open questions yield results more favorable to general practitioners. Psychiatrists and psychologists/psychotherapists are equally recommended for the treatment of schizophrenia, while for depression psychologists/psychotherapists are more recommended, at least in Europe and America. Psychotherapy is consistently preferred over medication. Attitudes towards seeking help from psychiatrists or psychologists/psychotherapists as well as towards medication and psychotherapy have markedly improved over the last twenty-five years. Biological concepts of mental illness are associated with stronger approval of psychiatric help, particularly medication. Self-stigma and negative attitudes towards persons with mental illness decrease the likelihood of personally considering psychiatric help. In conclusion, the public readily recommends psychiatric help for the treatment of mental disorders. Psychotherapy is the most popular method of psychiatric treatment. A useful strategy to further improve the public image of psychiatry could be to stress that listening and understanding are at the core of psychiatric care.

  2. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001). Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02). The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001). Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  4. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  5. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China.

  6. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  7. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    PubMed

    Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly

  8. Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel: A Survey of Florida Public District Policy Makers and Administrators. The Relationship of Expectancy Work Motivation, Selected Situational Variables and Locus of Control to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegman, John R.; Binnie, David G.

    1985-01-01

    This research bulletin contains parts of two studies dealing with the persistent problem of developing effective teachers and stimulating effective teaching. The study reported in "Attitudes toward Merit Pay for Instructional Personnel" (John Weigman) was conducted to survey, analyze, and compare the attitudes of Florida public school…

  9. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J.; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. Methods A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Conclusion Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates. PMID:25906265

  10. Current Views and Perspectives on E-Mental Health: An Exploratory Survey Study for Understanding Public Attitudes Toward Internet-Based Psychotherapy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the advanced development of evidence-based psychological treatment services, help-seeking persons with mental health problems often fail to receive appropriate professional help. Internet-delivered psychotherapy has thus been suggested as an efficient strategy to overcome barriers to access mental health care on a large scale. However, previous research indicated poor public acceptability as an issue for the dissemination of Internet-delivered therapies. Currently, little is known about the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the general population. This is especially the case for countries such as Germany where electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services are planned to be implemented in routine care. Objective This pilot study aimed to determine the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy in the general population in Germany. Furthermore, it aimed to explore the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Methods To assess public attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy, we conducted both Web-based and paper-and-pencil surveys using a self-developed 14-item questionnaire (Cronbach alpha=.89). Psychological distress was measured by employing a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the 20-item German version of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). In addition, we conducted explorative factor analysis (principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation). Spearman’s rank correlations were used to determine the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Results Descriptive analyses revealed that most respondents (N=1558; female: 78.95%, 1230/1558) indicated being not aware of the existence of Internet-delivered therapies (83.46%, 1141/1367). The average age was 32 years (standard deviation, SD 10.9; range 16-76). Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 3 dimensions of public

  11. Attitudes and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  12. Effects of structured versus non-structured learning on achievement and attitudes of fifth graders in a public aquarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Merryl Audrey

    The investigator analyzed the main effect of a structured-learning experience in an informal setting, as well as interactions between the students' learning-style variations toward the element of structure and the imposed instructional conditions. The subjects consisted of 170 students enrolled in two public schools located in Brooklyn, New York. The students were predominantly a White multi-ethnic population consisting of 118 Caucasians, 25 Hispanics, 24 Asians, and 3 African-Americans. Three randomly assigned classes (n = 81) were provided trip sheets, which directed students on how to learn new information with written questions and directives. Three randomly assigned non-structured classes (n = 89) experienced the same exhibit in a free-form manner. Science-based criterion-referenced pre- and posttests were administered, in addition to Learning Style Inventories (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) and a modified Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981), which was used to measure attitudinal levels. The non-structured group had access to similar content information in the form of exhibit graphics, but apparently they chose not to read it as carefully or engage in the information-seeking process as intensely as the students equipped with trip sheets. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that a structured-learning experience produced significantly higher science-achievement test scores than in a non-structured-learning experience (p = .0001). In addition, there was no single learning-style variation (preference, aversion, or no preference) to structure that produced significantly higher gains than another. Furthermore, attitudinal scores were not significantly different between structured and non-structured groups, as well as among homogeneous subsets of students with learning-style variations that matched, mismatched, or indicated no-preferenced positions on the element of structure. Hence, a moderate amount of structure resulted in academic gains without

  13. Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).

    PubMed

    Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation.

  14. Attitudes towards euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

    1977-01-01

    There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

  15. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters’ attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22–2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05–2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters’ choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party’s candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the “left click strategy” of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did

  16. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  17. Keep Those Kids Out: Nativism and Attitudes toward Access to Public Education for the Children of Undocumented Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Theresa; Burson, Karlye

    2017-01-01

    Despite the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe" decision guaranteeing education for undocumented children, access appears to be under threat as some states and localities reconsider existing policy. The basis of these attitudes should be better understood. We are unaware of research that has examined nativist sentiment as a predictor of attitudes…

  18. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  19. Home-Schooling: Reasons Some Parents Choose This Alternative Form of Education, and a Study of the Attitudes of Home-Schooling Parents and Public School Superintendents Toward the Benefits of Home-Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Bernice Marie; Ware, Brenda Joyce

    Purposes of this master's research project were to (1) determine the reasons for which parents educate their children at home, and (2) compare the attitudes of home-schooling parents and public school superintendents about the benefits of home schooling. Subjects were parents who home-schooled their children and public school superintendents in a…

  20. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  1. TEACHER ATTITUDE TOWARD EVALUATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WAGONER, RODERIC L.; O'HANLON, JAMES

    TO IDENTIFY FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TEACHER ATTITUDES TOWARD EVALUATION (OF TEACHERS), A 7-ITEM ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE, CALLING FOR YES-NO RESPONSES TO EXPRESSIONS OF PRESENT AND IDEAL PRACTICES, WAS SENT TO 800 RANDOMLY SELECTED ARIZONA PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS. THE 534 RESPONDENTS WERE CATEGORIZED IN SIX WAYS--(1) WHETHER THEY RATED THEMSELVES AS…

  2. Attitudes toward Diversity and the School Choice Process: Middle-Class Parents in a Segregated Urban Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimelberg, Shelley McDonough; Billingham, Chase M.

    2013-01-01

    White flight from urban public schools has been well documented, but little attention has been paid to middle-class reinvestment in urban schools. This article combines findings from interviews with middle-class parents of Boston Public School students with demographic data from the city's public elementary schools to examine the motivations of…

  3. Original research paper. Public health care system, a quasi-experimental study: Acceptance and attitude to implicate clinical services.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Syed Wasif; Abdul, Mohi Iqbal Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    A six-month longitudinal intervention arm study with a pre-post cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was performed. A 3-phase objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) design was utilized for evaluation of acceptance and attitude of pharmacy students towards clinical pharmacy services. The pre-OSCE survey showed increased disagreement with the role of clinical pharmacists, compared to a significant positive shift in attitude towards their services in the healthcare team after 6 months of the trial. Responses improved for awareness (the current healthcare system could be improved by involving pharmacists, p < 0.02) and positive attitude categories (doctors and nurses would be happy to welcome the services of competent clinical pharmacists as part of their team, p < 0.01) in addition to competency (pharmacists have sufficient clinical training to advise doctors and nurses, p < 0.01). The predictive model suggested a strong positive effect on patient interaction, medical information tasks, clinical decisions on drug-related problems (DRPs), and communication with healthcare professionals (R2 = 0.41, F = 1.51, p < 0.001).

  4. Secondary School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. A second purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of secondary students toward fitness testing. A review of literature, an elicitation study, and a pilot study were…

  5. Cross-Sectional Survey on the Dengue Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices Among Students and Staff of a Public University in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lugova, H; Wallis, S

    2017-04-01

    Behavioural impact programmes are especially effective for dengue control and prevention. Universities are key settings for health promotion, so understanding factors that influence the practice of dengue prevention within a university community becomes important. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting dengue knowledge, attitude and preventive practices amongst students and staff of a public university. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 372 students and staff of the NDUM were recruited by stratified sampling method. Data were collected via self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaires covering socio-demography and dengue KAP. Data were analysed descriptively. For bivariate analysis, Chi square test was applied. To explore the factors independently associated with the practice of dengue prevention, a logistic regression model was introduced. Overall, the participants had moderate dengue-related knowledge, good attitudes and good preventive practices. The majority had misconceptions about mosquito biting habits (83.8 %), seasonality of dengue epidemics (73.2 %), and mosquito breeding sites (70.3 %). Staff were more likely to have good dengue-related knowledge (p < 0.001) and attitudes (p = 0.008) than students. There was statistically significant positive association between the level of dengue knowledge and monthly average household income (p = 0.008), age (p < 0.001) and education (p < 0.001). Having good attitudes towards dengue was associated with being a non-Malay (p = 0.034), having higher monthly average household income (p = 0.047) and tertiary education (p < 0.001). In regression analysis, only dengue knowledge and dengue attitudes were significantly and positively associated with practice of dengue prevention. Dengue preventive strategies amongst university students and staff should focus on maintaining good dengue-related preventive practices

  6. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed.

  7. Americans Speak out: Are Educators and Policy Makers Listening?--The 40th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2008-01-01

    Parents, educators, political leaders--all Americans need the information contained in this article. But why this poll? First, it's not just a quick snapshot of public perception. Rather, it is a serious research tool, conducted annually, that allows Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) members and other educators and policy makers to track public opinion from…

  8. Publications

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI publications including PDQ cancer information for patients and health professionals, patient-education publications, fact sheets, dictionaries, NCI blogs and newsletters and major reports.

  9. Equine road user safety: public attitudes, understandings and beliefs from a qualitative study in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Catherine; Musselwhite, Charles B A

    2011-11-01

    Horse riders represent a significant group of vulnerable road user and are involved in a number of accidents and near misses on the road. Despite this horse riders have received little attention both in terms of academic research and transport policy. Based on literature on vulnerable road user safety, including attitudes to road user safety and behaviour of drivers and their relationship with cyclists and motorcyclists, this paper examines the attitudes and reported behaviour of drivers and horse riders. A total of 46 participants took part in six focus groups divided into four groups of drivers with little or no horse riding experience and two groups of frequent horse riders. Each group investigated five key topic areas stemming from the literature review on vulnerable road users including hazard perception, risk perception, emotion, attitudes to sharing the road and empathy. It was found that drivers and horse riders are not always aware of the same hazards in the road and that this may lead drivers to under-estimate the risk when encountering horses. Drivers often had good intentions to overtake horses safely, but were unaware of how vulnerable passing very wide and slow made them feel until they had begun the manoeuvre and hence quickly reduced such feelings either by speeding up or cutting in too soon. However, other than this, drivers had good skills when encountering horses. But these skills could be impeded by frustration when encountering a slow moving horse which was further compounded by a feeling, mainly by younger drivers, that horse riding was for leisure and as such should not get in the way of necessary work journeys. There is a need for drivers to be more aware of the potential hazards a horse rider faces on the road and these could be achieved through inducing empathy amongst drivers for horse riders, creating nudges for drivers in the environment and better education for drivers.

