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Sample records for elicits neutralizing antibodies

  1. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice.

    PubMed

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-09-01

    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors. PMID:27610569

  2. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice.

    PubMed

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-09-01

    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors.

  3. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Chervyakova, Olga V.; Zaitsev, Valentin L.; Iskakov, Bulat K.; Tailakova, Elmira T.; Strochkov, Vitaliy M.; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T.; Sandybayev, Nurlan T.; Stanbekova, Gulshan E.; Beisenov, Daniyar K.; Abduraimov, Yergali O.; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R.; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y.; Nemchinov, Lev. G.; Hammond, Rosemarie W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. PMID:27338444

  4. Differential Specificity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by Natural Infection or Immunization▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Gall, Jason G. D.; Nason, Martha; King, C. Richter; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Churchyard, Gavin; Baden, Lindsey R.; Duerr, Ann C.; Keefer, Michael C.; Graham, Barney S.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A recent clinical trial of a T-cell-based AIDS vaccine delivered with recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vectors showed no efficacy in lowering viral load and was associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Preexisting immunity to Ad5 in humans could therefore affect both immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. We hypothesized that vaccine-induced immunity is differentially affected, depending on whether subjects were exposed to Ad5 by natural infection or by vaccination. Serum samples from vaccine trial subjects receiving a DNA/rAd5 AIDS vaccine with or without prior immunity to Ad5 were examined for the specificity of their Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and their effect on HIV-1 immune responses. Here, we report that rAd5 neutralizing antibodies were directed to different components of the virion, depending on whether they were elicited by natural infection or vaccination in HIV vaccine trial subjects. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection were directed largely to the Ad5 fiber, while exposure to rAd5 through vaccination elicited antibodies primarily to capsid proteins other than fiber. Notably, preexisting immunity to Ad5 fiber from natural infection significantly reduced the CD4 and CD8 cell responses to HIV Gag after DNA/rAd5 vaccination. The specificity of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies therefore differs depending on the route of exposure, and natural Ad5 infection compromises Ad5 vaccine-induced immunity to weak immunogens, such as HIV-1 Gag. These results have implications for future AIDS vaccine trials and the design of next-generation gene-based vaccine vectors. PMID:19846512

  5. Novel Ricin Subunit Antigens With Enhanced Capacity to Elicit Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wahome, Newton; Sully, Erin; Singer, Christopher; Thomas, Justin C; Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Fang, Jianwen; Karanicolas, John; Jacobs, Donald J; Mantis, Nicholas J; Middaugh, C Russell

    2016-05-01

    RiVax is a candidate ricin toxin subunit vaccine antigen that has proven to be safe in human phase I clinical trials. In this study, we introduced double and triple cavity-filling point mutations into the RiVax antigen with the expectation that stability-enhancing modifications would have a beneficial effect on overall immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. We demonstrate that 2 RiVax triple mutant derivatives, RB (V81L/C171L/V204I) and RC (V81I/C171L/V204I), when adsorbed to aluminum salts adjuvant and tested in a mouse prime-boost-boost regimen were 5- to 10-fold more effective than RiVax at eliciting toxin-neutralizing serum IgG antibody titers. Increased toxin neutralizing antibody values and seroconversion rates were evident at different antigen dosages and within 7 days after the first booster. Quantitative stability/flexibility relationships analysis revealed that the RB and RC mutations affect rigidification of regions spanning residues 98-103, which constitutes a known immunodominant neutralizing B-cell epitope. A more detailed understanding of the immunogenic nature of RB and RC may provide insight into the fundamental relationship between local protein stability and antibody reactivity. PMID:26987947

  6. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R.; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species. PMID:26076449

  7. Eliciting neutralizing antibodies with gp120 outer domain constructs based on M-group consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yali; Banasik, Marisa; Kim, SoonJeung; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Habte, Habtom H; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Wang, Chong; Cho, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    One strategy being evaluated for HIV-1 vaccine development is focusing immune responses towards neutralizing epitopes on the gp120 outer domain (OD) by removing the immunodominant, but non-neutralizing, inner domain. Previous OD constructs have not elicited strong neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). We constructed two immunogens, a monomeric gp120-OD and a trimeric gp120-OD×3, based on an M group consensus sequence (MCON6). Their biochemical and immunological properties were compared with intact gp120. Results indicated better preservation of critical neutralizing epitopes on gp120-OD×3. In contrast to previous studies, our immunogens induced potent, cross-reactive nAbs in rabbits. Although nAbs primarily targeted Tier 1 viruses, they exhibited significant breadth. Epitope mapping analyses indicated that nAbs primarily targeted conserved V3 loop elements. Although the potency and breadth of nAbs were similar for all three immunogens, nAb induction kinetics indicated that gp120-OD×3 was superior to gp120-OD, suggesting that gp120-OD×3 is a promising prototype for further gp120 OD-based immunogen development. PMID:25046154

  8. Eliciting Neutralizing Antibodies with gp120 Outer Domain Constructs Based on M-Group Consensus Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yali; Banasik, Marisa; Kim, SoonJeung; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Habte, Habtom H; Labranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Wang, Chong; Cho, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    One strategy being evaluated for HIV-1 vaccine development is focusing immune responses towards neutralizing epitopes on the gp120 outer domain (OD) by removing the immunodominant, but non-neutralizing, inner domain. Previous OD constructs have not elicited strong neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). We constructed two immunogens, a monomeric gp120-OD and a trimeric gp120-OD×3, based on an M group consensus sequence (MCON6). Their biochemical and immunological properties were compared with intact gp120. Results indicated better preservation of critical neutralizing epitopes on gp120-OD×3. In contrast to previous studies, our immunogens induced potent, cross-reactive nAbs in rabbits. Although nAbs primarily targeted Tier 1 viruses, they exhibited significant breadth. Epitope mapping analyses indicated that nAbs primarily targeted conserved V3 loop elements. Although the potency and breadth of nAbs were similar for all three immunogens, nAb induction kinetics indicated that gp120-OD×3 was superior to gp120-OD, suggesting that gp120-OD×3 is a promising prototype for further gp120 OD-based immunogen development. PMID:25046154

  9. Deglycosylation of HIV-1 AE Gp140 enhances the capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies against the heterologous HIV-1 clade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congyou; Wan, Yanmin; Shi, Jijing; Zhou, Mingzhe; Meng, Zhefeng; Yuan, Songhua; Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xuemei; Liu, Chaoqi; Xu, Jianqing

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether deglycosylation of an HIV-1 AE recombinant-derived gp140 could enhance the induction of neutralizing antibodies. N-to-Q mutations were introduced in the V1/V2 (m157/161) or V4 (m382/388) loops by using overlapping PCR. BALB/c mice were inoculated with different DNA vaccines at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 7. The Elispot assay was used to quantify Env-specific T-cell immunity, and the TZM-bl cell-based in vitro neutralizing assay with primary isolates was used to assess humoral immune responses. Our data showed that two mutant DNA vaccines, designated m157/161 and m382/388, mounted total T-cell responses that were at levels similar those of the unmutated vaccine. Although the levels of binding antibodies elicited by the two mutants were significantly lower than the levels elicited by the unmutated vaccine, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies were observed only in the sera that received the mutant DNA vaccines. These data demonstrate that deglycosylation of HIV-1 Env could enhance the capacity to elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20455767

  10. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Kurt A.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Shaw, Christine A.; Dey, Antu K.; Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Carfi, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. Vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. Crystal structures of related parainfluenza F glycoproteins have revealed a large conformational change between the prefusion and postfusion states, suggesting that postfusion F antigens might not efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. We have generated a homogeneous, stable, and reproducible postfusion RSV F immunogen that elicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. The 3.2-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of this substantially complete RSV F reveals important differences from homology-based structural models. Specifically, the RSV F crystal structure demonstrates the exposure of key neutralizing antibody binding sites on the surface of the postfusion RSV F trimer. This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens.

  11. Thermostability of Well-Ordered HIV Spikes Correlates with the Elicitation of Autologous Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shridhar; Kumar, Shailendra; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; de Val, Natalia; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Ward, Andrew B.; Wyatt, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of HIV vaccine design and development, HIV-1 spike mimetics displaying a range of stabilities were evaluated to determine whether more stable, well-ordered trimers would more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. To begin, in vitro analysis of trimers derived from the cysteine-stabilized SOSIP platform or the uncleaved, covalently linked NFL platform were evaluated. These native-like trimers, derived from HIV subtypes A, B, and C, displayed a range of thermostabilities, and were “stress-tested” at varying temperatures as a prelude to in vivo immunogenicity. Analysis was performed both in the absence and in the presence of two different adjuvants. Since partial trimer degradation was detected at 37°C before or after formulation with adjuvant, we sought to remedy such an undesirable outcome. Cross-linking (fixing) of the well-ordered trimers with glutaraldehyde increased overall thermostability, maintenance of well-ordered trimer integrity without or with adjuvant, and increased resistance to solid phase-associated trimer unfolding. Immunization of unfixed and fixed well-ordered trimers into animals revealed that the elicited tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity correlated with overall trimer thermostability, or melting temperature (Tm). Glutaraldehyde fixation also led to higher tier 2 autologous neutralization titers. These results link retention of trimer quaternary packing with elicitation of tier 2 autologous neutralizing activity, providing important insights for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27487086

  12. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  13. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  14. Antibody-driven design of a human cytomegalovirus gHgLpUL128L subunit vaccine that selectively elicits potent neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kabanova, Anna; Perez, Laurent; Lilleri, Daniele; Marcandalli, Jessica; Agatic, Gloria; Becattini, Simone; Preite, Silvia; Fuschillo, Dario; Percivalle, Elena; Sallusto, Federica; Gerna, Giuseppe; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2014-12-16

    The use of neutralizing antibodies to identify the most effective antigen has been proposed as a strategy to design vaccines capable of eliciting protective B-cell immunity. In this study, we analyzed the human antibody response to cytomegalovirus (human cytomegalovirus, HCMV) infection and found that antibodies to glycoprotein (g)B, a surface glycoprotein that has been developed as a HCMV vaccine, were primarily nonneutralizing. In contrast, most of the antibodies to the complex formed by gH, gL, protein (p)UL128, pUL130, and pUL131 (the gHgLpUL128L pentamer) neutralized HCMV infection with high potency. Based on this analysis, we developed a single polycistronic vector encoding the five pentamer genes separated by "self-cleaving" 2A peptides to generate a stably transfected CHO cell line constitutively secreting high levels of recombinant pentamer that displayed the functional antigenic sites targeted by human neutralizing antibodies. Immunization of mice with the pentamer formulated with different adjuvants elicited HCMV neutralizing antibody titers that persisted to high levels over time and that were a hundred- to thousand-fold higher than those found in individuals that recovered from primary HCMV infection. Sera from mice immunized with the pentamer vaccine neutralized infection of both epithelial cells and fibroblasts and prevented cell-to-cell spread and viral dissemination from endothelial cells to leukocytes. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from immunized mice showed the same potency as human antibodies and targeted the same as well as additional sites on the pentamer. These results illustrate with a relevant example a general and practical approach of analytic vaccinology for the development of subunit vaccines against complex pathogens.

  15. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  16. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens.

  17. Bivalent vaccine platform based on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) elicits neutralizing antibodies against JEV and hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Ryohei; Fujimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Mami; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Nakamura, Noriko; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Konishi, Eiji; Kato, Takanobu; Kohara, Michinori; Takeyama, Haruko; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Directly acting antivirals recently have become available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is no prophylactic vaccine for HCV. In the present study, we took advantage of the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) to develop antigens for use in a HCV vaccine. Notably, the surface-exposed JEV envelope protein is tolerant of inserted foreign epitopes, permitting display of novel antigens. We identified 3 positions that permitted insertion of the HCV E2 neutralization epitope recognized by HCV1 antibody. JEV subviral particles (SVP) containing HCV-neutralization epitope (SVP-E2) were purified from culture supernatant by gel chromatography. Sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 inhibited infection by JEV and by trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp) derived from multi-genotypic viruses, whereas sera from mice immunized with synthetic E2 peptides did not show any neutralizing activity. Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 neutralized HCVtcp with N415K escape mutation in E2. As with the SVP-E2 epitope-displaying particles, JEV SVPs with HCV E1 epitope also elicited neutralizing antibodies against HCV. Thus, this novel platform harboring foreign epitopes on the surface of the particle may facilitate the development of a bivalent vaccine against JEV and other pathogens. PMID:27345289

  18. A Lentiviral Vector Expressing Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particles Elicits Broad Neutralizing Antibody Response in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Souque, Philippe; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Paulous, Sylvie; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Summerfield, Artur; Charneau, Pierre; Desprès, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. Vaccination of domestic pigs has been suggested as a “one health” strategy to reduce viral disease transmission to humans. The efficiency of two lentiviral TRIP/JEV vectors expressing the JEV envelope prM and E glycoproteins at eliciting protective humoral response was assessed in a mouse model and piglets. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the envelope proteins prM and E from a genotype 3 JEV strain was inserted into a lentiviral TRIP vector. Two lentiviral vectors TRIP/JEV were generated, each expressing the prM signal peptide followed by the prM protein and the E glycoprotein, the latter being expressed either in its native form or lacking its two C-terminal transmembrane domains. In vitro transduction of cells with the TRIP/JEV vector expressing the native prM and E resulted in the efficient secretion of virus-like particles of Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunization of BALB/c mice with TRIP/JEV vectors resulted in the production of IgGs against Japanese encephalitis virus, and the injection of a second dose one month after the prime injection greatly boosted antibody titers. The TRIP/JEV vectors elicited neutralizing antibodies against JEV strains belonging to genotypes 1, 3, and 5. Immunization of piglets with two doses of the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles led to high titers of anti-JEV antibodies, that had efficient neutralizing activity regardless of the JEV genotype tested. Conclusions/Significance Immunization of pigs with the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles is particularly efficient to prime antigen-specific humoral immunity and trigger neutralizing antibody responses against JEV genotypes 1, 3, and 5. The titers of neutralizing antibodies elicited by the TRIP/JEV vector are sufficient to confer protection in domestic pigs against different genotypes of JEV and this could be of a great

  19. Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Thomas J.; Tang, Jie; DeRome, Mary E.; Mitchell, Robert A.; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G.; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT* comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T*. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT* peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and

  20. Plasmodium falciparum synthetic LbL microparticle vaccine elicits protective neutralizing antibody and parasite-specific cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas J; Tang, Jie; Derome, Mary E; Mitchell, Robert A; Jacobs, Andrea; Deng, Yanhong; Palath, Naveen; Cardenas, Edwin; Boyd, James G; Nardin, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic species of the malaria parasite, have been shown to elicit protective immunity in experimental animals and human volunteers. The mechanisms of immunity include parasite-neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit parasite motility in the skin at the site of infection and in the bloodstream during transit to the hepatocyte host cell and also block interaction with host cell receptors on hepatocytes. In addition, specific CD4+ and CD8+ cellular mechanisms target the intracellular hepatic forms, thus preventing release of erythrocytic stage parasites from the infected hepatocyte and the ensuing blood stage cycle responsible for clinical disease. An innovative method for producing particle vaccines, layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication of polypeptide films on solid CaCO3 cores, was used to produce synthetic malaria vaccines containing a tri-epitope CS peptide T1BT comprising the antibody epitope of the CS repeat region (B) and two T-cell epitopes, the highly conserved T1 epitope and the universal epitope T. Mice immunized with microparticles loaded with T1BT peptide developed parasite-neutralizing antibodies and malaria-specific T-cell responses including cytotoxic effector T-cells. Protection from liver stage infection following challenge with live sporozoites from infected mosquitoes correlated with neutralizing antibody levels. Although some immunized mice with low or undetectable neutralizing antibodies were also protected, depletion of T-cells prior to challenge resulted in the majority of mice remaining resistant to challenge. In addition, mice immunized with microparticles bearing only T-cell epitopes were not protected, demonstrating that cellular immunity alone was not sufficient for protective immunity. Although the microparticles without adjuvant were immunogenic and protective, a simple modification with the lipopeptide TLR2 agonist Pam3Cys increased the potency and

  1. Antibodies elicited by yeast glycoproteins recognize HIV-1 virions and potently neutralize virions with high mannose N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Fu, Hu; Luallen, Robert J; Liu, Bingfen; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W; Geng, Yu

    2015-09-22

    The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125-130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:26277072

  2. A Multivalent Clade C HIV-1 Env Trimer Cocktail Elicits a Higher Magnitude of Neutralizing Antibodies than Any Individual Component

    PubMed Central

    Bricault, Christine A.; Kovacs, James M.; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Yusim, Karina; Giorgi, Elena E.; Shields, Jennifer L.; Perry, James; Lavine, Christy L.; Cheung, Ann; Ellingson-Strouss, Katharine; Rademeyer, Cecelia; Gray, Glenda E.; Williamson, Carolyn; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Seaman, Michael S.; Korber, Bette T.; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sequence diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) presents a formidable challenge to the generation of an HIV-1 vaccine. One strategy to address such sequence diversity and to improve the magnitude of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is to utilize multivalent mixtures of HIV-1 envelope (Env) immunogens. Here we report the generation and characterization of three novel, acute clade C HIV-1 Env gp140 trimers (459C, 405C, and 939C), each with unique antigenic properties. Among the single trimers tested, 459C elicited the most potent NAb responses in vaccinated guinea pigs. We evaluated the immunogenicity of various mixtures of clade C Env trimers and found that a quadrivalent cocktail of clade C trimers elicited a greater magnitude of NAbs against a panel of tier 1A and 1B viruses than any single clade C trimer alone, demonstrating that the mixture had an advantage over all individual components of the cocktail. These data suggest that vaccination with a mixture of clade C Env trimers represents a promising strategy to augment vaccine-elicited NAb responses. IMPORTANCE It is currently not known how to generate potent NAbs to the diverse circulating HIV-1 Envs by vaccination. One strategy to address this diversity is to utilize mixtures of different soluble HIV-1 envelope proteins. In this study, we generated and characterized three distinct, novel, acute clade C soluble trimers. We vaccinated guinea pigs with single trimers as well as mixtures of trimers, and we found that a mixture of four trimers elicited a greater magnitude of NAbs than any single trimer within the mixture. The results of this study suggest that further development of Env trimer cocktails is warranted. PMID:25540368

  3. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M. . E-mail: tmr15@pitt.edu

    2004-10-25

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d{sub 3}) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}. In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d{sub 3} or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}-DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d.

  4. Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Responses Elicited from Highly Diverse Polyvalent Heterotrimeric HIV-1 gp140 Cocktail Immunogens versus a Monovalent Counterpart in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Emma J.; Schiffner, Torben; Rosario, Maximillian; Needham, Gemma A.; Ramaswamy, Meghna; McGouran, Joanna; Kessler, Benedikt; LaBranche, Celia; McMichael, Andrew J.; Montefiori, David; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Hanke, Tomáš; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting neutralizing antibodies capable of inactivating a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine design. The challenge is that envelopes (Envs) of circulating viruses are almost certainly different from any Env used in a vaccine. A novel immunogen composed of a highly diverse set of gp140 Envs including subtypes A, B, C, D and F was developed to stimulate a more cross-neutralizing antibody response. Env heterotrimers composed of up to 54 different gp140s were produced with the aim of focusing the response to the conserved regions of Env while reducing the dominance of any individual hypervariable region. Heterotrimeric gp140 Envs of inter- and intra-subtype combinations were shown to bind CD4 and a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with similar affinity to monovalent UG37 gp140. Macaques immunized with six groups of heterotrimer mixtures showed slightly more potent neutralizing antibody responses in TZM-BL tier 1 and A3R5 tier 2 pseudovirus assays than macaques immunized with monovalent Env gp140, and exhibited a marginally greater focus on the CD4-binding site. Carbopol enhanced neutralization when used as an adjuvant instead of RIBI in combination with UG37 gp140. These data indicate that cross-subtype heterotrimeric gp140 Envs may elicit some improvement of the neutralizing antibody response in macaques compared to monovalent gp140 Env. PMID:25490553

  5. Antibodies with specificity to native gp120 and neutralization activity against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates elicited by immunization with oligomeric gp160.

    PubMed Central

    VanCott, T C; Mascola, J R; Kaminski, R W; Kalyanaraman, V; Hallberg, P L; Burnett, P R; Ulrich, J T; Rechtman, D J; Birx, D L

    1997-01-01

    Current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccine candidates elicit high antibody binding titers with neutralizing activity against T-cell line-adapted but not primary HIV-1 isolates. Serum antibodies from these human vaccine recipients were also found to be preferentially directed to linear epitopes within gp120 that are poorly exposed on native gp120. Systemic immunization of rabbits with an affinity-purified oligomeric gp160 protein formulated with either Alhydrogel or monophosphoryl lipid A-containing adjuvants resulted in the induction of high-titered serum antibodies that preferentially bound epitopes exposed on native forms of gp120 and gp160, recognized a restricted number of linear epitopes, efficiently bound heterologous strains of monomeric gp120 and cell surface-expressed oligomeric gp120/gp41, and neutralized several strains of T-cell line-adapted HIV-1. Additionally, those immune sera with the highest oligomeric gp160 antibody binding titers had neutralizing activity against some primary HIV-1 isolates, using phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell targets. Induction of an antibody response preferentially reactive with natively folded gp120/gp160 was dependent on the tertiary structure of the HIV-1 envelope immunogen as well as its adjuvant formulation, route of administration, and number of immunizations administered. These studies demonstrate the capacity of a soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine to elicit an antibody response capable of neutralizing primary HIV-1 isolates. PMID:9151820

  6. Peptides Designed To Spatially Depict the Epstein-Barr Virus Major Virion Glycoprotein gp350 Neutralization Epitope Elicit Antibodies That Block Virus-Neutralizing Antibody 72A1 Interaction with the Native gp350 Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Jerome E.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Leblond, Valérie; Hu, Jing; Fang, Janey M.; Sygusch, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis and the root cause of B-cell lymphoproliferative disease in individuals with a weakened immune system, as well as a principal cofactor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, various lymphomas, and other cancers. The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein gp350 is viewed as the best vaccine candidate to prevent infectious mononucleosis in healthy EBV-naive persons and EBV-related cancers in at-risk individuals. Previous epitope mapping of gp350 revealed only one dominant neutralizing epitope, which has been shown to be the target of the monoclonal antibody 72A1. Computer modeling of the 72A1 antibody interaction with the gp350 amino terminus was used to identify gp350 amino acids that could form strong ionic, electrostatic, or hydrogen bonds with the 72A1 antibody. Peptide DDRTTLQLAQNPVYIPETYPYIKWDN (designated peptide 2) and peptide GSAKPGNGSYFASVKTEMLGNEID (designated peptide 3) were designed to spatially represent the gp350 amino acids predicted to interact with the 72A1 antibody paratope. Peptide 2 bound to the 72A1 antibody and blocked 72A1 antibody recognition of the native gp350 molecule. Peptide 2 and peptide 3 were recognized by human IgG and shown to elicit murine antibodies that could target gp350 and block its recognition by the 72A1 antibody. This work provides a structural mapping of the interaction between the EBV-neutralizing antibody 72A1 and the major virion surface protein gp350. gp350 mimetic peptides that spatially depict the EBV-neutralizing epitope would be useful as a vaccine to focus the immune system exclusively to this important virus epitope. IMPORTANCE The production of virus-neutralizing antibodies targeting the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) major surface glycoprotein gp350 is important for the prevention of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-related cancers. The data presented here provide the first in silico map of the gp350 interaction with a virus-blocking monoclonal

  7. Eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the membrane proximal external region of HIV-1 Env by chimeric live attenuated influenza A virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Du, Dongchuan; Li, Na; Su, Weiheng; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jianhui; Wang, Youchun; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-07-31

    Despite significant efforts directed toward research on HIV-1 vaccines, a truly effective immunogen has not been achieved. However, the broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) 2F5 and 4E10, targeting the highly conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1, are two promising tools for vaccine development. Here we engrafted the MPER into the linker domain between the trimeric core structure and the transmembrane domain of influenza A virus HA2 to investigate the potential of such chimeric viruses to elicit HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. In the context of proliferating attenuated influenza A viruses, these HIV-1 neutralizing antibody epitopes could be continuously expressed and mimicked their native conformation to induce humoral immune responses. While MPER-specific antibodies could be detected in serum of guinea pigs vaccinated with the chimeric viruses, they exhibited only weakly neutralizing activities. These antisera from vaccinated animals neutralized viruses of clades B and BC (tier 1), but not of clades AE (tier 1) and C (tier 2). These results suggest that influenza A virus can be used as a vehicle for displaying MPER and inducing BnAbs, but it provides limited protection against HIV-1 infection. In the future development of HIV-1 vaccines by rational design, a more effective live virus vector or multiple antigens should be chosen to facilitate the process of neutralizing antibody maturation. PMID:26126669

  8. Cross-neutralizing antibodies elicited by the Cervarix® human papillomavirus vaccine display a range of Alpha-9 inter-type specificities.

    PubMed

    Bissett, Sara L; Draper, Eve; Myers, Richard E; Godi, Anna; Beddows, Simon

    2014-02-26

    -vaccine types, and whose specificities were not predictable from examination of the serum neutralizing antibody profile. These data contribute to our understanding of the antibody specificities elicited following HPV vaccination and have potential implications for vaccine-induced cross-protection.

  9. Holes in the Glycan Shield of the Native HIV Envelope Are a Target of Trimer-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; van Gils, Marit J; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Messmer, Terrence; Briney, Bryan; Voss, James E; Kulp, Daniel W; Macauley, Matthew S; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Menis, Sergey; Cottrell, Christopher A; Torres, Jonathan L; Hsueh, Jessica; Schief, William R; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Sanders, Rogier W; Burton, Dennis R

    2016-08-30

    A major advance in the search for an HIV vaccine has been the development of a near-native Envelope trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664) that can induce robust autologous Tier 2 neutralization. Here, potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) from rabbits immunized with BG505 SOSIP.664 are shown to recognize an immunodominant region of gp120 centered on residue 241. Residue 241 occupies a hole in the glycan defenses of the BG505 isolate, with fewer than 3% of global isolates lacking a glycan site at this position. However, at least one conserved glycan site is missing in 89% of viruses, suggesting the presence of glycan holes in most HIV isolates. Serum evidence is consistent with targeting of holes in natural infection. The immunogenic nature of breaches in the glycan shield has been under-appreciated in previous attempts to understand autologous neutralizing antibody responses and has important potential consequences for HIV vaccine design.

  10. Holes in the Glycan Shield of the Native HIV Envelope Are a Target of Trimer-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; van Gils, Marit J; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Messmer, Terrence; Briney, Bryan; Voss, James E; Kulp, Daniel W; Macauley, Matthew S; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Menis, Sergey; Cottrell, Christopher A; Torres, Jonathan L; Hsueh, Jessica; Schief, William R; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Sanders, Rogier W; Burton, Dennis R

    2016-08-30

    A major advance in the search for an HIV vaccine has been the development of a near-native Envelope trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664) that can induce robust autologous Tier 2 neutralization. Here, potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) from rabbits immunized with BG505 SOSIP.664 are shown to recognize an immunodominant region of gp120 centered on residue 241. Residue 241 occupies a hole in the glycan defenses of the BG505 isolate, with fewer than 3% of global isolates lacking a glycan site at this position. However, at least one conserved glycan site is missing in 89% of viruses, suggesting the presence of glycan holes in most HIV isolates. Serum evidence is consistent with targeting of holes in natural infection. The immunogenic nature of breaches in the glycan shield has been under-appreciated in previous attempts to understand autologous neutralizing antibody responses and has important potential consequences for HIV vaccine design. PMID:27545891

  11. Tetravalent dengue DIIIC protein together with alum and ODN elicits a Th1 response and neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuest, Roland; Valdes, Iris; Skibinski, David; Lin, Yufang; Toh, Ying Xiu; Chan, Katherine; Hermida, Lisset; Connolly, John; Guillen, Gerardo; Fink, Katja

    2015-03-17

    Dengue disease is a global challenge for healthcare systems particularly during outbreaks, and millions of dollars are spent every year for vector control. An efficient and safe vaccine that is cost-effective could resolve the burden that dengue virus imposes on affected countries. We describe here the immunogenicity of a tetravalent formulation of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of E domain III and the capsid protein of dengue serotypes 1-4 (Tetra DIIIC). E domain III is an epitope for efficient neutralizing antibodies while the capsid protein contains T cell epitopes. Besides combining B and T cell epitopes, Tetra DIIIC is highly immunogenic due to its aggregate form and a two-component adjuvant. Following previous studies assessing the monovalent DIIIC formulations, we addressed here the quality and breadth of the T cell- and antibody response of Tetra DIIIC in mice. Tetra DIIIC induced a Th1-type response against all four DENV serotypes and dengue-specific antibodies were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a and neutralizing, while the induction of neutralizing antibodies was dependent on IFN signaling. Importantly, the Th1 and IgG1/IgG2a profile of the DIIIC vaccine approach is similar to an efficient natural anti-dengue response.

  12. Identification of the critical attribute(s) of EBV gp350 antigen required for elicitation of a neutralizing antibody response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Servat, Esteban; Ro, Bodrey W; Cayatte, Corinne; Gemmell, Lorraine; Barton, Chris; Rao, Eileen; Lin, Rui; Zuo, Fengrong; Woo, Jennifer C; Hayes, Gregory M

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine prophylaxis with EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350) subunit plus adjuvant has been demonstrated clinically to protect individuals against infectious mononucleosis (IM), but the specifications of the antigen required to elicit this protection has remained largely theoretical. Previous studies have shown that antibodies to gp350 comprise the principle component of EBV-neutralizing sera. Further, a murine monoclonal antibody against gp350 (clone 72A1) is able to prevent infection by the virus both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we identify the 72A1 epitope on recombinant gp350 antigen as the site required for binding to CD21 on human B cells. We also identify the need for conformational-dependence of the antigen to generate EBV-neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Further, we have characterized the glycosylation status and antigenicity profiles of both native and denatured CHO-produced soluble gp350 as well as non-glycosylated protein produced in Escherichia coli. Collectively our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate the requirement for a conformationally accessible 72A1 epitope on gp350 to elicit EBV-neutralizing responses, and establish this as a critical attribute of this vaccine antigen. These data provide direction for commercial vaccine development, as the absence of this epitope on either E. coli-expressed or denatured gp350, may limit production and purification options for the antigen. PMID:26485517

  13. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate-exotoxin A conjugate that elicits anti-alginate and exotoxin A-neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Coin, D; Vacheron, M J; Guinand, M; Michel, G

    1991-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate was covalently coupled to exotoxin A by reductive amination using adipic acid dihydrazide as spacer. The conjugate was composed of 25% alginate and 75% exotoxin A and possessed an average molecular mass higher than 700 kDa as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The conjugate had virtually no ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and a reduced cytotoxicity for TSA8 murine cells, derived from Friend erythroleukemia cells, as indicated by a greater than 50-fold increased LD50. Anti-conjugate antibodies recognized exotoxin A and alginate. A booster injection resulted in markedly increased antibody ELISA titers to both exotoxin A and alginate. The antibodies neutralized the exotoxin A toxicity. PMID:1931130

  14. Vaccine-Elicited Tier 2 HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Bind to Quaternary Epitopes Involving Glycan-Deficient Patches Proximal to the CD4 Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Ema T; Tong, Tommy; Chakrabarti, Bimal; Narayan, Kristin; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Menis, Sergey; Huang, Xiaoxing; Kulp, Daniel; Osawa, Keiko; Muranaka, Janelle; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Destefano, Joanne; O'Dell, Sijy; LaBranche, Celia; Robinson, James E; Montefiori, David C; McKee, Krisha; Du, Sean X; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Zhu, Ping; Schief, William R; Wyatt, Richard T; Whalen, Robert G; Binley, James M

    2015-05-01

    Eliciting broad tier 2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research. Here we investigated the ability of native, membrane-expressed JR-FL Env trimers to elicit nAbs. Unusually potent nAb titers developed in 2 of 8 rabbits immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing trimers (trimer VLP sera) and in 1 of 20 rabbits immunized with DNA expressing native Env trimer, followed by a protein boost (DNA trimer sera). All 3 sera neutralized via quaternary epitopes and exploited natural gaps in the glycan defenses of the second conserved region of JR-FL gp120. Specifically, trimer VLP sera took advantage of the unusual absence of a glycan at residue 197 (present in 98.7% of Envs). Intriguingly, removing the N197 glycan (with no loss of tier 2 phenotype) rendered 50% or 16.7% (n = 18) of clade B tier 2 isolates sensitive to the two trimer VLP sera, showing broad neutralization via the surface masked by the N197 glycan. Neutralizing sera targeted epitopes that overlap with the CD4 binding site, consistent with the role of the N197 glycan in a putative "glycan fence" that limits access to this region. A bioinformatics analysis suggested shared features of one of the trimer VLP sera and monoclonal antibody PG9, consistent with its trimer-dependency. The neutralizing DNA trimer serum took advantage of the absence of a glycan at residue 230, also proximal to the CD4 binding site and suggesting an epitope similar to that of monoclonal antibody 8ANC195, albeit lacking tier 2 breadth. Taken together, our data show for the first time that strain-specific holes in the glycan fence can allow the development of tier 2 neutralizing antibodies to native spikes. Moreover, cross-neutralization can occur in the absence of protecting glycan. Overall, our observations provide new insights that may inform the future development of a neutralizing antibody vaccine.

  15. Vaccine-Elicited Tier 2 HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Bind to Quaternary Epitopes Involving Glycan-Deficient Patches Proximal to the CD4 Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Ema T.; Tong, Tommy; Chakrabarti, Bimal; Narayan, Kristin; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Menis, Sergey; Huang, Xiaoxing; Kulp, Daniel; Osawa, Keiko; Muranaka, Janelle; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Destefano, Joanne; O’Dell, Sijy; LaBranche, Celia; Robinson, James E.; Montefiori, David C.; McKee, Krisha; Du, Sean X.; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Zhu, Ping; Schief, William R.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Whalen, Robert G.; Binley, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Eliciting broad tier 2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research. Here we investigated the ability of native, membrane-expressed JR-FL Env trimers to elicit nAbs. Unusually potent nAb titers developed in 2 of 8 rabbits immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing trimers (trimer VLP sera) and in 1 of 20 rabbits immunized with DNA expressing native Env trimer, followed by a protein boost (DNA trimer sera). All 3 sera neutralized via quaternary epitopes and exploited natural gaps in the glycan defenses of the second conserved region of JR-FL gp120. Specifically, trimer VLP sera took advantage of the unusual absence of a glycan at residue 197 (present in 98.7% of Envs). Intriguingly, removing the N197 glycan (with no loss of tier 2 phenotype) rendered 50% or 16.7% (n = 18) of clade B tier 2 isolates sensitive to the two trimer VLP sera, showing broad neutralization via the surface masked by the N197 glycan. Neutralizing sera targeted epitopes that overlap with the CD4 binding site, consistent with the role of the N197 glycan in a putative “glycan fence” that limits access to this region. A bioinformatics analysis suggested shared features of one of the trimer VLP sera and monoclonal antibody PG9, consistent with its trimer-dependency. The neutralizing DNA trimer serum took advantage of the absence of a glycan at residue 230, also proximal to the CD4 binding site and suggesting an epitope similar to that of monoclonal antibody 8ANC195, albeit lacking tier 2 breadth. Taken together, our data show for the first time that strain-specific holes in the glycan fence can allow the development of tier 2 neutralizing antibodies to native spikes. Moreover, cross-neutralization can occur in the absence of protecting glycan. Overall, our observations provide new insights that may inform the future development of a neutralizing antibody vaccine. PMID:26023780

  16. Potent and Broadly Reactive HIV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by a Vaccinia Virus Vector Prime-C2V3C3 Polypeptide Boost Immunization Strategy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José Maria; Borrego, Pedro; Rocha, Cheila; Barroso, Helena; Quintas, Alexandre; Novo, Carlos; Taveira, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection affects about 1 to 2 million individuals, the majority living in West Africa, Europe, and India. As for HIV-1, new strategies for the prevention of HIV-2 infection are needed. Our aim was to produce new vaccine immunogens that elicit the production of broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Native and truncated envelope proteins from the reference HIV-2ALI isolate were expressed in vaccinia virus or in bacteria. This source isolate was used due to its unique phenotype combining CD4 independence and CCR5 usage. NAbs were not elicited in BALB/c mice by single immunization with a truncated and fully glycosylated envelope gp125 (gp125t) or a recombinant polypeptide comprising the C2, V3, and C3 envelope regions (rpC2-C3). A strong and broad NAb response was, however, elicited in mice primed with gp125t expressed in vaccinia virus and boosted with rpC2-C3. Serum from these animals potently neutralized (median 50% neutralizing titer, 3,200) six of six highly divergent primary HIV-2 isolates. Coreceptor usage and the V3 sequence of NAb-sensitive isolates were similar to that of the vaccinating immunogen (HIV-2ALI). In contrast, NAbs were not reactive on three X4 isolates that displayed major changes in V3 loop sequence and structure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that broadly reactive HIV-2 NAbs can be elicited by using a vaccinia virus vector-prime/rpC2-C3-boost immunization strategy and suggest a potential relationship between escape to neutralization and cell tropism. PMID:20844029

  17. Potent and broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies elicited by a vaccinia virus vector prime-C2V3C3 polypeptide boost immunization strategy.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, José Maria; Borrego, Pedro; Rocha, Cheila; Barroso, Helena; Quintas, Alexandre; Novo, Carlos; Taveira, Nuno

    2010-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection affects about 1 to 2 million individuals, the majority living in West Africa, Europe, and India. As for HIV-1, new strategies for the prevention of HIV-2 infection are needed. Our aim was to produce new vaccine immunogens that elicit the production of broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Native and truncated envelope proteins from the reference HIV-2ALI isolate were expressed in vaccinia virus or in bacteria. This source isolate was used due to its unique phenotype combining CD4 independence and CCR5 usage. NAbs were not elicited in BALB/c mice by single immunization with a truncated and fully glycosylated envelope gp125 (gp125t) or a recombinant polypeptide comprising the C2, V3, and C3 envelope regions (rpC2-C3). A strong and broad NAb response was, however, elicited in mice primed with gp125t expressed in vaccinia virus and boosted with rpC2-C3. Serum from these animals potently neutralized (median 50% neutralizing titer, 3,200) six of six highly divergent primary HIV-2 isolates. Coreceptor usage and the V3 sequence of NAb-sensitive isolates were similar to that of the vaccinating immunogen (HIV-2ALI). In contrast, NAbs were not reactive on three X4 isolates that displayed major changes in V3 loop sequence and structure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that broadly reactive HIV-2 NAbs can be elicited by using a vaccinia virus vector-prime/rpC2-C3-boost immunization strategy and suggest a potential relationship between escape to neutralization and cell tropism. PMID:20844029

  18. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  19. Heat-labile- and heat-stable-toxoid fusions (LTR₁₉₂G-STaP₁₃F) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli elicit neutralizing antitoxin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Chengxian; Lawson, Steve R; Knudsen, David E; Nataro, James P; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Adhesins and enterotoxins, including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (STa) toxins, are the key virulence factors. Antigenic adhesin and LT antigens have been used in developing vaccines against ETEC diarrhea. However, STa has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity and potent toxicity. Our recent study showed that porcine-type STa toxoids became immunogenic and elicited neutralizing anti-STa antibodies after being genetically fused to a full-length porcine-type LT toxoid, LT(R₁₉₂G) (W. Zhang et al., Infect. Immun. 78:316-325, 2010). In this study, we mutated human-type LT and STa genes, which are highly homologous to porcine-type toxin genes, for a full-length LT toxoid (LT(R₁₉₂)) and a full-length STa toxoid (STa(P₁₃F)) and genetically fused them to produce LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ toxoid fusions. Mice immunized with LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusion antigens developed anti-LT and anti-STa IgG (in serum and feces) and IgA antibodies (in feces). Moreover, secretory IgA antibodies from immunized mice were shown to neutralize STa and cholera toxins in T-84 cells. In addition, we fused the STa₁₃ toxoid at the N terminus and C terminus, between the A1 and A2 peptides, and between the A and B subunits of LT₁₉₂ to obtain different fusions in order to explore strategies for enhancing STa immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that human-type LT₁₉₂-STa₁₃ fusions induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies and provided important information for developing toxoid vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21788385

  20. A hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) DNA vaccine delivered using a spring-powered jet injector elicits a potent neutralizing antibody response in rabbits and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis(®) (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis(®) and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found

  1. Antibody elicited against the gp41 N-heptad repeat (NHR) coiled-coil can neutralize HIV-1 with modest potency but non-neutralizing antibodies also bind to NHR mimetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Josh D.; Kinkead, Heather; Brunel, Florence M.; Leaman, Dan; Jensen, Richard; Louis, John M.; Maruyama, Toshiaki; Bewley, Carole A.; Bowdish, Katherine; Clore, G. Marius; Dawson, Philip E.; Frederickson, Shana; Mage, Rose G.; Richman, Douglas D.; Burton, Dennis R.; Zwick, Michael B.

    2008-07-20

    Following CD4 receptor binding to the HIV-1 envelope spike (Env), the conserved N-heptad repeat (NHR) region of gp41 forms a coiled-coil that is a precursor to the fusion reaction. Although it has been a target of drug and vaccine design, there are few monoclonal antibody (mAb) tools with which to probe the antigenicity and immunogenicity specifically of the NHR coiled-coil. Here, we have rescued HIV-1-neutralizing anti-NHR mAbs from immune phage display libraries that were prepared (i) from b9 rabbits immunized with a previously described mimetic of the NHR coiled-coil, N35{sub CCG}-N13, and (ii) from an HIV-1 infected individual. We describe a rabbit single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), 8K8, and a human Fab, DN9, which specifically recognize NHR coiled-coils that are unoccupied by peptide corresponding to the C-heptad repeat or CHR region of gp41 (e.g. C34). The epitopes of 8K8 and DN9 were found to partially overlap with that of a previously described anti-NHR mAb, IgG D5; however, 8K8 and DN9 were much more specific than D5 for unoccupied NHR trimers. The mAbs, including a whole IgG 8K8 molecule, neutralized primary HIV-1 of clades B and C in a pseudotyped virus assay with comparable, albeit relatively modest potency. Finally, a human Fab T3 and a rabbit serum (both non-neutralizing) were able to block binding of D5 and 8K8 to a gp41 NHR mimetic, respectively, but not the neutralizing activity of these mAbs. We conclude from these results that NHR coiled-coil analogs of HIV-1 gp41 elicit many Abs during natural infection and through immunization, but that due to limited accessibility to the corresponding region on fusogenic gp41 few can neutralize. Caution is therefore required in targeting the NHR for vaccine design. Nevertheless, the mAb panel may be useful as tools for elucidating access restrictions to the NHR of gp41 and in designing potential improvements to mimetics of receptor-activated Env.