  10. Come rain or shine? Public expectation on local weather change and differential effects on climate change attitude.

    PubMed

    Lo, Alex Y; Jim, C Y

    2015-11-01

    Tailored messages are instrumental to climate change communication. Information about the global threat can be 'localised' by demonstrating its linkage with local events. This research ascertains the relationship between climate change attitude and perception of local weather, based on a survey involving 800 Hong Kong citizens. Results indicate that concerns about climate change increase with expectations about the likelihood and impacts of local weather change. Climate change believers attend to all three types of adverse weather events, namely, temperature rises, tropical cyclones and prolonged rains. Climate scepticism, however, is not associated with expectation about prolonged rains. Differential spatial orientations are a possible reason. Global climate change is an unprecedented and distant threat, whereas local rain is a more familiar and localised weather event. Global climate change should be articulated in terms that respect local concerns. Localised framing may be particularly effective for engaging individuals holding positive views about climate change science.

  11. "We Don't Do Public Libraries Like We Used to": Attitudes to Public Library Buildings in the UK at the Start of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Although the quality, performance and future of public library services in the UK is a matter of debate, there is little doubt that in recent years, despite claims relating to the emergence of a cyber-society, interest in library buildings and the library as "place" has been intense, almost matching that seen during the Carnegie era of…

  12. Betting on Teachers: The 43rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the latest in a series of polls sponsored by Phi Delta Kappa International with the Gallup organization. Some important findings of this year's poll include: About half of us believe teacher unions are hurting public education, but we're more likely to support teacher union leaders than governors in disputes over teacher collective…

  13. Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Comp.

    This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

  14. Using Surveys to Track Student Sexual Behavior and Attitudes in the Public Schools: Current Case Law and Future Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Ronald K.

    2008-01-01

    Two recent federal court cases have addressed the constitutionality of using sexual surveys in public schools. This article compares these cases with an earlier case dealing with the same issue but reaching different results. This article also describes the constitutional rights of parents to educate their children and the school's rights to…

  15. Effects of Homophobic versus Nonhomophobic Victimization on School Commitment and the Moderating Effect of Teacher Attitudes in Brazilian Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mandi M.; Santo, Jonathan B.; Da Cunha, Josafa; Weber, Lidia; Russell, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated homophobic victimization, teacher support, and school commitment in Brazilian schools. Participants were 339 students, ages 11 to 18 years old, in two public schools in Brazil. Data were obtained using the Brazil Preventing School Harassment Survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that both homophobic and…

  16. Long Overdue: A Fresh Look at Public and Leadership Attitudes about Libraries in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Agenda, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report explores the true position of public libraries today, in the minds not only of library users, but of the people who run libraries and those who provide oversight and funding. This study is the first step in the development of a national agenda for libraries and library funding in the 21st century. Findings from this study indicate…

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Public School Principals' Perceptions and Attitudes as They Relate to Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryans, Edward O'Neal

    2009-01-01

    The principalship has experienced many changes over the years influenced by reform efforts, economic changes, and social challenges (Goodwin et al., 2005). As a result, challenges experienced by public school principals have impacted recruitment and retention efforts of qualified candidates. The Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium…

  18. Student, Faculty and Administrator Attitudes and Perceptions of Virtual High School Classes at One Suburban New Jersey Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevie, Gina

    2011-01-01

    The 2005 Summit on High Schools led to redesigning schools and promoting 21st Century Skills. Consequently, this study assesses the implementation of supplemental online courses, offered through the Virtual High School (VHS), at one suburban New Jersey public high school. The following questions guided this research project: (1) How do the VHS…

  19. A Study of End-Users' Attitudes towards Digital Media Approach: The Experience of a Public University in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndawula, Stephen; Ngobi, David Henry; Namugenyi, Deborah; Nakawuki, Rose Coaster

    2012-01-01

    University students in Uganda had been confined to use of traditional educational technologies such as chalkboards, papers and text books. Digital Media Approach recently found its way in the academia at public universities in Uganda. Information and communication technology (ICT) have become popular means of surfing, downloading and obtaining…

  20. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib @ Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents’ objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  1. Public Attitudes toward Consent and Data Sharing in Biobank Research: A Large Multi-site Experimental Survey in the US.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Brothers, Kyle B; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Aufox, Sharon A; Brilliant, Murray H; Campos, Diego; Carrell, David S; Connolly, John; Conway, Pat; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Horowitz, Carol R; Jarvik, Gail P; Kaufman, David; Kitchner, Terrie E; Li, Rongling; Ludman, Evette J; McCarty, Catherine A; McCormick, Jennifer B; McManus, Valerie D; Myers, Melanie F; Scrol, Aaron; Williams, Janet L; Shrubsole, Martha J; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Smith, Maureen E; Holm, Ingrid A

    2017-03-02

    Individuals participating in biobanks and other large research projects are increasingly asked to provide broad consent for open-ended research use and widespread sharing of their biosamples and data. We assessed willingness to participate in a biobank using different consent and data sharing models, hypothesizing that willingness would be higher under more restrictive scenarios. Perceived benefits, concerns, and information needs were also assessed. In this experimental survey, individuals from 11 US healthcare systems in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network were randomly allocated to one of three hypothetical scenarios: tiered consent and controlled data sharing; broad consent and controlled data sharing; or broad consent and open data sharing. Of 82,328 eligible individuals, exactly 13,000 (15.8%) completed the survey. Overall, 66% (95% CI: 63%-69%) of population-weighted respondents stated they would be willing to participate in a biobank; willingness and attitudes did not differ between respondents in the three scenarios. Willingness to participate was associated with self-identified white race, higher educational attainment, lower religiosity, perceiving more research benefits, fewer concerns, and fewer information needs. Most (86%, CI: 84%-87%) participants would want to know what would happen if a researcher misused their health information; fewer (51%, CI: 47%-55%) would worry about their privacy. The concern that the use of broad consent and open data sharing could adversely affect participant recruitment is not supported by these findings. Addressing potential participants' concerns and information needs and building trust and relationships with communities may increase acceptance of broad consent and wide data sharing in biobank research.

  2. The attitudes of pharmacists, students and the general public on mHealth applications for medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J.; Kotadia, Alysha; Mughal, Hassan; Hannan, Ashraf; Alqarni, Hamdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: During recent years mobile technology has developed tremendously and has infiltrated the healthcare field. Mobile healthcare (mHealth) applications, or apps, may be used to support patient adherence to medication thus promoting optimal treatment outcomes and reducing medication wastage. Objective: This study shall consider the opinions of United Kingdom (UK) based pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and members of the general public towards the use of mHealth apps to promote adherence to prescribed medication regimens. Methods: On Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) ethical approval, the 25 item questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists within inner city Liverpool and Manchester (n=500), pharmacy undergraduates studying at LJMU (n=420) and members of the general public within Liverpool City Centre (n=400). The questions were formatted as multiple choice, Likert scales or the open answer type. The data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS v22 program. Results: The number of completed questionnaires from the pharmacist, student and general public cohorts were 245, 333 and 400; respectively. The data indicated that the general public rely heavily upon daily routine to take medication as prescribed (54.1%) with mHealth app use being extremely low (1.5%); a similar trend was noted for the pharmacist / student cohorts. The age of the individual is an important consideration, with the younger generation likely to engage with mHealth apps and the older generation less so. Here, education and training are important. Pharmacists (82.3%) would be happy to deliver training packages to the public who would in turn happily receive such training (84%). Key barriers precluding mHealth app use include data reliability, security and technical difficulties. Conclusion: Adherence apps hold great promise to support the patient and their healthcare needs. In order to increase acceptance and

  3. Stimulus Predifferentiation and Modification of Children's Racial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    1973-01-01

    The most significant finding is that stimulus-predifferentiation training elicited lower prejudice scores for children on two indices of ethnic attitudes than did a no-label control condition. (Author)

  4. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    PubMed Central

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective. PMID:19226449

  5. Attitudes regarding the national forensic DNA database: Survey data from the general public, prison inmates and prosecutors' offices in the Republic of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Teodorović, Smilja; Mijović, Dragan; Radovanović Nenadić, Una; Savić, Marina

    2017-05-01

    Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU. Specifically, Chapter 24 of the EU acquis communautaire (Justice, Freedom and Security) stipulates the compulsory creation of a forensic DNA registry and adoption of corresponding legislation. This process is expected to occur in 2016. Thus, in light of launching the national DNA database, the goal of this work is to instigate a consultation with the Serbian public regarding their views on various aspects of the forensic DNA databank. Importantly, this study specifically assessed the opinions of distinct categories of citizens, including the general public, the prosecutors' offices staff, prisoners, prison guards, and students majoring in criminalistics. Our findings set a baseline for Serbian attitudes towards DNA databank custody, DNA sample and profile inclusion and retention criteria, ethical issues and concerns. Furthermore, results clearly demonstrate a permissive outlook of the respondents who are professional "beneficiaries" of genetic profiling and a restrictive position taken by the respondents whose genetic material has been acquired by the government. We believe that this opinion poll will be essential in discussions regarding a national DNA database, as well as in motivating further research on the reasons behind the observed views and subsequent development of educational strategies. All of these are, in turn, expected to aid the creation of suitable

  6. Preliminary Results from a Survey of DPS Scientist’s Attitudes, Activities and Needs in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Schneider, Nick

    2014-11-01

    The NASA SMD Planetary Sciences Forum, in partnership with the AAS DPS Education officer has conducted a semi-structured series of interviews with two-dozen DPS members to ascertain: the nature E/PO activities pursued by scientists, what resources and professional development opportunities are needed by scientists, how to increase the impact of scientists’ E/PO efforts, scientists’ concerns and questions regarding E/PO, and what we can do to identify opportunities to address these issues, both from the SMD and DPS perspectives. Members were contacted by phone, and responded to a loose script of questions over a time span of 20 to 90 minutes, depending on the individual. Members were chosen to represent a variety of career experience, home institutions and affiliations, and level of involvement with E/PO. Questions included: What is your level of involvement in E/PO? What sort of professional development or resources would you like to have to increase the efficiency of your E/PO efforts? What barriers to E/PO involvement have you encountered? How do you use social media in your E/PO efforts, if at all? What are your motivations for involvement in E/PO? etc. Our results are consistent with previous research conducted regarding this issue, but they do offer insight specific to the nature of DPS members and their views about E/PO. We will present a subset of these results, the opportunities they present, and the responses of both the PS Forum and the DPS. Based on this survey, the SMD PS Forum was able to identify specific new resources needed by scientists, and therefore developed the brief-one page guides, “The Quick Introduction to Education and Public Outreach,” and “Making the Most of Your E/PO Time - Increasing Your Efficiency and Impact.” Further resources and professional development opportunities will be developed as the data continue to be reviewed. This data collection effort is ongoing. If you would like to become involved, contact Jennifer

  7. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.

  8. Reading Attitudes of Texas High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussert-Webb, Kathy; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Through random sampling, we surveyed 2,568 high school students throughout Texas to determine their reading attitudes vis-à-vis individual and school background variables. Sources were the Rhody reading attitude scale and public domain campus summary data; the lenses of attitude theory and social justice informed this study. Significant…

  9. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  10. Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Patients and the General Public towards the Interactions of Physicians with the Pharmaceutical and the Device Industry: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fadlallah, Racha; Nas, Hala; Naamani, Dana; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoura, Ihsan; Al-Khaled, Lina; Brax, Hneine; Kahale, Lara; Akl, Elie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the evidence on the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of patients and the general public towards the interactions of physicians with the pharmaceutical and the device industry. Methods We included quantitative and qualitative studies addressing any type of interactions between physicians and the industry. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE in August 2015. Two reviewers independently completed data selection, data extraction and assessment of methodological features. We summarized the findings narratively stratified by type of interaction, outcome and country. Results Of the 11,902 identified citations, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. Many studies failed to meet safeguards for protecting from bias. In studies focusing on physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, the percentages of participants reporting awareness was higher for office-use gifts relative to personal gifts. Also, participants were more accepting of educational and office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. The findings were heterogeneous for the perceived effects of physician-industry interactions on prescribing behavior, quality and cost of care. Generally, participants supported physicians’ disclosure of interactions through easy-to-read printed documents and verbally. In studies focusing on surgeons and device manufacturers, the majority of patients felt their care would improve or not be affected if surgeons interacted with the device industry. Also, they felt surgeons would make the best choices for their health, regardless of financial relationship with the industry. Participants generally supported regulation of surgeon-industry interactions, preferably through professional rather than governmental bodies. Conclusion The awareness of participants was low for physicians’ receipt of personal gifts. Participants also reported greater acceptability and fewer perceived influence for office-use gifts compared to personal gifts. Overall, there appears to

  11. Attitudes, awareness and barriers regarding evidence-based orthopedic surgery between health professionals from a Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) hospital: Study of 400 patients

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; de Morais Filho, Geraldo Borges

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fast-track concept refers to all phases of perioperative care: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies. Although most research has focused on adherence to medication, adherence also encompasses numerous health-related behaviors. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the attitudes and awareness among health professionals involved in the treatment of elderly patients with fractures of the femur and the results of 400 patients. Methods: The postoperative protocol acceleration was presented to various hospital departments through four seminars. Questionnaire with four ex-residents in the Department of Anesthesiology was conducted. Every 6 months, the results of project implementation to all departments were presented. It was considered adherence to the project when the professionals agreed with all the steps and routines of the project. Patients underwent spinal anesthesia with postoperative analgesia by lumbar plexus block. Results: All departments involved in the treatment of elderly patients’ adhered completely to the project and reported the importance of preanesthetic visit, the explanations of design, and reduction of fasting period. Just one anesthetist completely adhered to the project. No former resident of anesthesia joined the program. All parameters studied in 400 patients compared with the data before the project showed a reduction from 21.38% to 100%. Conclusion: Improving adherence requires a continuous and dynamic process. We can be inferred that the implementation of fast-track project Brazilian Public Health System (Sistema Único Saúde, SUS) costs decreased with elderly patients with hip fractures. The anesthesiologist was the major obstacle to deployment to all patients. PMID:27746549

  12. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  13. Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawalsattitudes. The results of this research provide an improved understanding of the beliefs and attitudes that influence decision-makers involved in water supply planning.

  14. Nursing student attitudes toward statistics.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Lizy; Aktan, Nadine M

    2014-04-01

    Nursing is guided by evidence-based practice. To understand and apply research to practice, nurses must be knowledgeable in statistics; therefore, it is crucial to promote a positive attitude toward statistics among nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to assess differences in attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate nursing, graduate nursing, and undergraduate non-nursing students. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics Scale-36 (SATS-36) was used to measure student attitudes, with higher scores denoting more positive attitudes. The convenience sample was composed of 175 students from a public university in the northeastern United States. Statistically significant relationships were found among some of the key demographic variables. Graduate nursing students had a significantly lower score on the SATS-36, compared with baccalaureate nursing and non-nursing students. Therefore, an innovative nursing curriculum that incorporates knowledge of student attitudes and key demographic variables may result in favorable outcomes.

  15. Projective Measures of Interpersonal Relationships and Attitudes Toward the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    projective means for eliciting unconscious attitudes toward self , other persons, and institutions. Comparisons were made between the means for the two groups...attitudes about self , mother, father, crewmates, and wife than did the deenlistment group. Positive attitudes toward the wife seem to be the most crucial, confirming the results of other research by the investigator. (Author)

  16. Bilingual Idiosyncratic Dimensions of Language Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to identify new dimensions of language attitudes to allow for both their multidimensionality and possible language-specificity stemming from local sociolinguistic environments. Adopting a two-step methodology comprising (1) elicitation of adjectives in group interviews and (2) employment of the semantic differential…

  17. Public attitudes about nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1991-12-01

    There is general agreement that nuclear waste is an important national issue. It certainly is important to the industry. congress, too, gives high priority to nuclear waste disposal. In a recent pool by Reichman, Karten, Sword, 300 congressional staffers named nuclear waste disposal as the top nuclear energy-related legislative issue for Congress to address. In this paper most of the data the author discusses are from national polls that statistically represent the opinions of all American adults all across the country, as well as polls conducted in Nevada that statistically represent the opinions of all adults in that state. All the polls were by Cambridge Reports and have a margin of error of {plus_minus} 3%.

  18. The Effect of an Articulation Workshop on Public School Personnel Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Educational Programs and Practices of the Sponsoring Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, John B., Jr.

    A quasi-experimental design was employed to determine the effects of a workshop, designed to familiarize teachers and counselors with a technical institute in the North Carolina Community College System, on knowledge and attitudes related to the programs and practices of the institution. Subjects were assigned to experimental and control groups by…

  19. The Development and Field Testing of an Instrument for Measuring Citizens' Attitudes toward Public School Funding in Terms of Equity, Adequacy, and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, YoongSoo

    2010-01-01

    When the researcher proposed this study, no instrument existed for measuring citizens' attitudes toward school funding equity, so this study was designed as a series of investigations leading to the creation of such an instrument. In order to accomplish this purpose, the researcher first generated an initial pool of items to measure attitudes…

  20. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  1. A Knowledge Elicitation Study of Military Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    66027-0347 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORPANIZATION U.S. Army Research (If...Method (CDM) has been developed as a knowledge elicitation tool for probing proficient decision making. This report describes the use of CDM during...knowledge elicitation can be used in Army Command and Control (Ce) exercises as a means of understanding decision-making dynamics. Such a tool could

  2. Changing attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1979-11-01

    "Individual and social attitudes toward abortion are unstable," the author notes, as he reviews the history of such attitudes in the United States and Britain. In both countries abortion was legal in 1800, but had become illegal by 1900, largely due to changing attitudes within the medical profession, including the desire to protect the profession against the activities of non-physicians. In the U.S., religious groups took little interset in the issue until late in the 19th century. Today, years after the legalization of abortion in Britain (1967) and the U.S. (1974), there is a chance that public attitudes will be influenced for a second time by a vocal few, again restricting legal access to abortion. The commercial success of MDs who specialize in abortions is a complicating factor, making it easier for opposition groups to recruit supporters. The abortion debate concerns unprovable interpretations of observable facts; it is an exercise in religious toleration. The most important role of physicians is to help establish a liberal and civilized framework within which colleagues of different persuasions can make free and objective choices regarding the delivery of abortion services.

  3. Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag THESIS David B. Guettler, Captain, USAF AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...U.S. Government. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GA/ENY/07-M10 Satellite Attitude Control Using Atmospheric Drag David B. Guettler, BS Captain

  4. Understanding attitudes toward the control of nonnative wild and feral mammals: similarities and differences in the opinions of the general public, animal protectionists, and conservationists in New Zealand (aotearoa).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Watson, Helen; Adams, Nigel J

    2014-01-01

    Lethal control is used extensively in New Zealand to control nonnative nonhuman mammals. Respondents were surveyed about 8 mammal groups considered pests and their attitudes toward their control and pest status. They also identified the most appropriate method of control for the 8 different mammals. Information was gathered from 3 groups of respondents: nonhuman animal protectionists, conservationists, and the general public. Conservationists routinely rated all animal groups as more severe pests than the general public or animal protectionists, who provided the lowest scores. Rats, stoats, brushtail possums, and rabbits were identified as the 4 most serious pests by all 3 groups. Conservationists were 5.7 and 2.6 times more likely to prefer a lethal method of control than protectionists and the general public, respectively. For all 3 groups an increase in pest score for a given animal saw a decline in importance placed upon the animal's welfare. This relationship was strong for the general public but weak for conservationists and animal protectionists. Understanding aspects of potentially opposing viewpoints may be invaluable in supporting the development of new welfare-focused control methods.