  2. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  3. A Rapid Immunization Strategy with a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Elicits Protective Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Ambuel, Yuping; Young, Ginger; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Paykel, Joanna; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Haller, Aurelia A.; Royals, Michael; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Capuano, Saverio; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause approximately 390 million cases of DENV infections annually and over 3 billion people worldwide are at risk of infection. No dengue vaccine is currently available nor is there an antiviral therapy for DENV infections. We have developed a tetravalent live-attenuated DENV vaccine tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) that consists of a molecularly characterized attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of DENV-1, -3, and -4 expressed in the context of the TDV-2 genome. To impact dengue vaccine delivery in endemic areas and immunize travelers, a simple and rapid immunization strategy (RIS) is preferred. We investigated RIS consisting of two full vaccine doses being administered subcutaneously or intradermally on the initial vaccination visit (day 0) at two different anatomical locations with a needle-free disposable syringe jet injection delivery devices (PharmaJet) in non-human primates. This vaccination strategy resulted in efficient priming and induction of neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes comparable to those elicited by the traditional prime and boost (2 months later) vaccination schedule. In addition, the vaccine induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α, and targeting the DENV-2 NS1, NS3, and NS5 proteins. Moreover, vaccine-specific T cells were cross-reactive with the non-structural NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV-4. When animals were challenged with DENV-2 they were protected with no detectable viremia, and exhibited sterilizing immunity (no increase of neutralizing titers post-challenge). RIS could decrease vaccination visits and provide quick immune response to all four DENV serotypes. This strategy could increase vaccination compliance and would be especially advantageous for travelers into endemic areas. PMID:24926294

  4. Env-2dCD4 S60C complexes act as super immunogens and elicit potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against clinically relevant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Killick, Mark A; Grant, Michelle L; Cerutti, Nichole M; Capovilla, Alexio; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A

    2015-11-17

    The ability to induce a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response following vaccination is regarded as a crucial aspect in developing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The bNAbs target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) which is exposed on the virus surface, thereby preventing cell entry. To date, conventional vaccine approaches such as the use of Env-based immunogens have been unsuccessful. We expressed, purified, characterized and evaluated the immunogenicity of several unique HIV-1 subtype C Env immunogens in small animals. Here we report that vaccine immunogens based on Env liganded to a two domain CD4 variant, 2dCD4(S60C) are capable of consistently eliciting potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in New Zealand white rabbits against a panel of clinically relevant HIV-1 pseudoviruses. This was irrespective of the Env protein subtype and context. Importantly, depletion of the anti-CD4 antibodies appeared to abrogate the neutralization activity in the rabbit sera. Taken together, this data suggests that the Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes described here are "super" immunogens, and potentially immunofocus antibody responses to a unique epitope spanning the 2dCD4(60C). Recent data from the two available anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, Ibalizumab and CD4-Ig (and bispecific variants thereof) have highlighted that the use of these broad and potent entry inhibitors could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine targeting HIV-1. Overall, the ability of the unique Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes to elicit potent bNAb responses has not been described previously, reinforcing that further investigation for their utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1/SIV infection is warranted. PMID:26432912

  5. A DNA Vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits High Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies in Multiple Animal Models and Provides Protective Immunity to Mice and Nonhuman Primates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Lesley C.; Richards, Michelle J.; Ellefsen, Barry; Chau, Lillian; Luxembourg, Alain; Hannaman, Drew; Livingston, Brian D.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine expressing codon-optimized envelope glycoprotein genes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) when delivered by intramuscular electroporation. Mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine developed robust VEEV-neutralizing antibody responses that were comparable to those observed after administration of the live-attenuated VEEV vaccine TC-83 and were completely protected from a lethal aerosol VEEV challenge. The DNA vaccine also elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits that persisted at high levels for at least 6 months and could be boosted by a single additional electroporation administration of the DNA performed approximately 6 months after the initial vaccinations. Cynomolgus macaques that received the vaccine by intramuscular electroporation developed substantial neutralizing antibody responses and after an aerosol challenge had no detectable serum viremia and had reduced febrile reactions, lymphopenia, and clinical signs of disease compared to those of negative-control macaques. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this DNA vaccine provides a potent means of protecting against VEEV infections and represents an attractive candidate for further development. PMID:21450977

  6. Influence of FcγRIIa-Expressing Cells on the Assessment of Neutralizing and Enhancing Serum Antibodies Elicited by a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Anthony M.; Broder, Ryan; Haupfear, Kelly; Timiryasova, Tatyana M.; Hu, Branda T.; Boaz, Mark; Warren, William L.; Jackson, Nicholas; Moser, Janice M.; Guy, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recent trials of recombinant, live-attenuated chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue disease with higher point estimates of efficacy toward dengue virus (DENV)3 and DENV4 and moderate levels toward DENV1 and DENV2. It is interesting to note that serotype-specific efficacy did not correlate with absolute neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titer (GMT) values measured in a Vero-based plaque reduction neutralization test assay. The absence of Fcγ receptors on Vero cells may explain this observation. Methods. We performed parallel seroneutralization assays in Vero cells and CV-1 cells that express FcγRIIa (CV-1-Fc) to determine the neutralizing and enhancing capacity of serotype-specific DENV Abs present in CYD-TDV clinical trial sera. Results. Enhancement of DENV infection was observed in CV-1-Fc cells in naturally exposed nonvaccine sera, mostly for DENV3 and DENV4, at high dilutions. The CYD-TDV-vaccinated sera showed similar enhancement patterns. The CV-1-Fc nAb GMT values were 2- to 9-fold lower than Vero for all serotypes in both naturally infected individuals and CYD-TDV-vaccinated subjects with and without previous dengue immunity. The relative (CV-1-Fc/Vero) GMT decrease for anti-DENV1 and anti-DENV2 responses was not greater than for the other serotypes. Conclusions. In vitro neutralization assays utilizing FcγRIIa-expressing cells provide evidence that serotype-specific Ab enhancement may not be a primary factor in the serotype-specific efficacy differences exhibited in the CYD-TDV trials. PMID:26719844

  7. Escherichia coli K88ac fimbriae expressing heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) toxin epitopes elicit antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin and STa toxin and inhibit adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Bacterial adhesins and heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, (8)LCSEYRNTQIYTIN(21)) and an STa toxoid epitope ((5)CCELCCNPQCAGCY(18)) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. Immunized rabbits developed anti-K88ac, anti-LT, and anti-STa antibodies. Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. PMID:20980482

  8. A Triclade DNA Vaccine Designed on the Basis of a Comprehensive Serologic Study Elicits Neutralizing Antibody Responses against All Clades and Subclades of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Guiqin; Buchy, Philippe; Cai, Zhipeng; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Cheng, Genhong; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Deubel, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Because of their rapid evolution, genetic diversity, broad host range, ongoing circulation in birds, and potential human-to-human transmission, H5N1 influenza viruses remain a major global health concern. Their high degree of genetic diversity also poses enormous burdens and uncertainties in developing effective vaccines. To overcome this, we took a new approach, i.e., the development of immunogens based on a comprehensive serologic study. We constructed DNA plasmids encoding codon-optimized hemagglutinin (HA) from 17 representative strains covering all reported clades and subclades of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses. Using DNA plasmids, we generated the corresponding H5N1 pseudotypes and immune sera. We performed an across-the-board pseudotype-based neutralization assay and determined antigenic clusters by cartography. We then designed a triclade DNA vaccine and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in mice. We report here that (sub)clades 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.1, and 9 were grouped into antigenic cluster 1, (sub)clades 2.1.3.2, 2.3.4, 2.4, 2.5, and 8 were grouped into another antigenic cluster, with subclade 2.2.1 loosely connected to it, and each of subclades 2.3.2.1 and 7.2 was by itself. Importantly, the triclade DNA vaccine encoding HAs of (sub)clades 0, 2.3.2.1, and 7.2 elicited broadly neutralizing antibody responses against all H5 clades and subclades and protected mice against high-lethal-dose heterologous H5N1 challenge. Thus, we conclude that broadly neutralizing antibodies against all H5 clades and subclades can indeed be elicited with immunogens on the basis of a comprehensive serologic study. Further evaluation and optimization of such an approach in ferrets and in humans is warranted. PMID:22496212

  9. Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques with Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Env V3 Elicits Neutralizing Antibody-Mediated Protection against Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus with a Homologous but Not a Heterologous V3 Motif

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Kenji; Cecilia, Dayaraj; Ami, Yasushi; Nakasone, Tadashi; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Burda, Sherri; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Naoto; Kaizu, Masahiko; Ando, Shuji; Okuda, Kenji; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Yamazaki, Shudo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Although the correlates of vaccine-induced protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are not fully known, it is presumed that neutralizing antibodies (NAb) play a role in controlling virus infection. In this study, we examined immune responses elicited in rhesus macaques following vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing an HIV-1 Env V3 antigen (rBCG Env V3). We also determined the effect of vaccination on protection against challenge with either a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MN) or a highly pathogenic SHIV strain (SHIV-89.6PD). Immunization with rBCG Env V3 elicited significant levels of NAb for the 24 weeks tested that were predominantly HIV-1 type specific. Sera from the immunized macaques neutralized primary HIV-1 isolates in vitro, including HIV-1BZ167/X4, HIV-1SF2/X4, HIV-1CI2/X4, and, to a lesser extent, HIV-1MNp/X4, all of which contain a V3 sequence homologous to that of rBCG Env V3. In contrast, neutralization was not observed against HIV-1SF33/X4, which has a heterologous V3 sequence, nor was it found against primary HIV-1 R5 isolates from either clade A or B. Furthermore, the viral load in the vaccinated macaques was significantly reduced following low-dose challenge with SHIV-MN, and early plasma viremia was markedly decreased after high-dose SHIV-MN challenge. In contrast, replication of pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD was not affected by vaccination in any of the macaques. Thus, we have shown that immunization with an rBCG Env V3 vaccine elicits a strong, type-specific V3 NAb response in rhesus macaques. While this response was not sufficient to provide protection against a pathogenic SHIV challenge, it was able to significantly reduce the viral load in macaques following challenge with a nonpathogenic SHIV. These observations suggest that rBCG vectors have the potential to deliver an appropriate virus immunogen for desirable immune elicitations. PMID:15650171

  10. STRUCTURE OF A HIGH-AFFINITY “MIMOTOPE” PEPTIDE BOUND TO HIV-1-NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY b12 EXPLAINS ITS INABILITY TO ELICIT gp120 CROSS-REACTIVE ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Montero, Marinieve; Menendez, Alfredo; van Houten, Nienke E.; Irving, Melita B.; Pantophlet, Ralph; Zwick, Michael B.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Burton, Dennis R.; Scott, Jamie K.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    The human antibody b12 recognizes a discontinuous epitope on gp120 and is one of the rare monoclonal antibodies that neutralize a broad range of primary HIV-1 isolates. We previously reported the isolation of B2.1, a dimeric peptide that binds with high specificity to b12 and competes with gp120 for b12 antibody binding. Here, we show that the affinity of B2.1 was improved 60-fold over its synthetic-peptide counterpart by fusing it to the N-terminus of a soluble protein. This affinity, which is within an order of magnitude of that of gp120, probably more closely reflects the affinity of the phage-borne peptide. The crystal structure of a complex between Fab of b12 and B2.1 was determined at 1.8 Å resolution. The structural data allowed the differentiation of residues that form critical contacts with b12 from those required for maintenance of the antigenic structure of the peptide, and revealed that three contiguous residues mediate B2.1's critical contacts with b12. This single region of critical contact between the B2.1 peptide and the b12 paratope is unlikely to mimic the discontinuous key binding residues involved in the full b12 epitope for gp120, as previously identified by alanine scanning substitutions on the gp120 surface. These structural observations are supported by experiments that demonstrate that B2.1 is an ineffective immunogenic mimic of the b12 epitope on gp120. Indeed, an extensive series of immunizations with B2.1 in various forms failed to produce gp120 cross-reactive sera. The functional and structural data presented here, however, suggest that the mechanism by which b12 recognizes the two antigens is very different. Here, we present the first crystal structure of peptide bound to an antibody that was originally raised against a discontinuous protein epitope. Our results highlight the challenge of producing immunogens that mimic discontinuous protein epitopes, and the necessity of combining complementary experimental approaches in analyzing

  11. Antibody Response to Hypervariable Region 1 Interferes with Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Zuiani, Adam; Rey, Felix A.; Krey, Thomas; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    their epitopes. This study provides insight into a new immune antagonism mechanism by which the binding of antibodies to HVR1 blocks the binding and activity of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HCV. Immunization strategies that avoid the induction of HVR1 antibodies should increase the inhibitory activity of broadly neutralizing anti-HCV antibodies elicited by candidate vaccines. PMID:26739044

  12. CD4-Mimetic Small Molecules Sensitize Human Immunodeficiency Virus to Vaccine-Elicited Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Navid; Princiotto, Amy M.; Schön, Arne; LaLonde, Judith; Feng, Yu; Freire, Ernesto; Park, Jongwoo; Courter, Joel R.; Jones, David M.; Robinson, James; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony; Permar, Sallie; Haynes, Barton; Smith, Amos B.; Wyatt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Approaches to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmission are urgently needed. Difficulties in eliciting antibodies that bind conserved epitopes exposed on the unliganded conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer represent barriers to vaccine development. During HIV-1 entry, binding of the gp120 Env to the initial receptor, CD4, triggers conformational changes in Env that result in the formation and exposure of the highly conserved gp120 site for interaction with the coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. The DMJ compounds (+)-DMJ-I-228 and (+)-DMJ-II-121 bind gp120 within the conserved Phe 43 cavity near the CD4-binding site, block CD4 binding, and inhibit HIV-1 infection. Here we show that the DMJ compounds sensitize primary HIV-1, including transmitted/founder viruses, to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies directed against CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes and the V3 region, two gp120 elements involved in coreceptor binding. Importantly, the DMJ compounds rendered primary HIV-1 sensitive to neutralization by antisera elicited by immunization of rabbits with HIV-1 gp120 cores engineered to assume the CD4-bound state. Thus, small molecules like the DMJ compounds may be useful as microbicides to inhibit HIV-1 infection directly and to sensitize primary HIV-1 to neutralization by readily elicited antibodies. IMPORTANCE Preventing HIV-1 transmission is a priority for global health. Eliciting antibodies that can neutralize many different strains of HIV-1 is difficult, creating problems for the development of a vaccine. We found that certain small-molecule compounds can sensitize HIV-1 to particular antibodies. These antibodies can be elicited in rabbits. These results suggest an approach to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission in which a virus-sensitizing microbicide is combined with a vaccine. PMID:24696475

  13. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Flatz, Lukas; Remy, Melissa M; Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Sahin, Mehmet; Bergthaler, Andreas; Igonet, Sebastien; Ter Meulen, Jan; Rigo, Dorothée; Meda, Paolo; Rabah, Nadia; Coutard, Bruno; Bowden, Thomas A; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pinschewer, Daniel D

    2015-11-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein's globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. PMID:26587982

  14. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Malinge, Pauline; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Sahin, Mehmet; Bergthaler, Andreas; Igonet, Sebastien; ter Meulen, Jan; Rigo, Dorothée; Meda, Paolo; Rabah, Nadia; Coutard, Bruno; Bowden, Thomas A.; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein’s globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. PMID:26587982

  15. Immunization for HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies in Human Ig Knockin Mice.

    PubMed

    Dosenovic, Pia; von Boehmer, Lotta; Escolano, Amelia; Jardine, Joseph; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; McGuire, Andrew T; Kulp, Daniel W; Oliveira, Thiago; Scharf, Louise; Pietzsch, John; Gray, Matthew D; Cupo, Albert; van Gils, Marit J; Yao, Kai-Hui; Liu, Cassie; Gazumyan, Anna; Seaman, Michael S; Björkman, Pamela J; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-06-18

    A subset of individuals infected with HIV-1 develops broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that can prevent infection, but it has not yet been possible to elicit these antibodies by immunization. To systematically explore how immunization might be tailored to produce them, we generated mice expressing the predicted germline or mature heavy chains of a potent bNAb to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Immunogens specifically designed to activate B cells bearing germline antibodies are required to initiate immune responses, but they do not elicit bNAbs. In contrast, native-like Env trimers fail to activate B cells expressing germline antibodies but elicit bNAbs by selecting for a restricted group of light chains bearing specific somatic mutations that enhance neutralizing activity. The data suggest that vaccination to elicit anti-HIV-1 antibodies will require immunization with a succession of related immunogens.

  16. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Nick S.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite available antivirals and vaccines, influenza infections continue to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Vaccination generally induces an effective, but strain-specific antibody response. As the virus continually evolves, new vaccines have to be administered almost annually when a novel strain becomes dominant. Furthermore, the sporadic emerging resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors among circulating strains suggests an urgent need for new therapeutic agents. Recently, several cross-reactive antibodies have been described, which neutralize an unprecedented spectrum of influenza viruses. These broadly neutralizing antibodies generally target conserved functional regions on the major influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). The characterization of their neutralization breadth and epitopes on HA could stimulate the development of new antibody-based antivirals and broader influenza vaccines. PMID:23583287

  17. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Lynch, Rebecca; Zhou, Tongqing; Gao, Feng; Alam, S. Munir; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Jiang; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mullikin, James C.; Gnanakaran, S.; Hraber, Peter; Wiehe, Kevin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Guang; Xia, Shi-Mao; Montefiori, David C.; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Scearce, Richard M.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Cohen, Myron; Kaminga, Gift; Louder, Mark K.; Tran, Lillan M.; Chen, Yue; Cai, Fangping; Chen, Sheri; Moquin, Stephanie; Du, Xiulian; Joyce, Gordon M.; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Korber, Bette T.M.; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Current HIV-1 vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in ~20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a roadmap for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized ~55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with gp120 revealed a novel loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the CH103-lineage unmutated common ancestor avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data elucidate the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies via vaccination. PMID:23552890

  18. A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  19. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  20. Neutralization of HIV by Milk Expressed Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaocong; Pollock, Daniel; Duval, Mark; Lewis, Christopher; Joseph, Kristin; Meade, Harry; Cavacini, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In some areas of the world mother-to-child transmission of HIV remains a significant problem in part due to widespread breastfeeding which is essential due to scarce supply of a safe replacement, protection conferred by breast milk against many enteric illnesses, and cultural norms. We propose that sustained, adequate levels of protective antibodies in breast milk will prevent transmission of HIV. Methods The HIV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody b12 (IgG1) has been expressed as an IgA2 in CHO cells and shown to retain full immunoreactivity and neutralizing activity as the parental IgG1. The expression plasmids containing the b12 heavy and light chains were also used to construct milk specific expression vectors using the GTC goat β-casein expression vector to direct expression of linked genes to the mammary gland with subsequent secretion into the milk. Female transgenic mice were generated and following parturition, their milk was tested for antibody immunoreactivity with gp120 and neutralization of HIV. Results When compared to CHO derived b12 IgA2 (or IgG1), immunoreactivity was retained. When tested for neutralization, milk derived b12 IgA2 was at least comparable to CHO derived antibody and in some cases superior to CHO derived antibody. Furthermore, milk that expressed b12 IgA2 was significantly more effective at mediating antibody dependent cell killing. Conclusions These results suggest it is possible to achieve functional HIV-specific mAb in the milk of transgenic mice and further investigations are warranted to explore ways for inducing this type of antibody response in the breast milk of HIV infected women. PMID:23269241

  1. HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies with Limited Hypermutation from an Infant.

    PubMed

    Simonich, Cassandra A; Williams, Katherine L; Verkerke, Hans P; Williams, James A; Nduati, Ruth; Lee, Kelly K; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-06-30

    HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of infected adults and exhibit high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) due to years of affinity maturation. There is no precedent for eliciting highly mutated antibodies by vaccination, nor is it practical to wait years for a desired response. Infants develop broad responses early, which may suggest a more direct path to generating bnAbs. Here, we isolated ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) contributing to plasma breadth of an infant at ∼1 year post-infection, including one with cross-clade breadth. The nAbs bind to envelope trimer from the transmitted virus, suggesting that this interaction may have initiated development of the infant nAbs. The infant cross-clade bnAb targets the N332 supersite on envelope but, unlike adult bnAbs targeting this site, lacks indels and has low SHM. The identification of this infant bnAb illustrates that HIV-1-specific neutralization breadth can develop without prolonged affinity maturation and extensive SHM. PMID:27345369

  2. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols. PMID:25522326

  3. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  4. Molecular Evolution of Broadly Neutralizing Llama Antibodies to the CD4-Binding Site of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Laura E.; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols. PMID:25522326

  5. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses.

    PubMed

    Lech, Patrycja J; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J; Nara, Peter L; Russell, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization.

  6. Envelope Variants Circulating as Initial Neutralization Breadth Developed in Two HIV-Infected Subjects Stimulate Multiclade Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; Sather, D. Noah; Guo, Biwei; Pandey, Shilpi; Sutton, William F.; Stuart, Andrew B.; Robins, Harlan; Park, Byung; Krebs, Shelly J.; Schuman, Jason T.; Kalams, Spyros; Hessell, Ann J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identifying characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope that are effective in generating broad, protective antibodies remains a hurdle to HIV vaccine design. Emerging evidence of the development of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies in HIV-infected subjects suggests that founder and subsequent progeny viruses may express unique antigenic motifs that contribute to this developmental pathway. We hypothesize that over the course of natural infection, B cells are programmed to develop broad antibodies by exposure to select populations of emerging envelope quasispecies variants. To test this hypothesis, we identified two unrelated subjects whose antibodies demonstrated increasing neutralization breadth against a panel of HIV-1 isolates over time. Full-length functional env genes were cloned longitudinally from these subjects from months after infection through 2.6 to 5.8 years of infection. Motifs associated with the development of breadth in published, cross-sectional studies were found in both subjects. We compared the immunogenicity of envelope vaccines derived from time points obtained during and after broadening of neutralization activity within these subjects. Rabbits were coimmunized four times with selected multiple gp160 DNAs and gp140-trimeric envelope proteins. The affinity of the polyclonal response increased as a function of boosting. The most rapid and persistent neutralization of multiclade tier 1 viruses was elicited by envelopes that were circulating in plasma at time points prior to the development of 50% neutralization breadth in both human subjects. The breadth elicited in rabbits was not improved by exposure to later envelope variants. These data have implications for vaccine development in describing a target time point to identify optimal envelope immunogens. IMPORTANCE Vaccine protection against viral infections correlates with the presence of neutralizing antibodies; thus, vaccine components capable

  7. Standardization of poliovirus neutralizing antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, P; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L; Salk, J

    1984-01-01

    Recently the Forum for Advancement of Immunization Research sponsored a Collaborative Study on Poliovirus Antibody Titration. Twenty laboratories from 12 countries participated. There were considerable differences in detail of test performance and test results among laboratories. The sensitivity of the tests varied over a 10-fold range (geometric mean titer from 21 to 288). The average coefficient of variation ranged from 4.5% to 13.5%. Tests performed at the Food and Drug Administration indicated that Hep-2 cells were more suitable than Vero cells for poliovirus titration by cytopathic effect end point or plaque assay. However, the cell lines were equally suitable for polio antibody titration by neutralization of cytopathic effect. A high degree of sensitivity and optimal reproducibility of antibody assay were observed in tests utilizing a medium to low dose of virus and serum-virus incubation overnight at 36 C. On the basis of current experience, a protocol is proposed for a test that provides high sensitivity and reproducibility and is practical for large-scale determinations of poliovirus antibody.

  8. Boosting Heterosubtypic Neutralization Antibodies in Recipients of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chao; Huang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Tian, Di; Zhang, Wanju; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    Background. A mass vaccination has been implemented to prevent the spread of 2009 pandemic influenza virus in China. Highly limited information is available on whether this vaccine induces cross-reactive neutralization antibodies against other subtypes of influenza viruses. Methods. We employed pseudovirus-based assays to analyze heterosubtypic neutralization responses in serum samples of 23 recipients of 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine. Results. One dose of pandemic vaccine not only stimulated good neutralization antibodies against cognate influenza virus 2009 influenza A (H1N1), but also raised broad cross-reactive neutralization activities against seasonal H3N2 and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and lesser to H2N2. The cross-reactive neutralization activities were completely abolished after the removal of immunoglobin G (IgG). In contrast, H1N1 vaccination alone in influenza-naive mice elicited only vigorous homologous neutralizing activities but not cross-reactive neutralization activities. Conclusions. Our data suggest that the cross-reactive neutralization epitopes do exist in this vaccine and could elicit significant cross-reactive neutralizing IgG antibodies in the presence of preexisting responses. The exposure to H1N1 vaccine is likely to modify the hierarchical order of preexisting immune responses to influenza viruses. These findings provide insights into the evolution of human immunity to influenza viruses after experiencing multiple influenza virus infections and vaccinations. PMID:22052887

  9. Immunization with a consensus epitope from Human Papillomavirus L2 induces antibodies that are broadly neutralizing

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Ozbun, Michelle A.; Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines targeting conserved epitopes in the HPV minor capsid protein, L2, can elicit antibodies that can protect against a broad spectrum of HPV types that are associated with cervical cancer and other HPV malignancies. Thus, L2 vaccines have been explored as alternatives to the current HPV vaccines, which are largely type-specific. In this study we assessed the immunogenicity of peptides spanning the N-terminal domain of L2 linked to the surface of a highly immunogenic bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP) platform. Although all of the HPV16 L2 peptide-displaying VLPs elicited high-titer anti-peptide antibody responses, only a subset of the immunogens elicited antibody responses that were strongly protective from HPV16 pseudovirus (PsV) infection in a mouse genital challenge model. One of these peptides, mapping to HPV16 L2 amino acids 65–85, strongly neutralized HPV16 PsV but showed little ability to cross-neutralize other high-risk HPV types. In an attempt to broaden the protection generated through vaccination with this peptide, we immunized mice with VLPs displaying a peptide that represented a consensus sequence from high-risk and other HPV types. Vaccinated mice produced antibodies with broad, high-titer neutralizing activity against all of the HPV types that we tested. Therefore, immunization with virus-like particles displaying a consensus HPV sequence is an effective method to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against a type-specific epitope. PMID:24962748

  10. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The “gold standard” for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  11. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert A; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The "gold standard" for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  12. Neutralizing antibodies against interferon-Beta.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-09-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is a major problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-ß). Whereas binding antibodies (BAbs) can be demonstrated in the vast majority of patients, only a smaller proportion of patients develop NAbs. The principle in NAb in vitro assays is the utilization of cultured cell lines that are responsive to IFN-ß. The cytopathic effect (CPE) assay measures the capacity of NAbs to neutralize IFN- ß's protective effect on cells challenged with virus and the MxA induction assay measures the ability of NAbs to reduce the IFN-ß-induced expression of MxA, either at the mRNA or the protein level. A titer of >20 neutralizing units/ml traditionally defines NAb posi-tivity. NAbs in high titers completely abrogate the in vivo response to IFN-ß, whereas the effect of low and intermediate titers is unpredictable. As clinically important NAbs appear only after 9-18 months IFN- ß0 therapy, short-term studies of two years or less are unsuitable for evaluation of clinical NAb effects. All long-term trials of three years or more concordantly show evidence of a detrimental effect of NAbs on relapses, disease activity on MRI, or on disease progression. Persistent high titers of NAbs indicate an abrogation of the biological response and, hence, absence of therapeutic efficacy, and this observation should lead to a change of therapy. As low and medium titers are ambiguous treatment decisions in patients with low NAb titres should be guided by determination of in vivo mRNA MxA induction and clinical disease activity.

  13. The Effects of Somatic Hypermutation on Neutralization and Binding in the PGT121 Family of Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vigneault, Francois; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Briney, Bryan; Ramos, Alejandra; Saye, Karen F.; Le, Khoa; Mahan, Alison; Wang, Shenshen; Kardar, Mehran; Yaari, Gur; Walker, Laura M.; Simen, Birgitte B.; St. John, Elizabeth P.; Chan-Hui, Po-Ying; Swiderek, Kristine; Kleinstein, Stephen H.; Alter, Galit; Seaman, Michael S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Koller, Daphne; Wilson, Ian A.; Church, George M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Poignard, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) are typically highly somatically mutated, raising doubts as to whether they can be elicited by vaccination. We used 454 sequencing and designed a novel phylogenetic method to model lineage evolution of the bnAbs PGT121–134 and found a positive correlation between the level of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and the development of neutralization breadth and potency. Strikingly, putative intermediates were characterized that show approximately half the mutation level of PGT121–134 but were still capable of neutralizing roughly 40–80% of PGT121–134 sensitive viruses in a 74-virus panel at median titers between 15- and 3-fold higher than PGT121–134. Such antibodies with lower levels of SHM may be more amenable to elicitation through vaccination while still providing noteworthy coverage. Binding characterization indicated a preference of inferred intermediates for native Env binding over monomeric gp120, suggesting that the PGT121–134 lineage may have been selected for binding to native Env at some point during maturation. Analysis of glycan-dependent neutralization for inferred intermediates identified additional adjacent glycans that comprise the epitope and suggests changes in glycan dependency or recognition over the course of affinity maturation for this lineage. Finally, patterns of neutralization of inferred bnAb intermediates suggest hypotheses as to how SHM may lead to potent and broad HIV neutralization and provide important clues for immunogen design. PMID:24278016

  14. Viral Epitopes and Monoclonal Antibodies: Isolation of Blocking Antibodies that Inhibit Virus Neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard J.; Schochetman, Gerald

    1981-07-01

    The inability of pathogenic animal viruses to be completely neutralized by antibodies can lead to chronic viral infections in which infectious virus persists even in the presence of excess neutralizing antibody. A mechanism that results in this nonneutralized fraction of virus was defined by the topographical relationships of viral epitopes identified with monoclonal antibodies wherein monoclonal antibodies bind to virus and sterically block the binding of neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. PMID:25723164

  16. Broadly Neutralizing Anti-Influenza Virus Antibodies: Enhancement of Neutralizing Potency in Polyclonal Mixtures and IgA Backbones

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenqian; Mullarkey, Caitlin E.; Duty, J. Andrew; Moran, Thomas M.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current influenza virus vaccines rely upon the accurate prediction of circulating virus strains months in advance of the actual influenza season in order to allow time for vaccine manufacture. Unfortunately, mismatches occur frequently, and even when perfect matches are achieved, suboptimal vaccine efficacy leaves several high-risk populations vulnerable to infection. However, the recent discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain has renewed hope that the development of “universal” influenza virus vaccines may be within reach. Here, we examine the functions of influenza A virus hemagglutinin stalk-binding antibodies in an endogenous setting, i.e., as polyclonal preparations isolated from human sera. Relative to monoclonal antibodies that bind to the HA head domain, the neutralization potency of monoclonal stalk-binding antibodies was vastly inferior in vitro but was enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the polyclonal context. Furthermore, we demonstrated a surprising enhancement in IgA-mediated HA stalk neutralization relative to that achieved by antibodies of IgG isotypes. Mechanistically, this could be explained in two ways. Identical variable regions consistently neutralized virus more potently when in an IgA backbone compared to an IgG backbone. In addition, HA-specific memory B cells isolated from human peripheral blood were more likely to be stalk specific when secreting antibodies of IgA isotypes compared to those secreting IgG. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that HA stalk-binding antibodies perform optimally when in a polyclonal context and that the targeted elicitation of HA stalk-specific IgA should be an important consideration during “universal” influenza virus vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Influenza viruses remain one of the most worrisome global public health threats due to their capacity to cause pandemics. While seasonal vaccines fail to protect against the

  17. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design. PMID:26267277

  18. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  19. Developmental pathway for potent V1V2-directed HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Gorman, Jason; Moore, Penny L.; Bhiman, Jinal N.; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kim, Helen J.; Pancera, Marie; Staupe, Ryan P.; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Bailer, Robert T.; Crooks, Ema T.; Cupo, Albert; Druz, Aliaksandr; Garrett, Nigel J.; Hoi, Kam H.; Kong, Rui; Louder, Mark K.; Longo, Nancy S.; McKee, Krisha; Nonyane, Molati; O’Dell, Sijy; Roark, Ryan S.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Sheward, Daniel J.; Soto, Cinque; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Zhenhai; Mullikin, James C.; Binley, James M.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Wilson, Ian A.; Moore, John P.; Ward, Andrew B.; Georgiou, George; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Morris, Lynn; Kwong, Peter D.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 often target variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope, but the mechanism of their elicitation has been unclear. Here we define the developmental pathway by which such antibodies are generated and acquire the requisite molecular characteristics for neutralization. Twelve somatically related neutralizing antibodies (CAP256-VRC26.01-12) were isolated from CAPRISA-donor CAP256; each antibody contained the protruding tyrosine-sulfated, anionic antigen-binding loop (CDR H3) characteristic of this category of antibodies. Their unmutated ancestor emerged between weeks 30–38 post-infection with a 35-residue CDR H3, and neutralized the virus that superinfected this individual 15 weeks after initial infection. Improved neutralization breadth occurred by week 59 with modest affinity maturation, and was preceded by extensive diversification of the virus population. HIV-1 V1V2-directed neutralizing antibodies can thus develop relatively rapidly through initial selection of B cells with a long CDR H3, and limited subsequent somatic hypermutation, an important vaccine insight. PMID:24590074

  20. Gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies are frequently elicited in ART-naïve chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Jorge; Molinos-Albert, Luis Manuel; Rodríguez de la Concepción, Maria Luisa; Marfil, Silvia; García, Elisabet; Derking, Ronald; Sanders, Rogier W; Clotet, Bonaventura; Blanco, Julià

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies with the ability to block the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 with CD4, including those overlapping the CD4 binding site (CD4bs antibodies), can protect from infection by HIV-1, and their elicitation may be an interesting goal for any vaccination strategy. To identify gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected individuals we have developed a competitive flow cytometry-based functional assay. In a cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected patients, we showed that gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies were frequently elicited (detected in 97% plasma samples) and correlated with binding to trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. However, no correlation was observed between functional CD4 binding blockade data and titer of CD4bs antibodies determined by ELISA using resurfaced gp120 proteins. Consistently, plasma samples lacking CD4bs antibodies were able to block the interaction between gp120 and its receptor, indicating that antibodies recognizing other epitopes, such as PGT126 and PG16, can also play the same role. Antibodies blocking CD4 binding increased over time and correlated positively with the capacity of plasma samples to neutralize the laboratory-adapted NL4.3 and BaL virus isolates, suggesting their potential contribution to the neutralizing workforce of plasma in vivo. Determining whether this response can be boosted to achieve broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide valuable information for the design of new strategies aimed to improve the anti-HIV-1 humoral response and to develop a successful HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25803681

  1. Gp120/CD4 Blocking Antibodies Are Frequently Elicited in ART-Naïve Chronically HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Jorge; Molinos-Albert, Luis Manuel; de la Concepción, Maria Luisa Rodríguez; Marfil, Silvia; García, Elisabet; Derking, Ronald; Sanders, Rogier W.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Blanco, Julià

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies with the ability to block the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 with CD4, including those overlapping the CD4 binding site (CD4bs antibodies), can protect from infection by HIV-1, and their elicitation may be an interesting goal for any vaccination strategy. To identify gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected individuals we have developed a competitive flow cytometry-based functional assay. In a cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected patients, we showed that gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies were frequently elicited (detected in 97% plasma samples) and correlated with binding to trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. However, no correlation was observed between functional CD4 binding blockade data and titer of CD4bs antibodies determined by ELISA using resurfaced gp120 proteins. Consistently, plasma samples lacking CD4bs antibodies were able to block the interaction between gp120 and its receptor, indicating that antibodies recognizing other epitopes, such as PGT126 and PG16, can also play the same role. Antibodies blocking CD4 binding increased over time and correlated positively with the capacity of plasma samples to neutralize the laboratory-adapted NL4.3 and BaL virus isolates, suggesting their potential contribution to the neutralizing workforce of plasma in vivo. Determining whether this response can be boosted to achieve broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide valuable information for the design of new strategies aimed to improve the anti-HIV-1 humoral response and to develop a successful HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:25803681

  2. Genetic signatures in the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 that associate with broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gnanakaran, S; Daniels, Marcus G; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Lapedes, Alan S; Sethi, Anurag; Li, Ming; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Haynes, Barton F; Cohen, Myron S; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Kumar, Amit; Gao, Feng; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette

    2010-01-01

    A steady increase in knowledge of the molecular and antigenic structure of the gp120 and gp41 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) is yielding important new insights for vaccine design, but it has been difficult to translate this information to an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies. To help bridge this gap, we used phylogenetically corrected statistical methods to identify amino acid signature patterns in Envs derived from people who have made potently neutralizing antibodies, with the hypothesis that these Envs may share common features that would be useful for incorporation in a vaccine immunogen. Before attempting this, essentially as a control, we explored the utility of our computational methods for defining signatures of complex neutralization phenotypes by analyzing Env sequences from 251 clonal viruses that were differentially sensitive to neutralization by the well-characterized gp120-specific monoclonal antibody, b12. We identified ten b12-neutralization signatures, including seven either in the b12-binding surface of gp120 or in the V2 region of gp120 that have been previously shown to impact b12 sensitivity. A simple algorithm based on the b12 signature pattern was predictive of b12 sensitivity/resistance in an additional blinded panel of 57 viruses. Upon obtaining these reassuring outcomes, we went on to apply these same computational methods to define signature patterns in Env from HIV-1 infected individuals who had potent, broadly neutralizing responses. We analyzed a checkerboard-style neutralization dataset with sera from 69 HIV-1-infected individuals tested against a panel of 25 different Envs. Distinct clusters of sera with high and low neutralization potencies were identified. Six signature positions in Env sequences obtained from the 69 samples were found to be strongly associated with either the high or low potency responses. Five sites were in the CD4-induced coreceptor binding site of gp120, suggesting an important role for

  3. Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Fera, Daniela; Bhiman, Jinal; Eslamizar, Leila; Lu, Xiaozhi; Anasti, Kara; Zhang, Ruijung; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Stolarchuk, Christina; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Eaton, Amanda; Foulger, Andrew; Nie, Xiaoyan; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Barnett, Susan; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Morris, Lynn; Santra, Sampa; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization.

  4. Recent Progress toward Engineering HIV-1-Specific Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming; Li, Yue; Zheng, Huiwen; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate “the better” neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms. Thus, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit rational antibody combination or engineered antibodies (eAbs) as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. It has been reported that inclusion of fusion-neutralizing antibodies in a set of bNAbs could improve their overall activities and neutralizing spectrum. Here, we review several routes for engineering bNAbs, such as design and generation of bispecific antibodies, specific glycosylation of antibodies to enhance antiviral activity, and variable region-specific modification guided by structure and computer, as well as reviewing antibody-delivery technologies by non-viral vector, viral vector, and human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells transduced with a lentiviral construct. We also discuss the optimized antiviral activities and benefits of these strategy and potential mechanisms. PMID:27746780

  5. Conventional and enhanced plaque neutralization assay for polio antibody.

    PubMed

    Boone, E J; Albrecht, P

    1983-04-01

    HEp-2 cells were more suitable as a cell substrate than Vero cells for plaque assay of wild or attenuated strains of poliovirus. Polio antibody titration by plaque neutralization was on the average 3.4 to 4.8 times more sensitive than antibody titration by virus CPE assay. The most pronounced effect on virus neutralization was achieved by extending the time of serum-virus interaction. Incubating the virus-antiserum mixture for 20 h instead of 1 h at 36 degrees C increased antibody titer to all three poliovirus types about 11- to 28-fold. Potentiation of poliovirus neutralization by heterologous antiglobulin was considerably less effective than with other virus-antibody systems. The virus plaque neutralization technique described should be capable of measuring minute amounts of antibody as required in special circumstances.

  6. Anti-receptor antibodies designed to elicit "internal image"-bearing anti-idiotypes: a possible AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, D S; Schoolnik, G K

    1987-07-01

    Two obstacles hinder the development of an AIDS vaccine: (1) the AIDS virus exhibits extensive amino acid heterogeneity between isolates and (2) antibodies elicited by virus during the course of natural infection are often non-neutralizing. A vaccine designed to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies against the virus' receptor on T-cells, T4, should, in principle, overcome these obstacles. Such antibody could contain an "internal image" of T4 and bind the receptor binding domain of the virus. Since this domain is both critical to function and, therefore, poorly susceptible to antigenic variation, anti-receptor anti-idiotypic antibodies may demonstrate broad, strain-independent crossreactivity and block viral adherence.

  7. [Correlation between measles-neutralizing antibody and HI antibody, between measles-neutralizing antibody and PA antibody among pregnant women, and protective levels of three titration types].

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naohide; Shoda, Akiko; Okazaki, Takayuki; Ichinohe, Sadato; Saika, Shizuko; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2007-11-01

    When measles antibody levels among pregnant women were measured with measles hemagglutinin inhibition (HI), 31% of subjects had negative HI antibody titers. When the same blood samples were tested with measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) and neutralizing (NT), the percentages of those with negative antibody levels were 1% and 3%. We conducted the correlation between antibody titers measured by the three types of titration. Correlation between NT and HI antibody titers higher than 1:8 and that between NT and PA antibody titers were good, but 81% of subjects whose HI antibody titer was below 1:8 and all women with HI antibody of 1:8 were found to have NT antibody titer higher than 1:4. NT antibody titer higher than 1:4 was found in 95% of women having PA antibody titer of 1:256 and in 99% of those with PA antibody titer of 1:512. Based on the relationships to measles NT antibody level, the majority of subjects with HI antibody titer higher than 1:8 or PA antibody level higher than 1:512 was reasonably assumed to be protected against clinical measles. PA seemed superior to HI in finding subjects with insufficient immunity against measles, because the former detects weak immunity more efficiently than the latter.

  8. Broadly-Reactive Neutralizing and Non-neutralizing Antibodies Directed against the H7 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Reveal Divergent Mechanisms of Protection

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Randy A.; Margine, Irina; Hirsh, Ariana; Bahl, Justin; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    In the early spring of 2013, Chinese health authorities reported several cases of H7N9 influenza virus infections in humans. Since then the virus has established itself at the human-animal interface in Eastern China and continues to cause several hundred infections annually. In order to characterize the antibody response to the H7N9 virus we generated several mouse monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of the A/Shanghai/1/13 (H7N9) virus. Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. Monoclonal antibody 1B2 binds to viruses of the Eurasian and North American H7 lineages and monoclonal antibody 1H5 reacts broadly to virus isolates of the Eurasian lineage. Interestingly, 1B2 shows broad hemagglutination inhibiting and neutralizing activity, while 1H5 fails to inhibit hemagglutination and demonstrates no neutralizing activity in vitro. However, both monoclonal antibodies were highly protective in an in vivo passive transfer challenge model in mice, even at low doses. Experiments using mutant antibodies that lack the ability for Fc/Fc-receptor and Fc/complement interactions suggest that the protection provided by mAb 1H5 is, at least in part, mediated by the Fc-fragment of the mAb. These findings highlight that a protective response to a pathogen may not only be due to neutralizing antibodies, but can also be the result of highly efficacious non-neutralizing antibodies not readily detected by classical in vitro neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition assays. This is of interest because H7 influenza virus vaccines induce only low hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers while eliciting robust antibody titers as measured by ELISA. Our data suggest that these binding but non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to protection in vivo. PMID:27081859

  9. Structural basis of potent Zika-dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization.

    PubMed

    Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Rouvinski, Alexander; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Medits, Iris; Sharma, Arvind; Simon-Lorière, Etienne; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Haouz, Ahmed; England, Patrick; Stiasny, Karin; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Heinz, Franz X; Screaton, Gavin R; Rey, Félix A

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus that had not been associated with severe disease in humans until the recent outbreaks, when it was linked to microcephaly in newborns in Brazil and to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults in French Polynesia. Zika virus is related to dengue virus, and here we report that a subset of antibodies targeting a conformational epitope isolated from patients with dengue virus also potently neutralize Zika virus. The crystal structure of two of these antibodies in complex with the envelope protein of Zika virus reveals the details of a conserved epitope, which is also the site of interaction of the envelope protein dimer with the precursor membrane (prM) protein during virus maturation. Comparison of the Zika and dengue virus immunocomplexes provides a lead for rational, epitope-focused design of a universal vaccine capable of eliciting potent cross-neutralizing antibodies to protect simultaneously against both Zika and dengue virus infections.

  10. Neutralizing antibodies decrease the envelope fluidity of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Shinji Monde, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Kimura, Tetsuya; Maeda, Yosuke; Yusa, Keisuke

    2008-01-05

    For successful penetration of HIV-1, the formation of a fusion pore may be required in order to accumulate critical numbers of fusion-activated gp41 with the help of fluidization of the plasma membrane and viral envelope. An increase in temperature to 40 {sup o}C after viral adsorption at 25 {sup o}C enhanced the infectivity by 1.4-fold. The enhanced infectivity was inhibited by an anti-CXCR4 peptide, T140, and anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (0.5{beta} and 694/98-D) by post-attachment neutralization, but not by non-neutralizing antibodies (670-30D and 246-D) specific for the C5 of gp120 and cluster I of gp41, respectively. Anti-HLA-II and an anti-HTLV-I gp46 antibody, LAT27, neutralized the molecule-carrying HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}. The anti-V3 antibodies suppressed the fluidity of the HIV-1{sub C-2} envelope, whereas the non-neutralizing antibodies did not. The anti-HLA-II antibody decreased the envelope fluidity of HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}, but not that of HIV-1{sub C-2}. Therefore, fluidity suppression by these antibodies represents an important neutralization mechanism, in addition to inhibition of viral attachment.

  11. Neutralizing antibodies in Borna disease virus-infected rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C G; Kliche, S; Stitz, L; Lipkin, W I

    1995-01-01

    Borna disease is a neurologic syndrome caused by infection with a nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA virus, Borna disease virus. Infected animals have antibodies to two soluble viral proteins, p40 and p23, and a membrane-associated viral glycoprotein, gp18. We examined the time course for the development of neutralization activity and the expression of antibodies to individual viral proteins in sera of infected rats. The appearance of neutralizing activity correlated with the development of immunoreactivity to gp18, but not p40 or p23. Monospecific and monoclonal antibodies to native gp18 and recombinant nonglycosylated gp18 were also found to have neutralizing activity and to immunoprecipitate viral particles or subparticles. These findings suggest that gp18 is likely to be present on the surface of the viral particles and is likely to contain epitopes important for virus neutralization. PMID:7815538

  12. Monoclonal antibodies that define neutralizing epitopes of pertussis toxin: conformational dependence and epitope mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, A B; Ganss, M T; Cryz, S J

    1989-01-01

    The epitope specificities of 13 hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for pertussis toxin (PT) is described. Hybridoma lines were derived by the fusion of spleen cells from mice immunized with native PT, Formalin-detoxified PT, or isolated PT subunits (S1 to S5) with the myeloma line X63-Ag8.653. Five MAbs showed a toxin-neutralizing ability, which was demonstrated by use of a Chinese hamster ovary cell assay system and by a NAD glycohydrolase assay. All five toxin-neutralizing MAbs demonstrated high specificities for and reactivities with native PT but were unable to bind to denatured PT. One MAb was able to neutralize the enzymatic activity of PT. The other four neutralizing MAbs inhibited the binding of PT or PT subunits to the surface of Chinese hamster ovary cells, as shown by an immunofluorescence assay. All neutralizing MAbs reacted with purified S2-S4 or S3-S4 dimers but not with S4 alone. Three MAbs which recognized a common epitope shared by S2 and S3 (which are about 70% homologous at the DNA level) and one MAb which recognized S4 were not neutralizing. Isolated S2-S4 and S3-S4 dimers bound to Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results indicate that the majority of critical epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibody are conformation dependent. Images PMID:2474500

  13. Thermodynamic mechanism for the evasion of antibody neutralization in flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Rodrigo A; Liu, Tong; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T; Hilser, Vincent J; Lee, J Ching

    2014-07-23

    Mutations in the epitopes of antigenic proteins can confer viral resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. However, the fundamental properties that characterize epitope residues and how mutations affect antibody binding to alter virus susceptibility to neutralization remain largely unknown. To address these questions, we used an ensemble-based algorithm to characterize the effects of mutations on the thermodynamics of protein conformational fluctuations. We applied this method to the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of two medically important flaviviruses: West Nile and dengue 2. We determined an intimate relationship between the susceptibility of a residue to thermodynamic perturbations and epitope location. This relationship allows the successful identification of the primary epitopes in each ED3, despite their high sequence and structural similarity. Mutations that allow the ED3 to evade detection by the antibody either increase or decrease conformational fluctuations of the epitopes through local effects or long-range interactions. Spatially distant interactions originate in the redistribution of conformations of the ED3 ensembles, not through a mechanically connected array of contiguous amino acids. These results reconcile previous observations of evasion of neutralization by mutations at a distance from the epitopes. Finally, we established a quantitative correlation between subtle changes in the conformational fluctuations of the epitope and large defects in antibody binding affinity. This correlation suggests that mutations that allow viral growth, while reducing neutralization, do not generate significant structural changes and underscores the importance of protein fluctuations and long-range interactions in the mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization resistance.