  5. Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Predicts Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Kubiatko, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating predictors of environmental attitudes may bring valuable benefits in terms of improving public awareness about biodiversity degradation and increased pro-environmental behaviour. Here we used an evolutionary approach to study environmental attitudes based on disease-threat model. We hypothesized that people vulnerable to diseases may…

  6. Librarians' Attitudes towards Marketing Library Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2009-01-01

    This research set out to explore the attitudes of school, academic and public librarians towards marketing libraries. The main question that was examined is whether personality characteristics such as empowerment, extroversion and resistance to change influence librarians' attitudes towards the marketing of libraries. One hundred and fifty-six…

  7. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

  8. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  9. Practical Guidance and Ethical Considerations for Studies Using Photo-Elicitation Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Bugos, Eva; Frasso, Rosemary; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; True, Gala; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Photo-elicitation is a qualitative interviewing technique that has gained popularity in recent years. It is the foundation for photovoice projects and is a tool well-suited for community-based participatory research. Photo-elicitation yields rich data, and interview participants say these interviews encourage community awareness and engagement. This article draws on 9 studies, conducted by researchers at 3 institutions (the University of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth) in partnership with community-based organizations and students, in which 303 participants completed photo-elicitation interviews. We offer 8 practical suggestions for overcoming challenges encountered during photo-elicitation research and for managing ethical concerns about the use of visual data in public health research. Our guidelines can inform study design, protocol development, and institutional review board approval. PMID:25357257

  10. Practical guidance and ethical considerations for studies using photo-elicitation interviews.

    PubMed

    Bugos, Eva; Frasso, Rosemary; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; True, Gala; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Cannuscio, Carolyn

    2014-10-30

    Photo-elicitation is a qualitative interviewing technique that has gained popularity in recent years. It is the foundation for photovoice projects and is a tool well-suited for community-based participatory research. Photo-elicitation yields rich data, and interview participants say these interviews encourage community awareness and engagement. This article draws on 9 studies, conducted by researchers at 3 institutions (the University of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth) in partnership with community-based organizations and students, in which 303 participants completed photo-elicitation interviews. We offer 8 practical suggestions for overcoming challenges encountered during photo-elicitation research and for managing ethical concerns about the use of visual data in public health research. Our guidelines can inform study design, protocol development, and institutional review board approval.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  12. Rational elicitation of cold-sensitive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster. This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994

  13. ISS Update: Attitude Determination and Control Officer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Attitude Determination and Control Officer (ADCO) flight controller Ann Esbeck in the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. They discuss th...

  14. Eliciting the Level of Health Inequality Aversion in England.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Tsuchiya, Aki; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-09-20

    Health inequality aversion parameters can be used to represent alternative value judgements about policy concern for reducing health inequality versus improving total health. In this study, we use data from an online survey of the general public in England (n = 244) to elicit health inequality aversion parameters for both Atkinson and Kolm social welfare functions. We find median inequality aversion parameters of 10.95 for Atkinson and 0.15 for Kolm. These values suggest substantial concern for health inequality among the English general public which, at current levels of quality adjusted life expectancy, implies weighting health gains to the poorest fifth of people in society six to seven times as highly as health gains to the richest fifth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Effects of Self-Disclosing Communication and Attitude Similarity on the Reduction of Interpersonal Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahs, Michael Lee

    The effects of self-disclosure and attitude similarity on the reduction of interpersonal conflict in a modification of the Prisoner's Dilemma Game were investigated in an experimental study of the behavior of 60 undergraduate students. Results supported hypotheses that self-disclosure and attitude similarity would elicit more conflict-reducing…

  16. Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ageing International, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

  17. Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

  18. Methods of Eliciting Information from Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Itzhak Perlman) or a concertmeister in an orchestra, or simply one of its violinists . Differences in amount of expertise may supply different...would lead to becoming a world class violinist . Underlying Assumptions In attempting to elicit information from experts, one makes a number of

  19. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  20. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  1. Video Elicitation of the Semiotic Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the power of video recording to elicit the thinking of teachers as they reflect on their teaching practices. Draws on the work of Wiley (1994), which identified the internal conversation as a critical feature of the semiotic self. (Author/VWL)

  2. Indigenous Students' Attitudes towards Learning English through a Virtual Program: A Study in a Colombian Public University (Actitudes de estudiantes indígenas frente al aprendizaje de inglés a través de un programa virtual: un estudio en una universidad pública colombiana)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuasialpud Canchala, Ruth Elena

    2010-01-01

    This article reports an exploratory study carried out at a public university in Bogotá, Colombia, with two indigenous students who took a level I virtual English-course during the second term of 2008 and the first term of 2009. The aim was to analyse their attitudes towards the learning of English through the virtual modality. Interviews,…

  3. Theoretical and Methodological Implications of the Influence of Sex Preferences on the Fertility Attitude-Behavior Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Gary H.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated is the idea that measures of preferred family size can elicit accurate aggregate fertility predictions but inaccurate individual fertility predictions, because the children's sex composition is not considered. Suggestions are given for developing fertility attitude measures. (Author/SA)

  4. Assessing Children's Implicit Attitudes Using the Affect Misattribution Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.; Lipman, Corey

    2016-01-01

    In the current research, we examined whether the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) could be successfully adapted as an implicit measure of children's attitudes. We tested this possibility in 3 studies with 5- to 10-year-old children. In Study 1, we found evidence that children misattribute affect elicited by attitudinally positive (e.g., cute…

  5. Attitudes and Motivation in Early Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djigunovic, Jelena Mihaljevic

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on young foreign language learners' attitudes and motivations. An overview is given of the main issues in this research area, based on key European studies. Approaches to studying these affective learner characteristics are described. Some attention is devoted to data elicitation techniques and the importance of triangulation.…

  6. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  7. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  8. Attitudes and Beliefs About Domestic Violence: Results of a Public Opinion Survey. I. Definitions of Domestic Violence, Criminal Domestic Violence, and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Worden, Alissa Pollitz

    2005-01-01

    This study reports analyses and findings from a public opinion survey designed to explore beliefs about domestic violence (DV) -- what it is, when it is against the law, and how prevalent it is. The project interviewed 1,200 residents from six New York communities. The analyses reveal substantial first hand and second hand experience with DV and…

  9. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners. PMID:21170125

  10. A nationwide postal survey on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists' (PERMFAMS) clinical performance, professional attitudes and research visibility.

    PubMed

    Chew, Boon-How; Yasin, Mazapuspavina Md; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan A; Hamzah, Zuhra; Ismail, Mastura; Ali, Norsiah; Bashah, Baizury; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah

    2015-01-01

    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p < 0.0001) and frequency of encounter (p < 0.0001). PHCPs had overall positive perceptions on FMSs across all the domains investigated. PHCPs from different health care facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication.

  11. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  12. Promoting "Global" Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Roland

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and illustrates three ways to promote prosocial attitudes towards global issues among students. Includes classroom environments that reinforce desired attitudes; facilitating direct "emotional" experiences that influence attitudes; and engaging students in thoughtful deliberation about global issues. Offers illustrative…

  13. 75 FR 69086 - Submission for OMB review; comment request; NCCAM Office of Communications and Public Liaison...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of its core constituent groups: members of the general public... the greatest potential to influence target audience attitudes and behavior in a positive manner,...

  14. The conservation attitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    Forsaking his inheritance and its assurance of a comfortable existence, Guatama Buddha adopted the life of a pauper to seek the intellectual joys of pure contemplation. Under a mulberry tree, it is said, he propounded a 12-point program of ethical conduct stressing the development of a disinterested outlook in each individual. Temples, ritual, and idols he considered distractions from the basic need. He felt that there was a basic need for the development of an attitude.The Brahmins as well as the lower castes recognized the merits of the system suggested by Buddha, but they molded his teachings into an accessory to existing rituals and dogma. They soon forgot that Guatama wanted no idols and no temples. They forgot his admonition that an attitude was the thing that really counted. Despite his expressed wish, today Buddha in stone, in bronze, and in gold ponders these things in thousands of temples and hears the prayers of millions who still seek the truths of an ethical life.Today, conservation has its temples. The temples of conservation include hundreds of irrigation reservoirs; it has prayer-sticks in miles of contour plow furrows, and the Buddha of a drop-inlet structure looks down on a conservation pool in myriad detention dams.Conservation is well established today in the minds of the American public. It seems appropriate to analyze at this time just what it is that is established in the public mind. In what ways have we, too, substituted the temples, the ritual, and the idols for an attitude?

  15. A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

  16. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.

  17. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  18. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  19. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  20. Collaborators' Attitudes about Differences of Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.

    The attitudes of long-term collaborators on research publications about the negotiation of substantive differences of opinion were studied. Long-term collaborators were those who had co-authored publications with another academic for 10 years or more. Multiple sources of data collected from both members of 12 collaborative pairs included…

  1. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  2. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  3. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  4. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  5. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  6. Attitudes toward emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).

  7. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules.

  8. Public risk perception and attitudes towards live poultry markets before and after their closure due to influenza A(H7N9), Hong Kong, January–February 2014

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Qiuyan; Wu, Peng; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fang, Vicky J.; Wu, Joseph T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Fielding, Richard; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study investigated public risk perception regarding influenza A(H7N9) and attitudes towards closure of live poultry markets (LPMs) before and after LPMs closed in Hong Kong. Methods Two population-based surveys were conducted before and after LPMs closed in January–February 2014, respectively. Adults were recruited using random digital dialing. Results In total, 670 and 1011 respondents completed the survey before and after closure of LPMs, respectively. Perceived susceptibility to H7N9 infection was low across surveys. Among respondents who completed the survey after LPMs closed, only 14.6% agreed that temporary closure of LPMs caused inconvenience to the daily life; 38.7% valued the Chinese tradition of live poultry consumption more than controlling the risk of avian influenza; 54.6% recognized greater risk of influenza epidemic associated with LPMs. Support for permanent closure of LPMs which was comparably low across surveys was strongly associated with perceived risk of avian influenza related to LPMs, the effectiveness of LPM closure in control of avian influenza and the inconvenience caused by closure. Conclusions Risk communication that promotes people's perceived risk of avian influenza associated with LPMs and the effectiveness of LPM closure in control of avian influenza outbreaks may improve support for permanent closure of LPMs. PMID:25717043

  9. The Public and Nuclear Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinberg, Dorothy

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the public's negative attitude towards nuclear energy development. Explains the perceptions for the nuclear waste disposal problem, and the concern for the protection of the environment. (GA)

  10. [Studies of the attitude of a group of puerperas of the Brianza region toward contraception and the services offered for such purposes by the public health organizations].

    PubMed

    Remotti, G; Mambretti, C; Brambilla, G

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied fertility control and the role of the public health structure among a group of 1000 parturients. Contraceptive methods, the social and cultural levels of the women, and the analysis of their responses have been described. The more significant answers were correlated with the social and economic levels of the women. An awareness of sexual problems was poor, particularly among younger women, immigrants, and women of a low socioeconomic level; therefore, fertility control was not as diffuse as previously suspected. The best known contraceptive methods were coitus interruptus (67.9%), oral contraceptives (OCs) (72.7%), and the IUD (66.5%). The methods used most often were OCs (9.9%) and the condom (2.4%). The consultorio was well known (70%) but the activities were not. Those that were well known were the sanitarie, including the management of pregnancy (56.5%) contraception (38.8%), and pediatric assistance. The lesser known activities were those of a social interest such as social assistance (22.3%), those in connection with family problems (22.8%), and psychological problems (16.5%). (author's)

  11. Assessing Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Typically, the period between the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday in mid-January and the end of Black History Month in February sees serious and sober public discussions about the state of Black America. Those discussions have heated up earlier than expected due to the November release of a national survey on Black social progress by the…

  12. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  13. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  14. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  15. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Melike M; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants' non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants' attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt.

  16. Real-Time Elicitation of Moral Emotions Using a Prejudice Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F. 

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt. PMID:22888322

  17. Assessing pragmatic skills in elicited production.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In developing a test of pragmatic skills for children ages 4 to 9 years, we focused on a number of functional language skills that are important for children's success in early schooling and for the development of fluent reading and writing. They included (1) wh-question asking, (2) communicative role taking, (3) linking events in a cohesive narrative, and (4) articulating the mental states of the characters in a story. All of the proposed items provide specific referential support and pragmatic motivation for the forms and content to be produced by the child. The pictured materials and elicitation prompts constrain the range of appropriate utterances, so the children's productions are more easily scored than an open-ended spontaneous speech sample. All tasks described show a clear developmental trend, a clear separation between the performance of typically developing and language-impaired children, and no performance differences between African American English- and Mainstream American English-speaking children.

  18. Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Annemiek J.; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M.; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an ‘invisible epidemic.’ Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients’ attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients’ implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is

  19. The Reno Report: Rejuvenating Public Confidence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Education Department Information Offices, Arlington, VA.

    The rejuvenation of sagging public confidence in education through better communication was the focus of the conference. Four specific objectives were outlined: (1) to improve the ability of educators to assess public attitudes toward and interest in public education; (2) to assess the impact of different media forms on public attitudes; (3) to…

  20. Public Education in the United States: A Nation Divided

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2012-01-01

    The 44th annual PDK/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools showed some sharp divisions among the public's attitude toward the public schools, but also some hopeful signs of broad agreement in some areas. Satisfaction with President Barack Obama declined in the last year, but remains ahead of two years ago and the public…

  1. DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward mental health treatment. Within group analyses indicated that the mediating effect of internalized stigma was significant for whites only. Among African Americans, internalized stigma did not mediate public stigma; it was directly related to attitudes toward mental health treatment. The internalization of stigma is key in the development of negative attitudes toward mental health treatment, and future research should focus on this aspect of stigma in both individual and community-based efforts to reduce stigma. PMID:21274407

  2. Maintenance and Decay of Past Behavior Influences: Anchoring Attitudes on Beliefs Following Inconsistent Actions

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; McNatt, Penny S.

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated the influence of past behavior on the stability of the attitudes it elicits. In Experiment 1, the effect of a bogus behavior feedback was long lasting when people engaged in biased scanning, presumably because this process elicits behavior-consistent beliefs. In contrast, the effect of the feedback decayed when participants were forced to consider whether the behavior might have undesirable outcomes. A second experiment using a different behavioral paradigm and a field study further supported the interpretation that individuals resolve conflict between a past behavior and subsequent beliefs about it by aligning attitudes with beliefs instead of behavior. PMID:15833901

  3. Enhancing stakeholder participation in land-based adaptation to environmental change with photo elicitation and photovoice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Kong, Taryn; Kellner, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation is one of the main environmental changes confronting South Africa. Active participation from local land users to adopt land-based adaptation to land degradation is necessary for at least two obvious reasons. Firstly, most of the lands in South Africa are privately owned. Secondly, the costs for adapting to land degradation are substantial and are not feasible for an individual entity to afford. Land-based adaptation includes management practices that can reduce the vulnerability of land users to the threats posed by land degradation. To engage land users to participate in land-based adaptation, approaches to allow diverse stakeholders to effectively communicate their observations, knowledge and perspectives are needed. In addition to semi-structured interviews, photo elicitation and photovoice were implemented to engage 25 local livestock farmers from two rural areas in the South African Kalahari - Mier and Molopo - in a participatory research project. The results showed that photo elicitation enhanced stakeholder interaction relative to semi-structured interviews in a number of ways. Firstly, photo elicitation provided more details and new information beyond those in semi-structured interviews. Secondly, photo elicitation also allowed stakeholders to more easily communicate personal or concrete examples, comparisons, contrasts, explanatory information, attitudes and values. The results also showed that photovoice created opportunities for mutual learning among the participants. These enhancements have the potential to improve co-production of knowledge and quality of stakeholder engagement. Improvement in stakeholder engagement can in turn contribute toward land-based adaptation that is more locally relevant and a greater degree of translation of scientific advancement into actual adaptation practices.

  4. A Comparison of Career Attitudes of News-Editorial and Ad-PR Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ron F.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the attitudes that news-editorial students have toward careers in public relations and advertising and the attitudes that public relations-advertising students have toward news careers. Finds that news-ed students saw careers in public relations as being less useful to society and having less prestige in the community than their careers.…

  5. Understanding attitudes toward people with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pace, Jill E; Shin, Mikyong; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2010-09-01

    Understanding attitudes of the public toward people with Down syndrome is important because negative attitudes might create barriers to social integration, which can affect their success and quality of life. We used data from two 2008 U.S. surveys (HealthStyles(c) survey of adults 18 years or older and YouthStyles(c) survey of youth ages 9-18) that asked about attitudes toward people with Down syndrome, including attitudes toward educational and occupational inclusion and toward willingness to interact with people with Down syndrome. Results showed that many adults continue to hold negative attitudes toward people with Down syndrome: A quarter of respondents agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to special schools, nearly 30% agreed that including students with Down syndrome in typical educational settings is distracting, and 18% agreed that persons with Down syndrome in the workplace increase the chance for accidents. Negative attitudes were also held by many youth: 30% agreed that students with Down syndrome should go to separate schools, 27% were not willing to work with a student with Down syndrome on a class project, and nearly 40% indicated they would not be willing to spend time with a student with Down syndrome outside of school. Among both adult and youth, female sex and respondents with previous relationships with people with Down syndrome were consistently associated with more positive attitudes. These results may be helpful in the development of educational materials about Down syndrome and in guiding policies on educational and occupational inclusion.

  6. CONSTRUAL PROCESSES IN PREFERENCE ELICITATION. (R824706)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  8. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  9. Expert Elicitation of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  10. Connection to Nature: Children's Affective Attitude toward Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    A connection to nature index was developed and tested to measure children's affective attitude toward the natural environment. The index was employed through a survey that investigates students' attitude toward Lagoon Quest, a mandatory environmental education program for all fourth-grade, public school students in Brevard County, Florida. Factor…

  11. Attitudes to Chronic Poverty in the "Global Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries contributing data to the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is persistent. The paper also explores the factors influencing public attitudes to chronic…

  12. A Headnote on the Existence and Study of Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    Argues that most adults do not have political attitudes and that once we realize this fact, we will be able to make more sense of attitude formation and change, of leader-follower relationships and of the public policy-making process. (Author/MB)

  13. Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to…

  14. Public Concern with Environmental Problems: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Adrienne

    This bibliography presents representative literature pertaining to public concerns with environmental problems since the National Environmental Policy Act became law. Items cited deal with various aspects and manifestations of public concern. Items include: (1) sociological studies of the process of attitude formation; (2) attitude surveys; (3)…

  15. Multiculturalism in Canada: A Public Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Eugene; And Others

    The goals of this proposed Canadian public education program on multiculturalism are to promote and reinforce positive attitudes and to create a social climate in which negative attitudes are neutralized. A review of public opinion surveys indicates that while most Canadians support multiculturalism in theory, there is little perceived need to…

  16. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  17. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety.

  18. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  19. Octave illusion elicited by overlapping narrowband noises.

    PubMed

    Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik

    2011-05-01

    The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.

  20. Cloning: What Are Their Attitudes? A Report on the General Attitudes of a Sample of Midwestern Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Andrea K.; Hariharan, Joya

    This study, part of a larger research project, explored the knowledge and attitudes of the general population regarding cloning. Such awareness of the general public's knowledge of important science topics, attitudes toward such topics, and sources from which people retrieve information can help scientific and educational communities develop…

  1. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  2. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  3. Arkansas Attitudes on Higher Education: Results of a Survey of Arkansas Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Beadle; And Others

    A random sample of 600 telephone subscribers was surveyed to determine Arkansas citizen attitude on higher education. Sections of this report present general findings on public attitudes, attitudes on higher education, and demographic and geographic variations in response. Findings reveal that Arkansans seemed convinced generally that colleges and…

  4. 76 FR 80447 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the eighth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems...

  5. 76 FR 50810 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading... Committee 219 meeting: Attitude and Heading Reference System. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference...

  6. 75 FR 49550 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of ] RTCA Special Committee 219: Attitude...

  7. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  8. How Source Affects Response to Public Service Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports that public service advertising attributed to the Advertising Council elicited higher message ratings than did public service advertising attributed to a commercial source, a noncommercial source, or no source; however, it produced the lowest behavioral responses. (GT)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING AND EVALUATING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHEWSON, ROBERT H.; ORTON, JOHN W.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) PRODUCE AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY FOR USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL-VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND COUNSELING OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH, AND (2) DEVELOP A SCALE FOR EVALUATING THE MATURITY OF THE VOCATIONAL IMAGERY ELICITED BY THE INSTRUMENT. A PREVIOUSLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENT "WHAT I THINK OF MYSELF"…

  10. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  11. Eliciting Spontaneous Speech in Bilingual Students: Methods & Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; And Others

    Intended to provide practical information pertaining to methods and techniques for speech elicitation and production, the monograph offers specific methods and techniques to elicit spontaneous speech in bilingual students. Chapter 1, "Traditional Methodologies for Language Production and Recording," presents an overview of studies using…

  12. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  13. Pedagogical use of ELICIT for Leadership Training: Survey and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    classroom training as part of leadership development programs. ELICIT is particularly helpful in teaching the strengths and weakness of various...organizational structures (edge organization vs. traditional command and control hierarchy.) This paper reviews some of the pedagogical uses of the classroom ...training to date, and provides recommendations for the use of ELICIT in various classroom settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  15. Quantifying the Effects of Expert Selection and Elicitation Design on Experts' Confidence in Their Judgments About Future Energy Technologies.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Gregory F; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Verdolini, Elena

    2016-03-31

    Expert elicitations are now frequently used to characterize uncertain future technology outcomes. However, their usefulness is limited, in part because: estimates across studies are not easily comparable; choices in survey design and expert selection may bias results; and overconfidence is a persistent problem. We provide quantitative evidence of how these choices affect experts' estimates. We standardize data from 16 elicitations, involving 169 experts, on the 2030 costs of five energy technologies: nuclear, biofuels, bioelectricity, solar, and carbon capture. We estimate determinants of experts' confidence using survey design, expert characteristics, and public R&D investment levels on which the elicited values are conditional. Our central finding is that when experts respond to elicitations in person (vs. online or mail) they ascribe lower confidence (larger uncertainty) to their estimates, but more optimistic assessments of best-case (10th percentile) outcomes. The effects of expert affiliation and country of residence vary by technology, but in general: academics and public-sector experts express lower confidence than private-sector experts; and E.U. experts are more confident than U.S. experts. Finally, extending previous technology-specific work, higher R&D spending increases experts' uncertainty rather than resolves it. We discuss ways in which these findings should be seriously considered in interpreting the results of existing elicitations and in designing new ones.