  14. Induction of HIV Neutralizing Antibody Lineages in Mice with Diverse Precursor Repertoires.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Xuejun; Duan, Hongying; Cheng, Hwei-Ling; Dao, Mai; Sheng, Zizhang; Kimble, Michael; Wang, Lingshu; Lin, Sherry; Schmidt, Stephen D; Du, Zhou; Joyce, M Gordon; Chen, Yiwei; DeKosky, Brandon J; Chen, Yimin; Normandin, Erica; Cantor, Elizabeth; Chen, Rita E; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Zhang, Yi; Shi, Wei; Kong, Wing-Pui; Choe, Misook; Henry, Amy R; Laboune, Farida; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Huang, Pei-Yi; Jain, Suvi; McGuire, Andrew T; Georgeson, Eric; Menis, Sergey; Douek, Daniel C; Schief, William R; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Kwong, Peter D; Shapiro, Lawrence; Haynes, Barton F; Mascola, John R; Alt, Frederick W

    2016-09-01

    The design of immunogens that elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has been a major obstacle to HIV-1 vaccine development. One approach to assess potential immunogens is to use mice expressing precursors of human bnAbs as vaccination models. The bnAbs of the VRC01-class derive from the IGHV1-2 immunoglobulin heavy chain and neutralize a wide spectrum of HIV-1 strains via targeting the CD4 binding site of the envelope glycoprotein gp120. We now describe a mouse vaccination model that allows a germline human IGHV1-2(∗)02 segment to undergo normal V(D)J recombination and, thereby, leads to the generation of peripheral B cells that express a highly diverse repertoire of VRC01-related receptors. When sequentially immunized with modified gp120 glycoproteins designed to engage VRC01 germline and intermediate antibodies, IGHV1-2(∗)02-rearranging mice, which also express a VRC01-antibody precursor light chain, can support the affinity maturation of VRC01 precursor antibodies into HIV-neutralizing antibody lineages. PMID:27610571

  15. Harnessing the protective potential of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent biological, structural, and technical advances are converging within the HIV-1 vaccine field to harness the power of antibodies for prevention and therapy. Numerous monoclonal antibodies with broad neutralizing activity against diverse HIV-1 isolates have now been identified, revealing at least five sites of vulnerability on the envelope (Env) glycoproteins. While there are practical and technological barriers blocking a clear path from broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) to a protective vaccine, this is not a dead end. Scientists are revisiting old approaches with new technology, cutting new trails through unexplored territory, and paving new roads in the hopes of preventing HIV-1 infection. Other promising avenues to capitalize on the power of bNAbs are also being pursued, such as passive antibody immunotherapy and gene therapy approaches. Moreover, non-neutralizing antibodies have inhibitory activities that could have protective potential, alone or in combination with bNAbs. With a new generation of bNAbs, and a clinical trial that associated antibodies with reduced acquisition, the field is closer than ever to developing strategies to use antibodies against HIV-1. PMID:26918160

  16. Detection of neutralizing antibodies against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 by an optimized plasma neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Worwa, Gabriella; Chaignat, Valérie; Feldmann, Julia; Thür, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The neutralization test is used commonly for quantifying neutralizing antibodies and for distinguishing among different virus serotypes (serotyping). Due to the co-circulation of multiple serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV), the neutralization test has become an important surveillance method in Europe. However, the existence of different protocols makes test standardization and interpretation of results difficult. The current paper describes the development of a neutralization test using plasma and addresses the factors critical for detection of neutralizing antibodies against BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8), such as virus propagation, stability of virus infectivity and origin of the BTV-8 strain. The results indicated that animals exposed to the Northern European BTV-8 strain developed low neutralizing antibody titers, particularly after vaccination and experimental infection. Although clearly ELISA-positive, these samples often yielded false negative results when tested by the neutralization test using the OIE recommended virus concentration of 100 TCID₅₀/50 μl. The sensitivity of the neutralization test could be improved significantly with retained specificity by using a reduced TCID₅₀ and the homologous European BTV-8 strain instead of the South African reference strain.

  17. Directed evolution of mutator adenoviruses resistant to antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Myers, Nicolle D; Skorohodova, Ksenia V; Gounder, Anshu P; Smith, Jason G

    2013-05-01

    We incorporated a previously identified mutation that reduces the fidelity of the DNA polymerase into a human adenovirus vector. Using this mutator vector, we demonstrate rapid selection of resistance to a neutralizing anti-hexon monoclonal antibody due to a G434D mutation in hexon that precludes antibody binding. Since mutator adenoviruses can accumulate compound mutations that are unattainable using traditional random mutagenesis techniques, this approach will be valuable to the study of antivirals and host factor interactions.

  18. SIGNIFICANCE OF BIVALENCE OF ANTIBODY IN VIRAL NEUTRALIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Robert W.; Nisonoff, Alfred; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1971-01-01

    The role of bivalence of antibody in its capacity to neutralize virus was studied with rabbit antibodies to the bacteriophage, φX174. Univalent Fab or Fab' fragments of IgG isolated from antiviral antisera obtained early in the immunization schedule had virtually no activity compared to that of the intact IgG. When the antibodies were isolated from antisera of the same rabbits several months later, the univalent fragments and IgG were essentially equal in activity. The results are interpreted on the basis that an IgG molecule, because of its bivalence, has a higher effective combining affinity (avidity) than a univalent fragment. After prolonged immunization, however, the affinity of univalent antibody becomes sufficiently high that it exceeds a threshold value, above which further increase in affinity, through bivalence, is no longer significant. The results could explain the variability in relative effectiveness of univalent antibodies observed in previous studies. These data, and the fact that F(ab')2 fragments from either "early" or "late" antisera were as effective as IgG, indicate that fragment Fc is not a significant factor in neutralization. No differences in dissociation from the virus of univalent antibody from early and late antisera could be demonstrated by dilution at temperatures up to 47°C. The attachment at sites of neutralization on the virus appears to be functionally almost irreversible in this system. PMID:5166611

  19. Cooperativity between CD8+ T cells, non-neutralizing antibodies, and alveolar macrophages is important for heterosubtypic influenza virus immunity.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Brian J; Decman, Vilma; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A; Abt, Michael C; Wolf, Amaya I; Monticelli, Laurel A; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Angelosanto, Jill M; Artis, David; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E John

    2013-03-01

    Seasonal epidemics of influenza virus result in ∼36,000 deaths annually in the United States. Current vaccines against influenza virus elicit an antibody response specific for the envelope glycoproteins. However, high mutation rates result in the emergence of new viral serotypes, which elude neutralization by preexisting antibodies. T lymphocytes have been reported to be capable of mediating heterosubtypic protection through recognition of internal, more conserved, influenza virus proteins. Here, we demonstrate using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However, when combined virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. This synergistic improvement in protective immunity is dependent, at least in part, on alveolar macrophages and/or other lung phagocytes. Overall, our studies suggest that an influenza vaccine capable of eliciting both CD8+ T cells and antibodies specific for highly conserved influenza proteins may be able to provide heterosubtypic protection in humans, and act as the basis for a potential "universal" vaccine. PMID:23516357

  20. HSV-2 ΔgD elicits FcγR-effector antibodies that protect against clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Christopher D.; Khajoueinejad, Nazanin; Burn, Clare; Sellers, Rani; Jacobs, William R.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2016-01-01

    A single-cycle herpes simplex virus (HSV) deleted in glycoprotein D (ΔgD-2) elicited high titer HSV-specific antibodies (Abs) that (i) were rapidly transported into the vaginal mucosa; (ii) elicited antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity but little neutralization; (iii) provided complete protection against lethal intravaginal challenge; and (iv) prevented establishment of latency in mice. However, clinical isolates may differ antigenically and impact vaccine efficacy. To determine the breadth and further define mechanisms of protection of this vaccine candidate, we tested ΔgD-2 against a panel of clinical isolates in a murine skin challenge model. The isolates were genetically diverse, as evidenced by genomic sequencing and in vivo virulence. Prime and boost immunization (s.c.) with live but not heat- or UV-inactivated ΔgD-2 completely protected mice from challenge with the most virulent HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates. Furthermore, mice were completely protected against 100 times the lethal dose that typically kills 90% of animals (LD90) of a South African isolate (SD90), and no latent virus was detected in dorsal root ganglia. Immunization was associated with rapid recruitment of HSV-specific FcγRIII- and FcγRIV-activating IgG2 Abs into the skin, resolution of local cytokine and cellular inflammatory responses, and viral clearance by day 5 after challenge. Rapid clearance and the absence of latent virus suggest that ΔgD-2 elicits sterilizing immunity. PMID:27536733

  1. Transient CD4+ T Cell Depletion Results in Delayed Development of Functional Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Bricault, Christine A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ T cell help is required at the time of adenovirus (Ad) vector immunization for the development of functional CD8+ T cell responses, but the temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for the induction of antibody responses remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that induction of antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice can occur at a time displaced from the time of Ad vector immunization by depletion of CD4+ T cells. Transient depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of immunization delays the development of antigen-specific antibody responses but does not permanently impair their development or induce tolerance against the transgene. Upon CD4+ T cell recovery, transgene-specific serum IgG antibody titers develop and reach a concentration equivalent to that in undepleted control animals. These delayed antibody responses exhibit no functional defects with regard to isotype, functional avidity, expansion after boosting immunization, or the capacity to neutralize a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env-expressing pseudovirus. The development of this delayed transgene-specific antibody response is temporally linked to the expansion of de novo antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, which develop after transient depletion of CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that functional vaccine-elicited antibody responses can be induced even if CD4+ T cell help is provided at a time markedly separated from the time of vaccination. IMPORTANCE CD4+ T cells have a critical role in providing positive help signals to B cells, which promote robust antibody responses. The paradigm is that helper signals must be provided immediately upon antigen exposure, and their absence results in tolerance against the antigen. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to the current model that the absence of CD4+ T cell help at priming results in long-term antibody nonresponsiveness, antibody responses can be induced by adenovirus vector immunization or alum

  2. Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271

  3. Estimation of virus-neutralizing antibody in microplates.

    PubMed

    Pead, P J; Holley, A

    1973-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the titration of virus-neutralizing antibody is described. The micro-apparatus and reagents are readily available from commercial sources. Results are included from selected cases which illustrate various conditions of immune status and response.

  4. TRIM21-dependent intracellular antibody neutralization of virus infection.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; James, Leo C

    2015-01-01

    The ability of antibodies to prevent viral infection has long been recognized. In vitro neutralization assays, which take place in the absence of professional immune effector mechanisms, have demonstrated that the process of neutralization can occur by a variety of molecular mechanisms. Most known mechanisms involve the blocking of an event essential for infection, for instance, the steric inhibition of attachment to entry receptors. As such, neutralization is often thought of as a passive process that can occur without the need for host effector machinery. In contrast to this view, it has recently been demonstrated that neutralization can depend on the widely expressed cytosolic Fc binding protein TRIM21. This unique and novel Ig receptor directs the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of intracellular antibody-bound viral particles and prevents infection. It has been further demonstrated that detection of cytosolic antibody by TRIM21 activates inflammatory signaling pathways and promotes the production of cytokines and chemokines. Studies in a TRIM21-null mouse demonstrate the importance of these activities: homozygous knockouts suffer fatal viral infection where wild-type mice survive. Though there is much to be learned about the role of TRIM21 in immunity, it is clear that there is a hitherto unappreciated role for antibodies in the intracellular environment.

  5. Redesigned HIV antibodies exhibit enhanced neutralizing potency and breadth

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Jordan R.; Sapparapu, Gopal; Murrell, Sasha; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Singh, Vidisha; King, Hannah G.; Xia, Yan; Pickens, Jennifer A.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Slaughter, James C.; Montefiori, David C.; Wilson, Ian A.; Meiler, Jens; Crowe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Several HIV envelope-targeting (Env-targeting) antibodies with broad and potent neutralizing activity have been identified and shown to have unusual features. Of these, the PG9 antibody has a long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) and possesses unique structural elements that interact with protein and glycan features of the HIV Env glycoprotein. Here, we used the Rosetta software suite to design variants of the PG9 antibody HCDR3 loop with the goal of identifying variants with increased potency and breadth of neutralization for diverse HIV strains. One variant, designated PG9_N100FY, possessed increased potency and was able to neutralize a diverse set of PG9-resistant HIV strains, including those lacking the Env N160 glycan, which is critical for PG9 binding. An atomic resolution structure of the PG9_N100FY fragment antigen binding (Fab) confirmed that the mutated residue retains the paratope surface when compared with WT PG9. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments revealed that the mutation caused a modest increase in thermodynamic stability of the Fab, a feature predicted by the computational model. Our findings suggest that thermodynamic stabilization of the long HCDR3 in its active conformation is responsible for the increased potency of PG9_N100FY, and strategies aimed at stabilizing this region in other HIV antibodies could become an important approach to in silico optimization of antibodies. PMID:25985274

  6. Short Communication: Neutralizing Antibodies in HIV-1-Infected Brazilian Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Mariza Gonçalvez; Côrtes, Fernanda Heloise; Guimarães, Monick Lindermeyer; Mendonça-Lima, Leila; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Bongertz, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tests for the detection of the humoral immune response to HIV-1 have to be standardized and established, demanding regional efforts. For this purpose the neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells was introduced in Brazil. Twenty plasma samples from HIV-1-infected individuals were assayed: 10 progressors and 10 long-term nonprogressors. These were tested against eight env-pseudotyped viruses (psVs) in the TZM-bl NAb assay and against HIV-1 strain HTLV/IIIB (HIV-1 IIIB) in primary lymphocytes. Forty-four percent of the samples showed neutralizing titers for psVs and 55% for HIV-1 IIIB. Plasma from progressors showed a broader neutralization and a higher potency. The introduction of these reference reagents encourages the participation of Brazil in future comparative assessments of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. PMID:23145941

  7. HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Induced by Native-like Envelope Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J.; Burger, Judith A.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G.; Seaman, Michael S.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Klasse, Per Johan; LaBranche, Celia; Schief, William R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation (BG505 SOSIP.664) induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched Tier-2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (Tier-1) viruses. Tier-2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas Tier-1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous Tier-2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for developing HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26089353

  8. Thermodynamic mechanism for the evasion of antibody neutralization in flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Rodrigo A; Liu, Tong; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T; Hilser, Vincent J; Lee, J Ching

    2014-07-23

    Mutations in the epitopes of antigenic proteins can confer viral resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. However, the fundamental properties that characterize epitope residues and how mutations affect antibody binding to alter virus susceptibility to neutralization remain largely unknown. To address these questions, we used an ensemble-based algorithm to characterize the effects of mutations on the thermodynamics of protein conformational fluctuations. We applied this method to the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of two medically important flaviviruses: West Nile and dengue 2. We determined an intimate relationship between the susceptibility of a residue to thermodynamic perturbations and epitope location. This relationship allows the successful identification of the primary epitopes in each ED3, despite their high sequence and structural similarity. Mutations that allow the ED3 to evade detection by the antibody either increase or decrease conformational fluctuations of the epitopes through local effects or long-range interactions. Spatially distant interactions originate in the redistribution of conformations of the ED3 ensembles, not through a mechanically connected array of contiguous amino acids. These results reconcile previous observations of evasion of neutralization by mutations at a distance from the epitopes. Finally, we established a quantitative correlation between subtle changes in the conformational fluctuations of the epitope and large defects in antibody binding affinity. This correlation suggests that mutations that allow viral growth, while reducing neutralization, do not generate significant structural changes and underscores the importance of protein fluctuations and long-range interactions in the mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization resistance. PMID:24950171

  9. Viral variants that initiate and drive maturation of V1V2-directed HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bhiman, Jinal N.; Anthony, Colin; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Karimanzira, Owen; Schramm, Chaim A.; Khoza, Thandeka; Kitchin, Dale; Botha, Gordon; Gorman, Jason; Garrett, Nigel J.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Williamson, Carolyn; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Morris, Lynn; Moore, Penny L.

    2015-01-01

    The elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is likely to be essential for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine, but this has not yet been achieved by immunization. In contrast some HIV-1-infected individuals naturally mount bNAb responses during chronic infection, suggesting that years of maturation are required for breadth1-6. Recent studies have shown that viral diversification precedes the emergence of bNAbs but the significance of this observation is unknown7,8. Here, we delineate the key viral events that drove neutralization breadth within the CAP256-VRC26 family of 33 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from a superinfected individual. First, we identified minority viral variants that were distinct from both transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses and efficiently engaged the bNAb precursor, termed bNAb-initiating envelopes. Second, deep sequencing revealed a pool of diverse epitope variants (immunotypes) that were preferentially neutralized by broader members of the antibody lineage. In contrast, a “dead-end” antibody sublineage unable to neutralize these immunotypes showed limited evolution and failed to develop breadth. Thus, early viral escape at key antibody-virus contact sites selects for sublineages that can tolerate these changes, providing a new mechanism for the generation of neutralization breadth within a developing antibody lineage. PMID:26457756

  10. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective. PMID:27626445

  11. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective. PMID:27626445

  12. Recognition determinants of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Rouvinski, Alexander; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Kikuti, Carlos M; Navarro Sanchez, M Erika; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Wongwiwat, Wiyada; Haouz, Ahmed; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Petres, Stéphane; Shepard, William E; Desprès, Philippe; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Dussart, Philippe; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Screaton, Gavin R; Rey, Félix A

    2015-04-01

    Dengue disease is caused by four different flavivirus serotypes, which infect 390 million people yearly with 25% symptomatic cases and for which no licensed vaccine is available. Recent phase III vaccine trials showed partial protection, and in particular no protection for dengue virus serotype 2 (refs 3, 4). Structural studies so far have characterized only epitopes recognized by serotype-specific human antibodies. We recently isolated human antibodies potently neutralizing all four dengue virus serotypes. Here we describe the X-ray structures of four of these broadly neutralizing antibodies in complex with the envelope glycoprotein E from dengue virus serotype 2, revealing that the recognition determinants are at a serotype-invariant site at the E-dimer interface, including the exposed main chain of the E fusion loop and the two conserved glycan chains. This 'E-dimer-dependent epitope' is also the binding site for the viral glycoprotein prM during virus maturation in the secretory pathway of the infected cell, explaining its conservation across serotypes and highlighting an Achilles' heel of the virus with respect to antibody neutralization. These findings will be instrumental for devising novel immunogens to protect simultaneously against all four serotypes of dengue virus. PMID:25581790

  13. Viral Escape from Neutralizing Antibodies in Early Subtype A HIV-1 Infection Drives an Increase in Autologous Neutralization Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan K.; Yue, Ling; Pan, Ruimin; Boliar, Saikat; Sethi, Anurag; Tian, Jianhui; Pfafferot, Katja; Karita, Etienne; Allen, Susan A.; Cormier, Emmanuel; Goepfert, Paul A.; Borrow, Persephone; Robinson, James E.; Gnanakaran, S.; Hunter, Eric; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies that neutralize (nAbs) genetically diverse HIV-1 strains have been recovered from a subset of HIV-1 infected subjects during chronic infection. Exact mechanisms that expand the otherwise narrow neutralization capacity observed during early infection are, however, currently undefined. Here we characterized the earliest nAb responses in a subtype A HIV-1 infected Rwandan seroconverter who later developed moderate cross-clade nAb breadth, using (i) envelope (Env) glycoproteins from the transmitted/founder virus and twenty longitudinal nAb escape variants, (ii) longitudinal autologous plasma, and (iii) autologous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Initially, nAbs targeted a single region of gp120, which flanked the V3 domain and involved the alpha2 helix. A single amino acid change at one of three positions in this region conferred early escape. One immunoglobulin heavy chain and two light chains recovered from autologous B cells comprised two mAbs, 19.3H-L1 and 19.3H-L3, which neutralized the founder Env along with one or three of the early escape variants carrying these mutations, respectively. Neither mAb neutralized later nAb escape or heterologous Envs. Crystal structures of the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) revealed flat epitope contact surfaces, where minimal light chain mutation in 19.3H-L3 allowed for additional antigenic interactions. Resistance to mAb neutralization arose in later Envs through alteration of two glycans spatially adjacent to the initial escape signatures. The cross-neutralizing nAbs that ultimately developed failed to target any of the defined V3-proximal changes generated during the first year of infection in this subject. Our data demonstrate that this subject's first recognized nAb epitope elicited strain-specific mAbs, which incrementally acquired autologous breadth, and directed later B cell responses to target distinct portions of Env. This immune re-focusing could have triggered the evolution of cross-clade antibodies and

  14. Specificity, cross-reactivity, and function of antibodies elicited by Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Karin; Beltramello, Martina; Espinosa, Diego A; Graham, Victoria; Cassotta, Antonino; Bianchi, Siro; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Minola, Andrea; Jaconi, Stefano; Mele, Federico; Foglierini, Mathilde; Pedotti, Mattia; Simonelli, Luca; Dowall, Stuart; Atkinson, Barry; Percivalle, Elena; Simmons, Cameron P; Varani, Luca; Blum, Johannes; Baldanti, Fausto; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Hewson, Roger; Harris, Eva; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sallusto, Federica; Corti, Davide

    2016-08-19

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus with homology to Dengue virus (DENV), has become a public health emergency. By characterizing memory lymphocytes from ZIKV-infected patients, we dissected ZIKV-specific and DENV-cross-reactive immune responses. Antibodies to nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were largely ZIKV-specific and were used to develop a serological diagnostic tool. In contrast, antibodies against E protein domain I/II (EDI/II) were cross-reactive and, although poorly neutralizing, potently enhanced ZIKV and DENV infection in vitro and lethally enhanced DENV disease in mice. Memory T cells against NS1 or E proteins were poorly cross-reactive, even in donors preexposed to DENV. The most potent neutralizing antibodies were ZIKV-specific and targeted EDIII or quaternary epitopes on infectious virus. An EDIII-specific antibody protected mice from lethal ZIKV infection, illustrating the potential for antibody-based therapy.

  15. Specificity, cross-reactivity, and function of antibodies elicited by Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Karin; Beltramello, Martina; Espinosa, Diego A; Graham, Victoria; Cassotta, Antonino; Bianchi, Siro; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Minola, Andrea; Jaconi, Stefano; Mele, Federico; Foglierini, Mathilde; Pedotti, Mattia; Simonelli, Luca; Dowall, Stuart; Atkinson, Barry; Percivalle, Elena; Simmons, Cameron P; Varani, Luca; Blum, Johannes; Baldanti, Fausto; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Hewson, Roger; Harris, Eva; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sallusto, Federica; Corti, Davide

    2016-08-19

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus with homology to Dengue virus (DENV), has become a public health emergency. By characterizing memory lymphocytes from ZIKV-infected patients, we dissected ZIKV-specific and DENV-cross-reactive immune responses. Antibodies to nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were largely ZIKV-specific and were used to develop a serological diagnostic tool. In contrast, antibodies against E protein domain I/II (EDI/II) were cross-reactive and, although poorly neutralizing, potently enhanced ZIKV and DENV infection in vitro and lethally enhanced DENV disease in mice. Memory T cells against NS1 or E proteins were poorly cross-reactive, even in donors preexposed to DENV. The most potent neutralizing antibodies were ZIKV-specific and targeted EDIII or quaternary epitopes on infectious virus. An EDIII-specific antibody protected mice from lethal ZIKV infection, illustrating the potential for antibody-based therapy. PMID:27417494

  16. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  17. JC polyomavirus mutants escape antibody-mediated neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Cinque, Paola; Gerevini, Simonetta; Longo, Valeria; Lazzarin, Adriano; Schippling, Sven; Martin, Roland; Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V

    2015-09-23

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) persistently infects the urinary tract of most adults. Under conditions of immune impairment, JCV causes an opportunistic brain disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV strains found in the cerebrospinal fluid of PML patients contain distinctive mutations in surface loops of the major capsid protein, VP1. We hypothesized that VP1 mutations might allow the virus to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Consistent with this hypothesis, neutralization serology revealed that plasma samples from PML patients neutralized wild-type JCV strains but failed to neutralize patient-cognate PML-mutant JCV strains. This contrasted with serological results for healthy individuals, most of whom robustly cross-neutralized all tested JCV variants. Mice administered a JCV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine initially showed neutralizing "blind spots" (akin to those observed in PML patients) that closed after booster immunization. A PML patient administered an experimental JCV VLP vaccine likewise showed markedly increased neutralizing titer against her cognate PML-mutant JCV. The results indicate that deficient humoral immunity is a common aspect of PML pathogenesis and that vaccination may overcome this humoral deficiency. Thus, vaccination with JCV VLPs might prevent the development of PML.

  18. Development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for oncogenic human papillomavirus types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha J; Seitz, Hanna; Towne, Victoria; Müller, Martin; Finnefrock, Adam C

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for all cervical cancers, a significant number of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Two licensed vaccines offer protection against the most prevalent oncogenic types, 16 and 18, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide and one of these also offers protection against types 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of genital warts. The vaccines are comprised of recombinantly expressed major capsid proteins that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and prevent infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Adding the other frequently identified oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 to a vaccine would increase the coverage against HPV-induced cancers to approximately 90%. We describe the generation and characterization of panels of monoclonal antibodies to these five additional oncogenic HPV types, and the selection of antibody pairs that were high affinity and type specific and recognized conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. Such characteristics make these antibodies useful tools for monitoring the production and potency of a prototype vaccine as well as monitoring vaccine-induced immune responses in the clinic. PMID:24574536

  19. Potent monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A elicited by DNA immunization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Jin, Ke; Xiao, Yanling; Cheng, Ying; Huang, Zuhu; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA immunization is effective in eliciting antigen-specific antibody responses against a wide range of infectious disease targets. The polyclonal antibodies elicited by DNA vaccination exhibit high sensitivity to conformational epitopes and high avidity. However, there have been limited reports in literature on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) by DNA immunization. Here, by using Clostridium difficile (C. diff) toxin A as a model antigen, we demonstrated that DNA immunization was effective in producing a panel of mAb that are protective against toxin A challenge and can also be used as sensitive reagents to detect toxin A from various testing samples. The immunoglobulin (Ig) gene usage for such mAb was also investigated. Further studies should be conducted to fully establish DNA immunization as a unique platform to produce mAb in various hosts.

  20. Recombinant tandem multi-linear neutralizing epitopes of human enterovirus 71 elicited protective immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralization antibodies have been documented to play critical roles during in vitro and in vivo protection against EV71 infection. Results In this study, a novel strategy to produce EV71 vaccine candidate based on recombinant multiple tandem linear neutralizing epitopes (mTLNE) was proposed. The three well identified EV71 linear neutralizing epitopes in capsid proteins, VP1-SP55, VP1-SP70 and VP2-SP28, were sequentially linked by a Gly-Ser linker ((G4S)3), and expressed in E.coli in fusion with the Trx and His tag at either terminal. The recombinant protein mTLNE was soluble and could be purified by standard affinity chromatography. Following three dosage of immunization in adult mice, EV71-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies were readily induced by recombinant mTLNE. IgG subtyping demonstrated that lgG1 antibodies dominated the mTLNE-induced humoral immune response. Especially, cytokine profiling in spleen cells from the mTLNE-immunized mice revealed high production of IL-4 and IL-6. Finally, in vivo challenge experiments showed that passive transfer with anti-mTLNE sera conferred full protection against lethal EV71 challenge in neonatal mice. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that this rational designed recombinant mTLNE might have the potential to be further developed as an EV71 vaccine in the future. PMID:24885030

  1. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by a tobacco chloroplast-derived vaccine based on a B cell epitope from canine parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Andrea; Veramendi, Jon . E-mail: jon@unavarra.es; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra

    2005-11-25

    The 2L21 epitope of the VP2 protein from the canine parvovirus (CPV), fused to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-2L21), was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mice and rabbits that received protein-enriched leaf extracts by parenteral route produced high titers of anti-2L21 antibodies able to recognize the VP2 protein. Rabbit sera were able to neutralize CPV in an in vitro infection assay with an efficacy similar to the anti-2L21 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 3C9. Anti-2L21 IgG and seric IgA antibodies were elicited when mice were gavaged with a suspension of pulverized tissues from CTB-2L21 transformed plants. Combined immunization (a single parenteral injection followed by oral boosters) shows that oral boosters help to maintain the anti-2L21 IgG response induced after a single injection, whereas parenteral administration of the antigen primes the subsequent oral boosters by promoting the induction of anti-2L21 seric IgA antibodies. Despite the induced humoral response, antibodies elicited by oral delivery did not show neutralizing capacity in the in vitro assay. The high yield of the fusion protein permits the preparation of a high number of vaccine doses from a single plant and makes feasible the oral vaccination using a small amount of crude plant material. However, a big effort has still to be done to enhance the protective efficacy of subunit vaccines by the oral route.

  2. Minimally Mutated HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Guide Reductionist Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Joseph G; Sok, Devin; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Briney, Bryan; Sarkar, Anita; Liang, Chi-Hui; Scherer, Erin A; Henry Dunand, Carole J; Adachi, Yumiko; Diwanji, Devan; Hsueh, Jessica; Jones, Meaghan; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Kubitz, Michael; Spencer, Skye; Pauthner, Matthias; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Sesterhenn, Fabian; Wilson, Patrick C; Galloway, Denise M; Stanfield, Robyn L; Wilson, Ian A; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R

    2016-08-01

    An optimal HIV vaccine should induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that neutralize diverse viral strains and subtypes. However, potent bnAbs develop in only a small fraction of HIV-infected individuals, all contain rare features such as extensive mutation, insertions, deletions, and/or long complementarity-determining regions, and some are polyreactive, casting doubt on whether bnAbs to HIV can be reliably induced by vaccination. We engineered two potent VRC01-class bnAbs that minimized rare features. According to a quantitative features frequency analysis, the set of features for one of these minimally mutated bnAbs compared favorably with all 68 HIV bnAbs analyzed and was similar to antibodies elicited by common vaccines. This same minimally mutated bnAb lacked polyreactivity in four different assays. We then divided the minimal mutations into spatial clusters and dissected the epitope components interacting with those clusters, by mutational and crystallographic analyses coupled with neutralization assays. Finally, by synthesizing available data, we developed a working-concept boosting strategy to select the mutation clusters in a logical order following a germline-targeting prime. We have thus developed potent HIV bnAbs that may be more tractable vaccine goals compared to existing bnAbs, and we have proposed a strategy to elicit them. This reductionist approach to vaccine design, guided by antibody and antigen structure, could be applied to design candidate vaccines for other HIV bnAbs or protective Abs against other pathogens. PMID:27560183

  3. Minimally Mutated HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Guide Reductionist Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Anita; Liang, Chi-Hui; Scherer, Erin A.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Adachi, Yumiko; Diwanji, Devan; Jones, Meaghan; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Kubitz, Michael; Spencer, Skye; Pauthner, Matthias; Saye-Francisco, Karen L.; Sesterhenn, Fabian; Wilson, Patrick C.; Galloway, Denise M.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Wilson, Ian A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Schief, William R.

    2016-01-01

    An optimal HIV vaccine should induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that neutralize diverse viral strains and subtypes. However, potent bnAbs develop in only a small fraction of HIV-infected individuals, all contain rare features such as extensive mutation, insertions, deletions, and/or long complementarity-determining regions, and some are polyreactive, casting doubt on whether bnAbs to HIV can be reliably induced by vaccination. We engineered two potent VRC01-class bnAbs that minimized rare features. According to a quantitative features frequency analysis, the set of features for one of these minimally mutated bnAbs compared favorably with all 68 HIV bnAbs analyzed and was similar to antibodies elicited by common vaccines. This same minimally mutated bnAb lacked polyreactivity in four different assays. We then divided the minimal mutations into spatial clusters and dissected the epitope components interacting with those clusters, by mutational and crystallographic analyses coupled with neutralization assays. Finally, by synthesizing available data, we developed a working-concept boosting strategy to select the mutation clusters in a logical order following a germline-targeting prime. We have thus developed potent HIV bnAbs that may be more tractable vaccine goals compared to existing bnAbs, and we have proposed a strategy to elicit them. This reductionist approach to vaccine design, guided by antibody and antigen structure, could be applied to design candidate vaccines for other HIV bnAbs or protective Abs against other pathogens. PMID:27560183

  4. HIV-1 therapy with monoclonal antibody 3BNC117 elicits host immune responses against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Till; Klein, Florian; Braunschweig, Malte; Kreider, Edward F; Feldmann, Anna; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Parrish, Erica H; Learn, Gerald H; West, Anthony P; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Seaman, Michael S; Czartoski, Julie; McElrath, M Juliana; Pfeifer, Nico; Hahn, Beatrice H; Caskey, Marina; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    3BNC117 is a broad and potent neutralizing antibody to HIV-1 that targets the CD4 binding site on the viral envelope spike. When administered passively, this antibody can prevent infection in animal models and suppress viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals. Here we report that HIV-1 immunotherapy with a single injection of 3BNC117 affects host antibody responses in viremic individuals. In comparison to untreated controls that showed little change in their neutralizing activity over a 6-month period, 3BNC117 infusion significantly improved neutralizing responses to heterologous tier 2 viruses in nearly all study participants. We conclude that 3BNC117-mediated immunotherapy enhances host humoral immunity to HIV-1. PMID:27199429

  5. Heparanase-neutralizing antibodies attenuate lymphoma tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Marina; Arvatz, Gil; Horowitz, Netanel; Feld, Sari; Naroditsky, Inna; Zhang, Yi; Ng, Mary; Hammond, Edward; Nevo, Eviatar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans, resulting in disassembly of the extracellular matrix underlying endothelial and epithelial cells and associating with enhanced cell invasion and metastasis. Heparanase expression is induced in carcinomas and sarcomas, often associating with enhanced tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, the function of heparanase in hematological malignancies (except myeloma) was not investigated in depth. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase is expressed by human follicular and diffused non-Hodgkin's B-lymphomas, and that heparanase inhibitors restrain the growth of tumor xenografts produced by lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, we describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the development and characterization of heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that inhibit cell invasion and tumor metastasis, the hallmark of heparanase activity. Using luciferase-labeled Raji lymphoma cells, we show that the heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies profoundly inhibit tumor load in the mouse bones, associating with reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Notably, we found that Raji cells lack intrinsic heparanase activity, but tumor xenografts produced by this cell line exhibit typical heparanase activity, likely contributed by host cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Thus, the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies attenuate lymphoma growth by targeting heparanase in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26729870

  6. Conformational Epitope-Specific Broadly Neutralizing Plasma Antibodies Obtained from an HIV-1 Clade C-Infected Elite Neutralizer Mediate Autologous Virus Escape through Mutations in the V1 Loop

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shilpa; Kumar, Rajesh; Deshpande, Suprit; Samal, Sweety; Shrivastava, Tripti; Boliar, Saikat; Bansal, Manish; Chaudhary, Nakul Kumar; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Murugavel, Kailapuri G.; Solomon, Suniti; Simek, Melissa; Koff, Wayne C.; Goyal, Rajat; Chakrabarti, Bimal K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies isolated from infected patients who are elite neutralizers have identified targets on HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein that are vulnerable to antibody neutralization; however, it is not known whether infection established by the majority of the circulating clade C strains in Indian patients elicit neutralizing antibody responses against any of the known targets. In the present study, we examined the specificity of a broad and potent cross-neutralizing plasma obtained from an Indian elite neutralizer infected with HIV-1 clade C. This plasma neutralized 53/57 (93%) HIV pseudoviruses prepared with Env from distinct HIV clades of different geographical origins. Mapping studies using gp120 core protein, single-residue knockout mutants, and chimeric viruses revealed that G37080 broadly cross-neutralizing (BCN) plasma lacks specificities to the CD4 binding site, gp41 membrane-proximal external region, N160 and N332 glycans, and R166 and K169 in the V1-V3 region and are known predominant targets for BCN antibodies. Depletion of G37080 plasma with soluble trimeric BG505-SOSIP.664 Env (but with neither monomeric gp120 nor clade C membrane-proximal external region peptides) resulted in significant reduction of virus neutralization, suggesting that G37080 BCN antibodies mainly target epitopes on cleaved trimeric Env. Further examination of autologous circulating Envs revealed the association of mutation of residues in the V1 loop that contributed to neutralization resistance. In summary, we report the identification of plasma antibodies from a clade C-infected elite neutralizer that mediate neutralization breadth via epitopes on trimeric gp120 not yet reported and confer autologous neutralization escape via mutation of residues in the V1 loop. IMPORTANCE A preventive vaccine to protect against HIV-1 is urgently needed. HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins are targets of neutralizing antibodies and represent a key component for immunogen design

  7. A Diverse Panel of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Use in Vaccine Research Reveals Extremes of Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Richard A.; McClure, C. Patrick; Brown, Richard J. P.; Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Persson, Mats A. A.; Krey, Thomas; Irving, William L.; Tarr, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite significant advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the need to develop preventative vaccines remains. Identification of the best vaccine candidates and evaluation of their performance in preclinical and clinical development will require appropriate neutralization assays utilizing diverse HCV isolates. We aimed to generate and characterize a panel of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins suitable for subsequent use in vaccine and therapeutic antibody testing. Full-length E1E2 clones were PCR amplified from patient-derived serum samples, cloned into an expression vector, and used to generate viral pseudoparticles (HCVpp). In addition, some of these clones were used to generate cell culture infectious (HCVcc) clones. The infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of these viruses were then determined. Bioinformatic and HCVpp infectivity screening of approximately 900 E1E2 clones resulted in the assembly of a panel of 78 functional E1E2 proteins representing distinct HCV genotypes and different stages of infection. These HCV glycoproteins differed markedly in their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We used this panel to predict antibody efficacy against circulating HCV strains, highlighting the likely reason why some monoclonal antibodies failed in previous clinical trials. This study provides the first objective categorization of cross-genotype patient-derived HCV E1E2 clones according to their sensitivity to antibody neutralization. It has shown that HCV isolates have clearly distinguishable neutralization-sensitive, -resistant, or -intermediate phenotypes, which are independent of genotype. The panel provides a systematic means for characterization of the neutralizing response elicited by candidate vaccines and for defining the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a global burden of more than 170 million people, many of whom cannot attain the new, expensive, direct-acting antiviral

  8. HIV-1 gp41 Core with Exposed Membrane-Proximal External Region Inducing Broad HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Liling; Jiang, Shibo; Chen, Ying-hua

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 consists of epitopes for the broadly cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. However, antigens containing the linear sequence of these epitopes are unable to elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated hosts, possibly because of inappropriate conformation of these epitopes. Here we designed a recombinant antigen, designated NCM, which comprises the N- and C-terminal heptad repeats that can form a six-helix bundle (6HB) core and the MPER domain of gp41. Two mutations (T569A and I675V) previously reported to expose the neutralization epitopes were introduced into NCM to generate mutants named NCM(TA), NCM(IV), and NCM(TAIV). Our results showed that NCM and its mutants could react with antibodies specific for 6HB and MPER of gp41, suggesting that these antigens are in the form of a trimer of heterodimer (i.e., 6HB) with three exposed MPER tails. Antigen with double mutations, NCM(TAIV), elicited much stronger antibody response in rabbits than immunogens with single mutation, NCM(TA) and NCM(IV), or no mutation, NCM. The purified MPER-specific antibodies induced by NCM(TAIV) exhibited broad neutralizing activity, while the purified 6HB-specific antibodies showed no detectable neutralizing activity. Our recombinant antigen design supported by an investigation of its underlying molecular mechanisms provides a strong scientific platform for the discovery of a gp41 MPER-based AIDS vaccine. PMID:21483871

  9. Intracellular Neutralization of Virus by Immunoglobulin A Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanec, Mary B.; Kaetzel, Charlotte S.; Lamm, Michael E.; Fletcher, David; Nedrud, John G.

    1992-08-01

    IgA is thought to neutralize viruses at the epithelial surface of mucous membranes by preventing their attachment. Since IgA, a polymeric immunoglobulin, is transported through the lining of epithelial cells by the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor and since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, we hypothesized that IgA antibodies may also interfere with viral replication by binding to newly synthesized viral proteins within infected cells. Polarized monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells expressing the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor were infected on the apical surface with Sendai virus. Anti-Sendai virus IgA monoclonal antibody delivered from the basolateral surface colocalized with viral protein within the cell, as documented by immunofluorescence. More importantly, anti-viral IgA reduced virus titers >1000-fold (P < 0.0001) in apical supernatants and >10-fold (P < 0.0001) in cell lysates from monolayers treated with anti-viral IgA compared with those treated with either anti-viral IgG or an irrelevant IgA monoclonal antibody. We believe that the differences in viral titers between cell layers treated with specific IgA, which enters the epithelial cell by binding to the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor, and those treated with specific IgG, which does not enter the cells, or irrelevant IgA indicate that specific intracellular IgA antibodies can inhibit viral replication. Thus, in addition to the classical role of humoral antibodies in extracellular defense, IgA antibody may be able to neutralize microbial pathogens intracellularly, giving IgA a role in host defense that has traditionally been reserved for cell-mediated immunity.

  10. Escape mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus selected by monoclonal antibodies directed to a trypsin-sensitive neutralization epitope.

    PubMed

    Das, B R; Pattnaik, B; Venkataramanan, R; Rai, D V

    1997-06-01

    Five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Indian reference/vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus subtype A22 (IND17/77) and a guinea pig antibody against a synthetic peptide representing amino acids (aa) 136-151 of VP1 polypeptide of A22 virus were used in the study. All the antibodies either failed to react or showed a reduced reactivity with trypsin-treated (TT)-146 S virus particles in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and could neutralize the infectivity of the reference virus. The antibodies were hence identified as specific to a trypsin-sensitive neutralizable antigenic site of the virus. Using the antibodies we isolated mutants which showed either no or reduced reactivity with the homologous as well as heterologous antibodies in ELISA. The mutants could not be neutralized with the respective antibodies but were efficiently neutralized with the serum from vaccinated cattle (BVS). These results indicated that the antibodies elicited in cattle following vaccination protected them adequately against the mutants selected and that the trypsin-sensitive neutralizable antigenic site of FMD A22 virus as identified by the MoAbs may not be dominant in eliciting a neutralizing antibody response in vaccinated cattle. PMID:9385400

  11. Potent Functional Antibody Responses Elicited by HIV-I DNA Priming and Boosting with Heterologous HIV-1 Recombinant MVA in Healthy Tanzanian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Joachim, Agricola; Nilsson, Charlotta; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Lyamuya, Eligius F.; Robb, Merlin L.; Marovich, Mary A.; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Wahren, Britta; Mhalu, Fred; Sandström, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Ferrari, Guido; Polonis, Victoria R.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine-induced HIV antibodies were evaluated in serum samples collected from healthy Tanzanian volunteers participating in a phase I/II placebo-controlled double blind trial using multi-clade, multigene HIV-DNA priming and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (HIV-MVA) virus boosting (HIVIS03). The HIV-DNA vaccine contained plasmids expressing HIV-1 gp160 subtypes A, B, C, Rev B, Gag A, B and RTmut B, and the recombinant HIV-MVA boost expressed CRF01_AE HIV-1 Env subtype E and Gag-Pol subtype A. While no neutralizing antibodies were detected using pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl cell assay, this prime-boost vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies in 83% of HIVIS03 vaccinees when a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) assay using luciferase reporter-infectious molecular clones (LucR-IMC) was employed. The serum neutralizing activity was significantly (but not completely) reduced upon depletion of natural killer (NK) cells from PBMC (p=0.006), indicating a role for antibody-mediated Fcγ-receptor function. High levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies against CRF01_AE and/or subtype B were subsequently demonstrated in 97% of the sera of vaccinees. The magnitude of ADCC-mediating antibodies against CM235 CRF01_AE IMC-infected cells correlated with neutralizing antibodies against CM235 in the IMC/PBMC assay. In conclusion, HIV-DNA priming, followed by two HIV-MVA boosts elicited potent ADCC responses in a high proportion of Tanzanian vaccinees. Our findings highlight the potential of HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccines for induction of functional antibody responses and suggest this vaccine regimen and ADCC studies as potentially important new avenues in HIV vaccine development. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials ISRCTN90053831 The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry ATMR2009040001075080 (currently PACTR2009040001075080) PMID:25874723

  12. Mechanism of Neutralization by the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibody VRC01▿†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxing; O'Dell, Sijy; Walker, Laura M.; Wu, Xueling; Guenaga, Javier; Feng, Yu; Schmidt, Stephen D.; McKee, Krisha; Louder, Mark K.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Graham, Barney S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Mascola, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of VRC01 in complex with the HIV-1 gp120 core reveals that this broadly neutralizing CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibody partially mimics the interaction of the primary virus receptor, CD4, with gp120. Here, we extended the investigation of the VRC01-gp120 core interaction to the biologically relevant viral spike to better understand the mechanism of VRC01-mediated neutralization and to define viral elements associated with neutralization resistance. In contrast to the interaction of CD4 or the CD4bs monoclonal antibody (MAb) b12 with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), occlusion of the VRC01 epitope by quaternary constraints was not a major factor limiting neutralization. Mutagenesis studies indicated that VRC01 contacts within the gp120 loop D, the CD4 binding loop, and the V5 region were necessary for optimal VRC01 neutralization, as suggested by the crystal structure. In contrast to interactions with the soluble gp120 monomer, VRC01 interaction with the native viral spike did not occur in a CD4-like manner; VRC01 did not induce gp120 shedding from the Env spike or enhance gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER)-directed antibody binding to the Env spike. Finally, VRC01 did not display significant reactivity with human antigens, boding well for potential in vivo applications. The data indicate that VRC01 interacts with gp120 in the context of the functional spike in a manner distinct from that of CD4. It achieves potent neutralization by precisely targeting the CD4bs without requiring alterations of Env spike configuration and by avoiding steric constraints imposed by the quaternary structure of the functional Env spike. PMID:21715490

  13. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A.; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B.; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L.; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design. PMID:26766578

  14. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    PubMed

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  15. Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Finzi, Andrés; DeVico, Anthony L; Pazgier, Marzena

    2015-09-01

    The mechanism of antibody-mediated protection is a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development and a significant issue in the control of viremia. Virus neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, are major mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against HIV-1, although other mechanisms, such as virus aggregation, are known. The interplay between virus neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function in protection against HIV-1 is complex and only partially understood. Passive immunization studies using potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) show that both neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function provides the widest dynamic range of protection; however, a vaccine to elicit these responses remains elusive. By contrast, active immunization studies in both humans and non-human primates using HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that weakly neutralizing or non-neutralizing antibodies can protect by Fc-mediated effector function, albeit with a much lower dynamic range seen for passive immunization with bnAbs. HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade each type of antibody-mediated protection that must be countered by a successful AIDS vaccine. Overcoming the hurdles required to elicit bnAbs has become a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we discuss a less studied problem, the structural basis of protection (and its evasion) by antibodies that protect only by potent Fc-mediated effector function. PMID:26393642

  16. Structural basis of potent Zika-dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization.

    PubMed

    Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Dejnirattisai, Wanwisa; Rouvinski, Alexander; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Medits, Iris; Sharma, Arvind; Simon-Lorière, Etienne; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Haouz, Ahmed; England, Patrick; Stiasny, Karin; Mongkolsapaya, Juthathip; Heinz, Franz X; Screaton, Gavin R; Rey, Félix A

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus that had not been associated with severe disease in humans until the recent outbreaks, when it was linked to microcephaly in newborns in Brazil and to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults in French Polynesia. Zika virus is related to dengue virus, and here we report that a subset of antibodies targeting a conformational epitope isolated from patients with dengue virus also potently neutralize Zika virus. The crystal structure of two of these antibodies in complex with the envelope protein of Zika virus reveals the details of a conserved epitope, which is also the site of interaction of the envelope protein dimer with the precursor membrane (prM) protein during virus maturation. Comparison of the Zika and dengue virus immunocomplexes provides a lead for rational, epitope-focused design of a universal vaccine capable of eliciting potent cross-neutralizing antibodies to protect simultaneously against both Zika and dengue virus infections. PMID:27338953

  17. How to assess the binding strength of antibodies elicited by vaccination against HIV and other viruses

    PubMed Central

    Klasse, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vaccines that protect against viral infections generally induce neutralizing antibodies. When vaccines are evaluated, the need arises to assess the affinity maturation of the antibody responses. Binding titers of polyclonal sera depend not only on the affinities of the constituent antibodies but also on their individual concentrations, which are difficult to ascertain. Therefore an assay based on chaotrope disruption of antibody-antigen complexes was designed for measuring binding strength. This assay works well with many viral antigens but gives differential results depending on the conformational dependence of epitopes on complex antigens such as the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1. Kinetic binding assays might offer alternatives, since they can measure average off-rate constants for polyclonal antibodies in a serum. Here, potentials and fallacies of these techniques are discussed. PMID:26641943

  18. Crystal structure of the HIV neutralizing antibody 2G12 in complex with a bacterial oligosaccharide analog of mammalian oligomannose

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Robyn L; De Castro, Cristina; Marzaioli, Alberto M; Wilson, Ian A; Pantophlet, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a major public health threat that continues to infect millions of people worldwide each year. A prophylactic vaccine remains the most cost-effective way of globally reducing and eliminating the spread of the virus. The HIV envelope spike, which is the target of many vaccine design efforts, is densely mantled with carbohydrate and several potent broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 recognize carbohydrate on the envelope spike as a major part of their epitope. However, immunizing with recombinant forms of the envelope glycoprotein does not typically elicit anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Thus, studies of alternative antigens that may serve as a starting point for carbohydrate-based immunogens are of interest. Here, we present the crystal structure of one such anti-carbohydrate HIV neutralizing antibody (2G12) in complex with the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide from Rhizobium radiobacter strain Rv3, which exhibits a chemical structure that naturally mimics the core high-mannose carbohydrate epitope of 2G12 on HIV-1 gp120. The structure described here provides molecular evidence of the structural homology between the Rv3 oligosaccharide and highly abundant carbohydrates on the surface of HIV-1 and raises the potential for the design of novel glycoconjugates that may find utility in efforts to develop immunogens for eliciting carbohydrate-specific neutralizing antibodies to HIV. PMID:25380763

  19. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  20. Impact of viral attachment factor expression on antibody-mediated neutralization of flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Obara, Christopher J; Dowd, Kimberly A; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Pierson, Theodore C

    2013-03-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses requires engagement of the virion by antibodies with a stoichiometry that exceeds a required threshold. Factors that modulate the number of antibodies bound to an individual virion when it contacts target cells impact neutralization potency. However, the contribution of cellular factors to the potency of neutralizing antibodies has not been explored systematically. Here we investigate the relationship between expression level of a viral attachment factor on cells and the neutralizing potency of antibodies. Analysis of the attachment factor DC-SIGNR on cells in neutralization studies failed to identify a correlation between DC-SIGNR expression and antibody-mediated protection. Furthermore, neutralization potency was equivalent on a novel Jurkat cell line induced to express DC-SIGNR at varying levels. Finally, blocking virus-attachment factor interactions had no impact on neutralization activity. Altogether, our studies suggest that cellular attachment factor expression is not a significant contributor to the potency of neutralizing antibodies to flaviviruses.

  1. A quantitative test to estimate neutralizing antibodies to the hepatitis C virus: cytofluorimetric assessment of envelope glycoprotein 2 binding to target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, D; Campagnoli, S; Moretto, C; Guenzi, E; Cousens, L; Chin, M; Dong, C; Weiner, A J; Lau, J Y; Choo, Q L; Chien, D; Pileri, P; Houghton, M; Abrignani, S

    1996-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis. The virus does not replicate efficiently in cell cultures, and it is therefore difficult to assess infection-neutralizing antibodies and to evaluate protective immunity in vitro. To study the binding of the HCV envelope to cell-surface receptors, we developed an assay to assess specific binding of recombinant envelope proteins to human cells and neutralization thereof. HCV recombinant envelope proteins expressed in various systems were incubated with human cells, and binding was assessed by flow cytometry using anti-envelope antibodies. Envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2) expressed in mammalian cells, but not in yeast or insect cells, binds human cells with high affinity (Kd approximately 10(-8) M). We then assessed antibodies able to neutralize E2 binding in the sera of both vaccinated and carrier chimpanzees, as well as in the sera of humans infected with various HCV genotypes. Vaccination with recombinant envelope proteins expressed in mammalian cells elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies that correlated with protection from HCV challenge. HCV infection does not elicit neutralizing antibodies in most chimpanzees and humans, although low titers of neutralizing antibodies were detectable in a minority of infections. The ability to neutralize binding of E2 derived from the HCV-1 genotype was equally distributed among sera from patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, demonstrating that binding of E2 is partly independent of E2 hypervariable regions. However, a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the E2 hypervariable region 1 can partially neutralize binding of E2, indicating that at least two neutralizing epitopes, one of which is hypervariable, should exist on the E2 protein. The neutralization-of-binding assay described will be useful to study protective immunity to HCV infection and for vaccine development. PMID:8700831

  2. The common Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan M2 motif elicits non-protective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nakouzi, Antonio; Zhang, Tong; Oscarson, Stefan; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) is a potential vaccine antigen that can elicit protective and non-protective antibodies. In an attempt to focus the immune response on a single antigenic component, a heptasaccharide oligosaccharide representing the major structural motif (M2) of the most common clinical isolate was synthesized and conjugated to Human serum albumin (HSA). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from mice immunized with M2-HSA produced the characteristic punctuate immunofluorescence associated with non-protective mAbs. None of the mAbs elicited by M2 immunization were opsonic. Passive administration of mAbs elicited by M2-HSA was not protective and there was no difference in the survival of mice immunized with M2-HSA and HSA. Hence, we conclude that the M2 motif represents an antigenic determinant in C. neoformans GXM that elicits non-protective responses and is not a suitable vaccine candidate. Furthermore, the results illustrate the first molecular assignment of a C. neoformans polysaccharide epitope and suggest a general strategy for the identification of GXM epitopes. PMID:19464529

  3. Tailored Immunogens Direct Affinity Maturation toward HIV Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Briney, Bryan; Sok, Devin; Jardine, Joseph G; Kulp, Daniel W; Skog, Patrick; Menis, Sergey; Jacak, Ronald; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; de Val, Natalia; Sesterhenn, Fabian; Le, Khoa M; Ramos, Alejandra; Jones, Meaghan; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Blane, Tanya R; Spencer, Skye; Georgeson, Erik; Hu, Xiaozhen; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Sarkar, Anita; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Nemazee, David; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R

    2016-09-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a primary goal of HIV vaccine development. VRC01-class bnAbs are important vaccine leads because their precursor B cells targeted by an engineered priming immunogen are relatively common among humans. This priming immunogen has demonstrated the ability to initiate a bnAb response in animal models, but recall and maturation toward bnAb development has not been shown. Here, we report the development of boosting immunogens designed to guide the genetic and functional maturation of previously primed VRC01-class precursors. Boosting a transgenic mouse model expressing germline VRC01 heavy chains produced broad neutralization of near-native isolates (N276A) and weak neutralization of fully native HIV. Functional and genetic characteristics indicate that the boosted mAbs are consistent with partially mature VRC01-class antibodies and place them on a maturation trajectory that leads toward mature VRC01-class bnAbs. The results show how reductionist sequential immunization can guide maturation of HIV bnAb responses.

  4. bNAber: database of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Eroshkin, Alexey M; LeBlanc, Andrew; Weekes, Dana; Post, Kai; Li, Zhanwen; Rajput, Akhil; Butera, Sal T; Burton, Dennis R; Godzik, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has provided an enormous impetus to the HIV vaccine research and to entire immunology. The bNAber database at http://bNAber.org provides open, user-friendly access to detailed data on the rapidly growing list of HIV bNAbs, including neutralization profiles, sequences and three-dimensional structures (when available). It also provides an extensive list of visualization and analysis tools, such as heatmaps to analyse neutralization data as well as structure and sequence viewers to correlate bNAbs properties with structural and sequence features of individual antibodies. The goal of the bNAber database is to enable researchers in this field to easily compare and analyse available information on bNAbs thereby supporting efforts to design an effective vaccine for HIV/AIDS. The bNAber database not only provides easy access to data that currently is scattered in the Supplementary Materials sections of individual papers, but also contributes to the development of general standards of data that have to be presented with the discovery of new bNAbs and a universal mechanism of how such data can be shared.

  5. Tailored Immunogens Direct Affinity Maturation toward HIV Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Briney, Bryan; Sok, Devin; Jardine, Joseph G; Kulp, Daniel W; Skog, Patrick; Menis, Sergey; Jacak, Ronald; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; de Val, Natalia; Sesterhenn, Fabian; Le, Khoa M; Ramos, Alejandra; Jones, Meaghan; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Blane, Tanya R; Spencer, Skye; Georgeson, Erik; Hu, Xiaozhen; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Sarkar, Anita; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Nemazee, David; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R

    2016-09-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a primary goal of HIV vaccine development. VRC01-class bnAbs are important vaccine leads because their precursor B cells targeted by an engineered priming immunogen are relatively common among humans. This priming immunogen has demonstrated the ability to initiate a bnAb response in animal models, but recall and maturation toward bnAb development has not been shown. Here, we report the development of boosting immunogens designed to guide the genetic and functional maturation of previously primed VRC01-class precursors. Boosting a transgenic mouse model expressing germline VRC01 heavy chains produced broad neutralization of near-native isolates (N276A) and weak neutralization of fully native HIV. Functional and genetic characteristics indicate that the boosted mAbs are consistent with partially mature VRC01-class antibodies and place them on a maturation trajectory that leads toward mature VRC01-class bnAbs. The results show how reductionist sequential immunization can guide maturation of HIV bnAb responses. PMID:27610570

  6. Autoreactivity and Exceptional CDR Plasticity (but Not Unusual Polyspecificity) Hinder Elicitation of the Anti-HIV Antibody 4E10

    PubMed Central

    Finton, Kathryn A. K.; Larimore, Kevin; Larman, H. Benjamin; Friend, Della; Correnti, Colin; Rupert, Peter B.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Strong, Roland K.

    2013-01-01

    The broadly-neutralizing anti-HIV antibody 4E10 recognizes an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV envelope protein gp41. Previous attempts to elicit 4E10 by vaccination with envelope-derived or reverse-engineered immunogens have failed. It was presumed that the ontogeny of 4E10-equivalent responses was blocked by inherent autoreactivity and exceptional polyreactivity. We generated 4E10 heavy-chain knock-in mice, which displayed significant B cell dysregulation, consistent with recognition of autoantigen/s by 4E10 and the presumption that tolerance mechanisms may hinder the elicitation of 4E10 or 4E10-equivalent responses. Previously proposed candidate 4E10 autoantigens include the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and a nuclear splicing factor, 3B3. However, using carefully-controlled assays, 4E10 bound only weakly to cardiolipin-containing liposomes, but also bound negatively-charged, non-cardiolipin-containing liposomes comparably poorly. 4E10/liposome binding was predominantly mediated by electrostatic interactions rather than presumed hydrophobic interactions. The crystal structure of 4E10 free of bound ligands showed a dramatic restructuring of the combining site, occluding the HIV epitope binding site and revealing profound flexibility, but creating an electropositive pocket consistent with non-specific binding of phospholipid headgroups. These results strongly suggested that antigens other than cardiolipin mediate 4E10 autoreactivity. Using a synthetic peptide library spanning the human proteome, we determined that 4E10 displays limited and focused, but unexceptional, polyspecificity. We also identified a novel autoepitope shared by three ER-resident inositol trisphosphate receptors, validated through binding studies and immunohistochemistry. Tissue staining with 4E10 demonstrated reactivity consistent with the type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptor as the most likely candidate autoantigen, but is inconsistent with splicing factor 3B3

  7. Anti-idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Srikumaran, S; Onisk, D V; Borca, M V; Nataraj, C; Zamb, T J

    1990-01-01

    A neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) of the IgG2a isotype (MM-113), specific for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gIV, was used to develop anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) in a calf. The bovine anti-Id were isolated from the serum of the immunized calf by affinity chromatography on an MM-113-Sepharose column, followed by repeated adsorption on a murine IgG2a column. The anti-Id thus obtained specifically reacted with MM-113, but not with isotype-matched controls. They also inhibited the binding of MM-113 to BHV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mice immunized with the anti-Id produced neutralizing antibodies to BHV-1. The anti-Id bound to cells permissive to BHV-1 in a cell-binding radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID:2165998

  8. Monoclonal antibody analysis of neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Corapi, W V; Olsen, C W; Scott, F W

    1992-11-01

    Fifty-four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) were characterized according to protein specificity, immunoglobulin subclass, virus neutralization, reactivity with different coronaviruses, and ability to induce antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of FIPV infection in vitro. The MAbs were found to be specific for one of three structural proteins of FIPV. A total of 47 MAbs were specific for the 205-kDa spike protein (S), 3 MAbs were specific for the 45-kDa nucleocapsid protein (N), and 4 MAbs were specific for the 26- to 28-kDa membrane protein (M). The S-specific MAbs showed various degrees of cross-reactivity with strains of FIPV, feline enteric coronavirus, canine coronavirus, and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Nineteen S-specific MAbs neutralized FIPV. A total of 15 of the neutralizing MAbs induced ADE, and all but 1 were of the immunoglobulin G2a subclass. The remaining four neutralizing MAbs that did not induce ADE were of the immunoglobulin G1 subclass. Two S-specific MAbs induced ADE but were nonneutralizing. None of the N- or M-specific MAbs was neutralizing or induced ADE. On the basis of the reactivity patterns of the MAbs with FIPV and related coronaviruses, it was concluded that there is a minimum of five neutralizing sites on S. In most instances, neutralizing MAbs were able to induce ADE, demonstrating a direct relationship between neutralization and enhancement. The difference in immunoglobulin subclass between neutralizing MAbs that induced ADE and those that did not induce ADE suggests that there may be a restriction in the immunoglobulin subclasses capable of mediating ADE.

  9. Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bruel, Timothée; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Amraoui, Sonia; Malbec, Marine; Richard, Léa; Bourdic, Katia; Donahue, Daniel Aaron; Lorin, Valérie; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Mouquet, Hugo; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These antibodies target the CD4-binding site, the glycans/V3 and V1/V2 loops on gp120, or the gp41 moiety. The landscape of Env epitope exposure at the surface and the sensitivity of infected cells to ADCC vary considerably between viral strains. Efficient ADCC requires sustained cell surface binding of bNAbs to Env, and combining bNAbs allows a potent killing activity. Furthermore, reactivated infected cells from HIV-positive individuals expose heterogeneous Env epitope patterns, with levels that are often but not always sufficient to trigger killing by bNAbs. Our study delineates the parameters controlling ADCC activity of bNAbs, and supports the use of the most potent antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. PMID:26936020

  10. Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bruel, Timothée; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Amraoui, Sonia; Malbec, Marine; Richard, Léa; Bourdic, Katia; Donahue, Daniel Aaron; Lorin, Valérie; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Mouquet, Hugo; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These antibodies target the CD4-binding site, the glycans/V3 and V1/V2 loops on gp120, or the gp41 moiety. The landscape of Env epitope exposure at the surface and the sensitivity of infected cells to ADCC vary considerably between viral strains. Efficient ADCC requires sustained cell surface binding of bNAbs to Env, and combining bNAbs allows a potent killing activity. Furthermore, reactivated infected cells from HIV-positive individuals expose heterogeneous Env epitope patterns, with levels that are often but not always sufficient to trigger killing by bNAbs. Our study delineates the parameters controlling ADCC activity of bNAbs, and supports the use of the most potent antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. PMID:26936020

  11. Immunogens Modeling a Fusion-Intermediate Conformation of gp41 Elicit Antibodies to the Membrane Proximal External Region of the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Vassell, Russell; He, Yong; Vennakalanti, Prasad; Dey, Antu K.; Zhuang, Min; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yide; Biron-Sorek, Zohar; Srivastava, Indresh K.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Barnett, Susan W.; Weiss, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains determinants for broadly neutralizing antibodies and has remained an important focus of vaccine design. However, creating an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies to this region has proven difficult in part due to the relative inaccessibility of the MPER in the native conformation of Env. Here, we describe the antigenicity and immunogenicity of a panel of oligomeric gp41 immunogens designed to model a fusion-intermediate conformation of Env in order to enhance MPER exposure in a relevant conformation. The immunogens contain segments of the gp41 N- and C-heptad repeats to mimic a trapped intermediate, followed by the MPER, with variations that include different N-heptad lengths, insertion of extra epitopes, and varying C-termini. These well-characterized immunogens were evaluated in two different immunization protocols involving gp41 and gp140 proteins, gp41 and gp160 DNA primes, and different immunization schedules and adjuvants. We found that the immunogens designed to reduce extension of helical structure into the MPER elicited the highest MPER antibody binding titers, but these antibodies lacked neutralizing activity. The gp41 protein immunogens also elicited higher MPER titers than the gp140 protein immunogen. In prime-boost studies, the best MPER responses were seen in the groups that received DNA priming with gp41 vectors followed by gp41 protein boosts. Finally, although titers to the entire protein immunogen were similar in the two immunization protocols, MPER-specific titers differed, suggesting that the immunization route, schedule, dose, or adjuvant may differentially influence MPER immunogenicity. These findings inform the design of future MPER immunogens and immunization protocols. PMID:26087072

  12. Automated microtransfer technique for the assay of poliovirus- and mumps virus-neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mayner, R E; McDorman, D J; Meyer, B C; Parkman, P D

    1974-12-01

    Use of an automated apparatus to quantitate mumps virus- and poliovirus-neutralizing antibody is described. The automated titration equipment affords savings in effort, time, and reagents in conducting large-scale surveys for the determination of mumps- and poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies. This technique has been found to be reproducible and gives results comparable to other antibody assay methods.

  13. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Anshu P; Myers, Nicolle D; Treuting, Piper M; Bromme, Beth A; Wilson, Sarah S; Wiens, Mayim E; Lu, Wuyuan; Ouellette, André J; Spindler, Katherine R; Parks, William C; Smith, Jason G

    2016-03-01

    α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1). Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture. PMID:26933888

  14. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Treuting, Piper M.; Bromme, Beth A.; Wilson, Sarah S.; Wiens, Mayim E.; Lu, Wuyuan; Ouellette, André J.; Spindler, Katherine R.; Parks, William C.; Smith, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1). Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture. PMID:26933888

  15. Pharmacokinetics and Immunogenicity of Broadly Neutralizing HIV Monoclonal Antibodies in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Labranche, Celia; Lewis, Mark; Urban, Lori; Mao, Lingjun; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV-1, and success in preventing SHIV infection following their passive administration, have increased the likelihood that immunotherapeutic strategies can be adopted to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. However, while broad and potent neutralizing activity is an essential prerequisite, in vivo properties such as good circulatory stability and non-immunogenicity are equally critical for developing a human treatment. In the present study, glycoforms of the bnAbs 10-1074, NIH45-46G54W, 10E8, PGT121, PGT128, PGT145, PGT135, PG9, PG16, VRC01 and b12 were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana and assessed following administration in rhesus macaques. The results indicate that (i) N-glycans within the VL domain impair plasma stability of plant-derived bnAbs and (ii) while PGT121 and b12 exhibit no immunogenicity in rhesus macaques after multiple injections, VRC01, 10-1074 and NIH45-46G54W elicit high titer anti-idiotypic antibodies following a second injection. These anti-idiotypic antibodies specifically bind the administered bnAb or a close family member, and inhibit the bnAb in neutralization assays. These findings suggest that specific mutations in certain bnAbs contribute to their immunogenicity and call attention to the prospect that these mutated bnAbs will be immunogenic in humans, potentially compromising their value for prophylaxis and therapy of HIV-1. PMID:25807114

  16. Molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and protection against flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lianpan; Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Shi, Yi; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-mediated humoral immunity plays a pivotal role in flavivirus control. Neutralizing antibodies targeting viral envelope (E) protein, provide protection against flaviviruses in vivo but can also promote virus infection by antibody-dependent enhancement when antibodies are weakly neutralizing or in subneutralizing concentrations. The molecular basis for antibody-mediated virus neutralization can be revealed by structural studies of monoclonal antibodies complexed with the E protein or virion. In addition, the flavivirus non-structural protein NS1 can also induce host antibody production, and some of these antibodies can provide protection against virus challenge. In this review, we summarize the known structures of flavivirus neutralizing or protective antibodies bound to their epitopes and describe the underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):783-791, 2016.

  17. Molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and protection against flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lianpan; Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Shi, Yi; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-mediated humoral immunity plays a pivotal role in flavivirus control. Neutralizing antibodies targeting viral envelope (E) protein, provide protection against flaviviruses in vivo but can also promote virus infection by antibody-dependent enhancement when antibodies are weakly neutralizing or in subneutralizing concentrations. The molecular basis for antibody-mediated virus neutralization can be revealed by structural studies of monoclonal antibodies complexed with the E protein or virion. In addition, the flavivirus non-structural protein NS1 can also induce host antibody production, and some of these antibodies can provide protection against virus challenge. In this review, we summarize the known structures of flavivirus neutralizing or protective antibodies bound to their epitopes and describe the underlying molecular mechanisms. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):783-791, 2016. PMID:27604155

  18. Development of a Coxsackievirus A16 neutralization assay based on pseudoviruses for measurement of neutralizing antibody titer in human serum.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun; Ma, Hongxia; Xu, Lin; An, Dong; Sun, Shiyang; Huang, Xueyong; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2013-02-01

    Serum neutralizing antibody titers are indicative of protective immunity against Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the two main etiological agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and provide the basis for evaluating vaccine efficacy. The current CV-A16 neutralization assay based on inhibition of cytopathic effects requires manual microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, a high-throughput neutralization assay was developed by employing CV-A16 pseudoviruses expressing luciferase for detecting infectivity in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and measuring serum viral neutralizing antibodies. Without the need to use infectious CV-A16 strains, the neutralizing antibody titer against CV-A16 could be determined within 15h by measuring luciferase signals by this assay. The pseudovirus CV-A16 neutralization assay (pCNA) was validated by comparison with a conventional CV-A16 neutralization assay (cCNA) in testing 174 human serum samples collected from children (age <5 years). The neutralizing antibody titers determined by these two assays were well correlated (R(2)=0.7689). These results suggest that the pCNA can serve as a rapid and objective procedure for the measurement of neutralizing antibodies against CV-A16.

  19. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Broadly Neutralizing against Influenza B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yasugi, Mayo; Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kawashita, Norihito; Du, Anariwa; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Ryo; Kuhara, Motoki; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus. PMID:23408886

  20. Protective antibodies against a sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited in mice with different genetic background.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Franco Batista; Vilela, Andrea; Coura, Luis Augusto M; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Maioli, Tatiani U; Felicori, Liza F

    2016-07-19

    In the present investigation we used a recombinant LiD1 toxin, named rLiD1his, from Loxosceles intermedia brown spider to elicit specific antibodies in mice carrying different Human Leukocyte Antigens class II (HLAII) {DRB1.0401 (DR4), DQB1.0601 (DQ6) and DQB1.0302 (DQ8)} as well as in BALB/C and C57BL/6 control mice. All mice strains produced high antibody titers against rLiD1his but DR4 mice antibodies (the lower responder mice) were not able to recognize L. intermedia crude venom. The anti-rLiD1his sera, except from DR4 mice, were able to neutralize dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic effects of rLiD1his in naïve rabbits. Overlapping peptides from the amino acid sequence of LiD1 toxin were prepared by SPOT method and differences in LiD1 epitope recognition were observed using different mice anti-rLiD1his sera. The region (160)DKVGHDFSGNDDISDVGK(177) was recognized by transgenic DQ8 and DQ6 mice sera. Other epitopes were recognized by at least two different animals' sera including (10)MGHMVNAIGQIDEFVNLG(27), (37)FDDNANPEYTYHGIP(51), (70)GLRSATTPGNSKYQEKLV(87) and (259)AAYKKKFRVATYDDN(273). Among these epitopes, the epitopes 37-51 and 160-177 have already been shown in previously studies as good candidates to be used alone or combined with other peptides to induce protective immune response against Loxosceles venoms. The results presented here highlight the importance of HLAII in antibody response and recognition of specific B-cell epitopes of rLiD1his spider toxin according to HLAII type and impact in the epitopic vaccine development against this spider. PMID:27265457

  1. Protective antibodies against a sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited in mice with different genetic background.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Franco Batista; Vilela, Andrea; Coura, Luis Augusto M; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Maioli, Tatiani U; Felicori, Liza F

    2016-07-19

    In the present investigation we used a recombinant LiD1 toxin, named rLiD1his, from Loxosceles intermedia brown spider to elicit specific antibodies in mice carrying different Human Leukocyte Antigens class II (HLAII) {DRB1.0401 (DR4), DQB1.0601 (DQ6) and DQB1.0302 (DQ8)} as well as in BALB/C and C57BL/6 control mice. All mice strains produced high antibody titers against rLiD1his but DR4 mice antibodies (the lower responder mice) were not able to recognize L. intermedia crude venom. The anti-rLiD1his sera, except from DR4 mice, were able to neutralize dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic effects of rLiD1his in naïve rabbits. Overlapping peptides from the amino acid sequence of LiD1 toxin were prepared by SPOT method and differences in LiD1 epitope recognition were observed using different mice anti-rLiD1his sera. The region (160)DKVGHDFSGNDDISDVGK(177) was recognized by transgenic DQ8 and DQ6 mice sera. Other epitopes were recognized by at least two different animals' sera including (10)MGHMVNAIGQIDEFVNLG(27), (37)FDDNANPEYTYHGIP(51), (70)GLRSATTPGNSKYQEKLV(87) and (259)AAYKKKFRVATYDDN(273). Among these epitopes, the epitopes 37-51 and 160-177 have already been shown in previously studies as good candidates to be used alone or combined with other peptides to induce protective immune response against Loxosceles venoms. The results presented here highlight the importance of HLAII in antibody response and recognition of specific B-cell epitopes of rLiD1his spider toxin according to HLAII type and impact in the epitopic vaccine development against this spider.

  2. A monoclonal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 which mediates cellular cytotoxicity and neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Broliden, P A; Ljunggren, K; Hinkula, J; Norrby, E; Akerblom, L; Wahren, B

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. One MAb, P4/D10, was found to mediate highly efficient antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and virus neutralization. The reactivity was located to a major neutralizing region (amino acids 304 to 323) on gp120. Five other MAbs with a similar epitopic reactivity did not show any antibody-dependent cellulan cytotoxicity activity but had a virus-neutralizing capacity. PMID:2296090

  3. Type- and Subcomplex-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against Domain III of Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Recognize Adjacent Epitopes▿

    PubMed Central

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S. Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E.; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Roehrig, John T.; Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.; Fremont, Daved H.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials. PMID:17881453

  4. Type- and subcomplex-specific neutralizing antibodies against domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein recognize adjacent epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E; Schlesinger, Jacob J; Roehrig, John T; Gromowski, Gregory D; Barrett, Alan D; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S

    2007-12-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials.

  5. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  6. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population. PMID:26104333

  7. Structurally distinct nicotine immunogens elicit antibodies with non-overlapping specificities

    PubMed Central

    Pravetoni, M; Keyler, DE; Pidaparthi, RR; Carroll, FI; Runyon, SP; Murtaugh, MP; Earley, CA; Pentel, PR

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine conjugate vaccine efficacy is limited by the concentration of nicotine-specific antibodies that can be reliably generated in serum. Previous studies suggest that the concurrent use of 2 structurally distinct nicotine immunogens in rats can generate additive antibody responses by stimulating distinct B cell populations. In the current study we investigated whether it is possible to identify a third immunologically distinct nicotine immunogen. The new 1′-SNic immunogen (2S)-N,N′-(disulfanediyldiethane-2,1-diyl)bis[4-(2-pyridin-3-ylpyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide] conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) differed from the existing immunogens 3′-AmNic-rEPA and 6-CMUNic-BSA in linker position, linker composition, conjugation chemistry, and carrier protein. Vaccination of rats with 1′-SNic-KLH elicited high concentrations of high affinity nicotine-specific antibodies. The antibodies produced in response to 1′-SNic-KLH did not appreciably cross-react in ELISA with either 3′-AmNic-rEPA or 6-CMUNic-BSA or vice-versa, showing that the B cell populations activated by each of these nicotine immunogens were non-overlapping and distinct. Nicotine retention in serum was increased and nicotine distribution to brain substantially reduced in rats vaccinated with 1′-SNic-KLH compared to controls. Effects of 1′-SNic-KLH on nicotine distribution were comparable to those of 3′-AmNic-rEPA which has progressed to late stage clinical trials as an adjunct to smoking cessation. These data show that it is possible to design multiple immunogens from a small molecule such as nicotine which elicit independent immune responses. This approach could be applicable to other addiction vaccines or small molecule targets as well. PMID:22100986

  8. Potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Miao; Niu, Xuefeng; He, Shihua; Wang, Ruoke; Feng, Yupeng; Kroeker, Andrea; Zuo, Yanan; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ying; Li, Jiade; Li, Chufang; Shi, Yi; Shi, Xuanling; Gao, George F.; Xiang, Ye; Qiu, Xiangguo; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus infections cause a deadly hemorrhagic disease for which no vaccines or therapeutics has received regulatory approval. Here we show isolation of three (Q206, Q314 and Q411) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the surface glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus identified in West Africa in 2014 through sequential immunization of Chinese rhesus macaques and antigen-specific single B cell sorting. These mAbs demonstrated potent neutralizing activities against both pseudo and live Ebola virus independent of complement. Biochemical, single particle EM, and mutagenesis analysis suggested Q206 and Q411 recognized novel epitopes in the head while Q314 targeted the glycan cap in the GP1 subunit. Q206 and Q411 appeared to influence GP binding to its receptor NPC1. Treatment with these mAbs provided partial but significant protection against disease in a mouse model of Ebola virus infection. These novel mAbs could serve as promising candidates for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against Ebola virus infection. PMID:27181584

  9. Antigenic Characterization of the HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer Cell Entry Complexes Reveals Binding Sites for Potently Neutralizing Human Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Leitner, Alexander; Donnarumma, Danilo; Cianfrocco, Michael A.; Gerrein, Rachel; Friedrich, Kristian; Aggarwal, Yukti; Palladino, Giuseppe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and in fetuses following congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are required for HCMV entry in fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, and are targeted by potently neutralizing antibodies in the infected host. Using purified soluble forms of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer as well as a panel of naturally elicited human monoclonal antibodies, we determined the location of key neutralizing epitopes on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer surfaces. Mass Spectrometry (MS) coupled to Chemical Crosslinking or to Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange was used to define residues that are either in proximity or part of neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein complexes. We also determined the molecular architecture of the gH/gL/gO- and Pentamer-antibody complexes by Electron Microscopy (EM) and 3D reconstructions. The EM analysis revealed that the Pentamer specific neutralizing antibodies bind to two opposite surfaces of the complex, suggesting that they may neutralize infection by different mechanisms. Together, our data identify the location of neutralizing antibodies binding sites on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer complexes and provide a framework for the development of antibodies and vaccines against HCMV. PMID:26485028

  10. Antigenic Characterization of the HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer Cell Entry Complexes Reveals Binding Sites for Potently Neutralizing Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Leitner, Alexander; Donnarumma, Danilo; Cianfrocco, Michael A; Gerrein, Rachel; Friedrich, Kristian; Aggarwal, Yukti; Palladino, Giuseppe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and in fetuses following congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are required for HCMV entry in fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, and are targeted by potently neutralizing antibodies in the infected host. Using purified soluble forms of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer as well as a panel of naturally elicited human monoclonal antibodies, we determined the location of key neutralizing epitopes on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer surfaces. Mass Spectrometry (MS) coupled to Chemical Crosslinking or to Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange was used to define residues that are either in proximity or part of neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein complexes. We also determined the molecular architecture of the gH/gL/gO- and Pentamer-antibody complexes by Electron Microscopy (EM) and 3D reconstructions. The EM analysis revealed that the Pentamer specific neutralizing antibodies bind to two opposite surfaces of the complex, suggesting that they may neutralize infection by different mechanisms. Together, our data identify the location of neutralizing antibodies binding sites on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer complexes and provide a framework for the development of antibodies and vaccines against HCMV. PMID:26485028

  11. Neutralizing determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies on polypeptides specified by bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J K; Butcher, A C; Riegel, C A; McGrane, V; Blair, C D; Teramoto, Y A; Winston, S

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to study neutralizing determinants on polypeptides of bovine herpesvirus 1. Two of three monoclonal antibodies which recognized nonoverlapping epitopes on a glycoprotein of 82,000 daltons were found to neutralize. A second group of monoclonal antibodies that individually precipitated five viral glycopolypeptides ranging in size from 102,000 to 55,000 daltons also neutralized. Two monoclonal antibodies which were the most efficient in neutralization recognized a non-glycosylated protein of 115,000 daltons which was the major polypeptide on the virus. A fourth group of monoclonal antibodies precipitated a non-glycosylated polypeptide of 91,000 daltons and several smaller polypeptides, but these antibodies demonstrated only limited neutralizing activity. Images PMID:6208375

  12. Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E by a Humanized Antibody.

    PubMed

    Derman, Yağmur; Selby, Katja; Miethe, Sebastian; Frenzel, André; Liu, Yvonne; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Pelat, Thibaut; Urbain, Remi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Lindström, Miia; Hust, Michael; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. We demonstrated the protection and prophylaxis capacity of hu8ELC18 against BoNT/E in a mouse model. A concentration of 2.5 ng/mouse of hu8ELC18 protected against 5 mouse lethal dose (MLD) in a mouse protection assay and complete neutralization of 1 LD50 of pure BoNT/E toxin was achieved with 8 ng of hu8ELC18 in mouse paralysis assay. Furthermore, hu8ELC18 protected mice from 5 MLD if injected up to 14 days prior to intraperitoneal BoNT/E administration. This newly-developed humanized IgG is expected to have high tolerance in humans. PMID:27626446

  13. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to an extracellular Pseudomonas cepacia protease.

    PubMed Central

    Kooi, C; Cox, A; Darling, P; Sokol, P A

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia produces at least two extracellular proteases with apparent molecular masses of 36,000 and 40,000 Da. The 36-kDa protease has high proteolytic activity and the 40-kDa protease has low proteolytic activity with hide powder azure as a substrate. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the purified 36- and 40-kDa proteases. Several MAbs directed against the 36-kDa protease were found to recognize the 40-kDa protease by Western immunoblot analysis. Similarly, a MAb directed against the 40-kDa protease recognized the 36-kDa protease, suggesting that these two proteases may be immunologically related. A MAb directed against the 36-kDa protease, designated 36-6-8, and a MAb directed against the 40-kDa protease (MAb G-11) cross-reacted with other extracellular proteases, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and alkaline protease, Pseudomonas pseudomallei protease, and the Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease. MAb 36-6-8 neutralized the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease, P. aeruginosa elastase, P. pseudomallei protease, and V. cholerae hemagglutinin/protease but did not affect P. aeruginosa alkaline protease activity. In contrast, MAb G-11 to the 40-kDa protease neutralized only the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease. This evidence suggests that the neutralizing MAb, 36-6-8, recognizes an epitope conserved among some metalloproteases. This epitope may lie at or near the active site of the P. cepacia 36-kDa protease and P. aeruginosa elastase. Images PMID:7516312

  14. Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E by a Humanized Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Derman, Yağmur; Selby, Katja; Miethe, Sebastian; Frenzel, André; Liu, Yvonne; Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Pelat, Thibaut; Urbain, Remi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Thullier, Philippe; Sesardic, Dorothea; Lindström, Miia; Hust, Michael; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). In the present study, we germline-humanized scFv-Fc ELC18 into a full IgG hu8ELC18 to increase its immunotolerance by humans. We demonstrated the protection and prophylaxis capacity of hu8ELC18 against BoNT/E in a mouse model. A concentration of 2.5 ng/mouse of hu8ELC18 protected against 5 mouse lethal dose (MLD) in a mouse protection assay and complete neutralization of 1 LD50 of pure BoNT/E toxin was achieved with 8 ng of hu8ELC18 in mouse paralysis assay. Furthermore, hu8ELC18 protected mice from 5 MLD if injected up to 14 days prior to intraperitoneal BoNT/E administration. This newly-developed humanized IgG is expected to have high tolerance in humans. PMID:27626446

  15. Early appearance of neutralizing antibodies after vaccination with an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine.

    PubMed

    Flehmig, B; Staedele, H; Xueref, C; Vidor, E; Zuckerman, J; Zuckerman, A

    1997-07-01

    Sera from 30 subjects vaccinated with the Pasteur Merieux Serums & Vaccins (PM) inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, and from 30 subjects vaccinated with the Smithkline Beecham (SB) inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, were tested in two laboratories in order to provide comparative data on neutralizing activities of vaccine-induced antibodies. Sera were also evaluated by a modified radioimmunoassay (mRIA) and results were compared to neutralization assays results. Neutralizing antibody titres provided by the two laboratories correlated well (coefficient or correlation 0.42, P < 0.001). Neutralizing antibodies were detected after vaccination with both vaccines, and the kinetics of neutralizing antibody were the same with both vaccines. The titres gradually increased between the second week after the first dose and the post-booster dose (week 28). A strong booster effect of the booster vaccine dose on neutralizing titres was observed. Significantly higher neutralizing antibody titres with the PM vaccine were observed as early immune response on week 2 titres on both series of results. Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres and vaccine-induced antibody mRIA titres correlated well (coefficient of correlation 0.82 and 0.72, respectively, P < 0.0001 in both cases). These results demonstrate early appearance of neutralizing antibody at high titre with the PM vaccine.

  16. Comparison of antibody avidity and titre elicited by peptide as a protein conjugate or as expressed in vaccinia.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, A M; Anders, R F; Edwards, S J; Langford, C J

    1988-01-01

    The immunogenicity of a malaria peptide presented in various forms was tested in terms of the quality and quantity of the antibody response in rabbits. Peptide conjugated to a protein carrier, diphtheria toxoid (DT), required strong adjuvants (e.g. muramyl dipeptide, MDP and Freund's adjuvant, FCA) to elicit high levels of antibody with high avidity. Alum was a poor adjuvant, producing the lowest titre and avidity of antibody compared with all the other groups. Peptide expressed in vaccinia (and without carrier) produced intermediate levels of antibody but the avidity of the antibodies produced were comparable to that produced by peptide conjugates given with muramyl dipeptide. PMID:3056855

  17. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrPSc). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrPSc-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrPSc-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrPSc-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrPC and PrPSc. At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrPSc and depletion of PrPC. PMID:26284508

  18. In vitro neutralization of prions with PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Van der Merwe, Jacques; Marciniuk, Kristen; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases reflect the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into an infectious, pathological isomer (PrP(Sc)). By targeting epitopes uniquely exposed by misfolding, our group developed PrP(Sc)-specific vaccines to 3 disease specific epitopes (DSEs). Here, antibodies induced by individual DSE vaccines are evaluated for their capacity to neutralize prions in vitro. For both purified antibodies and immunoreactive sera, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies were equally effective in neutralizing prions. Further, there was no significant increase in neutralizing activity when multiple DSEs were targeted within an assay. At a low antibody concentration, the PrP(Sc)-specific antibodies matched the neutralization achieved by an antibody that may act via both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc). At higher doses, however, this pan-specific antibody was more effective, potentially due to a combined deactivation of PrP(Sc) and depletion of PrP(C).

  19. Central nervous system immunity in mice infected with theiler's virus. I. Local neutralizing antibody response.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1978-02-01

    Experimental Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in mice is atypical of most other picornavirus infections because virus persists in the host. It was shown previously that low levels of infectious virus are readily detectable in the central nervous system (CNS) despite the presence of substantial titers of serum neutralizing antibody. In this study antibody assays were performed on CNS tissue homogenates, and neutralizing antibody was regularly found in the CNS of TMEV-infected mice. That neutralization by infected CNS extracts was due to antibody was demonstrated by the specificity of neutralization for TMEV and by elimination or marked reduction of neutralization by in vitro treatment with goat antiserum to mouse IgG. In addition, immunofluorescent staining consistently revealed IgG- but not IgM-containing cells in perivascular cuffs and parenchymal lesions of the brains of infected animals. Evidence of local antibody formation in the CNS was found in the actual reversal of the serum-CNS antibody ratio in about one-third of infected mice after three weeks. In contrast, normal mice had a mean serum-CNS antibody ratio of approximately 100:1 after passive transfer of antibody. Possible reasons for the fact that TMEV is not neutralized by antibody and chronic infection is not aborted include the formation of complexes of infectious virus and antibody in the CNS and the production of antibodies with low affinity for TMEV.

  20. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  1. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  2. Structures of HIV-1-Env V1V2 with broadly neutralizing antibodies reveal commonalities that enable vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Jason; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Max M.; Davenport, Thaddeus M.; Guttman, Miklos; Bailer, Robert T.; Chambers, Michael; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; DeKosky, Brandon J.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Ernandes, Michael J.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Jarosinski, Marissa C.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lemmin, Thomas M.; Leung, Sherman; Louder, Mark K.; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Narpala, Sandeep; Pancera, Marie; Stuckey, Jonathan; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Mullikin, James C.; Baxa, Ulrich; Georgiou, George; McDermott, Adrian B.; Bonsignori, Mattia; Haynes, Barton F.; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn; Lee, Kelly K.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1-Env V1V2 arise in multiple donors. However, atomic-level interactions had only been determined with antibodies from a single donor, making commonalities in recognition uncertain. Here we report the co-crystal structure of V1V2 with antibody CH03 from a second donor and model Env interactions of antibody CAP256-VRC26 from a third. These V1V2-directed bNAbs utilized strand-strand interactions between a protruding antibody loop and a V1V2 strand, but differed in their N-glycan recognition. Ontogeny analysis indicated protruding loops to develop early, with glycan interactions maturing over time. Altogether, the multidonor information suggested V1V2-directed bNAbs to form an ‘extended class’, for which we engineered ontogeny-specific antigens: Env trimers with chimeric V1V2s that interacted with inferred ancestor and intermediate antibodies. The ontogeny-based design of vaccine antigens described here may provide a general means for eliciting antibodies of a desired class. PMID:26689967

  3. Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in fresh colostrum: a modification of the virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Bedekovic, Tomislav; Mihaljevic, Zeljko; Jungic, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Lojkic, Ivana; Cvetnic, Zeljko; Cac, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    To eliminate cytotoxic effects of colostrum on cells, a modified virus neutralization test (VNT) for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in colostrum was developed. The new test was compared to the World Organization for Animal Health-recommended VNT and the results evaluated. The agreement of the new test compared to the standard VNT was determined to be 98%, whereas sensitivity and specificity of the modified VNT compared to the standard VNT were 100%. Bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antibodies were detected in 42 sera samples and 38 colostrum samples. The antibody titers in serum and colostrum showed a high correlation (n = 56, r = 0.9719, P < 0.001). The modified virus neutralization technique described herein succeeds in eliminating cytotoxic effects and can be readily applied for the detection of specific antibodies against other infectious agents in colostrum. PMID:23417081

  4. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Moody, M Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Amos, Joshua D; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Alam, S Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S; Sam, Noel E; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S; Tumba, Nancy L; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Mascola, John R; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Sodroski, Joseph G; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Hraber, Peter T; Korber, Bette T; Haynes, Barton F

    2015-09-01

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3 and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.