  16. Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes toward the Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Mehmet A.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports an investigation of the effects of gender, age, and racial and ethnicity on the attitudes of mathematics teachers towards computer use. The participants of the study were mathematics teachers working in a wide range of New York public schools (n = 50). A Confidence with Computers in Mathematics Teachers (CCMT) rating scale was…

  17. Freedom of the Press: Foundations and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Martin Leroy, Jr.

    This study reports the results of a national survey of the attitudes of five demographic groups toward freedom of the press. The groups are newsmen, state legislators, high school teachers, high school students, and the general public. The survey is broken into two parts, the first dealing with general principles (e.g., support for a law against…

  18. Do beliefs about causation influence attitudes to mental illness?

    PubMed Central

    GUREJE, OYE; OLLEY, BENJAMIN OLADAPO; OLUSOLA, EPHRAIM-OLUWANUGA; KOLA, LOLA

    2006-01-01

    Studies indicate that stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness are rampant in the community worldwide. It is unclear whether views about the causation of mental disorders identify persons with more negative attitudes. Using data collected as part of a community study of knowledge of and attitudes to mental illness in Nigeria, we examined the relationships between views about causation and attitudes. Persons holding exclusively biopsychosocial views of causation were not different from those holding exclusively religious-magical views in regard to socio-demographic attributes, and the two groups were not very dissimilar when general knowledge of the nature of mental illness was compared. However, religious-magical views of causation were more associated with negative and stigmatizing attitudes to the mentally ill. Findings demonstrate the challenge of developing and delivering an educational program to change public attitudes to mental illness. PMID:16946952

  19. A step into the anarchist’s mind: examining political attitudes and ideology through event-related brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Van Hiel, Alain; Pattyn, Sven; Onraet, Emma; Severens, Els

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates patterns of event-related brain potentials following the presentation of attitudinal stimuli among political moderates (N = 12) and anarchists (N = 11). We used a modified oddball paradigm to investigate the evaluative inconsistency effect elicited by stimuli embedded in a sequence of contextual stimuli with an opposite valence. Increased late positive potentials (LPPs) of extreme political attitudes were observed. Moreover, this LPP enhancement was larger among anarchists than among moderates, indicating that an extreme political attitude of a moderate differs from an extreme political attitude of an anarchist. The discussion elaborates on the meaning of attitude extremity for moderates and extremists. PMID:21421734

  20. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  1. Health professionals' attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Hudson Rosen, R A et

    1974-01-01

    The attitudes toward abortion of students and faculty in 3 health related fields--nursing, medicine, and social work--are examined and compared with the views of the population at large. The relation of religious affiliation to attitude toward abortion is also examined. The data was obtained via questionnaire in 47 nursing, 11 medical, and 15 social work schools in the fall and winter of 1971. 7 attitudinal items provided the focus of attention. 5 dealt with conditions under which an abortion should be performed; 2 dealt with the willingness of the respondent to help a client get an abortion. Nursing students and faculty had the most conservative attitude, followed by medical personnel and social workers. The nursing faculty's opinions were most like those of the general public; the medical and social work students and faculty generally mirrored respondents with some college education. Catholic health professionals were even less in favor of abortion than Catholics at large, even those with only a grade-school education. Catholic students, however, were more favorably disposed than Catholic faculty, indicating a more liberal trend in the Catholic Church.

  2. Cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  3. Investigation of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes Towards Computer Technologies (Case of Turkey)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation of pre-service physical education teachers' attitudes towards computer technologies seems to be of great importance to satisfy the conditions to be met for the conscious and effective use of the technologies required by the age to be used in educational settings. In this respect, the purpose of the present study is to investigate…

  4. Comparison of Rural and Urban Residents' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Related to Seeking Medical Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harju, Beverly L.; Wuensch, Karl L.; Kuhl, Emily A.; Cross, Natalie J.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The decision whether or not to consult a physician draws from a variety of attitudes within an individual's health schema. While rural Americans are in greater need of health care, many of them have fewer external resources than urbanites available to them. Purpose: The objective of this study was to elicit implicit and explicit attitudes…

  5. Development of an Instrument to Assess Fourth and Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sharon R.; Silverman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to develop an instrument to assess fourth and fifth grade students' attitudes toward physical education. The methods for validation included (a) an elicitation study and instrument question development, (b) a pilot study, and (c) a series of analyses to assess, construct, and content validity and to…

  6. The Role of Speaker Identification in Korean University Students' Attitudes towards Five Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yook, Cheongmin; Lindemann, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the attitudes of 60 Korean university students towards five varieties of English are affected by the identification of the speaker's nationality and ethnicity. The study employed both a verbal guise technique and questions eliciting overt beliefs and preferences related to learning English. While the majority of the…

  7. Project SAVE: Skills, Attitudes, Values, Essential for Employment. Final Report, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenard, Marcelle

    The Skills, Attitudes, and Values for Employment (SAVE) project was designed to explore the needs of women in the workplace. An exploratory design was selected for the study with a target population consisting of 200 women working in companies in Morris County, New Jersey. From a self-administered questionnaire used to elicit information, the…

  8. Validation of an Instrument to Measure High School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included 427…

  9. Attitudes of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers towards Modelling: A South African Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gerrie J.; Durandt, Rina

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of mathematics pre-service teachers, based on their initial exposure to a model-eliciting challenge. The new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement determines that mathematics students should be able to identify, investigate and solve problems via modelling. The unpreparedness of mathematics teachers in…

  10. Strengthening Public Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, John J.

    Board members and administrators can build public confidence in their schools by taking every opportunity to communicate positive attitudes about the people in the schools. As leaders, they have the responsibility to use people power to promote the schools. If school employees feel good about their jobs, they will build confidence within the…

  11. Multiple dimensions of attitudes about homosexuality: development of a multifaceted scale measuring attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adolfsen, Anna; Iedema, Jurjen; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward homosexuality are complex. To get a comprehensive view on the attitudes of people, different dimensions need to be included in research. Based on a review of the literature, we distinguish five dimensions: acceptance of homosexuality in a general sense; attitude toward equal rights; reactions to homosexuality "at close quarters"; reactions to homosexuality in public; and so-called modern homonegativity. In a study on a representative sample of Dutch Defence personnel (N = 1,607) we tested this model. Structural equation modeling of several items measuring the attitude toward homosexuality offers a six factor solution. These six factors are more or less comparable to the five dimensions we distinguished. The dimension "reactions to homosexuality at close quarters" is, however, empirically split in a dimension on affective reactions to homosexuality and homosexual persons in general and a dimension on affective reaction to homosexual friends or acquaintances.

  12. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanni; Wolfram, Verena; Cook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases), online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center), and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale (VAS), were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G), and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C); most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex, income, and education, as well as disease progression, choice of utility elicitation method, and country settings, were identified

  13. Authoritarianism and Censorship: Attitudes and Opinions of Students in the Graduate Library School of Indiana University. A Report of an Exploratory Project Conducted as a Preliminary for a Proposed Nationwide Study of American Public Librarians and Intellectual Freedom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busha, Charles H.

    This study attempts to measure the attitudes toward intellectual freedom held by a group of future librarians and to correlate these findings with certain syndromes of authoritarianism as reported in "The Authoritarian Personality," by T. W. Adorno, and others (New York, Harper, 1950). The hypothesis is that graduate library students who…

  14. A Qualitative Analysis and Comparison of the Educational Technology Diffusion and Attitudes toward Adopting Computing Technologies, of the Ministry of Education, Principals/Vice-Principals, and Teachers, in Jamaican Public Primary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Given the lack of computer diffusion studies in the Caribbean, and coupled with the necessity to understand Jamaica in efforts to get a clearer global representation of the digital divide, this study takes an exploratory approach and examines the differences of the computer technology adoption and diffusion attitudes and viewpoints between the…

  15. Picturing Masculinities: Using Photo-elicitation in Men's Health Research.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Genevieve M; Brussoni, Mariana; Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina

    2015-10-18

    This article explores the use of photo-elicitation methods in two men's health studies. Discussed are the ways that photo-elicitation can facilitate conversation about health issues that might be otherwise challenging to access. In the first study, researchers explored 35 young men's experiences of grief following the accidental death of a male peer. In the second study, researchers describe 64 fathers' perceptions about their roles and identity with respect to child safety and risk. Photographs and accompanying narratives were analyzed and results were theorized using a masculinities framework. Discussed are the benefits of photo-elicitation, which include facilitating conversation about emotions, garnering insight into the structures and identities of masculinity in the context of men's health. Considered also are some methodological challenges amid recommendations for ensuring reflexive practices. Based on the findings it is concluded that photo-elicitation can innovatively advance qualitative research in men's health.