  5. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, M.  Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus  C.; Amos, Joshua  D.; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn  J.; Whitesides, John  F.; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey  E.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan  A.; Alam, S.  Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia  D.; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron  S.; Sam, Noel  E.; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S.; Tumba, Nancy  L.; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw  K.; Mascola, John  R.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George  M.; Sodroski, Joseph  G.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Hraber, Peter T.; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the viral envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. In chronic infection, virus escape mutants repopulate the plasma and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize, but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.

  6. Strain-Specific V3 and CD4 Binding Site Autologous HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Select Neutralization-Resistant Viruses

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, M.  Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus  C.; Amos, Joshua  D.; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn  J.; Whitesides, John  F.; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; et al

    2015-09-09

    The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the viral envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. In chronic infection, virus escape mutants repopulate the plasma and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize, but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tiermore » 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.« less

  7. Strain-specific V3 and CD4 binding site autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies select neutralization-resistant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Moody, M. Anthony; Gao, Feng; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Amos, Joshua D.; Kumar, Amit; Hora, Bhavna; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Lu, Xiaozhi; Bonsignori, Mattia; Finzi, Andrés; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Alam, S. Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S.; Sam, Noel E.; Kapiga, Saidi; Gray, Elin S.; Tumba, Nancy L.; Morris, Lynn; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Mascola, John R.; Hahn, Beatrice; Shaw, George M.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C.; Hraber, Peter T.; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize, but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses. PMID:26355218

  8. Both Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Human H7N9 Influenza Vaccine-Induced Monoclonal Antibodies Confer Protection.

    PubMed

    Henry Dunand, Carole J; Leon, Paul E; Huang, Min; Choi, Angela; Chromikova, Veronika; Ho, Irvin Y; Tan, Gene S; Cruz, John; Hirsh, Ariana; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Mullarkey, Caitlin E; Ennis, Francis A; Terajima, Masanori; Treanor, John J; Topham, David J; Subbarao, Kanta; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian; Wilson, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    Pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza viruses continue to represent a public health concern, and several candidate vaccines are currently being developed. It is vital to assess if protective antibodies are induced following vaccination and to characterize the diversity of epitopes targeted. Here we characterized the binding and functional properties of twelve H7-reactive human antibodies induced by a candidate A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) vaccine. Both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies protected mice in vivo during passive transfer challenge experiments. Mapping the H7 hemagglutinin antigenic sites by generating escape mutant variants against the neutralizing antibodies identified unique epitopes on the head and stalk domains. Further, the broadly cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies generated in this study were protective through Fc-mediated effector cell recruitment. These findings reveal important properties of vaccine-induced antibodies and provide a better understanding of the human monoclonal antibody response to influenza in the context of vaccines. PMID:27281570

  9. Passive neutralizing antibody controls SHIV viremia and enhances B cell responses in infant macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cherie T.; Jaworski, J. Pablo; Jayaraman, Pushpa; Sutton, William F.; Delio, Patrick; Kuller, LaRene; Anderson, David; Landucci, Gary; Richardson, Barbra A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Forthal, Donald N.; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal HIV-1-specific antibodies are efficiently transferred to newborns; their role in disease control is unknown. We administered non-sterilizing levels of neutralizing IgG, including the human neutralizing monoclonal IgG1b12, to six newborn macaques before oral challenge with SHIVSF612P3. All rapidly developed neutralizing antibodies and had significantly reduced plasma viremia for 6 months. These studies support the use of neutralizing antibodies in enhancing B cell responses and viral control in perinatal settings. PMID:20890292

  10. Bispecific Antibodies Targeting Different Epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope Exhibit Broad and Potent Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, M.; Rudicell, R. S.; Louder, M.; McKee, K.; O'Dell, S.; Stewart-Jones, G.; Wang, K.; Xu, L.; Chen, X.; Choe, M.; Chuang, G.; Georgiev, I. S.; Joyce, M. G.; Kirys, T.; Ko, S.; Pegu, A.; Shi, W.; Todd, J. P.; Yang, Z.; Bailer, R. T.; Rao, S.; Kwong, P. D.; Nabel, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potency and breadth of the recently isolated neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1 have stimulated interest in their use to prevent or to treat HIV-1 infection. Due to the antigenically diverse nature of the HIV-1 envelope (Env), no single antibody is highly active against all viral strains. While the physical combination of two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can improve coverage against the majority of viruses, the clinical-grade manufacturing and testing of two independent antibody products are time and resource intensive. In this study, we constructed bispecific immunoglobulins (IgGs) composed of independent antigen-binding fragments with a common Fc region. We developed four different bispecific IgG variants that included antibodies targeting four major sites of HIV-1 neutralization. We show that these bispecific IgGs display features of both antibody specificities and, in some cases, display improved coverage over the individual parental antibodies. All four bispecific IgGs neutralized 94% to 97% of antigenically diverse viruses in a panel of 206 HIV-1 strains. Among the bispecific IgGs tested, VRC07 × PG9-16 displayed the most favorable neutralization profile. It was superior in breadth to either of the individual antibodies, neutralizing 97% of viruses with a median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.055 μg/ml. This bispecific IgG also demonstrated in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters comparable to those of the parental bNAbs when administered to rhesus macaques. These results suggest that IgG-based bispecific antibodies are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE To prevent or treat HIV-1 infection, antibodies must potently neutralize nearly all strains of HIV-1. Thus, the physical combination of two or more antibodies may be needed to broaden neutralization coverage and diminish the possibility of viral resistance. A bispecific antibody that has two different

  11. Neutralization of diverse HIV-1 strains by monoclonal antibodies raised against a gp41 synthetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, A G; Chanh, T C; Kennedy, R C; Kanda, P; Clapham, P R; Weiss, R A

    1988-07-01

    Three IgM monoclonal antibodies raised against synthetic peptide analogs of a hydrophilic region of the gp41 transmembrane env protein of HIV-1 neutralize different HIV-1 isolates but not HIV-2 isolates, as determined by HIV titration and by syncytial inhibition assays. VSV (HIV-1) pseudotypes, however, were not neutralized, indicating that gp41 was not accessible to these antibodies on the pseudotype particles. The antibodies affect early steps in adsorption and penetration of HIV-1.

  12. Algae-Produced Pfs25 Elicits Antibodies That Inhibit Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, James A.; Li, Fengwu; Tomosada, Lauren M.; Cox, Chesa J.; Topol, Aaron B.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Mayfield, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Subunit vaccines are significantly more expensive to produce than traditional vaccines because they are based primarily on recombinant proteins that must be purified from the expression system. Despite the increased cost, subunit vaccines are being developed because they are safe, effective, and can elicit antibodies that confer protection against diseases that are not currently vaccine-preventable. Algae are an attractive platform for producing subunit vaccines because they are relatively inexpensive to grow, genetically tractable, easily scaled to large volumes, have a short generation time, and are devoid of inflammatory, viral, or prion contaminants often present in other systems. We tested whether algal chloroplasts can produce malaria transmission blocking vaccine candidates, Plasmodium falciparum surface protein 25 (Pfs25) and 28 (Pfs28). Antibodies that recognize Pfs25 and Pfs28 disrupt the sexual development of parasites within the mosquito midgut, thus preventing transmission of malaria from one human host to the next. These proteins have been difficult to produce in traditional recombinant systems because they contain tandem repeats of structurally complex epidermal growth factor-like domains, which cannot be produced in bacterial systems, and because they are not glycosylated, so they must be modified for production in eukaryotic systems. Production in algal chloroplasts avoids these issues because chloroplasts can fold complex eukaryotic proteins and do not glycosylate proteins. Here we demonstrate that algae are the first recombinant system to successfully produce an unmodified and aglycosylated version of Pfs25 or Pfs28. These antigens are structurally similar to the native proteins and antibodies raised to these recombinant proteins recognize Pfs25 and Pfs28 from P. falciparum. Furthermore, antibodies to algae-produced Pfs25 bind the surface of in-vitro cultured P. falciparum sexual stage parasites and exhibit transmission blocking activity. Thus

  13. Protection of Macaques against Pathogenic Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus 89.6PD by Passive Transfer of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, John R.; Lewis, Mark G.; Stiegler, Gabriela; Harris, Dawn; VanCott, Thomas C.; Hayes, Deborah; Louder, Mark K.; Brown, Charles R.; Sapan, Christine V.; Frankel, Sarah S.; Lu, Yichen; Robb, Merlin L.; Katinger, Hermann; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4+-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4+-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4+ T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease. PMID:10196297

  14. Focused Evolution of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Revealed by Structures and Deep Sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xueling; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Baoshan; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wang, Charlene; Chen, Xuejun; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Perfetto, Stephen; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Shi, Wei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Zhenhai; Bonsignori, Mattia; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Simek, Melissa; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Connors, Mark; Mullikin, James C.; Nabel, Gary J.; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.

    2013-03-04

    Antibody VRC01 is a human immunoglobulin that neutralizes about 90% of HIV-1 isolates. To understand how such broadly neutralizing antibodies develop, we used x-ray crystallography and 454 pyrosequencing to characterize additional VRC01-like antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals. Crystal structures revealed a convergent mode of binding for diverse antibodies to the same CD4-binding-site epitope. A functional genomics analysis of expressed heavy and light chains revealed common pathways of antibody-heavy chain maturation, confined to the IGHV1-2*02 lineage, involving dozens of somatic changes, and capable of pairing with different light chains. Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 immunity associated with VRC01-like antibodies thus involves the evolution of antibodies to a highly affinity-matured state required to recognize an invariant viral structure, with lineages defined from thousands of sequences providing a genetic roadmap of their development.

  15. A game of numbers: the stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization of flavivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The humoral response contributes to the protection against viral pathogens. Although antibodies have the potential to inhibit viral infections via several mechanisms, an ability to neutralize viruses directly may be particularly important. Neutralizing antibody titers are commonly used as predictors of protection from infection, especially in the context of vaccine responses and immunity. Despite the simplicity of the concept, how antibody binding results in virus inactivation is incompletely understood despite decades of research. Flaviviruses have been an attractive system in which to seek a structural and quantitative understanding of how antibody interactions with virions modulate infection because of the contribution of antibodies to both protection and pathogenesis. This review will present a stoichiometric model of antibody-mediated neutralization of flaviviruses and discuss how these concepts can inform the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:25595803

  16. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-gp120 interface

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Imamichi, Hiromi; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2015-10-15

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies is providing important insights into the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in ref. 1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific monoclonal antibody, termed 35O22, which binds a novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) <50 μg ml-1. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg ml-1, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed that it bound to a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current monoclonal-antibody-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis and vaccine design.

  17. Rice-produced MSP142 of Plasmodium falciparum elicits antibodies that inhibit parasite growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Liang, W; Qian, F; Qian, B; Cao, J; Zhang, D; Xu, Y; Tang, L

    2016-10-01

    Many malaria antigens contain multiple disulphide bonds involved in the formation of inhibitory B-cell epitopes. Producing properly folded malaria antigens in sufficient quantities for vaccination is often a challenge. The 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142 ) is such a kind of malaria antigen. In this study, we investigated the expression of MSP142 in a rice system (9522, a cultivar of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), which was used as a bioreactor for protein production. The MSP142 gene was synthesized according to rice-preferred codons and transformed into rice plants via an Agrobacterium-mediated method. The recombinant antigen was efficiently expressed in rice seeds with a level up to 1.56% of total soluble protein and was recognized by both the conformational monoclonal antibody 5.2 (mAb5.2) and the pooled sera of P. falciparum malaria patients. Rabbits were immunized intramuscularly with the purified MSP142 formulated with Freund's adjuvant. High antibody titres against MSP142 were elicited. The rabbit immune sera reacted well with the native protein of P. falciparum parasite and strongly inhibited the in vitro growth of blood-stage P. falciparum parasites, demonstrating that transgenic rice can become an efficient bioreactor for the production of malaria vaccine antigens. PMID:27493141

  18. Additive Effect of Neutralizing Antibody and Antiviral Drug Treatment in Preventing Virus Escape and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Senn, Beatrice M.; Klenerman, Paul; Kalinke, Ulrich; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Poorly cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses can escape immune surveillance and establish a chronic infection. Here we exploited the strategy of combining antiviral drug treatment with the induction of a neutralizing antibody response to avoid the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus variants. Despite the fact that H25 immunoglobulin transgenic mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mounted an early neutralizing antibody response, the virus escaped from neutralization and persisted. After ribavirin treatment of H25 transgenic mice, the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus was prevented and virus was cleared. Thus, the combination of virus-neutralizing antibodies and chemotherapy efficiently controlled the infection, whereas each defense line alone did not. Similar additive effects may be unexpectedly efficient and beneficial in humans after infections with persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and possibly human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10846070

  19. Escape From Monoclonal Antibody Neutralization Affects Henipavirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Lee, Benhur; Hickey, Andrew; DeBuysscher, Blair; Broder, Christopher C; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2016-02-01

    Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility that these viruses will escape neutralization remains a potential concern. In the present study, we generated neutralization-escape mutants, using 6 different monoclonal antibodies, and studied the effect of these neutralization-escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness. These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence.

  20. A Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Polymorphism Confers Resistance to Neutralization by Polyclonal Sera and Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewski, Lisa N.; El-Diwany, Ramy; Munshaw, Supriya; Snider, Anna E.; Brady, Jillian K.; Osburn, William O.; Ray, Stuart C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem, with millions of chronically infected individuals at risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV vaccine development is vital in the effort toward disease control and eradication, an undertaking aided by an increased understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). In this study, we identified HCV codons that vary deep in a phylogenetic tree of HCV sequences and showed that a polymorphism at one of these positions renders Bole1a, a computationally derived, ancestral genotype 1a HCV strain, resistant to neutralization by both polyclonal-HCV-infected plasma and multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with unique binding epitopes. This bNAb resistance mutation reduces replicative fitness, which may explain the persistence of both neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant variants in circulating viral strains. This work identifies an important determinant of bNAb resistance in an ancestral, representative HCV genome, which may inform HCV vaccine development. IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 170 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation in the United States. Despite recent significant advances in HCV treatment, a vaccine is needed. Control of the HCV pandemic with drug treatment alone is likely to fail due to limited access to treatment, reinfections in high-risk individuals, and the potential for resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) block infection by diverse HCV variants and therefore serve as a useful guide for vaccine development, but our understanding of resistance to bNAbs is incomplete. In this report, we identify a viral polymorphism conferring resistance to neutralization by both polyclonal plasma and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, which may inform HCV vaccine development

  1. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M.; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O.; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D.; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV. PMID:26888186

  2. Production of Furin-cleaved Papillomavirus Pseudovirions and their use for in vitro neutralization assays of L1 or L2-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W; Matsui, Ken; Pan, Yuanji; Kwak, Kihyuck; Peng, Shiwen; Kemp, Troy; Pinto, Ligia; Roden, Richard B.S

    2015-01-01

    Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection. A high throughput and sensitive in vitro neutralization assay is therefore valuable for prophylactic HPV vaccine studies. Over several hours during infection of the genital tract, virions take on a distinct intermediate conformation, including a required furin cleavage of L2 at its N-terminus. This intermediate is an important target for neutralization by L2-specific antibody, but it is very transiently exposed during in vitro infection of most cell lines resulting in insensitive measurement for L2, but not L1-specific neutralizing antibodies. To model this intermediate, we describe a protocol to generate furin-cleaved HPV pseudovirions (fc-PsV) which deliver an encapsidated reporter plasmid to facilitate infectivity measurements. We also describe a protocol for use of fc-PsV in a high throughput in vitro neutralization assay for the sensitive measurement of both L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26237105

  3. Production of Furin-Cleaved Papillomavirus Pseudovirions and Their Use for In Vitro Neutralization Assays of L1- or L2-Specific Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joshua W; Matsui, Ken; Pan, Yuanji; Kwak, Kihyuck; Peng, Shiwen; Kemp, Troy; Pinto, Ligia; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-08-03

    Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection. A high-throughput and sensitive in vitro neutralization assay is therefore valuable for prophylactic HPV vaccine studies. Over several hours during infection of the genital tract, virions take on a distinct intermediate conformation, including a required furin cleavage of L2 at its N-terminus. This intermediate is an important target for neutralization by L2-specific antibody, but it is very transiently exposed during in vitro infection of most cell lines resulting in insensitive measurement for L2, but not L1-specific neutralizing antibodies. To model this intermediate, we describe a protocol to generate furin-cleaved HPV pseudovirions (fc-PsV), which deliver an encapsidated reporter plasmid to facilitate infectivity measurements. We also describe a protocol for use of fc-PsV in a high-throughput in vitro neutralization assay for the sensitive measurement of both L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies.

  4. Vaccine-Elicited V3 Loop-Specific Antibodies in Rhesus Monkeys and Control of a Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Expressing a Primary Patient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolate Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Letvin, Norman L.; Robinson, Suzanne; Rohne, Daniela; Axthelm, Michael K.; Fanton, John W.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Palker, Thomas J.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Vaccine-elicited antibodies specific for the third hypervariable domain of the surface gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (V3 loop) were assessed for their contribution to protection against infection in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/rhesus monkey model. Peptide vaccine-elicited anti-V3 loop antibody responses were examined for their ability to contain replication of SHIV-89.6, a nonpathogenic SHIV expressing a primary patient isolate HIV-1 envelope, as well as SHIV-89.6P, a pathogenic variant of that virus. Low-titer neutralizing antibodies to SHIV-89.6 that provided partial protection against viremia following SHIV-89.6 infection were generated. A similarly low-titer neutralizing antibody response to SHIV-89.6P that did not contain viremia after infection with SHIV-89.6P was generated, but a trend toward protection against CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss was seen in these infected monkeys. These observations suggest that the V3 loop on some primary patient HIV-1 isolates may be a partially effective target for neutralizing antibodies induced by peptide immunogens. PMID:11287566

  5. Structural repertoire of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies targeting the CD4 supersite in 14 donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tongqing; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Chen, Lei; Acharya, Priyamvada; Wu, Xueling; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Lingwood, Daniel; Soto, Cinque; Bailer, Robert T.; Ernandes, Michael J.; Kong, Rui; Longo, Nancy S.; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Tran, Lillian; Yang, Zhongjia; Druz, Aliaksandr; Luongo, Timothy S.; Moquin, Stephanie; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Pancera, Marie; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Gindin, Tatyana; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei; Mullikin, James C.; Gray, Matthew D.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Cohen, Myron S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Casazza, Joseph P.; Connors, Mark; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Weiss, Robin A.; West, Anthony P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Scheid, Johannes F.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The site on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein that binds the CD4 receptor is recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, several of which neutralize over 90% of HIV-1 strains. To understand how antibodies achieve such neutralization, we isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-crystal structures –8 determined here– of CD4bs antibodies from 14 donors. The 16 antibodies segregated by recognition mode and developmental ontogeny into two types: CDR H3-dominated and VH-gene-restricted. Both could achieve greater than 80% neutralization breadth, and both could develop in the same donor. Although paratope chemistries differed, all 16 gp120-CD4bs antibody complexes showed geometric similarity, with antibody-neutralization breadth correlating with antibody-angle of approach relative to the most effective antibody of each type. The repertoire for effective recognition of the CD4 supersite thus comprises antibodies with distinct paratopes arrayed about two optimal geometric orientations, one achieved by CDR H3 ontogenies and the other achieved by VH-gene-restricted ontogenies. PMID:26004070

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Neutralizing Antibody, a Correlate of Immune Protection.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A; Hause, Anne M; Aideyan, Letisha

    2016-01-01

    Assays that measure RSV-specific neutralizing antibody activity are very useful for evaluating vaccine candidates, performing seroprevalence studies, and detecting infection. Neutralizing antibody activity is normally measured by a plaque reduction neutralization assay or by a microneutralization assay with or without complement. These assays measure the functional capacity of serum (or other fluids) to neutralize virus infectivity in cells as compared to ELISA assays that only measure the binding capacity against an antigen. This chapter discusses important elements in standardization of the RSV-specific microneutralization assay for use in the laboratory. PMID:27464689

  7. Structure and function of broadly reactive antibody PG16 reveal an H3 subdomain that mediates potent neutralization of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Phogat, Sanjay K.; Koff, Wayne C.; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-11-15

    Development of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 will likely require elicitation of broad and potent neutralizing antibodies against the trimeric surface envelope glycoprotein (Env). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) PG9 and PG16 neutralize {approx}80% of HIV-1 isolates across all clades with extraordinary potency and target novel epitopes preferentially expressed on Env trimers. As these neutralization properties are ideal for a vaccine-elicited antibody response to HIV-1, their structural basis was investigated. The crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of PG16 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution revealed its unusually long, 28-residue, complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 forms a unique, stable subdomain that towers above the antibody surface. A 7-residue 'specificity loop' on the 'hammerhead' subdomain was identified that, when transplanted from PG16 to PG9 and vice versa, accounted for differences in the fine specificity and neutralization of these two mAbs. The PG16 electron density maps also revealed that a CDR H3 tyrosine was sulfated, which was confirmed for both PG9 (doubly) and PG16 (singly) by mass spectral analysis. We further showed that tyrosine sulfation plays a role in binding and neutralization. An N-linked glycan modification is observed in the variable light chain, but not required for antigen recognition. Further, the crystal structure of the PG9 light chain at 3.0 {angstrom} facilitated homology modeling to support the presence of these unusual features in PG9. Thus, PG9 and PG16 use unique structural features to mediate potent neutralization of HIV-1 that may be of utility in antibody engineering and for high-affinity recognition of a variety of therapeutic targets.

  8. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays.

  9. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    PubMed

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays. PMID:27463230

  10. NEP: web server for epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Liou, David; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2014-07-01

    Delineation of the antigenic site, or epitope, recognized by an antibody can provide clues about functional vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms, and can therefore guide antibody optimization and epitope-based vaccine design. Previously, we developed an algorithm for antibody-epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences and validated the algorithm on a set of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Here we describe the implementation of this algorithm, NEP (Neutralization-based Epitope Prediction), as a web-based server. The users must supply as input: (i) an alignment of antigen sequences of diverse viral strains; (ii) neutralization data for the antibody of interest against the same set of antigen sequences; and (iii) (optional) a structure of the unbound antigen, for enhanced prediction accuracy. The prediction results can be downloaded or viewed interactively on the antigen structure (if supplied) from the web browser using a JSmol applet. Since neutralization experiments are typically performed as one of the first steps in the characterization of an antibody to determine its breadth and potency, the NEP server can be used to predict antibody-epitope information at no additional experimental costs. NEP can be accessed on the internet at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/nep. PMID:24782517

  11. A novel reporter system for neutralizing and enhancing antibody assay against dengue virus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) still poses a global public health threat, and no vaccine or antiviral therapy is currently available. Antibody plays distinct roles in controlling DENV infections. Neutralizing antibody is protective against DENV infection, whereas sub-neutralizing concentration of antibody can increase DENV infection, termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Plaque-based assay represents the most widely accepted method measuring neutralizing or enhancing antibodies. Results In this study, a novel reporter virus-based system was developed for measuring neutralization and ADE activity. A stable Renilla luciferase reporter DENV (Luc-DENV) that can produce robust luciferase signals in BHK-21 and K562 cells were used to establish the assay and validated against traditional plaque-based assay. Luciferase value analysis using various known DENV-specific monoclonal antibodies showed good repeatability and a well linear correlation with conventional plaque-based assays. The newly developed assay was finally validated with clinical samples from infected animals and individuals. Conclusions This reporter virus-based assay for neutralizing and enhancing antibody evaluation is rapid, lower cost, and high throughput, and will be helpful for laboratory detection and epidemiological investigation for DENV antibodies. PMID:24548533

  12. NEP: web server for epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Liou, David; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2014-07-01

    Delineation of the antigenic site, or epitope, recognized by an antibody can provide clues about functional vulnerabilities and resistance mechanisms, and can therefore guide antibody optimization and epitope-based vaccine design. Previously, we developed an algorithm for antibody-epitope prediction based on antibody neutralization of viral strains with diverse sequences and validated the algorithm on a set of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Here we describe the implementation of this algorithm, NEP (Neutralization-based Epitope Prediction), as a web-based server. The users must supply as input: (i) an alignment of antigen sequences of diverse viral strains; (ii) neutralization data for the antibody of interest against the same set of antigen sequences; and (iii) (optional) a structure of the unbound antigen, for enhanced prediction accuracy. The prediction results can be downloaded or viewed interactively on the antigen structure (if supplied) from the web browser using a JSmol applet. Since neutralization experiments are typically performed as one of the first steps in the characterization of an antibody to determine its breadth and potency, the NEP server can be used to predict antibody-epitope information at no additional experimental costs. NEP can be accessed on the internet at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/nep.

  13. Two Escape Mechanisms of Influenza A Virus to a Broadly Neutralizing Stalk-Binding Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ning; Swem, Lee R.; Reichelt, Mike; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Luis, Elizabeth; Park, Summer; Fouts, Ashley; Lupardus, Patrick; Wu, Thomas D.; Li, Olga; McBride, Jacqueline; Lawrence, Michael; Xu, Min; Tan, Man-Wah

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the stalk region of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) are effective in blocking virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The highly conserved epitopes recognized by these antibodies are critical for the membrane fusion function of HA and therefore less likely to be permissive for virus mutational escape. Here we report three resistant viruses of the A/Perth/16/2009 strain that were selected in the presence of a broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibody. The three resistant viruses harbor three different mutations in the HA stalk: (1) Gln387Lys; (2) Asp391Tyr; (3) Asp391Gly. The Gln387Lys mutation completely abolishes binding of the antibody to the HA stalk epitope. The other two mutations, Asp391Tyr and Asp391Gly, do not affect antibody binding at neutral pH and only slightly reduce binding at low pH. Interestingly, they enhance the fusion ability of the HA, representing a novel mechanism that allows productive membrane fusion even in the presence of antibody and hence virus escape from antibody neutralization. Therefore, these mutations illustrate two different resistance mechanisms used by IAV to escape broadly neutralizing stalk-binding antibodies. Compared to the wild type virus, the resistant viruses release fewer progeny viral particles during replication and are more sensitive to Tamiflu, suggesting reduced viral fitness. PMID:27351973

  14. B-1 B cell IgM antibody initiates T cell elicitation of contact sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Askenase, P W; Tsuji, R F

    2000-01-01

    Although B-1 B cells have received considerable attention, their actual role in the normal functioning of the immune system is unclear. The hypothesized role of B-1 cell IgM in natural protective immunity is just being established. We have uncovered a separate and novel role for B-1 cell IgM in initiating the elicitation of acquired T cell-dependent contact sensitivity (CS), the prototype of in vivo T cell immunity, early after immunization (within 4 days). The recent recognition of a similarly unanticipated role of B cells in a variety of T cell responses, may indicate that B-1 cell IgM has a broader role in immunity than thought previously. We showed that 24 hr CS responses, and rises in local IFN-gamma levels at 24 hrs later after antigen (Ag) challenge the ears, were absent in pan B cell and antibody deficient mice. The mechanism of B cell involvement in CS-initiation is via local C5a generation early (1-2 hrs) after antigen (Ag) challenge of the ears, in 4 day contact sensitized mice. C5a activates local mast cells to release serotonin (5-HT) and TNF alpha to induce endothelial ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, leading to T cell recruitment. We hypothesized that C5a was generated via complement activation due to antibodies forming local AgAb complexes, and that B-1 cell IgM was involved because isotype switching of B-2 cells to produce C-activating IgG isotypes, could not occur as early as day 4. Indeed, B-1 cell deficient CBA/N-xid mice lacked C5a in 2 hr ear extracts, and had impaired CS ear swelling and elaboration of IFN-gamma at 24 hrs. Importantly, adoptive transfer of purified normal peritoneal B-1 cells, or just i.v. injection of Ag-specific IgM monoclonal antibodies in sensitized xid, restored deficient early C5a and late 24 hr ear swelling. These results suggest that early after Ag challenge, specific B-1 cell IgM, produced at distant sites by prior sensitization, forms AgAb complexes that trigger elaboration of C5a, to activate mast cell release of vasoactive TNF

  15. Characterization of a Novel Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Against Ebola Virus GP.

    PubMed

    Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. As the only protein exposed on the surface of viral particles, the spike glycoprotein GP is the unique target for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In this study, we demonstrate the strong neutralization capacity of the monoclonal antibody #3327 and characterize its activity. GP residues that are required for recognition and neutralization were found to be located both in the internal fusion loop and in the receptor-binding domain. Analysis of Ebola virus entry in the presence of #3327 allows us to hypothesize that this antibody binds to the virus particle before internalization and endosomal processing of GP and likely prevents the final viral fusion step. Importantly, #3327 is able to block entry of virions bearing GP that contain the Q508 escape mutation common to a number of virus-neutralizing antibodies, and therefore provides future perspectives for treatment strategies against Ebola virus infection.

  16. Immunogenic peptides comprising a T-helper epitope and a B-cell neutralizing antibody epitope

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Barton F.; Korber, Bette T.; De Lorimier, Robert M.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates, generally, to a polyvalent immunogen and, more particularly, to a method of inducing neutralizing antibodies against HIV and to a polyvalent immunogen suitable for use in such a method.

  17. Serum virus neutralization assay for detection and quantitation of serum neutralizing antibodies to influenza A virus in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The serum virus neutralization (SVN) assay is a serological test to detect the presence and magnitude of functional systemic antibodies that prevent infectivity of a virus. The SVN assay is a highly sensitive and specific test that may be applied to influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine to measure the ...

  18. Plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, S; Inouye, S; Kono, R

    1977-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea virus (a bovine rotavirus) formed distinct plaques in monolayers of MA-104 cells, an established macacus rhesus monkey kidney cell line, when diethylaminoethyl dextran and trypsin were included in the overlay medium. By using this plaque assay method, titration of neutralizing antibody to neonatal calf diarrhea virus was made feasible. It was demonstrated that some human sera contained neutralizing antibody to this agent.

  19. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Andrew T.; Gray, Matthew D.; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D.; Freund, Natalia T.; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B.; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S.; Schief, William R.; Strong, Roland K.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype. PMID:26907590

  20. Specifically modified Env immunogens activate B-cell precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Andrew T; Gray, Matthew D; Dosenovic, Pia; Gitlin, Alexander D; Freund, Natalia T; Petersen, John; Correnti, Colin; Johnsen, William; Kegel, Robert; Stuart, Andrew B; Glenn, Jolene; Seaman, Michael S; Schief, William R; Strong, Roland K; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    VRC01-class broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies protect animals from experimental infection and could contribute to an effective vaccine response. Their predicted germline forms (gl) bind Env inefficiently, which may explain why they are not elicited by HIV-1 Env-immunization. Here we show that an optimized Env immunogen can engage multiple glVRC01-class antibodies. Furthermore, this immunogen activates naive B cells expressing the human germline heavy chain of 3BNC60, paired with endogenous mouse light chains in vivo. To address whether it activates B cells expressing the fully humanized gl3BNC60 B-cell receptor (BCR), we immunized mice carrying both the heavy and light chains of gl3BNC60. B cells expressing this BCR display an autoreactive phenotype and fail to respond efficiently to soluble forms of the optimized immunogen, unless it is highly multimerized. Thus, specifically designed Env immunogens can activate naive B cells expressing human BCRs corresponding to precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies even when the B cells display an autoreactive phenotype. PMID:26907590

  1. Structural Analysis of Human and Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies 2909 and 2.5B: Implications for the Configuration of the Quaternary Neutralizing Epitope of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    B Spurrier; J Sampson; M Totrov; H Li; T ONeal; C Williams; J Robinson; M Gorny; S Zolla-Pazner; X Kong

    2011-12-31

    The quaternary neutralizing epitope (QNE) of HIV-1 gp120 is preferentially expressed on the trimeric envelope spikes of intact HIV virions, and QNE-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) potently neutralize HIV-1. Here, we present the crystal structures of the Fabs of human mAb 2909 and macaque mAb 2.5B. Both mAbs have long beta hairpin CDR H3 regions >20 {angstrom} in length that are each situated at the center of their respective antigen-binding sites. Computational analysis showed that the paratopes include the whole CDR H3, while additional CDR residues form shallow binding pockets. Structural modeling suggests a way to understand the configuration of QNEs and the antigen-antibody interaction for QNE mAbs. Our data will be useful in designing immunogens that may elicit potent neutralizing QNE Abs.

  2. Structural Analysis of Human and Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies 2909 and 2.5B: Implications for the Configuration of the Quaternary Neutralizing Epitope of HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Spurrier, Brett; Sampson, Jared M.; Totrov, Maxim; Li, Huiguang; O'Neal, Timothy; Williams, Constance; Robinson, James; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Summary The quaternary neutralizing epitope (QNE) of HIV-1 gp120 is preferentially expressed on the trimeric envelope spikes of intact HIV virions, and QNE-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) potently neutralize HIV-1. Here we present the crystal structures of the Fabs of human mAb 2909 and macaque mAb 2.5B. Both mAbs have long beta hairpin CDR H3 regions >20Å in length that are each situated at the center of their respective antigen-binding sites. Computational analysis showed that the paratopes include the whole CDR H3, while additional CDR residues form shallow binding pockets. Structural modeling suggests a way to understand the configuration of QNEs and the antigen antibody interaction for QNE mAbs. Our data will be useful in designing immunogens that may elicit potent neutralizing QNE Abs. PMID:21565703

  3. Dengue virus infection-enhancing and neutralizing antibody balance in children of the Philippines and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Tabuchi, Yuko; Mulyatno, Kris C; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2012-11-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are important diseases worldwide. Although antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has been proposed as a mechanism for increased disease severity, enhancing antibodies in endemic people have not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, we established a serological assay system to measure the balance of enhancing and neutralizing activities, which provides useful information for estimating in vivo antibody status. We measured the balance of these activities against four dengue virus (DENV) types in endemic populations, and analyzed the proportion of sera containing enhancing and neutralizing antibodies. Predominantly healthy Filipino children were used for analysis, although a population of Indonesian children was also investigated. In the Filipino population, the highest proportion of neutralizing activities was shown against DENV2, followed by DENV1. A greater proportion of sera exhibited enhancing rather than neutralizing antibodies against other virus types. Neutralizing activities were complement-dependent, while enhancing activities were complement-independent. The Indonesian population showed a similar dengue antibody status. Our results indicate that a relatively high proportion of endemic children possessed complement-independent enhancing antibodies against some DENV types.

  4. The neutralizing antibody response to the vaccinia virus A28 protein is specifically enhanced by its association with the H2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Shinoda, Kaori; Wyatt, Linda S.; Moss, Bernard

    2010-09-15

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) entry-fusion complex (EFC) is composed of at least nine membrane proteins. Immunization of mice with individual EFC genes induced corresponding protein-binding antibody but failed to protect against VACV intranasal challenge and only DNA encoding A28 elicited low neutralizing antibody. Because the A28 and H2 proteins interact, we determined the effect of immunizing with both genes simultaneously. This procedure greatly enhanced the amount of antibody that bound intact virions, neutralized infectivity, and provided partial protection against respiratory challenge. Neither injection of A28 and H2 plasmids at different sites or mixing A28 and H2 sera enhanced neutralizing antibody. The neutralizing antibody could be completely removed by binding to the A28 protein alone and the epitope was located in the C-terminal segment. These data suggest that the interaction of H2 with A28 stabilizes the immunogenic form of A28, mimicking an exposed region of the entry-fusion complex on infectious virions.

  5. Immunodominant SARS Coronavirus Epitopes in Humans Elicited both Enhancing and Neutralizing Effects on Infection in Non-human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidi; Zhang, Lianfeng; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Li, Li; Liu, Zijie; Li, Taisheng; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Jiangning; Xu, Yanfeng; Xie, Jing; Morioka, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Qin, Chuan; Liu, Gang

    2016-05-13

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and has the potential to threaten global public health and socioeconomic stability. Evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV infection in vitro and in non-human primates clouds the prospects for a safe vaccine. Using antibodies from SARS patients, we identified and characterized SARS-CoV B-cell peptide epitopes with disparate functions. In rhesus macaques, the spike glycoprotein peptides S471-503, S604-625, and S1164-1191 elicited antibodies that efficiently prevented infection in non-human primates. In contrast, peptide S597-603 induced antibodies that enhanced infection both in vitro and in non-human primates by using an epitope sequence-dependent (ESD) mechanism. This peptide exhibited a high level of serological reactivity (64%), which resulted from the additive responses of two tandem epitopes (S597-603 and S604-625) and a long-term human B-cell memory response with antisera from convalescent SARS patients. Thus, peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV could be engineered to avoid ADE via elimination of the S597-603 epitope. We provide herein an alternative strategy to prepare a safe and effective vaccine for ADE of viral infection by identifying and eliminating epitope sequence-dependent enhancement of viral infection. PMID:27627203

  6. Immunodominant SARS Coronavirus Epitopes in Humans Elicited both Enhancing and Neutralizing Effects on Infection in Non-human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidi; Zhang, Lianfeng; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Li, Li; Liu, Zijie; Li, Taisheng; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Jiangning; Xu, Yanfeng; Xie, Jing; Morioka, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Qin, Chuan; Liu, Gang

    2016-05-13

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and has the potential to threaten global public health and socioeconomic stability. Evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV infection in vitro and in non-human primates clouds the prospects for a safe vaccine. Using antibodies from SARS patients, we identified and characterized SARS-CoV B-cell peptide epitopes with disparate functions. In rhesus macaques, the spike glycoprotein peptides S471-503, S604-625, and S1164-1191 elicited antibodies that efficiently prevented infection in non-human primates. In contrast, peptide S597-603 induced antibodies that enhanced infection both in vitro and in non-human primates by using an epitope sequence-dependent (ESD) mechanism. This peptide exhibited a high level of serological reactivity (64%), which resulted from the additive responses of two tandem epitopes (S597-603 and S604-625) and a long-term human B-cell memory response with antisera from convalescent SARS patients. Thus, peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV could be engineered to avoid ADE via elimination of the S597-603 epitope. We provide herein an alternative strategy to prepare a safe and effective vaccine for ADE of viral infection by identifying and eliminating epitope sequence-dependent enhancement of viral infection.

  7. Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralizing Antibody Fragments Using Human Vaginal Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Wenlei; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Jia, Letong; Lee, Peter P.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Parks, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by vaccination with epitopes that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies is the ultimate goal for HIV prevention. However, generating appropriate immune responses has proven difficult. Expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies by vaginal colonizing lactobacilli provides an approach to passively target these antibodies to the mucosa. We tested the feasibility of expressing single-chain and single-domain antibodies (dAbs) in Lactobacillus to be used as a topical microbicide/live biotherapeutic. Lactobacilli provide an excellent platform to express anti-HIV proteins. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been identified against epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope and have been made into active antibody fragments. We tested single-chain variable fragment m9 and dAb-m36 and its derivative m36.4 as prototype antibodies. We cloned and expressed the antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 in Lactobacillus jensenii-1153 and tested the expression levels and functionality. We made a recombinant L. jensenii 1153-1128 that expresses dAb-m36.4. All antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 were expressed by lactobacilli. However, we noted the smaller m36/m36.4 were expressed to higher levels, ≥3 μg/ml. All L. jensenii-expressed antibody fragments bound to gp120/CD4 complex; Lactobacillus-produced m36.4 inhibited HIV-1BaL in a neutralization assay. Using a TZM-bl assay, we characterized the breadth of neutralization of the m36.4. Delivery of dAbs by Lactobacillus could provide passive transfer of these antibodies to the mucosa and longevity at the site of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26950606

  8. Immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from neutralizing antibodies: evidence for multiple pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, B A; Reitz, M S; Wilson, C A; Aldrich, K; Davis, A E; Robert-Guroff, M

    1993-01-01

    Sera from many HIV-1-infected individuals contain broadly reactive, specific neutralizing antibodies. Despite their broad reactivity, variant viruses, resistant to neutralization, can be selected in vitro in the presence of such antisera. We have previously shown that neutralization resistance of an escape mutant with an amino acid substitution in the transmembrane protein (A582T) occurs because of alteration of a conformational epitope that is recognized by neutralizing antibodies directed against the CD4 binding site. In this report we demonstrate that immune escape via a single-amino-acid substitution (A281V) within a conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 confers neutralization resistance against a broadly reactive neutralizing antiserum from a seropositive individual. We show this alteration affects V3 and additional regions unrelated to V3 or the CD4 binding site. Together with previous studies on escape mutants selected in vitro, our findings suggest that immune-selective pressure can arise by multiple pathways. PMID:7693973

  9. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  10. Interactions between natural killer cells and antibody Fc result in enhanced antibody neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Forthal, Donald N; Landucci, Gary; Phan, Tran B; Becerra, Juan

    2005-02-01

    Antibodies can prevent lentivirus infections in animals and may play a role in controlling viral burden in established infection. In preventing and particularly in controlling infection, antibodies likely function in the presence of large quantities of virus. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize large inocula of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on different target cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from HIV-infected patients was tested for neutralizing activity against primary R5 strains of HIV-1 at inocula ranging from 100 to 20,000 50% tissue culture infective doses. At all virus inocula, inhibition by antibody was enhanced when target cells for virus growth were monocyte-depleted, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) rather than CD4(+) lymphocytes. However, enhanced inhibition on PBMCs was greatest with larger amounts of virus. Depleting PBMCs of natural killer (NK) cells, which express Fc receptors for IgG (FcgammaRs), abrogated the enhanced antibody inhibition, whereas adding NK cells to CD4(+) lymphocytes restored inhibition. There was no enhanced inhibition on PBMCs when F(ab')(2) was used. Further experiments demonstrated that the release of beta-chemokines, most likely through FcgammaR triggering of NK cells, contributed modestly to the antiviral activity of antibody on PBMCs and that antibody-coated virus adsorbed to uninfected cells provided a target for NK cell-mediated inhibition of HIV-1. These results indicate that Fc-FcgammaR interactions enhance the ability of antibody to neutralize HIV-1. Since FcgammaR-bearing cells are always present in vivo, FcgammaR-mediated antibody function may play a role in the ability of antibody to control lentivirus infection.

  11. Interactions between Natural Killer Cells and Antibody Fc Result in Enhanced Antibody Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Forthal, Donald N.; Landucci, Gary; Phan, Tran B.; Becerra, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies can prevent lentivirus infections in animals and may play a role in controlling viral burden in established infection. In preventing and particularly in controlling infection, antibodies likely function in the presence of large quantities of virus. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize large inocula of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on different target cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from HIV-infected patients was tested for neutralizing activity against primary R5 strains of HIV-1 at inocula ranging from 100 to 20,000 50% tissue culture infective doses. At all virus inocula, inhibition by antibody was enhanced when target cells for virus growth were monocyte-depleted, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) rather than CD4+ lymphocytes. However, enhanced inhibition on PBMCs was greatest with larger amounts of virus. Depleting PBMCs of natural killer (NK) cells, which express Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs), abrogated the enhanced antibody inhibition, whereas adding NK cells to CD4+ lymphocytes restored inhibition. There was no enhanced inhibition on PBMCs when F(ab′)2 was used. Further experiments demonstrated that the release of β-chemokines, most likely through FcγR triggering of NK cells, contributed modestly to the antiviral activity of antibody on PBMCs and that antibody-coated virus adsorbed to uninfected cells provided a target for NK cell-mediated inhibition of HIV-1. These results indicate that Fc-FcγR interactions enhance the ability of antibody to neutralize HIV-1. Since FcγR-bearing cells are always present in vivo, FcγR-mediated antibody function may play a role in the ability of antibody to control lentivirus infection. PMID:15681406

  12. Cross-clade neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 induced in rabbits by focusing the immune response on a neutralizing epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Cohen, Sandra; Pinter, Abraham; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Wrin, Terri; Wang Shixia; Lu Shan

    2009-09-15

    Studies were performed to induce cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (Abs) by testing various combinations of prime and boost constructs that focus the immune response on structurally-conserved epitopes in the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120. Rabbits were immunized with gp120 DNA containing a V3 loop characterized by the GPGR motif at its tip, and/or with gp120 DNA with a V3 loop carrying the GPGQ motif. Priming was followed by boosts with V3-fusion proteins (V3-FPs) carrying the V3 sequence from a subtype B virus (GPGR motif), and/or with V3 sequences from subtypes A and C (GPGQ motif). The broadest and most consistent neutralizing responses were generated when using a clade C gp120 DNA prime and with the V3{sub B}-FP boost. Immune sera displayed neutralizing activity in three assays against pseudoviruses and primary isolates from subtypes A, AG, B, C, and D. Polyclonal Abs in the immune rabbit sera neutralized viruses that were not neutralized by pools of human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs. Greater than 80% of the neutralizing Abs were specific for V3, showing that the immune response could be focused on a neutralizing epitope and that vaccine-induced anti-V3 Abs have cross-clade neutralizing activity.

  13. Rabbits immunized with Epstein-Barr virus gH/gL or gB recombinant proteins elicit higher serum virus neutralizing activity than gp350.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xinle; Cao, Zhouhong; Chen, Quanyi; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Snow, Andrew L; Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-07-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and has been strongly implicated in the etiology of multiple epithelial and lymphoid cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is currently no licensed prophylactic vaccine for EBV. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which binds to CD21/CD35 to gain entry into B cells, and is a major target of serum neutralizing antibody in EBV seropositive humans. However, a recombinant monomeric gp350 protein failed to prevent EBV infection in a phase II clinical trial. Thus, alternative or additional target antigens may be necessary for a successful prophylactic vaccine. EBV gH/gL and gB proteins coordinately mediate EBV fusion and entry into B cells and epithelial cells, strongly suggesting that vaccination with these proteins might elicit antibodies that will prevent EBV infection. We produced recombinant trimeric and monomeric EBV gH/gL heterodimeric proteins and a trimeric EBV gB protein, in addition to tetrameric and monomeric gp350(1-470) proteins, in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We demonstrated that vaccination of rabbits with trimeric and monomeric gH/gL, trimeric gB, and tetrameric gp350(1-470) induced serum EBV-neutralizing titers, using cultured human B cells, that were >100-fold, 20-fold, 18-fold, and 4-fold higher, respectively, than monomeric gp350(1-470). These data strongly suggest a role for testing EBV gH/gL and EBV gB in a future prophylactic vaccine to prevent EBV infection of B cells, as well as epithelial cells.