  16. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  17. Policy Cues and Ideology in Attitudes toward Charter Schools. Working Paper #41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckhow, Sarah; Grossmann, Matt; Evans, Benjamin Chung

    2014-01-01

    Charter schools have generated support from politicians in both major American political parties, while stimulating intense debate among interest groups. We investigate whether and how public attitudes come to mirror interest group polarization or politician consensus in order to understand what drives public attitudes as policy debates mature and…

  18. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  19. Subjective Probability Distribution Elicitation in Cost Risk Analysis: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    where reasonable, to counteract known biases in elicitation). 1 For the triangle distribution, the probability is set to zero outside the endpoints...probability is set to zero outside the endpoints, while between the endpoints the density rises linearly from the lower value to the most-likely values...Wheeler, T. A., S. C. Hora , W. R. Cramond, and S. D. Unwin, Analysis of Core Damage Frequency from Internal Events: Expert Judgment Elicitation

  20. Knowledge Elicitation: Phase 1 Final Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    artificial intelligence has been focused on methods for eliciting and representing expert knowledge (e.g., Newell and Simon, 1972; Schank and Abelson...methods. These issues have not yet been dealt with in a satisfactory way, either in the artificial intelligence community or by cognitive psychologists...ELICITATION 2.1 The Myth of "Mining for Nugets" of Knowledge The central question in the field of artificial intelligence, whether computers can be

  1. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  4. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  5. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  6. Changes in Soldier Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Eugene H.

    As part of a study for increasing motivation and preventing attitude deterioration among enlisted men, two studies were conducted: (1) to determine the attitudes of soldiers in 1970 (974 basic trainees at Fort Knox) and compare them with those of soldiers similarly questioned between 1945 and 1951; and (2) to review the literature on attitude…

  7. Youth Attitude Tracking Study; Fall 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-AOG2 532 MARKET FACTS INC WASHINGTON DC PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARC-ETC F/6 5/9 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDYI FALL 1979.(U) S L MAR GO MOA9O3-78-C-0396...1. A Report Prepared For: The Department of Defense I Prepared By: The Public Sector Research Group of Market Facts, Inc. 1750 K Street, N.W...Prepared By: The Public Sector Research Group of Market Facts, Inc. .1750 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 March 1980 CLEARED f.R OPEN UIIJUCT " MAR

  8. The Public Perception of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to who or what is to blame for the public's disillusionment about the value of education--politicians, the rebellious 1960s, the communications media, or education itself. The author suggests that public attitudes traditionally waver between extremes, and sees a reaffirmation of faith in education. (Editor/LBH)

  9. Parental attitudes toward adolescent sexuality: transcultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T

    1987-08-01

    The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children.

  10. Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2011-01-01

    "Introduction to Effective Music Teaching: Artistry and Attitude" provides the prospective teacher with front-line tested strategies and approaches that are based on current research and the author's three decades of service as a public school music educator, department chairman, and public school district music administrator. Starting with a…

  11. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  12. Study of Turkish Preschool Teachers' Attitudes toward Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erden, Feyza T.; Sönmez, Sema

    2011-05-01

    This study aims to explore preschool teachers' attitudes toward science teaching and its impact on classroom practices through the frequency of science activities provided in the classroom. In addition, the study investigates if their attitudes are related to factors such as educational level, years of teaching experience, and the school type they work in. The present research was conducted with 292 preschool teachers who work in public and private schools in different districts of Ankara, Turkey. The data were collected by administering the Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes toward Science Teaching Scale. Our analyses indicate that there is a significant but weak link between preschool teachers' attitudes toward science teaching and the frequency of science activities that they provide in the classroom. Further, while teachers' characteristics such as educational level and experience are found to play an insignificant role on the overall measures of the scale, type of school appears to be a major factor in explaining the attitudes toward science teaching.

  13. Information and Attitudes toward Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

  14. Publicity and public relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  15. Attitude profile design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

  16. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  17. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    PubMed

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.05) and in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the medial gastrocnemius (5 vs. 20 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.0001). We show that leg and foot muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  18. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Fall 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    advertising and recruiting opportunities, especially the latter two, since certain ptarget market segments (positive propensity males) have already been...learning useful career skills, have emerged as the overriding themes remembered by target market males from the military’s recruitment advertising ...D-A143 li6 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY FALL i98i(U) MARKET FACTS 1/4 INC CHICAGO IL PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH CORP S GROENENAN UNCLAS APR 8.2 6474

  19. Youth Attitude Tracking Study: Spring 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    comparable to the classic marketing paradigm where the consumer chooses to buy the product and then chooses among alternative brands . Advertising Awareness...comparable to the classic marketing paradigm where the consumer chooses to buy the product and then chooses among alternative brands . The Spring 1980...AD-A091 075 MARKET FACTS INC WASHINGTON DC PUBLIC SECTOR RESEAAC--ETC F/6 5/9 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY: SPRING 1980.(U) AUG 80 MA903-78-C-0396

  20. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  1. Attitudes towards financing of dental care in a Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Arnbjerg, D; Söderfeldt, B; Palmqvist, S

    1996-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe attitudes towards financing of dental care and to investigate the importance of different background factors for these attitudes. A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 3000 persons aged 45-69 years, living in Orebo County, Sweden, with 79.4% response. In the questionnaire the respondents indicated their agreement with four statements on issues concerning financing of dental care, using visual analogue scales. After the answers had been dichotomized, 45% agreed that "all dental care should be free of charge', 32% agreed that "all dental care should be provided by the county', 46% agreed that "it is more important to use resources on heart transplants than on dental care', and 43% agreed that "no public reimbursement should be given to cosmetic dental care'. The attitudes were associated with the following background factors: gender, age, marital status, place of residence, education, socioeconomic status, dental care system, dentist of choice, time since last dentist contact, and attitudes toward dental appearance and dental function. Different background factors were associated with each of the four different attitudes, and only educational level seemed to covary with all four attitudes. It is concluded that attitudes towards financing of dental care varied considerably within this population and that the different attitudes could be related to different background factors.

  2. Public Safety Curriculum Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilligoss, Tonya

    By focusing on four-year colleges, academies/training centers, and community colleges, a study identified some of the duplication and gaps in public safety education in California. Survey instruments were designed to identify the current status of public safety education and elicit data regarding respondents' ideas about the desired direction that…

  3. Public Relations in Accounting: A Benchmark Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, J. David; Pincus, Karen V.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a national study of one segment of the professional services market: the accounting profession. Benchmark data on CPA firms' attitudes toward and uses of public relations are presented and practical and theoretical/research issues are discussed. (JC)

  4. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  5. Attitudes of healthcare professionals and parents regarding genetic testing for violent traits in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, E; Ross, L

    2004-01-01

    Design: The attitudes of healthcare professionals and the lay public about genetic testing of children were elicited for a range of conditions through interviews with healthcare professionals and focus groups with parents. All participants were informed that behavioural genetic testing was the only hypothetical genetic test in our script and it was presented as the last condition. Participants: The healthcare professionals included both genetic professionals and paediatricians. Focus group participants were recruited through various community institutions in the southside of Chicago and nearby suburbs. Results: The healthcare professionals tended to medicalise behavioural genetics, and were opposed to testing unless treatment was available. They were also uniformly concerned about the potential harms of this information, including unintentional adverse effects from environmental changes. In contrast, parents wanted genetic testing for behavioural traits to be available even in the absence of proved medical treatments. Not all parents wanted to test their own children, and some parents were concerned about self-fulfilling prophecies. Some parents, however, felt the information was important for their understanding, and could be used to support environmental changes. Conclusions: While healthcare professionals medicalised behavioural genetics, parents focused on environmental causes and influences. Consequently, healthcare professionals do not want to offer testing if there is no clear treatment, while parents may want this information to shape environmental influences. PMID:15574449

  6. Spacecraft attitude dynamics and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobotov, Vladimir A.

    This overview of spacecraft dynamics encompasses the fundamentals of kinematics, rigid-body dynamics, linear control theory, orbital environmental effects, and the stability of motion. The theoretical treatment of each issue is complemented by specific references to spacecraft control systems based on spin, dual-spin, three-axis-active, and reaction-wheel methodologies. Also examined are control-moment-gyro, gravity-gradient, and magnetic control systems with attention given to key issues such as nutation damping, separation dynamics of spinning bodies, and tethers. Environmental effects that impinge on the application of spacecraft-attitude dynamics are shown to be important, and consideration is given to gravitation, solar radiation, aerodynamics, and geomagnetics. The publication gives analytical methods for examining the practical implementation of the control techniques as they apply to spacecraft.

  7. The Public's View of Higher Education: Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owings, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Citizens' attitudes and opinions toward higher education are discussed, based on the results of several public opinion surveys. Before the mid-1970s little research on public opinions and attitudes toward postsecondary education was conducted in the United States. Since 1975 several states have conducted such surveys, and in 1982 the first…

  8. Modification of commercially available simulators to elicit decision making behavior.

    PubMed

    Salud, Jonathan; Ononye, Chiagozie; Salud, Lawrence; Pugh, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, simulation training has emerged as an innovative method for decreasing error and teaching complex procedures. Simulation has also been a valuable tool for evaluating investigatory and analytic thinking. By adding a specific, clinically oriented modification to a commercially available simulator, we were able to elicit first-year emergency medicine resident perceptions, actions, and decisions.

  9. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  10. Intermediary's Information Seeking, Inquiring Minds, and Elicitation Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mei-Mei; Liu, Ying-Hsang

    2003-01-01

    Explores how intermediaries seek information from patrons by analyzing intermediaries' elicitation utterances through three dimensions: linguistic forms, utterance purposes, and communicative functions. Reports on results of questionnaires given to patrons and intermediaries in academic and research libraries in Taiwan and investigates…

  11. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  12. Eliciting Student Views Using an Interview-About-Instances Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; And Others

    An exposition is made of a method to elicit students' comprehension of the meaning of words commonly used in science, which may be influential in determining what they learn. The method's aim is to elucidate features in students' understanding of childrens' science (that found before formal teaching of science), student science (that found after…

  13. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  14. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  15. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  16. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  17. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  18. Web-Based Elicitation Tasks in SLA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoun, Dalila

    2000-01-01

    Studied second language acquisition (SLA) designed with Web-based elicitation tasks to obtain greater internal and external validity. Tested the acquisition of the properties subsumed under the verb movement parameter and the null subject parameter by English native speakers enrolled in college French. (Author/VWL)

  19. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  20. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  1. Preparing Beginning Teachers to Elicit and Interpret Students' Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Laurie; Boerst, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how teacher education assignments can be designed to support beginning teachers in learning to do the work of teaching. We examined beginners' formative assessment practices--in particular, their eliciting and interpreting of students' mathematical thinking--in the context of an elementary mathematics methods assignment,…

  2. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  3. Eliciting Design Patterns for E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through…

  4. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  5. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  6. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  7. Photo-Elicitation Method Gives Voice and Reactions of Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Zoe; Woodward, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a research assignment (called "photo-elicitation") in a graduate course on the role of photography in society in which students interview people similar to the subjects in the photographs to discover how the photographs affect them. Includes material from one research project interviewing three recovering drug addicts responding to Larry…

  8. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  9. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  11. Nursing students' attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Sauer, Judith; Vandenbosch, Terry M; Kron, Frederick; Gjerde, Craig Livingston; Arato, Nora; Sen, Ananda; Fetters, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about Millennial nursing students' attitudes toward computer games and new media in nursing education and whether these attitudes differ between undergraduates and graduates. This study elicited nursing students' experience with computer games and new media, their attitudes toward various instructional styles and methods, and the role of computer games and new media technologies in nursing education. We e-mailed all nursing students enrolled in two universities to invite their participation in an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. The survey collected demographic data and participants' experience with and attitudes toward video gaming and multi-player online health care simulations. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to compare the differences between undergraduates and graduates. Two hundred eighteen nursing students participated. Many of the nursing students support using new media technologies in nursing education. Nurse educators should identify areas suitable for new media integration and further evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies.