  14. Antibody to gp41 MPER alters functional properties of HIV-1 Env without complete neutralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arthur S; Leaman, Daniel P; Zwick, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  15. Antibody to gp41 MPER Alters Functional Properties of HIV-1 Env without Complete Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Arthur S.; Leaman, Daniel P.; Zwick, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Human antibody 10E8 targets the conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of envelope glycoprotein (Env) subunit gp41 and neutralizes HIV-1 with exceptional potency. Remarkably, HIV-1 containing mutations that reportedly knockout 10E8 binding to linear MPER peptides are partially neutralized by 10E8, producing a local plateau in the dose response curve. Here, we found that virus partially neutralized by 10E8 becomes significantly less neutralization sensitive to various MPER antibodies and to soluble CD4 while becoming significantly more sensitive to antibodies and fusion inhibitors against the heptad repeats of gp41. Thus, 10E8 modulates sensitivity of Env to ligands both pre- and post-receptor engagement without complete neutralization. Partial neutralization by 10E8 was influenced at least in part by perturbing Env glycosylation. With unliganded Env, 10E8 bound with lower apparent affinity and lower subunit occupancy to MPER mutant compared to wild type trimers. However, 10E8 decreased functional stability of wild type Env while it had an opposite, stabilizing effect on MPER mutant Envs. Clade C isolates with natural MPER polymorphisms also showed partial neutralization by 10E8 with altered sensitivity to various gp41-targeted ligands. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of virus neutralization by demonstrating how antibody binding to the base of a trimeric spike cross talks with adjacent subunits to modulate Env structure and function. The ability of an antibody to stabilize, destabilize, partially neutralize as well as alter neutralization sensitivity of a virion spike pre- and post-receptor engagement may have implications for immunotherapy and vaccine design. PMID:25058619

  16. Identification of Broad-Genotype HPV L2 Neutralization Site for Pan-HPV Vaccine Development by a Cross-Neutralizing Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daning; Li, Zhihai; Xiao, Jieqiong; Wang, Junqi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Yajing; Fan, Fei; Xin, Lu; Wei, Minxi; Kong, Zhibo; Yu, Hai; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, is responsible for 5% of human cancers. The HPV capsid consists of major and minor structural proteins, L1 and L2. L1 proteins form an icosahedral shell with building blocks of the pentameric capsomere, and one L2 molecule extends outward from the central hole of the capsid. Thus, L2 is concealed within L1 and only becomes exposed when the capsid interacts with host cells. The low antigenic variation of L2 means that this protein could offer a target for the development of a pan-HPV vaccine. Toward this goal, here we describe an anti-L2 monoclonal antibody, 14H6, which broadly neutralizes at least 11 types of HPV, covering types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58 and 59, in pseudovirion—based cell neutralization assay. The mAb 14H6 recognizes a minimal linear epitope located on amino acids 21 to 30 of the L2 protein. Alanine scanning mutagenesis and sequence alignment identified several conserved residues (Cys22, Lys23, Thr27, Cys28 and Pro29) that are involved in the 14H6 binding with L2. The epitope was grafted to several scaffolding proteins, including HPV16 L1 virus-like particles, HBV 149 core antigen and CRM197. The resultant chimeric constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with high efficiency. Immunization with these pan-HPV vaccine candidates elicited high titers of the L2-specific antibody in mice and conferred robust (3-log) titers of cross-genotype neutralization, including against HPV11, 16, 18, 45, 52, 58 and 59. These findings will help in the development of an L2-based, pan-HPV vaccine. PMID:25905781

  17. Neutralizing antibody prevents type D retrovirus viremia in Celebes black macaques.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B J; Shiigi, S M; Zeigler, J L; Olson, L C; Malley, A; Howard, C F

    1986-08-01

    The Celebes black macaque (Macaca nigra) colony at the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center has a high incidence of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS-RF) that may be caused by type D retrovirus type 2 (SRV-2). During the spring and autumn screening of the colony, seven monkeys previously aviremic were found to be viremic on the basis of the Raji co-culture assay. These monkeys and control groups were selected for further study, which included titration of neutralizing antibody activity and immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) activity before and at the time that the animals became viremic. Results indicated that neutralizing antibody was not present before or at the time that monkeys became viremic and that control monkeys who were IFA+ and did not become viremic had high levels of neutralizing antibody. The IFA titre did not change significantly or predictably at the time the animals became viremic.

  18. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  19. Discovering neutralizing antibodies targeting the stem epitope of H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin with synthetic phage-displayed antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chao-Ping; Chen, Ing-Chien; Yu, Chung-Ming; Peng, Hung-Pin; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Ma, Shiou-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Ching; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Yang, An-Suei

    2015-10-12

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies developed from the IGHV1-69 germline gene are known to bind to the stem region of hemagglutinin in diverse influenza viruses but the sequence determinants for the antigen recognition, including neutralization potency and binding affinity, are not clearly understood. Such understanding could inform designs of synthetic antibody libraries targeting the stem epitope on hemagglutinin, leading to artificially designed antibodies that are functionally advantageous over antibodies from natural antibody repertoires. In this work, the sequence space of the complementarity determining regions of a broadly neutralizing antibody (F10) targeting the stem epitope on the hemagglutinin of a strain of H1N1 influenza virus was systematically explored; the elucidated antibody-hemagglutinin recognition principles were used to design a phage-displayed antibody library, which was then used to discover neutralizing antibodies against another strain of H1N1 virus. More than 1000 functional antibody candidates were selected from the antibody library and were shown to neutralize the corresponding strain of influenza virus with up to 7 folds higher potency comparing with the parent F10 antibody. The antibody library could be used to discover functionally effective antibodies against other H1N1 influenza viruses, supporting the notion that target-specific antibody libraries can be designed and constructed with systematic sequence-function information.

  20. Design of an Escherichia coli Expressed HIV-1 gp120 Fragment Immunogen That Binds to b12 and Induces Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Singh, Pranveer; Rathore, Ujjwal; Purwar, Mansi; Wagner, Denise; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Phogat, Sanjay; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    b12, one of the few broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, binds to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the gp120 subunit of HIV-1 Env. Two small fragments of HIV-1 gp120, b121a and b122a, which display about 70% of the b12 epitope and include solubility-enhancing mutations, were designed. Bacterially expressed b121a/b122a were partially folded and could bind b12 but not the CD4bs-directed non-neutralizing antibody b6. Sera from rabbits primed with b121a or b122a protein fragments and boosted with full-length gp120 showed broad neutralizing activity in a TZM-bl assay against a 16-virus panel that included nine Tier 2 and 3 viruses as well as in a five-virus panel previously designed to screen for broad neutralization. Using a mean IC50 cut-off of 50, sera from control rabbits immunized with gp120 alone neutralized only one virus of the 14 non-Tier 1 viruses tested (7%), whereas sera from b121a- and b122a-immunized rabbits neutralized seven (50%) and twelve (86%) viruses, respectively. Serum depletion studies confirmed that neutralization was gp120-directed and that sera from animals immunized with gp120 contained lower amounts of CD4bs-directed antibodies than corresponding sera from animals immunized with b121a/b122a. Competition binding assays with b12 also showed that b121a/2a sera contained significantly higher amounts of antibodies directed toward the CD4 binding site than the gp120 sera. The data demonstrate that it is possible to elicit broadly neutralizing sera against HIV-1 in small animals. PMID:23430741

  1. Crystal Structure of PG16 and Chimeric Dissection with Somatically Related PG9: Structure-Function Analysis of Two Quaternary-Specific Antibodies That Effectively Neutralize HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pancera, Marie; McLellan, Jason S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Changela, Anita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Zhou, Tongqing; Phogat, Sanjay; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-11-03

    HIV-1 resists neutralization by most antibodies. Two somatically related human antibodies, PG9 and PG16, however, each neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. Here we present the structure of the antigen-binding fragment of PG16 in monoclinic and orthorhombic lattices at 2.4 and 4.0 {angstrom}, respectively, and use a combination of structural analysis, paratope dissection, and neutralization assessment to determine the functional relevance of three unusual PG9/PG16 features: N-linked glycosylation, extensive affinity maturation, and a heavy chain-third complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) that is one of the longest observed in human antibodies. Glycosylation extended off the side of the light chain variable domain and was not required for neutralization. The CDR H3 formed an axe-shaped subdomain, which comprised 42% of the CDR surface, with the axe head looming {approx}20 {angstrom} above the other combining loops. Comprehensive sets of chimeric swaps between PG9 and PG16 of light chain, heavy chain, and CDR H3 were employed to decipher structure-function relationships. Chimeric swaps generally complemented functionally, with differences in PG9/PG16 neutralization related primarily to residue differences in CDR H3. Meanwhile, chimeric reversions to genomic V genes showed isolate-dependent effects, with affinity maturation playing a significant role in augmenting neutralization breadth (P = 0.036) and potency (P < 0.0001). The structural and functional details of extraordinary CDR H3 and extensive affinity maturation provide insights into the neutralization mechanism of and the elicitation pathway for broadly neutralizing antibodies like PG9 and PG16.

  2. DNA vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and IFN-γ responses.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Beata; Walters, Nancy; Thornburg, Theresa; Hoyt, Teri; Yang, Xinghong; Pascual, David W

    2011-07-01

    Brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the Greater Yellowstone Area. During the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of Idaho, USA; Wyoming, USA; and Montana, USA. Current livestock B. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (Bison bison) or elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). One problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to understand wildlife immune responses to vaccines. In an attempt to understand their immune responses, bison were vaccinated with eukaryotic DNA expression vectors encoding the Brucella periplasmic protein, bp26, and the chaperone protein, trigger factor (TF). These DNA vaccines have previously been shown to be protective against Brucella infection in mice. Bison were immunized intramuscularly at weeks 0, 2, and 4 with bp26 and TF DNA vaccines plus CpG adjuvant or empty vector (control) plus CpG. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and at 8, 10, and 12 wk after primary vaccination. The results showed that bison immunized with bp26 and TF DNA vaccines developed enhanced antibody, proliferative T cell, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses upon in vitro restimulation with purified recombinant bp26 or TF antigens, unlike bison immunized with empty vector. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes from the DNA-vaccinated groups were significantly greater than they were for those bison given empty vector. These data suggest that DNA vaccination of bison may elicit strong cellular immune responses and serve as an alternative for vaccination of bison for brucellosis.

  3. Measuring antibody neutralization of dengue virus (DENV) using a flow cytometry-based technique.

    PubMed

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging virus that threatens over two-third of the world's population. The specific diagnosis of dengue infection by serology is based on assays that detect DENV-specific antibodies including neutralizing antibodies (Abs). Neutralizing Abs are an important, if not the main, mechanism of protection from natural dengue virus (DENV) infection as well. The current gold-standard assay for measuring neutralizing Ab responses against DENV is the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT). However, this assay is slow and laborious and utilizes physiologically irrelevant cell lines. Here, we describe a relatively high-throughput, flow cytometry-based neutralization assay for DENV that has been optimized for use with a human monocytic suspension cell line, U937 + DC-SIGN, or the more commonly used adherent monkey kidney cells, Vero-81. PMID:24696329

  4. A high-throughput neutralizing assay for antibodies and sera against hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei; Tang, Zi-Min; Wen, Gui-Ping; Wang, Si-Ling; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Min; Ying, Dong; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the aetiological agent of enterically transmitted hepatitis. The traditional methods for evaluating neutralizing antibody titres against HEV are real-time PCR and the immunofluorescence foci assay (IFA), which are poorly repeatable and operationally complicated, factors that limit their applicability to high-throughput assays. In this study, we developed a novel high-throughput neutralizing assay based on biotin-conjugated p239 (HEV recombinant capsid proteins, a.a. 368–606) and staining with allophycocyanin-conjugated streptavidin (streptavidin APC) to amplify the fluorescence signal. A linear regression analysis indicated that there was a high degree of correlation between IFA and the novel assay. Using this method, we quantitatively evaluated the neutralization of sera from HEV-infected and vaccinated macaques. The anti-HEV IgG level had good concordance with the neutralizing titres of macaque sera. However, the neutralization titres of the sera were also influenced by anti-HEV IgM responses. Further analysis also indicated that, although vaccination with HEV vaccine stimulated higher anti-HEV IgG and neutralization titres than infection with HEV in macaques, the proportions of neutralizing antibodies in the infected macaques’ sera were higher than in the vaccinated macaques with the same anti-HEV IgG levels. Thus, the infection more efficiently stimulated neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:27122081

  5. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  6. Hepatitis C virus Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Isolated 25 Years after Spontaneous Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Merat, Sabrina J.; Molenkamp, Richard; Wagner, Koen; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; van de Berg, Dorien; Yasuda, Etsuko; Böhne, Martino; Claassen, Yvonne B.; Grady, Bart P.; Prins, Maria; Bakker, Arjen Q.; de Jong, Menno D.; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is world-wide a major cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. No vaccine is available to prevent HCV infection. To design an effective vaccine, understanding immunity against HCV is necessary. The memory B cell repertoire was characterized from an intravenous drug user who spontaneously cleared HCV infection 25 years ago. CD27+IgG+ memory B cells were immortalized using BCL6 and Bcl-xL. These immortalized B cells were used to study antibody-mediated immunity against the HCV E1E2 glycoproteins. Five E1E2 broadly reactive antibodies were isolated: 3 antibodies showed potent neutralization of genotype 1 to 4 using HCV pseudotyped particles, whereas the other 2 antibodies neutralized genotype 1, 2 and 3 or 1 and 2 only. All antibodies recognized non-linear epitopes on E2. Finally, except for antibody AT12-011, which recognized an epitope consisting of antigenic domain C /AR2 and AR5, all other four antibodies recognized epitope II and domain B. These data show that a subject, who spontaneously cleared HCV infection 25 years ago, still has circulating memory B cells that are able to secrete broadly neutralizing antibodies. Presence of such memory B cells strengthens the argument for undertaking the development of an HCV vaccine. PMID:27776169

  7. Global Structure of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody IgG1 b12 is Asymmetric

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish, F.; Solanki, A; Boone, C; Krueger, J

    2010-01-01

    Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a 'snap-shot' of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyration and a maximum linear dimension of {approx}54 and {approx}180 {angstrom}, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.

  8. Enhanced neutralization of HIV by antibodies displayed on the S-layer of Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Duval, Mark; Lewis, Christopher J; Nomellini, John F; Horwitz, Marc S; Smit, John; Cavacini, Lisa A

    2011-12-01

    Innovative methods of prevention are needed to stop the more than two million new HIV-1 infections annually, particularly in women. Local application of anti-HIV antibodies has been shown to be effective at preventing infection in nonhuman primates; however, the concentrations needed are cost prohibitive. Display of antibodies on a particulate platform will likely prolong effectiveness of these anti-HIV agents and lower the cost of goods. Here, we demonstrate that the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and its highly expressed surface-layer (S-layer) protein can provide this antibody display platform. Caulobacters displaying protein G, alone or with CD4 codisplay, successfully captured HIV-1-specific antibodies and demonstrated functional neutralization. Compared to soluble antibodies, a neutralizing anti-HIV antibody displayed on Caulobacter was as effective or more effective at neutralizing diverse HIV-1 isolates. Moreover, when an antibody reactive with an epitope induced by CD4 binding (CD4i) was codisplayed with CD4, there was significant enhancement in HIV-1 neutralization. These results suggest that caulobacters displaying anti-HIV antibodies offer a distinct improvement in the use of antibodies as microbicides. Furthermore, these reagents can specifically evaluate anti-HIV antibodies in concert with other HIV-1 blocking agents to assess the most suitable tools for conversion to scFvs, allowing for direct display within the S-layer protein and further reducing cost of goods. In summary, C. crescentus, which can be easily produced and chemically stabilized at low cost, is well suited for engineering as an effective platform, offering an inexpensive way to produce and deliver HIV-1-specific microbicides.

  9. Induction of Epitope-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against West Nile Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E.; Austin, S. Kyle; Xu, Qing; Bramson, Jonathan; Loeb, Mark; Throsby, Mark; Fremont, Daved H.; Pierson, Theodore C.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have established that an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (E) protein is recognized by strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies. In contrast, an epitope against the fusion loop in domain II (DII-fl) is recognized by flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies with less neutralizing potential. Using gain- and loss-of-function E proteins and wild-type and variant WNV reporter virus particles, we evaluated the expression pattern and activity of antibodies against the DIII-lr and DII-fl epitopes in mouse and human serum after WNV infection. In mice, immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the DIII-lr epitope were detected at low levels at day 6 after infection. However, compared to IgG responses against other epitopes in DI and DII, which were readily detected at day 8, the development of IgG against DIII-lr epitope was delayed and did not appear consistently until day 15. This late time point is notable since almost all death after WNV infection in mice occurs by day 12. Nonetheless, at later time points, DIII-lr antibodies accumulated and comprised a significant fraction of the DIII-specific IgG response. In sera from infected humans, DIII-lr antibodies were detected at low levels and did not correlate with clinical outcome. In contrast, antibodies to the DII-fl were detected in all human serum samples and encompassed a significant percentage of the anti-E protein response. Our experiments suggest that the highly neutralizing DIII-lr IgG antibodies have little significant role in primary infection and that the antibody response of humans may be skewed toward the induction of cross-reactive, less-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:17715236

  10. Induction of epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E; Austin, S Kyle; Xu, Qing; Bramson, Jonathan; Loeb, Mark; Throsby, Mark; Fremont, Daved H; Pierson, Theodore C; Diamond, Michael S

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have established that an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (E) protein is recognized by strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies. In contrast, an epitope against the fusion loop in domain II (DII-fl) is recognized by flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies with less neutralizing potential. Using gain- and loss-of-function E proteins and wild-type and variant WNV reporter virus particles, we evaluated the expression pattern and activity of antibodies against the DIII-lr and DII-fl epitopes in mouse and human serum after WNV infection. In mice, immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to the DIII-lr epitope were detected at low levels at day 6 after infection. However, compared to IgG responses against other epitopes in DI and DII, which were readily detected at day 8, the development of IgG against DIII-lr epitope was delayed and did not appear consistently until day 15. This late time point is notable since almost all death after WNV infection in mice occurs by day 12. Nonetheless, at later time points, DIII-lr antibodies accumulated and comprised a significant fraction of the DIII-specific IgG response. In sera from infected humans, DIII-lr antibodies were detected at low levels and did not correlate with clinical outcome. In contrast, antibodies to the DII-fl were detected in all human serum samples and encompassed a significant percentage of the anti-E protein response. Our experiments suggest that the highly neutralizing DIII-lr IgG antibodies have little significant role in primary infection and that the antibody response of humans may be skewed toward the induction of cross-reactive, less-neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Vaccine-Derived Neutralizing Antibodies to the Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Pentamer Potently Block Primary Cytotrophoblast Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiuppesi, Flavia; Wussow, Felix; Johnson, Erica; Bian, Chao; Zhuo, Meng; Rajakumar, Augustine; Barry, Peter A.; Britt, William J.; Chakraborty, Rana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). NAb targeting the major essential envelope glycoprotein complexes gB and gH/gL inhibit both FB and EpC/EnC entry. In contrast to FB infection, HCMV entry into EpC/EnC is additionally blocked by extremely potent NAb to conformational epitopes of the gH/gL/UL128/130/131A pentamer complex (PC). We recently developed a vaccine concept based on coexpression of all five PC subunits by a single modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector, termed MVA-PC. Vaccination of mice and rhesus macaques with MVA-PC resulted in a high titer and sustained NAb that blocked EpC/EnC infection and lower-titer NAb that inhibited FB entry. However, antibody function responsible for the neutralizing activity induced by the MVA-PC vaccine is uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that MVA-PC elicits NAb with cell type-specific neutralization potency and antigen recognition pattern similar to human NAb targeting conformational and linear epitopes of the UL128/130/131A subunits or gH. In addition, we show that the vaccine-derived PC-specific NAb are significantly more potent than the anti-gH NAb to prevent HCMV spread in EpC and infection of human placental cytotrophoblasts, cell types thought to be of critical importance for HCMV transmission to the fetus. These findings further validate MVA-PC as a clinical vaccine candidate to elicit NAb that resembles those induced during HCMV infection and provide valuable insights into the potency of PC-specific NAb to interfere with HCMV cell-associated spread and infection of key placental cells. IMPORTANCE As a consequence of the leading role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in causing permanent birth defects, developing a vaccine against HCMV has been assigned a major public health priority. We have recently introduced a vaccine strategy based

  12. Characterization of Two Human Monoclonal Antibodies Neutralizing Influenza A H7N9 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhe; Bao, Linlin; Zhang, Weijia; Xue, Ying; Pang, XingHuo; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    H7N9 was a cause of significant global health concern due to its severe infection and approximately 35% mortality in humans. By screening a Fab antibody phage library derived from patients who recovered from H7N9 infections, we characterized two human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), HNIgGD5 and HNIgGH8. The epitope of these two antibodies was dependent on two residues in the receptor binding site at positions V186 and L226 of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein. Both antibodies possessed high neutralizing activity. PMID:26063436

  13. Neutralizing antibody response in dogs and cats inoculated with commercial inactivated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Rikiya; Nishimura, Masaaki; Nakashima, Ryuji; Enta, Chiho; Hirayama, Norio

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, the import quarantine regulation against rabies has required from 2005 that dogs and cats should be inoculated with the rabies vaccine and that the neutralizing antibody titer should be confirmed to be at least 0.5 international units (IU)/ml. The fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is used as an international standard method for serological testing for rabies. To achieve proper immunization of dogs and cats at the time of import and export, changes in the neutralizing antibody titer after inoculation of the rabies vaccine should be understood in detail. However, few reports have provided this information. In this study, we aimed to determine evaluated, such changes by using sera from experimental dogs and cats inoculated with the rabies vaccine, and we tested samples using the routine FAVN test. In both dogs and cats, proper, regular vaccination enabled the necessary titer of neutralizing antibodies to be maintained in the long term. However, inappropriate timing of blood sampling after vaccination could result in insufficient detected levels of neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  15. An immunogen containing four tandem 10E8 epitope repeats with exposed key residues induces antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and activates an ADCC reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Qian; Ye, Ling; Dai, Yanyan; Su, Shan; Yu, Fei; Ying, Tianlei; Yang, Chinglai; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    After three decades of intensive research efforts, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains to be developed. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1, such as 10E8, recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. Thus, the MPER is considered to be a very important target for vaccine design. However, the MPER segment has very weak immunogenicity and tends to insert its epitope residues into the cell membrane, thereby avoiding antibody binding. To address this complication in vaccine development, we herein designed a peptide, designated 10E8-4P, containing four copies of the 10E8 epitope as an immunogen. As predicted by structural simulation, 10E8-4P exhibits a well-arranged tandem helical conformation, with the key residues in the 10E8 epitope oriented at different angles, thus suggesting that some of these key residues may be exposed outside of the lipid membrane. Compared with a peptide containing a single 10E8 epitope (10E8-1P), 10E8-4P not only exhibited better antigenicity but also elicited neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1 pseudoviruses, whereas 10E8-1P could not induce detectable neutralizing antibody response. Importantly, antibodies elicited by 10E8-4P also possessed a strong ability to activate an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reporter gene, thus suggesting that they may have ADCC activity. Therefore, this strategy shows promise for further optimization and application in future HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27329850

  16. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Bates, John T; Keefer, Christopher J; Slaughter, James C; Kulp, Daniel W; Schief, William R; Crowe, James E

    2014-04-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants.

  17. Increased infectivity in human cells and resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization by truncation of the SIV gp41 cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Takeo; Kaori, Takaki; Enomoto, Ikumi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2013-01-01

    The role of antibodies in protecting the host from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is of considerable interest, particularly because the RV144 trial results suggest that antibodies contribute to protection. Although infection of non-human primates with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is commonly used as an animal model of HIV-1 infection, the viral epitopes that elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibodies to SIV have not been identified. We isolated a monoclonal antibody (MAb) B404 that potently and broadly neutralizes various SIV strains. B404 targets a conformational epitope comprising the V3 and V4 loops of Env that intensely exposed when Env binds CD4. B404-resistant variants were obtained by passaging viruses in the presence of increasing concentration of B404 in PM1/CCR5 cells. Genetic analysis revealed that the Q733stop mutation, which truncates the cytoplasmic tail of gp41, was the first major substitution in Env during passage. The maximal inhibition by B404 and other MAbs were significantly decreased against a recombinant virus with a gp41 truncation compared with the parental SIVmac316. This indicates that the gp41 truncation was associated with resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization. The infectivities of the recombinant virus with the gp41 truncation were 7,900-, 1,000-, and 140-fold higher than those of SIVmac316 in PM1, PM1/CCR5, and TZM-bl cells, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the gp41 truncation enhanced the incorporation of Env into virions. The effect of the gp41 truncation on infectivity was not obvious in the HSC-F macaque cell line, although the resistance of viruses harboring the gp41 truncation to neutralization was maintained. These results suggest that viruses with a truncated gp41 cytoplasmic tail were selected by increased infectivity in human cells and by acquiring resistance to neutralizing antibody. PMID:23717307

  18. Broadening the neutralizing capacity of a family of antibody fragments against different toxins from Mexican scorpions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo Remi; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Arredondo-López, Jonathan Noé; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Possani, Lourival D; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo Alfonso; Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-09-01

    New approaches aimed at neutralizing the primary toxic components present in scorpion venoms, represent a promising alternative to the use of antivenoms of equine origin in humans. New potential therapeutics developed by these approaches correspond to neutralizing antibody fragments obtained by selection and maturation processes from libraries of human origin. The high sequence identity shared among scorpion toxins is associated with an important level of cross reactivity exhibited by these antibody fragments. We have exploited the cross reactivity showed by single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) of human origin to re-direct the neutralizing capacity toward various other scorpion toxins. As expected, during these evolving processes several variants derived from a parental scFv exhibited the capacity to simultaneously recognize and neutralize different toxins from Centruroides scorpion venoms. A sequence analyses of the cross reacting scFvs revealed that specific mutations are responsible for broadening their neutralizing capacity. In this work, we generated a set of new scFvs that resulted from the combinatorial insertion of these point mutations. These scFvs are potential candidates to be part of a novel recombinant antivenom of human origin that could confer protection against scorpion stings. A remarkable property of one of these new scFvs (ER-5) is its capacity to neutralize at least three different toxins and its complementary capacity to neutralize the whole venom from Centruroides suffusus in combination with a second scFv (LR), which binds to a different epitope shared by Centruroides scorpion toxins.

  19. Host-Pathogen Coevolution and the Emergence of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies in Chronic Infections.

    PubMed

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Otwinowski, Jakub; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-07-01

    The vertebrate adaptive immune system provides a flexible and diverse set of molecules to neutralize pathogens. Yet, viruses such as HIV can cause chronic infections by evolving as quickly as the adaptive immune system, forming an evolutionary arms race. Here we introduce a mathematical framework to study the coevolutionary dynamics between antibodies and antigens within a host. We focus on changes in the binding interactions between the antibody and antigen populations, which result from the underlying stochastic evolution of genotype frequencies driven by mutation, selection, and drift. We identify the critical viral and immune parameters that determine the distribution of antibody-antigen binding affinities. We also identify definitive signatures of coevolution that measure the reciprocal response between antibodies and viruses, and we introduce experimentally measurable quantities that quantify the extent of adaptation during continual coevolution of the two opposing populations. Using this analytical framework, we infer rates of viral and immune adaptation based on time-shifted neutralization assays in two HIV-infected patients. Finally, we analyze competition between clonal lineages of antibodies and characterize the fate of a given lineage in terms of the state of the antibody and viral populations. In particular, we derive the conditions that favor the emergence of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which may have relevance to vaccine design against HIV. PMID:27442127

  20. Host-Pathogen Coevolution and the Emergence of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies in Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate adaptive immune system provides a flexible and diverse set of molecules to neutralize pathogens. Yet, viruses such as HIV can cause chronic infections by evolving as quickly as the adaptive immune system, forming an evolutionary arms race. Here we introduce a mathematical framework to study the coevolutionary dynamics between antibodies and antigens within a host. We focus on changes in the binding interactions between the antibody and antigen populations, which result from the underlying stochastic evolution of genotype frequencies driven by mutation, selection, and drift. We identify the critical viral and immune parameters that determine the distribution of antibody-antigen binding affinities. We also identify definitive signatures of coevolution that measure the reciprocal response between antibodies and viruses, and we introduce experimentally measurable quantities that quantify the extent of adaptation during continual coevolution of the two opposing populations. Using this analytical framework, we infer rates of viral and immune adaptation based on time-shifted neutralization assays in two HIV-infected patients. Finally, we analyze competition between clonal lineages of antibodies and characterize the fate of a given lineage in terms of the state of the antibody and viral populations. In particular, we derive the conditions that favor the emergence of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which may have relevance to vaccine design against HIV. PMID:27442127

  1. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-120 interface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald; Klasse, Per-Johan; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Alam, Munir; Pugach, Pavel; Haynes, Barton F.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Binley, James M.; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is providing important insights regarding the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in1). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific mAb, termed 35O22, which binds novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with an IC50<50 μg/ml. The median IC50 of neutralized viruses was 0.033 μg/ml, among the most potent thus far described. 35O22 did not bind monomeric forms of Env tested, but did bind the trimeric BG505 SOSIP.664. Mutagenesis and a reconstruction by negative-stain electron microscopy of the Fab in complex with trimer revealed it to bind a conserved epitope, which stretched across gp120 and gp41. The specificity of 35O22 represents a novel site of vulnerability on HIV Env, which serum analysis indicates to be commonly elicited by natural infection. Binding to this new site of vulnerability may thus be an important complement to current mAb-based approaches to immunotherapies, prophylaxis, and vaccine design. PMID:25186731

  2. Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Wei; Mettling, Clément; Wu, Shang-Rung; Yu, Chia-Yi; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Yea-Lih

    2016-01-01

    One of the major defense mechanisms against virus spread in vivo is the blocking of viral infectibility by neutralizing antibodies. We describe here the identification of infectious autophagy-associated dengue vesicles released from infected cells. These vesicles contain viral proteins E, NS1, prM/M, and viral RNA, as well as host lipid droplets and LC3-II, an autophagy marker. The viral RNA can be protected within the autophagic organelles since anti-dengue neutralizing antibodies do not have an effect on the vesicle-mediated transmission that is able to initiate a new round of infection in target cells. Importantly, such infectious vesicles were also detected in a patient serum. Our study suggests that autophagy machinery plays a new role in dengue virus transmission. This discovery explains the inefficiency of neutralizing antibody upon dengue infection as a potential immune evasion mechanism in vivo. PMID:27558165

  3. Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan-Wei; Mettling, Clément; Wu, Shang-Rung; Yu, Chia-Yi; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lin, Yea-Lih

    2016-01-01

    One of the major defense mechanisms against virus spread in vivo is the blocking of viral infectibility by neutralizing antibodies. We describe here the identification of infectious autophagy-associated dengue vesicles released from infected cells. These vesicles contain viral proteins E, NS1, prM/M, and viral RNA, as well as host lipid droplets and LC3-II, an autophagy marker. The viral RNA can be protected within the autophagic organelles since anti-dengue neutralizing antibodies do not have an effect on the vesicle-mediated transmission that is able to initiate a new round of infection in target cells. Importantly, such infectious vesicles were also detected in a patient serum. Our study suggests that autophagy machinery plays a new role in dengue virus transmission. This discovery explains the inefficiency of neutralizing antibody upon dengue infection as a potential immune evasion mechanism in vivo. PMID:27558165

  4. Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of the Exotoxin Mycolactone, the Main Virulence Factor Produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Gersbach, Philipp; Hug, Melanie N.; Bieri, Raphael; Bomio, Claudio; Li, Jun; Huber, Sylwia; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Pluschke, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycolactone, the macrolide exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, causes extensive tissue destruction by inducing apoptosis of host cells. In this study, we aimed at the production of antibodies that could neutralize the cytotoxic activities of mycolactone. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the B cell hybridoma technology, we generated a series of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for mycolactone from spleen cells of mice immunized with the protein conjugate of a truncated synthetic mycolactone derivative. L929 fibroblasts were used as a model system to investigate whether these antibodies can inhibit the biological effects of mycolactone. By measuring the metabolic activity of the fibroblasts, we found that anti-mycolactone mAbs can completely neutralize the cytotoxic activity of mycolactone. Conclusions/Significance The toxin neutralizing capacity of anti-mycolactone mAbs supports the concept of evaluating the macrolide toxin as vaccine target. PMID:27351976

  5. A modified ELISA technique for the titration of antibodies to polio virus as an alternative to a virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, A M; van Delft, R W; Nagel, J; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L

    1983-04-01

    An ELISA based on inhibition of antibody binding for the determination of antibodies to polio virus type I is described. F(ab1)2-fragments of bovine antibodies to polio virus type I are used as the capture antibody thus lowering the background staining. A good correlation was found between the poliovirus neutralizing antibody level and the antibody titers as determined by ELISA.

  6. Human cytomegalovirus neutralizing antibody-resistant phenotype is associated with reduced expression of glycoprotein H.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Coelingh, K L; Britt, W J

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a neutralizing antibody-resistant mutant human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) obtained from a patient treated with a human monoclonal antiglycoprotein H (gH; unique long region 75) antibody. This virus exhibited resistance to several different neutralizing anti-gH murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as well as to a polyvalent anti-gH serum. The resistant phenotype was unstable and could be maintained only by passage of plaque-purified virus under neutralizing MAb selection. In the absence of a MAb, the resistant phenotype reverted to a neutralizing antibody-sensitive phenotype within one passage. The predicted amino acid sequences of gH from the MAb-resistant and -susceptible parent viruses were identical. Biochemical analysis of the MAb-resistant and -susceptible parent viruses revealed a marked decrease of gH expression in the envelope of the MAb-resistant virus. Furthermore, propagation of the virus in various MAb concentrations resulted in the production of extracellular virions with various levels of resistance to the neutralizing activity of the MAb. These results suggest a mechanism for the generation of neutralizing antibody-resistant viruses which could evade host-derived antiviral antibody responses. In addition, our findings indicate that the stoichiometry of gH in the envelope of infectious HCMV virions is not rigidly fixed and therefore offer a simple explanation for production of phenotypic variants of HCMV through an assembly process in which the content of gH in the envelope of progeny virions varies randomly. PMID:7666509

  7. Neutralizing activities of caprine antibodies towards conserved regions of the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Anti HCV vaccine is not currently available and the present antiviral therapies fail to cure approximately half of the treated HCV patients. This study was designed to assess the immunogenic properties of genetically conserved peptides derived from the C-terminal region of HVR-1 and test their neutralizing activities in a step towards developing therapeutic and/or prophylactic immunogens against HCV infection. Antibodies were generated by vaccination of goats with synthetic peptides derived from HCV E2. Viral neutralizing capacity of the generated anti E2 antibodies was tested using in vitro assays. Goats immunized with E2 synthetic peptides termed p412 [a.a 412-419], p430 [a.a 430-447] and p517 [a.a 517-531] generated high titers of antibody responses 2 to 4.5 fold higher than comparable titers of antibodies to the same epitopes in chronic HCV patients. In post infection experiments of native HCV into cultured Huh7.5 cells anti p412 and anti p 517 were proven to be neutralizing to HCV genotype 4a from patients' sera (87.5% and 75% respectively). On the contrary anti p430 exhibited weak viral neutralization capacity on the same samples (31.25%). Furthermore Ab mixes containing anti p430 exhibited reduced viral neutralization properties. From these experiments one could predict that neutralization by Abs towards different E2-epitopes varies considerably and success in the enrichment of neutralization epitope-specific antibodies may be accompanied by favorable results in combating HCV infection. Also, E2 conserved peptides p517 and p412 represent potential components of a candidate peptide vaccine against HCV infection. PMID:21819575

  8. Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin: importance of native conformation for induction of neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Manetti, R; Massari, P; Burroni, D; de Bernard, M; Marchini, A; Olivieri, R; Papini, E; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R; Telford, J L

    1995-01-01

    We have attempted to express the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin in Escherichia coli. Although the 95-kDa VacA polypeptide was expressed abundantly, it completely lacked any biological activity. In addition, this material failed to induce neutralizing antibodies after immunization of rabbits. In contrast, highly purified high-molecular-mass cytotoxin from the supernatant of H. pylori cultures was active in a HeLa cell assay and effectively induced a neutralizing response in rabbits. Neutralizing sera were shown to contain a high proportion of antibodies which recognized conformational epitopes found only on the native toxin. The data indicate that toxin-neutralizing epitopes are conformational and that potential vaccines based on the cytotoxin may benefit from the use of the intact molecule. PMID:7591088

  9. New HIV plaque titration; application to the assay of neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Y; Ohshima, M; Naito, A; Chermann, J C; Shih, J; Yoshikura, H

    1993-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate plaque assay was developed using HPB-Ma, a variant of the human T-cell line HPB-ALL, which becomes adherent to the substratum after infection with an amphotropic murine sarcoma virus (MSVa). The simplicity of this novel plaque assay allowed us to examine a large number of serum samples from patients with HIV infection for neutralizing antibody activity against two human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) strains. During the progression of clinical disease, the neutralizing activity in the sera from two individual patients remained unchanged or increased. A patient with a known time of HIV infection produced cross-neutralizing antibody at 25-34 weeks. The neutralizing activity in the sera from 17 asymptomatic carriers, four patients with AIDS-related complex and four AIDS patients was also examined and was found to be unrelated to the clinical stage.

  10. Virus mutation frequencies can be greatly underestimated by monoclonal antibody neutralization of virions.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, J J; de la Torre, J C; Steinhauer, D A; Clarke, D; Duarte, E; Domingo, E

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants have been widely used to estimate virus mutation frequencies. We demonstrate that standard virion neutralization inevitably underestimates monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant genome frequencies of vesicular stomatitis virus, due to phenotypic masking-mixing when wild-type (wt) virions are present in thousandsfold greater numbers. We show that incorporation of antibody into the plaque overlay medium (after virus penetration at 37 degrees C) can provide accurate estimates of genome frequencies of neutral monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses in wt clones. By using this method, we have observed two adjacent G----A base transition frequencies in the I3 epitope to be of the order of 10(-4) in a wt glycine codon. This appears to be slightly lower than the frequencies observed at other sites for total (viable and nonviable) virus genomes when using a direct sequence approach. Images PMID:2479770

  11. Isolation of potent neutralizing antibodies from a survivor of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bornholdt, Zachary A; Turner, Hannah L; Murin, Charles D; Li, Wen; Sok, Devin; Souders, Colby A; Piper, Ashley E; Goff, Arthur; Shamblin, Joshua D; Wollen, Suzanne E; Sprague, Thomas R; Fusco, Marnie L; Pommert, Kathleen B J; Cavacini, Lisa A; Smith, Heidi L; Klempner, Mark; Reimann, Keith A; Krauland, Eric; Gerngross, Tillman U; Wittrup, Karl D; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Burton, Dennis R; Glass, Pamela J; Ward, Andrew B; Walker, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies targeting the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are implicated in protection against lethal disease, but the characteristics of the human antibody response to EBOV GP remain poorly understood. We isolated and characterized 349 GP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the peripheral B cells of a convalescent donor who survived the 2014 EBOV Zaire outbreak. Remarkably, 77% of the mAbs neutralize live EBOV, and several mAbs exhibit unprecedented potency. Structures of selected mAbs in complex with GP reveal a site of vulnerability located in the GP stalk region proximal to the viral membrane. Neutralizing antibodies targeting this site show potent therapeutic efficacy against lethal EBOV challenge in mice. The results provide a framework for the design of new EBOV vaccine candidates and immunotherapies.

  12. Isolation of potent neutralizing antibodies from a survivor of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Bornholdt, Zachary A; Turner, Hannah L; Murin, Charles D; Li, Wen; Sok, Devin; Souders, Colby A; Piper, Ashley E; Goff, Arthur; Shamblin, Joshua D; Wollen, Suzanne E; Sprague, Thomas R; Fusco, Marnie L; Pommert, Kathleen B J; Cavacini, Lisa A; Smith, Heidi L; Klempner, Mark; Reimann, Keith A; Krauland, Eric; Gerngross, Tillman U; Wittrup, Karl D; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Burton, Dennis R; Glass, Pamela J; Ward, Andrew B; Walker, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies targeting the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are implicated in protection against lethal disease, but the characteristics of the human antibody response to EBOV GP remain poorly understood. We isolated and characterized 349 GP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the peripheral B cells of a convalescent donor who survived the 2014 EBOV Zaire outbreak. Remarkably, 77% of the mAbs neutralize live EBOV, and several mAbs exhibit unprecedented potency. Structures of selected mAbs in complex with GP reveal a site of vulnerability located in the GP stalk region proximal to the viral membrane. Neutralizing antibodies targeting this site show potent therapeutic efficacy against lethal EBOV challenge in mice. The results provide a framework for the design of new EBOV vaccine candidates and immunotherapies. PMID:26912366

  13. Isolation of potent neutralizing antibodies from a survivor of the 2014 Ebola virus outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Turner, Hannah L.; Murin, Charles D.; Li, Wen; Sok, Devin; Souders, Colby A.; Piper, Ashley E.; Goff, Arthur; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Sprague, Thomas R.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Pommert, Kathleen B.J.; Cavacini, Lisa A.; Smith, Heidi L.; Klempner, Mark; Reimann, Keith A.; Krauland, Eric; Gerngross, Tillman U.; Wittrup, Dane K.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Burton, Dennis R.; Glass, Pamela J.; Ward, Andrew B.; Walker, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein (EBOV GP) are implicated in protection against lethal disease, but the characteristics of the human antibody response to EBOV GP remain poorly understood. Here we isolated and characterized 349 GP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the peripheral B cells of a convalescent donor who survived the 2014 EBOV Zaire outbreak. Remarkably, 77% of the mAbs neutralize live EBOV and several mAbs exhibit unprecedented potency. Structures of selected mAbs in complex with GP reveal a site of vulnerability located in the GP stalk region proximal to the viral membrane. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) targeting this site show potent therapeutic efficacy against lethal EBOV challenge in mice. The results provide a framework for the design of new EBOV vaccine candidates and immunotherapies. PMID:26912366

  14. Broadly Neutralizing Hemagglutinin Stalk-Specific Antibodies Induce Potent Phagocytosis of Immune Complexes by Neutrophils in an Fc-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mullarkey, Caitlin E.; Bailey, Mark J.; Golubeva, Diana A.; Tan, Gene S.; Nachbagauer, Raffael; He, Wenqian; Novakowski, Kyle E.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Miller, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk have emerged as exciting new biotherapeutic tools to combat seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses. Our general understanding of the mechanisms by which stalk-specific antibodies achieve protection is rapidly evolving. It has recently been demonstrated that broadly neutralizing HA stalk-specific IgG antibodies require Fc-Fcγ receptor (FcγR) interactions for optimal protection in vivo. Here we examine the neutrophil effector functions induced by stalk-specific antibodies. As the most abundant subset of blood leukocytes, neutrophils represent a critical innate effector cell population and serve an instrumental role in orchestrating downstream adaptive responses to influenza virus infection. Yet, the interplay of HA stalk-specific IgG, Fc-FcγR engagement, and neutrophils has remained largely uncharacterized. Using an in vitro assay to detect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we show that human and mouse monoclonal HA stalk-specific IgG antibodies are able to induce the production of ROS by neutrophils, while HA head-specific antibodies do not. Furthermore, our results indicate that the production of ROS is dependent on Fc receptor (FcR) engagement and phagocytosis. We went on to assess the ability of monoclonal HA stalk-specific IgA antibodies to induce ROS. Consistent with our findings for monoclonal IgGs, only HA stalk-specific IgA antibodies elicited ROS production by neutrophils. This induction is dependent on the engagement of FcαR1. Taken together, our findings describe a novel FcR-dependent effector function induced by HA stalk-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, and importantly, our studies shed light on the mechanisms by which HA stalk-specific antibodies achieve protection. PMID:27703076

  15. Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, L E; Riggs, M W; Mason, P H; Fayer, R

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies, immune bovine serum, and immune bovine colostral whey neutralized infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites for mice in a time-dependent manner. Immune colostral whey neutralized sporozoites more rapidly and completely than immune serum, monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18.44, or a combination of MAb 18.44 and MAb 17.41. Mice were partially protected against oral challenge with C. parvum oocytes when treated with immune colostral whey, MAb 17.41, or a combination of MAb 17.41 and MAb 18.44. PMID:2294054

  16. Microplaque reduction: new assay for neutralizing antibody to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Kinch, W

    1975-02-01

    A plaque-reduction neutralization test for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was developed; microtiter dilution techniques and assay plates were used for the new test. Plaques develop by day 4 after inoculation of serum and lymphocytic chorio-meningitis virus into 5-mm cups containing agarose suspension of baby hamster kidney cells. The method lends itself well to the titration of neutralizing antibody and gives rapid results with great economy of reagents. When tested with one batch of 55 lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-positive sera, the plaque reduction test was more senstive for detection of specific antibody than either the immunofluorescence or the complement fixation method.

  17. Cross-Reactivity of Neutralizing Antibodies among Malignant Catarrhal Fever Viruses.

    PubMed

    Taus, Naomi S; Cunha, Cristina W; Marquard, Jana; O'Toole, Donal; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Some members of the gamma herpesvirus genus Macavirus are maintained in nature as subclinical infections in well-adapted ungulate hosts. Transmission of these viruses to poorly adapted hosts, such as American bison and cattle, can result in the frequently fatal disease malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). Based on phylogenetic analysis, the MCF viruses (MCFV) cluster into two subgroups corresponding to the reservoir hosts' subfamilies: Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae and Caprinae. Antibody cross-reactivity among MCFVs has been demonstrated using techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent and immunofluorescence assays. However, minimal information is available as to whether virus neutralizing antibodies generated against one MCFV cross react with other members of the genus. This study tested the neutralizing activity of serum and plasma from select MCFV-infected reservoir hosts against alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). Neutralizing antibody activity against AlHV-1 was detected in samples from infected hosts in the Alcelaphinae and Hippotraginae subfamilies, but not from hosts in the Caprinae subfamily. OvHV-2 neutralizing activity was demonstrated in samples from goats (Caprinae) but not from wildebeest (Alcelaphinae). These results show that neutralizing antibody cross reactivity is present to MCFVs within a virus subgroup but not between subgroups. This information is important for diagnosing infection with MCFVs and in the development of vaccines against MCF. PMID:26658281

  18. Interactions between HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies and Model Lipid Membranes imaged with AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zauscher, Stefan; Hardy, Gregory; Alam, Munir; Shapter, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Lipid membrane interactions with rare, broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), 2F5 and 4E10, play a critical role in HIV-1 neutralization. Our research is motivated by recent immunization studies that have shown that induction of antibodies that avidly bind the gp41-MPER antigen is not sufficient for neutralization. Rather, it is required that antigen designs induce polyreactive antibodies that recognize MPER antigens as well as the viral lipid membrane. However, the mechanistic details of how membrane properties influence NAb-lipid and NAb-antigen interactions remain unknown. Furthermore, it is well established that the native viral membrane is heterogeneous, representing a mosaic of lipid rafts and protein clustering. However, the size, physical properties, and dynamics of these regions are poorly characterized and their potential roles in HIV-1 neutralization are also unknown. To understand how membrane properties contribute to 2F5/4E10 membrane interactions, we have engineered biomimetic supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) and use atomic force microscopy to visualize membrane domains, antigen clustering, and antibody-membrane interactions at sub-nanometer z-resolution. Our results show that localized binding of HIV-1 antigens and NAbs occur preferentially with the most fluid membrane domain. This supports the theory that NAbs may interact with regions of low lateral lipid forces that allow antibody insertion into the bilayer.

  19. Simple in vitro methods for titrating feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and FIV neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tozzini, F; Matteucci, D; Bandecchi, P; Baldinotti, F; Poli, A; Pistello, M; Siebelink, K H; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Bendinelli, M

    1992-06-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) readily produced syncytia in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells adapted to a medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum, a variety of growth factors and other supplements. This finding has been exploited to develop simple and sensitive virus titration and neutralization assays. High titre neutralizing antibodies were detected in cats infected naturally and experimentally with FIV, but not in uninfected animals.

  20. Serrumab: a novel human single chain-fragment antibody with multiple scorpion toxin-neutralizing capacities.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Peigneur, Steve; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Tytgat, Jan; Barbosa, José Elpidio

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, scorpion envenomation is an important public health problem. The yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus (Ts), is considered the most dangerous species in the country, being responsible for the most severe clinical cases of envenomation. Currently, the administration of serum produced in horses is recognized and used as a treatment for accidents with scorpions. However, horse herds' maintenance is costly and the antibodies are heterologous, which can cause anaphylaxis and Serum Sickness. In the present work, a human monoclonal fragment antibody, Serrumab, has been analysed. Toxin neutralizing effects of Serrumab were evaluated using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. The results show that Serrumab presented a high neutralizing effect against Ts β-toxins (Ts1, 43.2% and Ts2, 68.8%) and none or low neutralizing effect against α-toxins (Ts3, 0% and Ts5, 10%). Additional experiments demonstrated that Serrumab was also able to neutralize the action of toxins from other scorpion genus (Css II, 45.96% and Lqh III, 100%/β- and α-toxins, respectively). This work indicated that Serrumab is able to neutralize many toxins in Ts venom, and could being considered as a neutralizing antibody for formulating a human anti-scorpion serum in Brazil. Additionally, this work demonstrated that Serrumab could neutralize different toxins from distinct scorpion genus. All these results reinforce the idea that Serrumab is a scFv antibody with multiple neutralizing capacities and a promising candidate for inclusion in scorpion anti-venoms against different genera. PMID:24001307

  1. A micrometabolic inhibition test for the estimation of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kyriazopoulou, V G; Bell, E J

    1972-01-01

    A modified micrometabolic inhibition test for the titration of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies is described. The effects of varying both the duration and the temperature of incubation of the serum-virus mixtures were examined. Overnight incubation resulted in a 2-3-fold increase in the titre of the hyperimmune sera tested. The method is simple and economical and appears to be suitable for antibody surveys.

  2. Residue-Level Prediction of HIV-1 Antibody Epitopes Based on Neutralization of Diverse Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Acharya, Priyamvada; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Louder, Mark K.; Zhou, Tongqing; Kwon, Young Do; Pancera, Marie; Bailer, Robert T.; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Delineation of antibody epitopes at the residue level is key to understanding antigen resistance mutations, designing epitope-specific probes for antibody isolation, and developing epitope-based vaccines. Ideally, epitope residues are determined in the context of the atomic-level structure of the antibody-antigen complex, though structure determination may in many cases be impractical. Here we describe an efficient computational method to predict antibody-specific HIV-1 envelope (Env) epitopes at the residue level, based on neutralization panels of diverse viral strains. The method primarily utilizes neutralization potency data over a set of diverse viral strains representing the antigen, and enhanced accuracy could be achieved by incorporating information from the unbound structure of the antigen. The method was evaluated on 19 HIV-1 Env antibodies with neutralization panels comprising 181 diverse viral strains and with available antibody-antigen complex structures. Prediction accuracy was shown to improve significantly over random selection, with an average of greater-than-8-fold enrichment of true positives at the 0.05 false-positive rate level. The method was used to prospectively predict epitope residues for two HIV-1 antibodies, 8ANC131 and 8ANC195, for which we experimentally validated the predictions. The method is inherently applicable to antigens that exhibit sequence diversity, and its accuracy was found to correlate inversely with sequence conservation of the epitope. Together the results show how knowledge inherent to a neutralization panel and unbound antigen structure can be utilized for residue-level prediction of antibody epitopes. PMID:23843642

  3. Spontaneously regressing oral papillomas induce systemic antibodies that neutralize canine oral papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Ghim, S; Newsome, J; Bell, J; Sundberg, J P; Schlegel, R; Jenson, A B

    2000-06-01

    Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) infection of naive beagle dogs causes oral papillomas, most of which spontaneously regress. Regressor beagles do not develop new oral papillomas because of COPV type-specific, cell-mediated immunity, COPV neutralizing antibodies, or both. Formalin-fixed native and recombinant COPV vaccines that target the systemic immune system induce neutralizing antibodies that prevent development of oral papillomas. This study was designed to determine whether spontaneously regressing mucosal papillomas also targeted the systemic immune system to induce circulating, neutralizing IgG antibodies that protect against infection by COPV. To accomplish this goal, IgG was fractionated from sera collected from weanling beagles and regressor beagles and tested for conferring protection by passive immunization. Serum was tested by ELISA for antibodies against intact virions and then pooled for passive transfer to naive beagles. Preimmune sera were neither reactive by ELISA nor protective by passive transfer. On the other hand, IgG antibodies from regressor beagles were reactive by ELISA and passive transfer conferred protection against COPV challenge. Circulating IgG antibodies induced by spontaneous regression of canine oral papillomas protect beagles against intraoral infection by COPV, a model for mucosotropic HPV. PMID:10816383

  4. Characterization of novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to human neurturin.

    PubMed

    Hongo, J A; Tsai, S P; Moffat, B; Schroeder, K A; Jung, C; Chuntharapai, A; Lampe, P A; Johnson, E M; de Sauvage, F J; Armanini, M; Phillips, H; Devaux, B

    2000-08-01

    Neurturin (NTN) a structural and functional relative of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, was originally identified based on its ability to support the survival of sympathetic neurons in culture. Similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Neurturin has been shown to bind to a high affinity glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor (GFRalpha2) and induce phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret, resulting in the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. A panel of six novel murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to human Neurturin has been developed and characterized. Four of the MAbs tested inhibit, to varying degrees, binding of NTN to the GPI-linked GFRalpha2 receptor. Three MAbs cross-react with the murine homolog. These antibodies have been shown to be useful reagents for Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and also for the development of a sensitive, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human NTN. Novel, specific MAbs with varying epitope specificities and blocking activity will be valuable tools for both the in vitro and in vivo characterization of NTN and its relationship to the GFRalpha2 and Ret receptors.

  5. Characterization of novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to human neurturin.

    PubMed

    Hongo, J A; Tsai, S P; Moffat, B; Schroeder, K A; Jung, C; Chuntharapai, A; Lampe, P A; Johnson, E M; de Sauvage, F J; Armanini, M; Phillips, H; Devaux, B

    2000-08-01

    Neurturin (NTN) a structural and functional relative of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, was originally identified based on its ability to support the survival of sympathetic neurons in culture. Similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Neurturin has been shown to bind to a high affinity glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor (GFRalpha2) and induce phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret, resulting in the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. A panel of six novel murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to human Neurturin has been developed and characterized. Four of the MAbs tested inhibit, to varying degrees, binding of NTN to the GPI-linked GFRalpha2 receptor. Three MAbs cross-react with the murine homolog. These antibodies have been shown to be useful reagents for Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and also for the development of a sensitive, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human NTN. Novel, specific MAbs with varying epitope specificities and blocking activity will be valuable tools for both the in vitro and in vivo characterization of NTN and its relationship to the GFRalpha2 and Ret receptors. PMID:11001403

  6. Preexisting neutralizing antibody responses distinguish clinically inapparent and apparent dengue virus infections in a Sri Lankan pediatric cohort.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kizzmekia S; Katzelnick, Leah; Tissera, Hasitha; Amerasinghe, Ananda; de Silva, Aruna Dharshan; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2015-02-15

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect humans. The clinical presentation of DENV infection ranges from inapparent infection to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We analyzed samples from a pediatric dengue cohort study in Sri Lanka to explore whether antibody responses differentiated clinically apparent infections from clinically inapparent infections. In DENV-naive individuals exposed to primary DENV infections, we observed no difference in the quantity or quality of acquired antibodies between inapparent and apparent infections. Children who experienced primary infections had broad, serotype-cross-neutralizing antibody responses that narrowed in breadth to a single serotype over a 12-month period after infection. In DENV immune children who were experiencing a repeat infection, we observed a strong association between preexisting neutralizing antibodies and clinical outcome. Notably, children with preexisting monospecific neutralizing antibody responses were more likely to develop fever than children with cross-neutralizing responses. Preexisting DENV neutralizing antibodies are correlated with protection from dengue disease.

  7. Crystal structures of ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA) in complex with neutralizing and non-neutralizing single-chain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Michael J; Vance, David J; Cheung, Jonah; Franklin, Matthew C; Burshteyn, Fiana; Cassidy, Michael S; Gary, Ebony N; Herrera, Cristina; Shoemaker, Charles B; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-08-26

    Ricin is a select agent toxin and a member of the RNA N-glycosidase family of medically important plant and bacterial ribosome-inactivating proteins. In this study, we determined X-ray crystal structures of the enzymatic subunit of ricin (RTA) in complex with the antigen binding domains (VHH) of five unique single-chain monoclonal antibodies that differ in their respective toxin-neutralizing activities. None of the VHHs made direct contact with residues involved in RTA's RNA N-glycosidase activity or induced notable allosteric changes in the toxin's subunit. Rather, the five VHHs had overlapping structural epitopes on the surface of the toxin and differed in the degree to which they made contact with prominent structural elements in two folding domains of the RTA. In general, RTA interactions were influenced most by the VHH CDR3 (CDR, complementarity-determining region) elements, with the most potent neutralizing antibody having the shortest and most conformationally constrained CDR3. These structures provide unique insights into the mechanisms underlying toxin neutralization and provide critically important information required for the rational design of ricin toxin subunit vaccines. PMID:24907552

  8. Antibodies elicited by pneumococcal antigens bear an anti-DNA--associated idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Grayzel, A; Solomon, A; Aranow, C; Diamond, B

    1991-01-01

    There is evidence in both murine and human lupus that the production of anti-DNA antibodies may be triggered by environmental antigens. To explore this further, we studied the serum of 10 nonautoimmune individuals immunized with a polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. All 10 patients showed a rise in the titer of antipneumococcal antibodies bearing an anti-DNA-associated idiotype. The antipneumococcal response was specific as no idiotypic antitetanus antibodies were detected. Furthermore, no anti-DNA antibodies were present in postvaccination sera. The molecular analysis of antipneumococcal and anti-DNA antibodies bearing a common idiotype will help elucidate how foreign antigen might lead to the production of anti-DNA antibodies in susceptible individuals. PMID:1999497

  9. Fine mapping of a linear epitope on EDIII of Japanese encephalitis virus using a novel neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Lei; Guan, Chi-Yu; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Feng, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Bin; Su, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2014-01-22

    The domain III (EDIII) of the envelope protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is proposed to play an essential role in JEV replication and infection; it is involved in binding to host receptors and contains specific epitopes that elicit neutralizing antibodies. However, most previous studies have not provided detailed molecular information about the functional epitopes on JEV EDIII protein. In this study, we described a monoclonal antibody (mAb 2B4) we produced and characterized by IFA, PRNT, ELISA and Western blot analyses. The results showed that mAb 2B4 was specific to JEV EDIII protein and possessed high neutralization activity against JEV in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the motif, (394)HHWH(397), was the minimal unit of the linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4 through screening a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library. Using sequence alignment analysis it was found that this motif was highly conserved among JEV strains and was present in West Nile Virus (WNV). Indeed, ELISA data showed that this epitope could be recognized by both JEV-positive swine serum and WNV-positive swine serum. Notably, this linear epitope was highly hydrophilic and was located within the terminal end of a β-pleated sheet of EDIII. An analysis of the spatial conformation supported the possibility of inducing specific antibodies to this epitope. Taken together, we identified (394)HHWH(397) as an EDIII-specific linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4, which would be beneficial for studying the pathogenic mechanism of JEV; and mAb 2B4 was also a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent. PMID:24184444

  10. A Glycoprotein Subunit Vaccine Elicits a Strong Rift Valley Fever Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response in Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes serious morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. The recent spread of the virus beyond its traditional endemic boundaries in Africa to the Arabian Peninsula coupled with the...

  11. Evaluation of an improved rapid neutralizing antibody detection test (RAPINA) for qualitative and semiquantitative detection of rabies neutralizing antibody in humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Nishizono, Akira; Yamada, Kentaro; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Shiota, Seiji; Perera, Devika; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2012-06-01

    Using the principle of immunochromatography, we previously developed a method called RAPINA (Rapid Neutralizing Antibody detection test) that can measure the level of rabies virus -neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum samples [Shiota S, Mannen K, Matsumoto T, Yamada K, Yasui T, Takayama K, et al. Development and evaluation of a rapid neutralizing antibody test for rabies. J Virol Methods 2009;161:58-62]. RAPINA is faster, simpler, and easier to perform compared with a virus-neutralizing test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The improved version of RAPINA has greater positive and negative predictive values corresponding to a VNA level of 0.5 IU/mL, as recommended by the World Health Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health. To verify the efficacy of this improved method, serum samples were collected from humans and dogs before and after immunization against rabies and were tested in Japan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The results were compared between RAPINA and the true VNA levels measured by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT). The improved RAPINA accurately predicted seropositivity for 182 of 183 seropositive human samples as assessed by RFFIT (99.5%) and for 138 of 140 RFFIT-negative human samples (98.6%). In dog serum samples, the positive and negative predictive values were 99.7% (345/355) and 95.6% (174/182), respectively. RAPINA was also used to estimate VNA levels in a semiquantitative manner by using serial dilution of serum samples. Our results show that RAPINA is an easy and rapid method for measuring VNA levels before and after immunization with the rabies vaccine and does not need a high skill level or sophisticated equipment. RAPINA can be used to monitor the success of preexposure prophylaxis in at-risk persons, vaccine coverage, and animal control. It can also be used in laboratories with modest facilities and where a large number of samples are screened.

  12. A human monoclonal antibody against HPV16 recognizes an immunodominant and neutralizing epitope partially overlapping with that of H16.V5

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lin; Xian, Yangfei; Wang, Daning; Chen, Yuanzhi; Huang, Xiaofen; Bi, Xingjian; Yu, Hai; Fu, Zheng; Liu, Xinlin; Li, Shaowei; An, Zhiqiang; Luo, Wenxin; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    The presence of neutralizing epitopes in human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) is the structural basis of prophylactic vaccines. An anti-HPV16 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (N-mAb) 26D1 was isolated from a memory B cell of a human vaccinee. The pre-binding of heparan sulfate to VLPs inhibited the binding of both N-mAbs to the antigen, indicating that the epitopes are critical for viral cell attachment/entry. Hybrid VLP binding with surface loop swapping between types indicated the essential roles of the DE and FG loops for both 26D1 (DEa in particular) and H16.V5 binding. Specifically, Tyr135 and Val141 on the DEa loop were shown to be critical residues for 26D1 binding via site-directed mutagenesis. Partially overlap between the epitopes between 26D1 and H16.V5 was shown using pairwise epitope mapping, and their binding difference is demonstrated to be predominantly in DE loop region. In addition, 26D1 epitope is immunodominant epitope recognized by both antibodies elicited by the authentic virus from infected individuals and polyclonal antibodies from vaccinees. Overall, a partially overlapping but distinct neutralizing epitope from that of H16.V5 was identified using a human N-mAb, shedding lights to the antibody arrays as part of human immune response to vaccination and infection. PMID:26750243

  13. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Fan, Chen; Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  14. Structural Basis for Recognition of Human Enterovirus 71 by a Bivalent Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Teng; Kong, Liangliang; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jinping; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Tan; Zhang, Yingyi; Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Linqi; Huang, Zhong; Cong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with severe neurological complications and even death in young children. We have recently identified a highly potent anti-EV71 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, termed D5. Here we investigated the structural basis for recognition of EV71 by the antibody D5. Four three-dimensional structures of EV71 particles in complex with IgG or Fab of D5 were reconstructed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single particle analysis all at subnanometer resolutions. The most critical EV71 mature virion-Fab structure was resolved to a resolution of 4.8 Å, which is rare in cryo-EM studies of virus-antibody complex so far. The structures reveal a bivalent binding pattern of D5 antibody across the icosahedral 2-fold axis on mature virion, suggesting that D5 binding may rigidify virions to prevent their conformational changes required for subsequent RNA release. Moreover, we also identified that the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of D5 heavy chain directly interacts with the extremely conserved VP1 GH-loop of EV71, which was validated by biochemical and virological assays. We further showed that D5 is indeed able to neutralize a variety of EV71 genotypes and strains. Moreover, D5 could potently confer protection in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Since the conserved VP1 GH-loop is involved in EV71 binding with its uncoating receptor, the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), the broadly neutralizing ability of D5 might attribute to its inhibition of EV71 from binding SCARB2. Altogether, our results elucidate the structural basis for the binding and neutralization of EV71 by the broadly neutralizing antibody D5, thereby enhancing our understanding of antibody-based protection against EV71 infection. PMID:26938634

  15. The Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses after HIV-1 Superinfection Are Not Dominated by Antibodies Directed to Epitopes Common in Single Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Valerie; Wang, Bingjie; Dingens, Adam; Chen, Mitchell M.; Ronen, Keshet; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; McClelland, R. Scott; Overbaugh, Julie

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 vaccines designed to date have failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) that are capable of protecting against globally diverse HIV-1 subtypes. One relevant setting to study the development of a strong, cross-reactive Nab response is HIV-1 superinfection (SI), defined as sequential infections from different source partners. SI has previously been shown to lead to a broader and more potent Nab response when compared to single infection, but it is unclear whether SI also impacts epitope specificity and if the epitopes targeted after SI differ from those targeted after single infection. Here the post-SI Nab responses were examined from 21 Kenyan women collectively exposed to subtypes A, C, and D and superinfected after a median time of ~1.07 years following initial infection. Plasma samples chosen for analysis were collected at a median time point ~2.72 years post-SI. Because previous studies of singly infected populations with broad and potent Nab responses have shown that the majority of their neutralizing activity can be mapped to 4 main epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope, we focused on these targets, which include the CD4-binding site, a V1/V2 glycan, the N332 supersite in V3, and the membrane proximal external region of gp41. Using standard epitope mapping techniques that were applied to the previous cohorts, the present study demonstrates that SI did not induce a dominant Nab response to any one of these epitopes in the 21 women. Computational sera delineation analyses also suggested that 20 of the 21 superinfected women’s Nab responses could not be ascribed a single specificity with high confidence. These data are consistent with a model in which SI with diverse subtypes promotes the development of a broad polyclonal Nab response, and thus would provide support for vaccine designs using multivalent HIV immunogens to elicit a diverse repertoire of Nabs. PMID:26158467

  16. Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Zahid, Muhammad; di Tommaso, Anne; Juste, Matthieu O.; Aubrey, Nicolas; Billiald, Philippe; Muzard, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Serum therapy remains the only specific treatment against envenoming, but anti-venoms are still prepared by fragmentation of polyclonal antibodies isolated from hyper-immunized horse serum. Most of these anti-venoms are considered to be efficient, but their production is tedious, and their use may be associated with adverse effects. Recombinant antibodies and smaller functional units are now emerging as credible alternatives and constitute a source of still unexploited biomolecules capable of neutralizing venoms. This review will be a walk through the technologies that have recently been applied leading to novel antibody formats with better properties in terms of homogeneity, specific activity and possible safety. PMID:25153256

  17. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies recognize antigenic variants among isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Arakawa, C.N.; Lannan, C.N.; Fryer, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    eutralizing monoclonal antibodies were developed against strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri in the Deschutes River of Oregon, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Sacramento River of California, and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri reared in the Hagerman Valley of Idaho, USA. These antibodies were tested for neutralization of 12 IHNV isolates obtained from salmonids in Japan, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. The antibodies recognized antigenic variants among the isolates and could be used to separate the viruses into 4 groups. The members of each group tended to be related by geographic area rather than by source host species, virulence, or date of isolation.

  18. Prefusion F-specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera.

    PubMed

    Ngwuta, Joan O; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M; Moin, Syed M; Killikelly, April M; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Rundlet, Emily J; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B E; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E; Ledgerwood, Julie E; McLellan, Jason S; Kwong, Peter D; Graham, Barney S

    2015-10-14

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø-specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F-specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø.

  19. Prefusion F–specific antibodies determine the magnitude of RSV neutralizing activity in human sera

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuta, Joan O.; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Joyce, M. Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kumar, Azad; Yassine, Hadi M.; Moin, Syed M.; Killikelly, April M.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Rundlet, Emily J.; Sastry, Mallika; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Nason, Martha C.; Capella, Cristina; Peeples, Mark E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; McLellan, Jason S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Graham, Barney S.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is estimated to claim more lives among infants <1 year old than any other single pathogen, except malaria, and poses a substantial global health burden. Viral entry is mediated by a type I fusion glycoprotein (F) that transitions from a metastable prefusion (pre-F) to a stable postfusion (post-F) trimer. A highly neutralization-sensitive epitope, antigenic site Ø, is found only on pre-F. We determined what fraction of neutralizing (NT) activity in human sera is dependent on antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø or other antigenic sites on F in healthy subjects from ages 7 to 93 years. Adsorption of individual sera with stabilized pre-F protein removed >90% of NT activity and depleted binding antibodies to both F conformations. In contrast, adsorption with post-F removed ~30% of NT activity, and binding antibodies to pre-F were retained. These findings were consistent across all age groups. Protein competition neutralization assays with pre-F mutants in which sites Ø or II were altered to knock out binding of antibodies to the corresponding sites showed that these sites accounted for ~35 and <10% of NT activity, respectively. Binding competition assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) indicated that the amount of site Ø–specific antibodies correlated with NT activity, whereas the magnitude of binding competed by site II mAbs did not correlate with neutralization. Our results indicate that RSV NT activity in human sera is primarily derived from pre-F–specific antibodies, and therefore, inducing or boosting NT activity by vaccination will be facilitated by using pre-F antigens that preserve site Ø. PMID:26468324

  20. Dengue Virus (DENV) Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics in Children After Symptomatic Primary and Postprimary DENV Infection.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Hannah E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Azman, Andrew S; Althouse, Benjamin M; Salje, Henrik; Gibbons, Robert V; Rothman, Alan L; Jarman, Richard G; Nisalak, Ananda; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Vaughn, David W; Green, Sharone; Yoon, In-Kyu; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-05-01

    The immune response to dengue virus (DENV) infection is complex and not fully understood. Using longitudinal data from 181 children with dengue in Thailand who were followed for up to 3 years, we describe neutralizing antibody kinetics following symptomatic DENV infection. We observed that antibody titers varied by serotype, homotypic vs heterotypic responses, and primary versus postprimary infections. The rates of change in antibody titers over time varied between primary and postprimary responses. For primary infections, titers increased from convalescence to 6 months. By comparing homotypic and heterotypic antibody titers, we saw an increase in type specificity from convalescence to 6 months for primary DENV3 infections but not primary DENV1 infections. In postprimary cases, there was a decrease in titers from convalescence up until 6 months after infection. Beginning 1 year after both primary and postprimary infections, there was evidence of increasing antibody titers, with greater increases in children with lower titers, suggesting that antibody titers were boosted due to infection and that higher levels of neutralizing antibody may be more likely to confer a sterilizing immune response. These findings may help to model virus transmission dynamics and provide baseline data to support the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

  1. A highly potent human antibody neutralizes dengue virus serotype 3 by binding across three surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Fibriansah, Guntur; Tan, Joanne L; Smith, Scott A; de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Ng, Thiam-Seng; Kostyuchenko, Victor A; Jadi, Ramesh S; Kukkaro, Petra; de Silva, Aravinda M; Crowe, James E; Lok, Shee-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infects ~400 million people annually. There is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic drug. Only a small fraction of the total DENV-specific antibodies in a naturally occurring dengue infection consists of highly neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that the DENV-specific human monoclonal antibody 5J7 is exceptionally potent, neutralizing 50% of virus at nanogram-range antibody concentration. The 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Fab 5J7-DENV complex shows that a single Fab molecule binds across three envelope proteins and engages three functionally important domains, each from a different envelope protein. These domains are critical for receptor binding and fusion to the endosomal membrane. The ability to bind to multiple domains allows the antibody to fully coat the virus surface with only 60 copies of Fab, that is, half the amount compared with other potent antibodies. Our study reveals a highly efficient and unusual mechanism of molecular recognition by an antibody. PMID:25698059

  2. Computational analysis of anti-HIV-1 antibody neutralization panel data to identify potential functional epitope residues.

    PubMed

    West, Anthony P; Scharf, Louise; Horwitz, Joshua; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2013-06-25

    Advances in single-cell antibody cloning methods have led to the identification of a variety of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. We developed a computational tool (Antibody Database) to help identify critical residues on the HIV-1 envelope protein whose natural variation affects antibody activity. Our simplifying assumption was that, for a given antibody, a significant portion of the dispersion of neutralization activity across a panel of HIV-1 strains is due to the amino acid identity or glycosylation state at a small number of specific sites, each acting independently. A model of an antibody's neutralization IC50 was developed in which each site contributes a term to the logarithm of the modeled IC50. The analysis program attempts to determine the set of rules that minimizes the sum of the residuals between observed and modeled IC50 values. The predictive quality of the identified rules may be assessed in part by whether there is support for rules within individual viral clades. As a test case, we analyzed antibody 8ANC195, an anti-glycoprotein gp120 antibody of unknown specificity. The model for this antibody indicated that several glycosylation sites were critical for neutralization. We evaluated this prediction by measuring neutralization potencies of 8ANC195 against HIV-1 in vitro and in an antibody therapy experiment in humanized mice. These experiments confirmed that 8ANC195 represents a distinct class of glycan-dependent anti-HIV-1 antibody and validated the utility of computational analysis of neutralization panel data.

  3. Human Rhinovirus Type 14:Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) V3 Loop Chimeras from a Combinatorial Library Induce Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allen D.; Geisler, Sheila C.; Chen, Anne A.; Resnick, Dawn A.; Roy, Birgit M.; Lewi, Paul J.; Arnold, Edward; Arnold, Gail Ferstandig

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop a useful AIDS vaccine or vaccine component, we have generated a combinatorial library of chimeric viruses in which the sequence IGPGRAFYTTKN from the V3 loop of the MN strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is displayed in many conformations on the surface of human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14). The V3 loop sequence was inserted into a naturally immunogenic site of the cold-causing HRV14, bridged by linkers consisting of zero to three randomized amino acids on each side. The library of chimeric viruses obtained was subjected to a variety of immunoselection schemes to isolate viruses that provided the most useful presentations of the V3 loop sequence for potential use in a vaccine against HIV. The utility of the presentations was assessed by measures of antigenicity and immunogenicity. Most of the immunoselected chimeras examined were potently neutralized by each of the four different monoclonal anti-V3 loop antibodies tested. Seven of eight chimeric viruses were able to elicit neutralizing antibody responses in guinea pigs against the MN and ALA-1 strains of HIV-1. Three of the chimeras elicited HIV neutralization titers that exceeded those of all but a small number of previously described HIV immunogens. These results indicate that HRV14:HIV-1 chimeras may serve as useful immunogens for stimulating immunity against HIV-1. This method can be used to flexibly reconstruct varied immunogens on the surface of a safe and immunogenic vaccine vehicle. PMID:9420270

  4. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo; Palm, Angelica A; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; da Silva, Zacarias José; Karlsson, Ingrid; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated epidemic with more limited viral genetic diversity for a region-based vaccine. To address if there is a basis for a regional selected antibody vaccine, we have screened two regionally separate cohorts from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark for neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory activity than that from Guinea-Bissau individuals against both local and nonlocal virus strains. Interestingly, an opposite pattern was observed with ADCC activity, where Guinea-Bissau individual plasma demonstrated higher activity than Danish plasma and was specifically against the local circulating subtype. Thus, on basis of samples from these two cohorts, no local-specific neutralizing activity was detected, but a local ADCC response was identified in the Guinea-Bissau samples, suggesting potential use of regional immunogens for an ADCC-inducing vaccine. PMID:26621287

  5. IgY antibodies anti-Tityus caripitensis venom: purification and neutralization efficacy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Aurora; Montero, Yuyibeth; Jimenez, Eucarys; Zerpa, Noraida; Parrilla, Pedro; Malavé, Caridad

    2013-11-01

    Tityus caripitensis is responsible for most of scorpion stings related to human incidents in Northeastern Venezuela. The only treatment for scorpion envenomation is immunotherapy based on administration of scorpion anti-venom produced in horses. Avian antibodies (IgY) isolated from chicken egg yolks represent a new alternative to be applied as anti-venom therapy. For this reason, we produced IgY antibodies against T. caripitensis scorpion venom and evaluated its neutralizing capacity. The anti-scorpion venom antibodies were purified by precipitation techniques with polyethylene glycol and evaluated by Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA), an indirect ELISA, and Western blot assays. The lethality neutralization was evaluated by preincubating the venom together with the anti-venom prior to testing. The IgY immunoreactivity was demonstrated by a dose-dependent inhibition in Western blot assays where antibodies pre-absorbed with the venom did not recognize the venom proteins from T. caripitensis. The anti-venom was effective in neutralizing 2LD50 doses of T. caripitensis venom (97.8 mg of IgY neutralized 1 mg of T. caripitensis venom). Our results support the future use of avian anti-scorpion venom as an alternative to conventional equine anti-venom therapy in our country. PMID:23994592

  6. Monoclonal antibodies isolated from human B cells neutralize a broad range of H1 subtype influenza A viruses including swine-origin Influenza virus (S-OIV).

    PubMed

    Burioni, Roberto; Canducci, Filippo; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Nicola; Sassi, Monica; De Marco, Donata; Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Saita, Diego; Sampaolo, Michela; Sautto, Giuseppe; Pianezze, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2010-03-30

    The new H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) strain is a global health problem. The elucidation of the virus-host relationship is crucial for the control of the new infection. Two human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments (HMab) neutralizing the novel H1N1 influenza strain at very low concentrations were cloned before the emergence of S-OIV from a patient who had a broad-range H1N1 serum neutralizing activity. The two HMabs neutralized all tested H1N1 strains, including S-OIV and a swine strain with IC(50) ranging from 2 to 7 microg/ml. Data demonstrate that infection with previously circulating H1N1 strains can elicit antibodies neutralizing S-OIV. Finally, the human genes coding for the neutralizing HMabs could be used for generating full human monoclonal IgGs that can be safely administered being potentially useful in the prophylaxis and the treatment of this human infection.

  7. Sub-Domains of Ricin’s B Subunit as Targets of Toxin Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yermakova, Anastasiya; Vance, David J.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunit (RTB) of ricin toxin is a galactose (Gal)−/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac)-specific lectin that mediates attachment, entry, and intracellular trafficking of ricin in host cells. Structurally, RTB consists of two globular domains with identical folding topologies. Domains 1 and 2 are each comprised of three homologous sub-domains (α, β, γ) that likely arose by gene duplication from a primordial carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), although only sub-domains 1α and 2γ retain functional lectin activity. As part of our ongoing effort to generate a comprehensive B cell epitope map of ricin, we report the characterization of three new RTB-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). All three mAbs, JB4, B/J F9 and C/M A2, were initially identified based on their abilities to neutralize ricin in a Vero cell cytotoxicty assay and to partially (or completely) block ricin attachment to cell surfaces. However, only JB4 proved capable of neutralizing ricin in a macrophage apoptosis assay and in imparting passive immunity to mice in a model of systemic intoxication. Using a combination of techniques, including competitive ELISAs, pepscan analysis, differential reactivity by Western blot, as well as affinity enrichment of phage displayed peptides, we tentatively localized the epitopes recognized by the non-neutralizing mAbs B/J F9 and C/M A2 to sub-domains 2α and 2β, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the epitope recognized by JB4 is within sub-domain 2γ, adjacent to RTB’s high affinity Gal/GalNAc CRD. These data suggest that recognition of RTB’s sub-domains 1α and 2γ are critical determinants of antibody neutralizing activity and protective immunity to ricin. PMID:22984492

  8. Dengue Reporter Virus Particles for Measuring Neutralizing Antibodies against Each of the Four Dengue Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Katherine L.; Gonzalez, Ritela; Murray, Meredith; Sluzas, Emily; Pagano, Dan; Ajith, Sandya; Bower, Megan; Berdougo, Eli; Harris, Eva; Doranz, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of reliable, high-throughput tools for characterizing anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in large numbers of serum samples has been an obstacle in understanding the impact of neutralizing antibodies on disease progression and vaccine efficacy. A reporter system using pseudoinfectious DENV reporter virus particles (RVPs) was previously developed by others to facilitate the genetic manipulation and biological characterization of DENV virions. In the current study, we demonstrate the diagnostic utility of DENV RVPs for measuring neutralizing antibodies in human serum samples against all four DENV serotypes, with attention to the suitability of DENV RVPs for large-scale, long-term studies. DENV RVPs used against human sera yielded serotype-specific responses and reproducible neutralization titers that were in statistical agreement with Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) results. DENV RVPs were also used to measure neutralization titers against the four DENV serotypes in a panel of human sera from a clinical study of dengue patients. The high-throughput capability, stability, rapidity, and reproducibility of assays using DENV RVPs offer advantages for detecting immune responses that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies of DENV infection and vaccination. PMID:22096543

  9. Potent dengue virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody with low monovalent affinity requires bivalent engagement.

    PubMed

    Edeling, Melissa A; Austin, S Kyle; Shrestha, Bimmi; Dowd, Kimberly A; Mukherjee, Swati; Nelson, Christopher A; Johnson, Syd; Mabila, Manu N; Christian, Elizabeth A; Rucker, Joseph; Pierson, Theodore C; Diamond, Michael S; Fremont, Daved H

    2014-04-01

    We recently described our most potently neutralizing monoclonal antibody, E106, which protected against lethal Dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) infection in mice. To further understand its functional properties, we determined the crystal structure of E106 Fab in complex with domain III (DIII) of DENV-1 envelope (E) protein to 2.45 Å resolution. Analysis of the complex revealed a small antibody-antigen interface with the epitope on DIII composed of nine residues along the lateral ridge and A-strand regions. Despite strong virus neutralizing activity of E106 IgG at picomolar concentrations, E106 Fab exhibited a ∼20,000-fold decrease in virus neutralization and bound isolated DIII, E, or viral particles with only a micromolar monovalent affinity. In comparison, E106 IgG bound DENV-1 virions with nanomolar avidity. The E106 epitope appears readily accessible on virions, as neutralization was largely temperature-independent. Collectively, our data suggest that E106 neutralizes DENV-1 infection through bivalent engagement of adjacent DIII subunits on a single virion. The isolation of anti-flavivirus antibodies that require bivalent binding to inhibit infection efficiently may be a rare event due to the unique icosahedral arrangement of envelope proteins on the virion surface. PMID:24743696

  10. Antibody-mediated neutralization of Ebola virus can occur by two distinct mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Bailey, Michael A.; Popernack, Paul M.; Cunningham, James M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Sullivan, Nancy J.

    2010-06-05

    Human Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality and there is no vaccine or treatment. Antibodies in survivors occur early, are sustained, and can delay infection when transferred into nonhuman primates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from survivors exhibit potent neutralizing activity in vitro and are protective in rodents. To better understand targets and mechanisms of neutralization, we investigated a panel of mAbs shown previously to react with the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While one non-neutralizing mAb recognized a GP epitope in the nonessential mucin-like domain, the rest were specific for GP1, were neutralizing, and could be further distinguished by reactivity with secreted GP. We show that survivor antibodies, human KZ52 and monkey JP3K11, were specific for conformation-dependent epitopes comprising residues in GP1 and GP2 and that neutralization occurred by two distinct mechanisms; KZ52 inhibited cathepsin cleavage of GP whereas JP3K11 recognized the cleaved, fusion-active form of GP.

  11. Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

    2014-08-01

    Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging.

  12. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  13. HIV-1 VACCINES. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J; Burger, Judith A; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne C; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G; Seaman, Michael S; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Klasse, Per Johan; LaBranche, Celia; Schief, William R; Wilson, Ian A; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R; Ward, Andrew B; Montefiori, David C; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P

    2015-07-10

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.

  14. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J; Walker, Laura M; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P; Olson, William C; Ward, Andrew B; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-11-25

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short β-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface. PMID:21998254

  15. A Potent and Broad Neutralizing Antibody Recognizes and Penetrates the HIV Glycan Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J.; Walker, Laura M.; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C.; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P.; Olson, William C.; Ward, Andrew B.; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-10-15

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man{sub 9} at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short {beta}-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificify. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  16. A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Robert; Doores, Katie J; Walker, Laura M; Khayat, Reza; Huang, Po-Ssu; Wang, Sheng-Kai; Stanfield, Robyn L; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Ramos, Alejandra; Crispin, Max; Depetris, Rafael; Katpally, Umesh; Marozsan, Andre; Cupo, Albert; Maloveste, Sebastien; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Ito, Yukishige; Sanders, Rogier W; Ogohara, Cassandra; Paulson, James C; Feizi, Ten; Scanlan, Christopher N; Wong, Chi-Huey; Moore, John P; Olson, William C; Ward, Andrew B; Poignard, Pascal; Schief, William R; Burton, Dennis R; Wilson, Ian A

    2011-11-25

    The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution, respectively, and glycan binding data delineate a specific high mannose-binding site. Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short β-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface.

  17. HIV type 1 Env precursor cleavage state affects recognition by both neutralizing and nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bimal K; Pancera, Marie; Phogat, Sanjay; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Guenaga, Javier; Robinson, James; Mascola, John; Wyatt, Richard T

    2011-08-01

    HIV-1 is relatively resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization; however, rare antibodies to the exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, can neutralize a broad array of isolates. Two antibodies, 2F5 and 4E10, are directed against the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER); however, the kinetic neutralization signature of these antibodies remains unresolved. Previously, we reported that the fully cleaved, cell surface envelope glycoproteins (Env) derived from the primary isolate, JR-FL, are well recognized exclusively by gp120-directed neutralizing ligands and not by nonneutralizing gp120 antibodies. However, the gp120 nonneutralizing antibodies can recognize HIV spikes that are rendered fully cleavage defective by site-directed mutagenesis. Here, we extended such analysis to gp41 neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies and, relative to the rules of gp120-specific antibody recognition, we observed marked contrasts. Similar to gp120 recognition, the nonneutralizing gp41 cluster 1 or cluster 2 antibodies bound much more efficiently to cleavage-defective spikes when compared to their recognition of cleaved spikes. In contrast to gp120 neutralizing antibody recognition, the broadly neutralizing gp41 antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, like the nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies, did not efficiently recognize the predominantly cleaved, primary isolate JR-FL spikes. However, if the spikes were rendered cleavage defective, recognition by both the neutralizing and nonneutralizing ligand markedly increased. CD4 interaction with the cleaved spikes markedly increased recognition by most nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies, whereas such treatment had a minimal increase of 2F5 and 4E10 recognition. These data indicate again the profound influence that cleavage imposes on the quaternary packing of primary isolate spikes and have important implications for soluble trimer candidate immunogens. PMID:21158699

  18. HIV type 1 Env precursor cleavage state affects recognition by both neutralizing and nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bimal K; Pancera, Marie; Phogat, Sanjay; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Guenaga, Javier; Robinson, James; Mascola, John; Wyatt, Richard T

    2011-08-01

    HIV-1 is relatively resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization; however, rare antibodies to the exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, can neutralize a broad array of isolates. Two antibodies, 2F5 and 4E10, are directed against the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER); however, the kinetic neutralization signature of these antibodies remains unresolved. Previously, we reported that the fully cleaved, cell surface envelope glycoproteins (Env) derived from the primary isolate, JR-FL, are well recognized exclusively by gp120-directed neutralizing ligands and not by nonneutralizing gp120 antibodies. However, the gp120 nonneutralizing antibodies can recognize HIV spikes that are rendered fully cleavage defective by site-directed mutagenesis. Here, we extended such analysis to gp41 neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies and, relative to the rules of gp120-specific antibody recognition, we observed marked contrasts. Similar to gp120 recognition, the nonneutralizing gp41 cluster 1 or cluster 2 antibodies bound much more efficiently to cleavage-defective spikes when compared to their recognition of cleaved spikes. In contrast to gp120 neutralizing antibody recognition, the broadly neutralizing gp41 antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, like the nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies, did not efficiently recognize the predominantly cleaved, primary isolate JR-FL spikes. However, if the spikes were rendered cleavage defective, recognition by both the neutralizing and nonneutralizing ligand markedly increased. CD4 interaction with the cleaved spikes markedly increased recognition by most nonneutralizing gp41 antibodies, whereas such treatment had a minimal increase of 2F5 and 4E10 recognition. These data indicate again the profound influence that cleavage imposes on the quaternary packing of primary isolate spikes and have important implications for soluble trimer candidate immunogens.

  19. A novel antibody discovery platform identifies anti-influenza A broadly neutralizing antibodies from human memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Varkey, Reena; Kallewaard, Nicole; Koksal, Adem C; Zhu, Qing; Wu, Herren; Chowdhury, Partha S; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2016-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody isolation directly from circulating human B cells is a powerful tool to delineate humoral responses to pathological conditions and discover antibody therapeutics. We have developed a platform aimed at improving the efficiencies of B cell selection and V gene recovery. Here, memory B cells are activated and amplified using Epstein-Barr virus infection, co-cultured with CHO-muCD40L cells, and then assessed by functional screenings. An in vitro transcription and translation (IVTT) approach was used to analyze variable (V) genes recovered from each B cell sample and identify the relevant heavy/light chain pair(s). We achieved efficient amplification and activation of memory B cells, and eliminated the need to: 1) seed B cells at clonal level (≤1 cell/well) or perform limited dilution cloning; 2) immortalize B cells; or 3) assemble V genes into an IgG expression vector to confirm the relevant heavy/light chain pairing. Cross-reactive antibodies targeting a conserved epitope on influenza A hemagglutinin were successfully isolated from a healthy donor. In-depth analysis of the isolated antibodies suggested their potential uses as anti-influenza A antibody therapeutics and uncovered a distinct affinity maturation pathway. Importantly, our results showed that cognate heavy/light chain pairings contributed to both the expression level and binding abilities of our newly isolated VH1-69 family, influenza A neutralizing antibodies, contrasting with previous observations that light chains do not significantly contribute to the function of this group of antibodies. Our results further suggest the potential use of the IVTT as a powerful antibody developability assessment tool. PMID:27049174

  20. Comparative evaluation of three assays for measurement of dengue virus neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Putnak, J Robert; de la Barrera, Rafael; Burgess, Timothy; Pardo, Jorge; Dessy, Francis; Gheysen, Dirk; Lobet, Yves; Green, Sharone; Endy, Timothy P; Thomas, Stephen J; Eckels, Kenneth H; Innis, Bruce L; Sun, Wellington

    2008-07-01

    Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) are commonly used for measuring levels of dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibodies. However, these assays lack a standardized format, generally have a low sample throughput, and are labor-intensive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate two alternative DENV neutralizing antibody assays: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based microneutralization (MN) assay, and a fluorescent antibody cell sorter-based, DC-SIGN expresser dendritic cell (DC) assay. False-positive rates, serotype specificity, reproducibility, sensitivity, and agreement among the assay methods were assessed using well-characterized but limited numbers of coded test sera. Results showed that all three assays had false-positive rates of less than 10% with titers near the cut-off and generally below the estimated limits of detection. All three methods demonstrated a high degree of specificity and good agreement when used to assay sera and serum mixtures from monovalent vaccinees and sera from patients after primary natural infection, with the only notable exception being moderate-to-high neutralizing antibody titers against DENV 2 measured by PRNT in a mixture containing only DENV 3 and DENV 4 sera. The MN and DC assays demonstrated good reproducibility. All three assays were comparable in their sensitivity, except that the PRNT was less sensitive for measuring DENV 4 antibody, and the MN and DC assays were less sensitive for measuring DENV 2 antibody. However, when used to test sera from persons after tetravalent DENV vaccination or secondary DENV infection, there was poor specificity and poor agreement among the different assays.