  12. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  13. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  14. Segmentation studies provide insights to better understanding attitudes towards science and technology.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig; Romanach, Lygia Malzoni

    2014-03-01

    Values-based studies of people's attitudes towards science and technology not only provide great insights into what drives different attitudes to issues like climate change and genetically modified foods, but allow for segmenting the general public by homogeneous values. Such segmentations both provide better predictions of people's attitudes to new technologies or contentious science issues than age, sex, or other standard demographics, and allow a better matching of different messages with different community values.

  15. Keeping Public Information Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Wayne P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward the transfer of federal government information from the public domain to the private sector. Topics include free access, privatization, information-policy revision, accountability, copyright issues, costs, pricing, and market needs versus public needs. (LRW)

  16. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Ruth; Kidd, Martin; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-08-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments.

  17. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  18. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  19. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  20. Countering antivaccination attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John E.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people’s antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people’s attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths. PMID:26240325

  1. Nonlinear Analyses of Elicited Modal, Raised, and Pressed Rabbit Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force

  2. Changing attitudes through persuasive communication.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A

    Nurses are uniquely placed to provide effective health education with the aim of promoting attitude and behavioural change. This article explores the literature relating to attitude formation, attitude change and the nature of persuasive communication, and identifies specific strategies that will be useful to all nurses.

  3. Slovakian Students' Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tuncer, Gaye; Chudá, Júlia

    2007-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes became to be an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students' attitudes toward science often involves science in general, but particular…

  4. Gendered contexts: masculinity, knowledge, and attitudes toward biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    Research into the public understanding of science has revealed that the effect of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science is contextualized by gender; however there has not yet been an account of how gender contextualizes knowledge. This paper investigates how gender identification affects attitudes toward science, and tempers the effects of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science. Utilizing data from the Eurobarometer 52.1, it is predicted that when males perceive a threat to their masculinity (as measured by a perceived threat to their financial security) they will become more likely to be aversive to biotechnology, and that increased levels of perceived threat will reduce the effects of knowledge on attitudes toward biotechnology. Moreover, it is predicted that these effects will be smaller than their female counterparts. All predictions are affirmed.

  5. Relationships among Teachers' Attitudes, Behaviors toward English Language Learners, Experience, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Public school teachers must meet the unique needs of English language learners (ELLs) in the general education classroom. There is a need to understand teacher attitudes toward ELLs because attitudes can explain and influence teacher behavior and professional practice. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships between…

  6. Pedagogic Barriers in Cameroon Inclusive Classrooms: The Impact of Curriculum, Teachers' Attitudes and Classroom Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyi, Maureen Ebanga

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine if the curriculum, infrastructures and teachers' attitudes may influence school exclusion amongst disabled pupils. Three hypotheses were formulated based on the three variables: curriculum (teaching programmes), infrastructures and teachers' attitudes. 150 public primary school personnel from 12 primary schools in…

  7. The Effects of Requiring Study Group Participation Associated with Students' Attitudes and Achievements in Developmental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely publicized that student attitudes and achievement in math in the United States require improvement. U.S. students have shown lackluster mathematics achievement scores compared to their international peers in other developed countries. As a former high school math instructor, this author observed that the attitude of many high school…

  8. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  9. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  10. Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolzendahl, Catherine I.; Myers, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines attitudes related to feminism and gender equality by evaluating the trends in, and determinants of, women and men's attitudes from 1974 to 1998. Past accounts suggest two clusters of explanations based on interests and exposure. Using these, we examine opinions on abortion, sexual behavior, public sphere gender roles, and…

  11. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  12. Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Deleon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

  13. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  14. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  15. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  16. Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

    1988-01-01

    Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

  17. Modified repetition in poems elicited from young children.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A D

    1991-10-01

    Attempts were made to elicit poems from 133 children between the ages of 2;3 and 6;11. Seventy-eight of the children produced 606 poems between them. Forty-five per cent of the poems contained the syntactic device of modified repetition: a substitution exercise where a grammatical frame is repeated and the substitution occurs in part of the grammatical frame. This was so despite the fact that modified repetition was not present in the examples that were used to elicit poems from the children. The frequency and types of modified repetition used by the children did not vary much with age. The question of whether children's use of modified repetition in their rhythmical poems has the function of helping them to practise grammatical forms, or whether it is simply one reflection of a general human tendency towards the use of pattern in language, is discussed.

  18. Maternal Attitudes. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.

    This paper discusses ways in which maternal attitudes may serve as mediating variables linking social class characteristics of the family to the socialization of children. Reference is made to the Family Problem Scale (Ernhart and Loevinger) which provides a psychological characterization of social class levels on five dimensions or subscales:…

  19. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  20. Attitudes of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  1. Learning from Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Domingos S. L.

    2004-12-01

    From 1985 to 1989, I worked at the Kapteyn Laboratory - which is part of the Astronomy Faculty of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands - on my doctoral thesis project. During the whole period Prof. Hugo van Woerden was the Chairman of the Laboratory. From my recollections of that time I tell here three episodes in which Prof. van Woerden's attitudes are put in focus.

  2. Science Center and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

  3. Teacher Attitudes and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) were administered to 183 undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education courses. The MTAI was compared with each of the two personality instruments by canonical analysis. Concludes that teacher's…

  4. Children's Attitudes Toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jerry B.; Price, Cynthia O.

    1975-01-01

    Presents a study focused on the problem of science instruction in the southern Appalachian region. Students in grades four through eight participated. Younger students showed more positive attitudes. Students in each level felt science education was an important school subject. (EB)

  5. Attitudes towards Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Norman; Skryabina, Elena A.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike in many other countries, physics in secondary education in Scotland is highly popular, with large numbers opting for study at the Higher Grade from which entry to higher education is possible. This paper reports a project which explored attitudes towards physics in Scotland, looking at students aged from about 10 to 20 years old. Overall, over 850 school pupils were surveyed along with 208 level 1 and 2 university physics students. The work was carried out mainly by use of questionnaires and interviewing. The approach allowed the development of 'snap shots' of attitudes held by pupils simultaneously at various stages of education. These attitudes can be compared at the different stages, although care must be taken in such comparison to allow for varying degrees of self-selection. The main factors attracting school pupils into a study of physics are described, together with the pattern of attitude changes which take place with age. From the picture obtained, it is possible to determine areas of the curriculum where there are difficulties. The enormous success of the applications-led course for Standard Grade is apparent in attracting and retaining pupils within physics, including girls. The outcomes suggest some ways by which physics curriculum planners can develop courses in physics which will prove attractive and robust.

  6. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  7. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  8. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  9. Attitudes to vaccination: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Ohid; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Sevdalis, Nick; Chataway, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy.

  10. [On attitudes toward marital and intergenerational relationships].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1991-10-01

    Structures and determinants of normative attitudes concerning marital and intergenerational relationships were studied. The data are based on the Public Opinion Survey on Population Issues carried out by the Institute of Population Problems in June 1990. 3 principal components were extracted from 11 questions on attitudes toward marriage and conjugal unions. The 1st is interpreted as the conservative attitude toward universal marriage and traditional sex-role differentiation. The 2nd is though to be intolerance for premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse, and the 3rd is the positive attitude toward such current issues as divorce or preservation of wife's surname. Regression analysis shows that such factors as age, education, marital status, and ideal family size have statistically significant effects on the 1st primary component, an index of universal marriage and extramarital sex measured by the 2nd component, the effect of community size is also statistically significant as well as the variables mentioned above. Only a small portion of the 3rd component which indicates attitude toward recent issues on marriage is explained by the regression model. From 8 questions concerning intergenerational relationships, 2 meaningful principal components have emerged. These are interpreted as the norm of supporting aging parents and the avoidance of frequent daily contact between parents and married children. Married people who are highly educated, living in urban areas, not living with their parents, or have a small family tended to have low scores on the 1st principal component and seem to hold the value of intergenerational independence. In addition to education, urban residence, living with parents, and ideal family size, the effect of living with married children is also significant on the 2nd component which indicates partition of daily life. (author's modified)

  11. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors. PMID:28232801

  12. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  13. Elicited versus emitted behavior: Time to abandon the distinction.

    PubMed

    Domjan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The concept of emitted behavior was formulated as a part of the original argument for the validity of a new kind of learning called operant conditioning. The rationale for operant conditioning contrasted it with Pavlovian or classical conditioning, which was (and remains) fundamentally based on responses to conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Classical conditioned responses were said to be elicited. In contrast, operant behavior was viewed as emitted and controlled primarily by response consequences rather than antecedents. I argue that the distinction between emitted and elicited behavior is no longer warranted for three major reasons. First, the distinction was based on a view of Pavlovian conditioning that is no longer viable. Second, the distinction is incompatible with both empirical data and contemporary conceptualizations of operant behavior. Third, the only way to overcome these problems is to define emitted and elicited in terms of the type of conditioning (operant and classical) that produces these behaviors, but that approach makes the definitions circular and does not avoid implications of the terms that are misleading and counterproductive in light of contemporary research and thinking.

  14. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  15. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear.

  16. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  17. A Mixed Methods Study Identifying Antecedents to the Later Disengagement of African American Males in Public Schools by Examining Attitudes and Behaviors of Students and Teachers at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Deirdre L.

    2012-01-01

    African American males have not experienced the academic successes throughout their school careers that males of other cultures have experienced. This mixed methods study identified possible antecedents to the later disengagement of poorly performing African American male students in an inner city public elementary school by examining data…

  18. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  19. Attitude measurement: Principles and sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchon, P.; Vermande, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitude measurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.

  20. Picture Book Exposure Elicits Positive Visual Preferences in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…