  1. HIV-1 Antibody Neutralization Breadth Is Associated with Enhanced HIV-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lindqvist, Madelene; Ghebremichael, Musie; Donaghey, Faith; Carrington, Mary; Seaman, Michael S.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-specific CD4+ T helper cell responses have long been recognized to be a critical component of effective vaccine immunity. CD4+ T cells are necessary to generate and maintain humoral immune responses by providing help to antigen-specific B cells for the production of antibodies. In HIV infection, CD4+ T cells are thought to be necessary for the induction of Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, few studies have investigated the role of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in association with HIV neutralizing antibody activity in vaccination or natural infection settings. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a cohort of 34 untreated HIV-infected controllers matched for viral load, with and without neutralizing antibody breadth to a panel of viral strains. Our results show that the breadth and magnitude of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses were significantly higher in individuals with neutralizing antibodies than in those without neutralizing antibodies. The breadth of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses was positively correlated with the breadth of neutralizing antibody activity. Furthermore, the breadth and magnitude of gp41-specific, but not gp120-specific, CD4+ T cell responses were significantly elevated in individuals with neutralizing antibodies. Together, these data suggest that robust Gag-specific CD4+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, gp41-specific CD4+ T cells may provide important intermolecular help to Env-specific B cells that promote the generation or maintenance of Env-specific neutralizing antibodies. IMPORTANCE One of the earliest discoveries related to CD4+ T cell function was their provision of help to B cells in the development of antibody responses. Yet little is known about the role of CD4+ T helper responses in the setting of HIV infection, and no studies to date have evaluated the impact of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells on the generation of antibodies that can neutralize

  2. RSV neutralization by palivizumab, but not by monoclonal antibodies targeting other epitopes, is augmented by Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, Lenny; Luytjes, Willem; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Wicht, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Palivizumab efficiently blocks respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in vitro. However, virus neutralization assays generally omit Fc region-mediated effects. We investigated the neutralization activity of RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies on cells with Fc receptors. Subneutralizing concentrations of antibodies resulted in antibody-dependent enhancement of RSV infection in monocytic cells. Contrary to antibodies targeting other epitopes, the neutralization by palivizumab was augmented in cells with Fc receptors. This unrecognized characteristic of palivizumab may be relevant for its performance in vivo.

  3. RSV neutralization by palivizumab, but not by monoclonal antibodies targeting other epitopes, is augmented by Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, Lenny; Luytjes, Willem; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Wicht, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Palivizumab efficiently blocks respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in vitro. However, virus neutralization assays generally omit Fc region-mediated effects. We investigated the neutralization activity of RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies on cells with Fc receptors. Subneutralizing concentrations of antibodies resulted in antibody-dependent enhancement of RSV infection in monocytic cells. Contrary to antibodies targeting other epitopes, the neutralization by palivizumab was augmented in cells with Fc receptors. This unrecognized characteristic of palivizumab may be relevant for its performance in vivo. PMID:27185625

  4. Broadening the neutralizing capacity of a family of antibody fragments against different toxins from Mexican scorpions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo Remi; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Arredondo-López, Jonathan Noé; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse; Fernández-Taboada, Guillermo; Possani, Lourival D; Anguiano-Vega, Gerardo Alfonso; Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-09-01

    New approaches aimed at neutralizing the primary toxic components present in scorpion venoms, represent a promising alternative to the use of antivenoms of equine origin in humans. New potential therapeutics developed by these approaches correspond to neutralizing antibody fragments obtained by selection and maturation processes from libraries of human origin. The high sequence identity shared among scorpion toxins is associated with an important level of cross reactivity exhibited by these antibody fragments. We have exploited the cross reactivity showed by single chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) of human origin to re-direct the neutralizing capacity toward various other scorpion toxins. As expected, during these evolving processes several variants derived from a parental scFv exhibited the capacity to simultaneously recognize and neutralize different toxins from Centruroides scorpion venoms. A sequence analyses of the cross reacting scFvs revealed that specific mutations are responsible for broadening their neutralizing capacity. In this work, we generated a set of new scFvs that resulted from the combinatorial insertion of these point mutations. These scFvs are potential candidates to be part of a novel recombinant antivenom of human origin that could confer protection against scorpion stings. A remarkable property of one of these new scFvs (ER-5) is its capacity to neutralize at least three different toxins and its complementary capacity to neutralize the whole venom from Centruroides suffusus in combination with a second scFv (LR), which binds to a different epitope shared by Centruroides scorpion toxins. PMID:27212628

  5. Titration of Newcastle disease virus and its neutralizing antibodies in microplates by a modified hemadsorption and hemadsorption inhibition method.

    PubMed

    Katz, D; Ben-Moshe, H; Alon, S

    1976-03-01

    Using the microtiter system, titration of Newcastle disease virus infectivity and neutralizing antibodies was carried out in chicken embryo fibroblasts grown in "U" or flat-bottomed plates. Infectivity was detected by a combined hemadsorption-hemagglutination method. Inhibition of that reaction indicated the presence of neutralizing antibodies. A 24-h microneutralization test was developed and compared to the plaque neutralization and microhemagglutination inhibition test. Reproducibility of the microneutralization test was statistically analyzed.

  6. Hyperimmune Bovine Colostrum as a Low-Cost, Large-Scale Source of Antibodies with Broad Neutralizing Activity for HIV-1 Envelope with Potential Use in Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J.; Wheatley, Adam K.; Jacobson, Jonathan C.; Alexander, Marina R.; Rawlin, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 105. While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide. PMID:22664963

  7. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum as a low-cost, large-scale source of antibodies with broad neutralizing activity for HIV-1 envelope with potential use in microbicides.

    PubMed

    Kramski, Marit; Center, Rob J; Wheatley, Adam K; Jacobson, Jonathan C; Alexander, Marina R; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian F J

    2012-08-01

    Bovine colostrum (first milk) contains very high concentrations of IgG, and on average 1 kg (500 g/liter) of IgG can be harvested from each immunized cow immediately after calving. We used a modified vaccination strategy together with established production systems from the dairy food industry for the large-scale manufacture of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 IgG. This approach provides a low-cost mucosal HIV preventive agent potentially suitable for a topical microbicide. Four cows were vaccinated pre- and/or postconception with recombinant HIV-1 gp140 envelope (Env) oligomers of clade B or A, B, and C. Colostrum and purified colostrum IgG were assessed for cross-clade binding and neutralization against a panel of 27 Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses. Vaccination elicited high anti-gp140 IgG titers in serum and colostrum with reciprocal endpoint titers of up to 1 × 10(5). While nonimmune colostrum showed some intrinsic neutralizing activity, colostrum from 2 cows receiving a longer-duration vaccination regimen demonstrated broad HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Colostrum-purified polyclonal IgG retained gp140 reactivity and neutralization activity and blocked the binding of the b12 monoclonal antibody to gp140, showing specificity for the CD4 binding site. Colostrum-derived anti-HIV antibodies offer a cost-effective option for preparing the substantial quantities of broadly neutralizing antibodies that would be needed in a low-cost topical combination HIV-1 microbicide. PMID:22664963

  8. Localization of antigenic sites of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus involved in neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement.

    PubMed

    Corapi, W V; Darteil, R J; Audonnet, J C; Chappuis, G E

    1995-05-01

    The S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) has been shown to contain the antigenic sites responsible for eliciting both neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement. To determine the region of S responsible, overlapping DNA fragments spanning the entire S gene were cloned and expressed as fusion proteins by in vitro transcription and translation. Fusion proteins containing relevant epitopes were identified by radioimmunoprecipitation with neutralizing and enhancing FIPV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A region spanning residues 509 to 673 reacted with most MAbs tested. Translation in the presence of microsomal membranes did not enhance reactivity, suggesting that glycosylation is not essential for recognition by the MAbs. To localize the antigenic sites further, several MAb-resistant (mar) mutants of FIPV were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid residues that contribute to the neutralizing and enhancing epitopes were localized to two regions, designated A1 and A2, which show partial overlap with the homologous antigenic site A of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Site A1 contains residues 568 and 591 and is homologous with part of subsite Aa of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Site A2 contains residues 643, 649, and 656. Double mutations in sites A1 and A2 were found in mar mutants derived from neutralizing and enhancing MAbs 23F4.5 and 18A7.4, while a single mutation in site A2 was found in a mar mutant derived from MAb 24H5.4, which is neutralizing but not enhancing. The data suggest that site A2, which includes residues 643 to 656, is a dominant neutralizing site of FIPV and that sites A1 and A2 may act in concert to induce antibody-dependent enhancement.

  9. Bacillus anthracis Capsular Conjugates Elicit Chimpanzee Polyclonal Antibodies That Protect Mice from Pulmonary Anthrax.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaochun; Schneerson, Rachel; Lovchik, Julie A; Dai, Zhongdong; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Agulto, Liane; Leppla, Stephen H; Purcell, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    The immunogenicity of Bacillus anthracis capsule (poly-γ-D-glutamic acid [PGA]) conjugated to recombinant B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA) or to tetanus toxoid (TT) was evaluated in two anthrax-naive juvenile chimpanzees. In a previous study of these conjugates, highly protective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PGA were generated. This study examines the polyclonal antibody response of the same animals. Preimmune antibodies to PGA with titers of >10(3) were detected in the chimpanzees. The maximal titer of anti-PGA was induced within 1 to 2 weeks following the 1st immunization, with no booster effects following the 2nd and 3rd immunizations. Thus, the anti-PGA response in the chimpanzees resembled a secondary immune response. Screening of sera from nine unimmunized chimpanzees and six humans revealed antibodies to PGA in all samples, with an average titer of 10(3). An anti-PA response was also observed following immunization with PGA-rPA conjugate, similar to that seen following immunization with rPA alone. However, in contrast to anti-PGA, preimmune anti-PA antibody titers and those following the 1st immunization were ≤300, with the antibodies peaking above 10(4) following the 2nd immunization. The polyclonal anti-PGA shared the MAb 11D epitope and, similar to the MAbs, exerted opsonophagocytic killing of B. anthracis. Most important, the PGA-TT-induced antibodies protected mice from a lethal challenge with virulent B. anthracis spores. Our data support the use of PGA conjugates, especially PGA-rPA targeting both toxin and capsule, as expanded-spectrum anthrax vaccines.

  10. Neutralizing antibodies after rubella vaccination of newly delivered women: a comparison between three vaccines.

    PubMed

    Grillner, L

    1975-01-01

    Neutralizing (NT) antibody titres against rubella were determined in sera of 114 newly delivered women vaccinated with the Cendehill strain (Cendevax), the HPV-77 DE-5 strain (Meruvax) or the RA27/3 strain (Almevax). Blood samples were obtained before and 8 weeks as well as 2 years after the vaccination. Eight weeks after the vaccination NT antibodies were found in 56, 79 and 95% and after 2 years in 82, 94 and 100%, respectively. The differences between Cendevax and Almevax were statistically significant. Eight weeks postvaccination the median NT antibody titres were found to be 2, 4 and 4, respectively, while after 2 years the titres had further increased with one titration step. Levels of NT antibodies were observed to increase also after 8 weeks, i.e. during the period 8 weeks to 2 years postvaccination.

  11. Computational prediction of neutralization epitopes targeted by human anti-V3 HIV monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design.

  12. Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus induced by natural infection neutralize at a postattachment step.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Matthew R; Moesker, Bastiaan; Goudsmit, Jaap; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Austin, S Kyle; Oliphant, Theodore; Nelson, Steevenson; Pierson, Theodore C; Wilschut, Jan; Throsby, Mark; Diamond, Michael S

    2009-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that is now a primary cause of epidemic encephalitis in North America. Studies of mice have demonstrated that the humoral immune response against WNV limits primary infection and protects against a secondary challenge. The most-potent neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognize an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII-lr) of the envelope (E) protein. However, studies with serum from human patients show that antibodies against the DIII-lr epitope comprise, at best, a minor component of the human anti-WNV antibody response. Herein, we characterize in detail two WNV-specific human MAbs, CR4348 and CR4354, that were isolated from B-cell populations of convalescent patients. These MAbs strongly neutralize WNV infection of cultured cells, protect mice against lethal infection in vivo, and yet poorly recognize recombinant forms of the E protein. Instead, CR4348 and CR4354 bind determinants on intact WNV virions and subviral particles in a pH-sensitive manner, and neutralization is altered by mutations at the dimer interface in domain II and the hinge between domains I and II, respectively. CR4348 and CR4354 human MAbs neutralize infection at a postattachment step in the viral life cycle, likely by inhibiting acid-induced fusion within the endosome.

  13. Computational Prediction of Neutralization Epitopes Targeted by Human Anti-V3 HIV Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V.; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:24587168

  14. Computational prediction of neutralization epitopes targeted by human anti-V3 HIV monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Evgeny; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Grigoryan, Arsen V; Pinter, Abraham; Statnikov, Alexander; Cardozo, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:24587168

  15. Identification of Epitopes for Neutralizing Antibodies Against H10N8 Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-Fang; Sun, Chun-Yun; Rao, Mu-Ding; Xie, Liang-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against H10N8 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and to identify the binding sites. Methods MAbs against hemagglutinin of H10N8 avian influenza virus were developed by genetic engineering. Neutralizing MAbs were screened by microneutralization assay,and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot to identity the binding sites.The homology modeling process was performed using Discovery Studio 3.5 software,while the binding epitopes were analyzed by BioEdit software. Results One MAb that could neutralize the H10N8 pseudovirus was obtained and characterized. Analysis about epitopes suggested that the antibody could bind to the HA1 region of hemagglutinin,while the epitopes on antigen were conserved in H10 subtypes.Conclusions One neutralizing antibody was obtained by this research.The MAb may potentially be further developed as a pre-clinical candidate to treat avian influenza H10N8 virus infection. PMID:27594152

  16. Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody.

    PubMed

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Chen, Lei; Gao, Feng; Joyce, M Gordon; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Schramm, Chaim A; Wiehe, Kevin; Alam, S Munir; Bradley, Todd; Gladden, Morgan A; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Iyengar, Sheelah; Kumar, Amit; Lu, Xiaozhi; Luo, Kan; Mangiapani, Michael C; Parks, Robert J; Song, Hongshuo; Acharya, Priyamvada; Bailer, Robert T; Cao, Allen; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwon, Young D; Louder, Mark K; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Hill, Brenna J; Kong, Rui; Soto, Cinque; Mullikin, James C; Douek, Daniel C; Montefiori, David C; Moody, Michael A; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kelsoe, Garnett; Hraber, Peter T; Korber, Bette T; Boyd, Scott D; Fire, Andrew Z; Kepler, Thomas B; Shapiro, Lawrence; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kwong, Peter D; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. Here, we define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. Structures of lineage antibodies CH235 (week 41 from time-of-infection, 18% breadth), CH235.9 (week 152, 77%), and CH235.12 (week 323, 90%) demonstrated the maturing epitope to focus on the conformationally invariant portion of the CD4bs. Similarities between CH235 lineage and five unrelated CD4bs lineages in epitope focusing, length-of-time to develop breadth, and extraordinary level of somatic hypermutation suggested commonalities in maturation among all CD4bs antibodies. Fortunately, the required CH235-lineage hypermutation appeared substantially guided by the intrinsic mutability of the VH1-46 gene, which closely resembled VH1-2. We integrated our CH235-lineage findings with a second broadly neutralizing lineage and HIV-1 co-evolution to suggest a vaccination strategy for inducing both lineages.

  17. Structure of HCMV glycoprotein B in the postfusion conformation bound to a neutralizing human antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Ciferri, Claudio; Nikitin, Pavel A.; Caló, Stefano; Gerrein, Rachel; Balabanis, Kara; Monroe, James; Hebner, Christy; Lilja, Anders E.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals and neonates infected in utero. Glycoprotein B (gB), the herpesvirus fusion protein, is a target for neutralizing antibodies and a vaccine candidate due to its indispensable role in infection. Here we show the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain bound to the Fab fragment of 1G2, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a seropositive subject. The gB/1G2 interaction is dominated by aromatic residues in the 1G2 heavy chain CDR3 protruding into a hydrophobic cleft in the gB antigenic domain 5 (AD-5). Structural analysis and comparison with HSV gB suggest the location of additional neutralizing antibody binding sites on HCMV gB. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that 1G2 can bind to HCMV virion gB suggesting that its epitope is exposed and accessible on the virus surface. Our data will support the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against HCMV infection. PMID:26365435

  18. Preexisting human antibodies neutralize recently emerged H7N9 influenza strains

    PubMed Central

    Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Leon, Paul E.; Kaur, Kaval; Tan, Gene S.; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Andrews, Sarah; Huang, Min; Qu, Xinyan; Huang, Yunping; Salgado-Ferrer, Marlene; Ho, Irvin Y.; Taylor, William; Hai, Rong; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic potential of this strain, which, if realized, would have a substantial effect on global health and economies. H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors without a loss in fitness. It is not clear whether prior exposure to circulating human influenza viruses or influenza vaccination confers immunity to H7N9 strains. Here, we demonstrate that 3 of 83 H3 HA-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated by individuals that had previously undergone influenza A virus vaccination were able to neutralize H7N9 viruses and protect mice against homologous challenge. The H7N9-neutralizing antibodies bound to the HA stalk domain but exhibited a difference in their breadth of reactivity to different H7 influenza subtypes. Mapping viral escape mutations suggested that these antibodies bind at least two different epitopes on the stalk region. Together, these results indicate that these broadly neutralizing antibodies may contribute to the development of therapies against H7N9 strains and may also be effective against pathogenic H7 strains that emerge in the future. PMID:25689254

  19. Vaccine-Induced Antibodies that Neutralize Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Joyce, M Gordon; Wheatley, Adam K; Thomas, Paul V; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Soto, Cinque; Bailer, Robert T; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Gillespie, Rebecca A; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kong, Wing-Pui; Leung, Kwanyee; Narpala, Sandeep N; Prabhakaran, Madhu S; Yang, Eun Sung; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhang, Yi; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Bylund, Tatsiana; Darko, Sam; Lees, Christopher R; Ransier, Amy; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Wang, Lingshu; Whittle, James R; Wu, Xueling; Yassine, Hadi M; Santos, Celia; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Baxa, Ulrich; Mullikin, James C; Subbarao, Kanta; Douek, Daniel C; Graham, Barney S; Koup, Richard A; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; McDermott, Adrian B

    2016-07-28

    Antibodies capable of neutralizing divergent influenza A viruses could form the basis of a universal vaccine. Here, from subjects enrolled in an H5N1 DNA/MIV-prime-boost influenza vaccine trial, we sorted hemagglutinin cross-reactive memory B cells and identified three antibody classes, each capable of neutralizing diverse subtypes of group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. Co-crystal structures with hemagglutinin revealed that each class utilized characteristic germline genes and convergent sequence motifs to recognize overlapping epitopes in the hemagglutinin stem. All six analyzed subjects had sequences from at least one multidonor class, and-in half the subjects-multidonor-class sequences were recovered from >40% of cross-reactive B cells. By contrast, these multidonor-class sequences were rare in published antibody datasets. Vaccination with a divergent hemagglutinin can thus increase the frequency of B cells encoding broad influenza A-neutralizing antibodies. We propose the sequence signature-quantified prevalence of these B cells as a metric to guide universal influenza A immunization strategies.

  20. Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody.

    PubMed

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Chen, Lei; Gao, Feng; Joyce, M Gordon; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Schramm, Chaim A; Wiehe, Kevin; Alam, S Munir; Bradley, Todd; Gladden, Morgan A; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Iyengar, Sheelah; Kumar, Amit; Lu, Xiaozhi; Luo, Kan; Mangiapani, Michael C; Parks, Robert J; Song, Hongshuo; Acharya, Priyamvada; Bailer, Robert T; Cao, Allen; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwon, Young D; Louder, Mark K; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Hill, Brenna J; Kong, Rui; Soto, Cinque; Mullikin, James C; Douek, Daniel C; Montefiori, David C; Moody, Michael A; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kelsoe, Garnett; Hraber, Peter T; Korber, Bette T; Boyd, Scott D; Fire, Andrew Z; Kepler, Thomas B; Shapiro, Lawrence; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kwong, Peter D; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-04-01

    Antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. Here, we define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. Structures of lineage antibodies CH235 (week 41 from time-of-infection, 18% breadth), CH235.9 (week 152, 77%), and CH235.12 (week 323, 90%) demonstrated the maturing epitope to focus on the conformationally invariant portion of the CD4bs. Similarities between CH235 lineage and five unrelated CD4bs lineages in epitope focusing, length-of-time to develop breadth, and extraordinary level of somatic hypermutation suggested commonalities in maturation among all CD4bs antibodies. Fortunately, the required CH235-lineage hypermutation appeared substantially guided by the intrinsic mutability of the VH1-46 gene, which closely resembled VH1-2. We integrated our CH235-lineage findings with a second broadly neutralizing lineage and HIV-1 co-evolution to suggest a vaccination strategy for inducing both lineages. PMID:26949186

  1. Vaccine-Induced Antibodies that Neutralize Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Viruses.

    PubMed

    Joyce, M Gordon; Wheatley, Adam K; Thomas, Paul V; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Soto, Cinque; Bailer, Robert T; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Gillespie, Rebecca A; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Kong, Wing-Pui; Leung, Kwanyee; Narpala, Sandeep N; Prabhakaran, Madhu S; Yang, Eun Sung; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhang, Yi; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Bylund, Tatsiana; Darko, Sam; Lees, Christopher R; Ransier, Amy; Shen, Chen-Hsiang; Wang, Lingshu; Whittle, James R; Wu, Xueling; Yassine, Hadi M; Santos, Celia; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Baxa, Ulrich; Mullikin, James C; Subbarao, Kanta; Douek, Daniel C; Graham, Barney S; Koup, Richard A; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Roederer, Mario; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; McDermott, Adrian B

    2016-07-28

    Antibodies capable of neutralizing divergent influenza A viruses could form the basis of a universal vaccine. Here, from subjects enrolled in an H5N1 DNA/MIV-prime-boost influenza vaccine trial, we sorted hemagglutinin cross-reactive memory B cells and identified three antibody classes, each capable of neutralizing diverse subtypes of group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. Co-crystal structures with hemagglutinin revealed that each class utilized characteristic germline genes and convergent sequence motifs to recognize overlapping epitopes in the hemagglutinin stem. All six analyzed subjects had sequences from at least one multidonor class, and-in half the subjects-multidonor-class sequences were recovered from >40% of cross-reactive B cells. By contrast, these multidonor-class sequences were rare in published antibody datasets. Vaccination with a divergent hemagglutinin can thus increase the frequency of B cells encoding broad influenza A-neutralizing antibodies. We propose the sequence signature-quantified prevalence of these B cells as a metric to guide universal influenza A immunization strategies. PMID:27453470

  2. Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody

    DOE PAGES

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Chen, Lei; Gao, Feng; Joyce, M.  Gordon; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Schramm, Chaim A.; Wiehe, Kevin; et al

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report that antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. We define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. Structures of lineage antibodies CH235 (week 41 from time-of-infection, 18% breadth), CH235.9 (week 152, 77%), and CH235.12 (week 323, 90%) demonstrated the maturing epitope to focus on the conformationally invariant portion of the CD4bs. Similarities between CH235 lineage and five unrelated CD4bs lineages in epitope focusing, length-of-time to develop breadth, and extraordinary level ofmore » somatic hypermutation suggested commonalities in maturation among all CD4bs antibodies. Fortunately, the required CH235-lineage hypermutation appeared substantially guided by the intrinsic mutability of the VH1-46 gene, which closely resembled VH1-2. Lastly, we integrated our CH235-lineage findings with a second broadly neutralizing lineage and HIV-1 co-evolution to suggest a vaccination strategy for inducing both lineages.« less

  3. Serum Neutralization Assay Can Efficiently Replace Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for Detection and Quantitation of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Human and Animal Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Annapia; Casaccia, Claudia; Conte, Annamaria; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A serum neutralization assay (SN) was compared with the official plaque reduction neutralization test for the quantitation of West Nile virus antibodies. A total of 1,348 samples from equid sera and 38 from human sera were tested by these two methods. Statistically significant differences were not observed, thus supporting the use of SN for routine purposes. PMID:25100824

  4. Functional Antibodies Elicited by Two Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial▿

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Nina; Väkeväinen, Merja; Verho, Jouko; Kilpi, Terhi; Käyhty, Helena

    2007-01-01

    In the Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial, the now-licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine containing polysaccharides conjugated to protein CRM197 (PncCRM) and the experimental pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate vaccine (PncOMPC), showed similar efficacy profiles against acute otitis media despite different antibody concentrations in sera. We now report the opsonophagocytic activities (OPA) in these sera. OPA, antibody concentration, and avidity for serotypes 6B, 19F, and 23F were determined in sera of infants who received either pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) or control vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and either the homologous or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age. OPA varied by vaccine and serotype. The majority of PCV recipients had positive OPA after the fourth dose, while OPA was undetectable in the control group. Coinciding with the efficacy data, the concentration of antibodies required for 50% killing was low for 6B and high for 19F for both PCVs. Contradictory to the efficacy data, PncOMPC induced lower functional capacity to 23F than PncCRM. OPA correlated with antibody concentration, while avidity and functional capacity of antibodies showed no correlation. The OPA data provide valuable additional information for serotype-specific differences in protection and when evaluating serotype-specific immunogenicity and should thus be considered when defining serological correlates of protection. PMID:17261612

  5. Invasion-inhibitory antibodies elicited by immunization with Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast.

    PubMed

    Vicentin, Elaine C; Françoso, Kátia S; Rocha, Mariana V; Iourtov, Dmitri; Dos Santos, Fernanda L; Kubrusly, Flávia S; Sakauchi, Maria A; Raw, Isaias; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Russell, Bruce; Soares, Irene S

    2014-03-01

    In a recent vaccine trial performed with African children, immunization with a recombinant protein based on Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) conferred a significant degree of strain-specific resistance against malaria. To contribute to the efforts of generating a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax malaria, we expressed the ectodomain of P. vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) as a secreted soluble protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Recognized by a high percentage of sera from individuals infected by P. vivax, this recombinant protein was found to have maintained its antigenicity. The immunogenicity of this protein was evaluated in mice using immunization protocols that included homologous and heterologous prime-boost strategies with plasmid DNA and recombinant protein. We used the following formulations containing different adjuvants: aluminum salts (Alum), Bordetella pertussis monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), flagellin FliC from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, saponin Quil A, or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The formulations containing the adjuvants Quil A or IFA elicited the highest IgG antibody titers. Significant antibody titers were also obtained using a formulation developed for human use containing MPLA or Alum plus MPLA. Recombinant PvAMA-1 produced under "conditions of good laboratory practice" provided a good yield, high purity, low endotoxin levels, and no microbial contaminants and reproduced the experimental immunizations. Most relevant for vaccine development was the fact that immunization with PvAMA-1 elicited invasion-inhibitory antibodies against different Asian isolates of P. vivax. Our results show that AMA-1 expressed in P. pastoris is a promising antigen for use in future preclinical and clinical studies.

  6. Structural comparison of four different antibodies interacting with human papillomavirus 16 and mechanisms of neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Jian; Bywaters, Stephanie M.; Brendle, Sarah A.; Lee, Hyunwook; Ashley, Robert E.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Conway, James F.; Christensen, Neil D.; Hafenstein, Susan

    2015-09-15

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) was used to solve the structures of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) complexed with fragments of antibody (Fab) from three different neutralizing monoclonals (mAbs): H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each Fab with capsid interactions that involved multiple loops from symmetry related copies of the major capsid protein. The residues identified in each Fab-virus interface map to a conformational groove on the surface of the capsomer. In addition to the known involvement of the FG and HI loops, the DE loop was also found to constitute the core of each epitope. Surprisingly, the epitope mapping also identified minor contributions by EF and BC loops. Complementary immunological assays included mAb and Fab neutralization. The specific binding characteristics of mAbs correlated with different neutralizing behaviors in pre- and post-attachment neutralization assays. - Highlights: • We present HPV16-Fab complexes from neutralizing mAbs: H16.1A, H16.14J, and H263.A2. • The structure-function analysis revealed predominantly monovalent binding of each mAb. • Capsid–Fab interactions involved multiple loops from symmetry related L1 proteins. • Besides the known FG and HI loops, epitope mapping also identified DE, EF, and BC loops. • Neutralizing assays complement the structures to show multiple neutralization mechanisms.

  7. Commercially available immunoglobulins contain virus neutralizing antibodies against all major genotypes of polyomavirus BK.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, P; Pastrana, D V; Zeng, G; Huang, Y; Shapiro, R; Sood, P; Puttarajappa, C; Berger, M; Hariharan, S; Buck, C B

    2015-04-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) form the basis of immunotherapeutic strategies against many important human viral infections. Accordingly, we studied the prevalence, titer, genotype-specificity, and mechanism of action of anti-polyomavirus BK (BKV) NAbs in commercially available human immune globulin (IG) preparations designed for intravenous (IV) use. Pseudovirions (PsV) of genotypes Ia, Ib2, Ic, II, III, and IV were generated by co-transfecting a reporter plasmid encoding luciferase and expression plasmids containing synthetic codon-modified VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid protein genes into 293TT cells. NAbs were measured using luminometry. All IG preparations neutralized all BKV genotypes, with mean EC50 titers as high as 254 899 for genotype Ia and 6,666 for genotype IV. Neutralizing titers against genotypes II and III were higher than expected, adding to growing evidence that infections with these genotypes are more common than currently appreciated. Batch to batch variation in different lots of IG was within the limits of experimental error. Antibody mediated virus neutralizing was dose dependent, modestly enhanced by complement, genotype-specific, and achieved without effect on viral aggregation, capsid morphology, elution, or host cell release. IG contains potent NAbs capable of neutralizing all major BKV genotypes. Clinical trials based on sound pharmacokinetic principles are needed to explore prophylactic and therapeutic applications of these anti-viral effects, until effective small molecule inhibitors of BKV replication can be developed.

  8. Epitope Mapping of Anti-Interleukin-13 Neutralizing Antibody CNTO607

    SciTech Connect

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Luo, Jinquan; Kang, James; O'Neil, Karyn; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2009-06-24

    CNTO607 is a neutralizing anti-interleukin-13 (IL-13) human monoclonal antibody obtained from a phage display library. To determine how this antibody inhibits the biological effect of IL-13, we determined the binding epitope by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of the complex between CNTO607 Fab and IL-13 reveals the antibody epitope at the surface formed by helices A and D of IL-13. This epitope overlaps with the IL-4Ralpha/IL-13Ralpha1 receptor-binding site, which explains the neutralizing effect of CNTO607. The extensive antibody interface covers an area of 1000 A(2), which is consistent with the high binding affinity. The key features of the interface are the charge and shape complementarity of the molecules that include two hydrophobic pockets on IL-13 that accommodate Phe32 [complementarity-determining region (CDR) L2] and Trp100a (CDR H3) and a number of salt bridges between basic residues of IL-13 and acidic residues of the antibody. Comparison with the structure of the free Fab shows that the CDR residues do not change their conformation upon complex formation, with the exception of two residues in CDR H3, Trp100a and Asp100b, which change rotamer conformations. To evaluate the relative contribution of the epitope residues to CNTO607 binding, we performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the A-D region of IL-13. This study confirmed the primary role of electrostatic interactions for antigen recognition.

  9. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit HIV-1 cell to cell transmission

    PubMed Central

    Malbec, Marine; Porrot, Françoise; Rua, Rejane; Horwitz, Joshua; Klein, Florian; Halper-Stromberg, Ari; Scheid, Johannes F.; Eden, Caroline; Mouquet, Hugo; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2013-01-01

    The neutralizing activity of anti–HIV-1 antibodies is typically measured in assays where cell-free virions enter reporter cell lines. However, HIV-1 cell to cell transmission is a major mechanism of viral spread, and the effect of the recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) on this mode of transmission remains unknown. Here we identify a subset of bNAbs that inhibit both cell-free and cell-mediated infection in primary CD4+ lymphocytes. These antibodies target either the CD4-binding site (NIH45-46 and 3BNC60) or the glycan/V3 loop (10-1074 and PGT121) on HIV-1 gp120 and act at low concentrations by inhibiting multiple steps of viral cell to cell transmission. These antibodies accumulate at virological synapses and impair the clustering and fusion of infected and target cells and the transfer of viral material to uninfected T cells. In addition, they block viral cell to cell transmission to plasmacytoid DCs and thereby interfere with type-I IFN production. Thus, only a subset of bNAbs can efficiently prevent HIV-1 cell to cell transmission, and this property should be considered an important characteristic defining antibody potency for therapeutic or prophylactic antiviral strategies. PMID:24277152

  10. A Novel Humanized Antibody Neutralizes H5N1 Influenza Virus via Two Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yunrui; Ng, Qingyong; Jia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 continues to be a severe threat to public health, as well as the poultry industry, because of its high lethality and antigenic drift rate. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can serve as a useful tool for preventing, treating, and detecting H5N1. In the present study, humanized H5 antibody 8A8 was developed from a murine H5 MAb. Both the humanized and mouse MAbs presented positive activity in hemagglutination inhibition (HI), virus neutralization, and immunofluorescence assays against a wide range of H5N1 strains. Interestingly, both human and murine 8A8 antibodies were able to detect H5 in Western blot assays under reducing conditions. Further, by sequencing of escape mutants, the conformational epitope of 8A8 was found to be located within the receptor binding domain (RBD) of H5. The linear epitope of 8A8 was identified by Western blotting of overlapping fragments and substitution mutant forms of HA1. Reverse genetic H5N1 strains with individual mutations in either the conformational or the linear epitope were generated and characterized in a series of assays, including HI, postattachment, and cell-cell fusion inhibition assays. The results indicate that for 8A8, virus neutralization mediated by RBD blocking relies on the conformational epitope while binding to the linear epitope contributes to the neutralization by inhibiting membrane fusion. Taken together, the results of this study show that a novel humanized H5 MAb binds to two types of epitopes on HA, leading to virus neutralization via two mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Recurrence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in humans and poultry continues to be a serious public health concern. Preventive and therapeutic measures against influenza A viruses have received much interest in the context of global efforts to combat the current and future pandemics. Passive immune therapy is considered to be the most effective and

  11. Simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest for the titration of rabies neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, S R; Carrieri, M L; Tino, M S; Zanetti, C R; Pereira, O A

    1993-01-01

    A simplified fluorescence inhibition microtest (SFIMT) was standardized for the evaluation of antirabies serum neutralizing antibodies based on the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and the fluorescence inhibition microtest (FIMT). The simplified test showed reproducibility similar to that of the FIMT with advantages as easier executation and quicker reading. A simple pre-treatment of Brazilian microplates produced for immune enzymatic assays (PROSIL) gave equivalent results and substantial coast reduction, in relation to imported plates (DIFCO). The simplified test can be easily implemented in less sophisticated laboratories, as alternative to the mouse serum neutralization test, still the most largely employed in Brazil, or even to others as RFFIT and FIMT.

  12. Neutralization of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by heme-induced broadly reactive human monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nimesh; de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Lecerf, Maxime; Kalia, Manjula; Scheel, Tobias; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Berek, Claudia; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Desprès, Philippe; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien; Dimitrov, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently dominant JEV genotypes. This study opens new therapeutic options for Japanese encephalitis. PMID:26542535

  13. A rapid microneutralization assay for the measurement of neutralizing antibody reactive with human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, M; Faircloth, M; Vugler, L; Britt, W J

    1989-02-01

    We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody reactive with a major immediate early 72,000 dalton protein of human cytomegalovirus and utilized this reagent in a rapid virus titration and microneutralization assay. Because of the early expression of this virus encoded protein, both assays could be accomplished within 16 h following virus inoculation. In addition, both assays resulted in considerable savings of reagents because the assays were carried out in 96-well microtiter plates. These assays should prove useful in the preparation and study of neutralizing antibodies directed against human cytomegalovirus.

  14. Neutralization of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by heme-induced broadly reactive human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nimesh; de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Lecerf, Maxime; Kalia, Manjula; Scheel, Tobias; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Berek, Claudia; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Desprès, Philippe; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien; Dimitrov, Jordan D

    2015-01-01

    Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently dominant JEV genotypes. This study opens new therapeutic options for Japanese encephalitis. PMID:26542535

  15. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus in Eleonora's Falcons in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan Manuel; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Jesús M; Figuerola, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    Birds are the major amplifying host for West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus that may affect humans and transmitted by bloodsucking vectors. Eleonora's Falcons (Falco eleonorae) migrate to the Canary Islands annually from WNV-endemic regions. To investigate the possible role of Eleonora's Falcons in the circulation of WNV, we measured WNV-specific antibodies in 81 falcons captured in 2006. None of the nestlings but 14.8% of the adults had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCR did not detect flaviviruses in nonculicine ectoparasites (n=231) of the falcons. These findings suggest that WNV infection did not occur locally, but rather on the wintering grounds or during migration.

  16. Multimeric Scaffolds Displaying the HIV-1 Envelope MPER Induce MPER-Specific Antibodies and Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies when Co-Immunized with gp160 DNA

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Shelly J.; McBurney, Sean P.; Kovarik, Dina N.; Waddell, Chelsea D.; Jaworski, J. Pablo; Sutton, William F.; Gomes, Michelle M.; Trovato, Maria; Waagmeester, Garret; Barnett, Susan J.; DeBerardinis, Piergiuseppe; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a vaccine that overcomes the diversity of HIV-1 is likely to require a strategy that directs antibody (Ab) responses toward conserved regions of the viral Envelope (Env). However, the generation of neutralizing Abs (NAbs) targeting these regions through vaccination has proven to be difficult. One conserved region of particular interest is the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of Env located within the gp41 ectodomain. In order to direct the immune response to this region, the MPER and gp41 ectodomain were expressed separately as N-terminal fusions to the E2 protein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 protein acts as a scaffold by self-assembling into 60-mer particles, displaying up to 60 copies of the fused target on the surface. Rabbits were immunized with E2 particles displaying MPER and/or the gp41 ectodomain in conjunction with DNA encoding full-length gp160. Only vaccines including E2 particles displaying MPER elicited MPER-specific Ab responses. NAbs were elicited after two immunizations that largely targeted the V3 loop. To overcome V3 immunodominance in the DNA component, E2 particles displaying MPER were used in conjunction with gp160 DNA lacking hypervariable regions V2, V3, or combined V1V2V3. All rabbits had HIV binding Ab responses and NAbs following the second vaccination. Using HIV-2/HIV-1 MPER chimeric viruses as targets, NAbs were detected in 12/16 rabbits after three immunizations. Low levels of NAbs specific for Tier 1 and 2 viruses were observed in all groups. This study provides evidence that co-immunizing E2 particles displaying MPER and gp160 DNA can focus Ab responses toward conserved regions of Env. PMID:25514675

  17. Multimeric scaffolds displaying the HIV-1 envelope MPER induce MPER-specific antibodies and cross-neutralizing antibodies when co-immunized with gp160 DNA.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Shelly J; McBurney, Sean P; Kovarik, Dina N; Waddell, Chelsea D; Jaworski, J Pablo; Sutton, William F; Gomes, Michelle M; Trovato, Maria; Waagmeester, Garret; Barnett, Susan J; DeBerardinis, Piergiuseppe; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Developing a vaccine that overcomes the diversity of HIV-1 is likely to require a strategy that directs antibody (Ab) responses toward conserved regions of the viral Envelope (Env). However, the generation of neutralizing Abs (NAbs) targeting these regions through vaccination has proven to be difficult. One conserved region of particular interest is the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of Env located within the gp41 ectodomain. In order to direct the immune response to this region, the MPER and gp41 ectodomain were expressed separately as N-terminal fusions to the E2 protein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 protein acts as a scaffold by self-assembling into 60-mer particles, displaying up to 60 copies of the fused target on the surface. Rabbits were immunized with E2 particles displaying MPER and/or the gp41 ectodomain in conjunction with DNA encoding full-length gp160. Only vaccines including E2 particles displaying MPER elicited MPER-specific Ab responses. NAbs were elicited after two immunizations that largely targeted the V3 loop. To overcome V3 immunodominance in the DNA component, E2 particles displaying MPER were used in conjunction with gp160 DNA lacking hypervariable regions V2, V3, or combined V1V2V3. All rabbits had HIV binding Ab responses and NAbs following the second vaccination. Using HIV-2/HIV-1 MPER chimeric viruses as targets, NAbs were detected in 12/16 rabbits after three immunizations. Low levels of NAbs specific for Tier 1 and 2 viruses were observed in all groups. This study provides evidence that co-immunizing E2 particles displaying MPER and gp160 DNA can focus Ab responses toward conserved regions of Env. PMID:25514675

  18. Generation of recombinant antibody fragments with toxin-neutralizing potential in loxoscelism.

    PubMed

    Karim-Silva, Sabrina; Moura, Juliana de; Noiray, Magali; Minozzo, Joao Carlos; Aubrey, Nicolas; Alvarenga, Larissa M; Billiald, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Loxosceles spider bites often lead to serious envenomings and no definite therapy has yet been established. In such a context, it is of interest to consider an antibody-based targeted therapy. We have previously prepared a murine monoclonal IgG (LiMab7) that binds to 32-35kDa components of Loxosceles intermedia venom and neutralizes the dermonecrotic activity of the venom. Here, we re-engineered LiMab7 into a recombinant diabody. The protein was produced in bacteria and then it was functionally characterized. It proved to be efficient at neutralizing sphingomyelinase and hemolytic activities of the crude venom despite the slightly altered binding kinetic constants and the limited stability of the dimeric configuration. This is the first report of a specific recombinant antibody for a next-generation of Loxosceles antivenoms. PMID:27288291

  19. Glycan clustering stabilizes the mannose patch of HIV-1 and preserves vulnerability to broadly neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Laura K.; Spencer, Daniel I. R.; Royle, Louise; Bonomelli, Camille; Seabright, Gemma E.; Behrens, Anna-Janina; Kulp, Dan; Menis, Sergey; Krumm, Stefanie A.; Dunlop, D. Cameron; Crispin, Daniel J.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Schief, William R.; Doores, Katie J.; Crispin, Max

    2015-01-01

    The envelope spike of HIV-1 employs a ‘glycan shield’ to protect itself from antibody-mediated neutralization. Paradoxically, however, potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been isolated which target this shield. The unusually high glycan density on the gp120 subunit limits processing during biosynthesis, leaving a region of under-processed oligomannose-type structures which is a primary target of these bnAbs. Here we investigate the contribution of individual glycosylation sites to formation of this so-called intrinsic mannose patch. Deletion of individual sites has a limited effect on the overall size of the intrinsic mannose patch but leads to changes in the processing of neighboring glycans. These structural changes are largely tolerated by a panel of glycan-dependent bnAbs targeting these regions, indicating a degree of plasticity in their recognition. These results support the intrinsic mannose patch as a stable target for vaccine design. PMID:26105115

  20. Glycan clustering stabilizes the mannose patch of HIV-1 and preserves vulnerability to broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Laura K; Spencer, Daniel I R; Royle, Louise; Bonomelli, Camille; Seabright, Gemma E; Behrens, Anna-Janina; Kulp, Daniel W; Menis, Sergey; Krumm, Stefanie A; Dunlop, D Cameron; Crispin, Daniel J; Bowden, Thomas A; Scanlan, Christopher N; Ward, Andrew B; Schief, William R; Doores, Katie J; Crispin, Max

    2015-06-24

    The envelope spike of HIV-1 employs a 'glycan shield' to protect itself from antibody-mediated neutralization. Paradoxically, however, potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that target this shield have been isolated. The unusually high glycan density on the gp120 subunit limits processing during biosynthesis, leaving a region of under-processed oligomannose-type structures, which is a primary target of these bnAbs. Here we investigate the contribution of individual glycosylation sites in the formation of this so-called intrinsic mannose patch. Deletion of individual sites has a limited effect on the overall size of the intrinsic mannose patch but leads to changes in the processing of neighbouring glycans. These structural changes are largely tolerated by a panel of glycan-dependent bnAbs targeting these regions, indicating a degree of plasticity in their recognition. These results support the intrinsic mannose patch as a stable target for vaccine design.

  1. Stapled HIV-1 Peptides Recapitulate Antigenic Structures and Engage Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive, α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here, we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease-resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically-stabilized antigens for vaccination. PMID:25420104

  2. Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rui; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Tongqing; Acharya, Priyamvada; Lemmin, Thomas; Liu, Kevin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Soto, Cinque; Taft, Justin D; Bailer, Robert T; Cale, Evan M; Chen, Lei; Choi, Chang W; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Gorman, Jason; Huang, Jinghe; Joyce, M Gordon; Louder, Mark K; Ma, Xiaochu; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Yang, Yongping; Blanchard, Scott C; Mothes, Walther; Burton, Dennis R; Koff, Wayne C; Connors, Mark; Ward, Andrew B; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R

    2016-05-13

    The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. Here, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. These results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design. PMID:27174988

  3. Structural basis for Marburg virus neutralization by a cross-reactive human antibody.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Takao; Fusco, Marnie L; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Lee, Jeffrey E; Flyak, Andrew I; Matsuoka, Rei; Kohda, Daisuke; Yanagi, Yusuke; Hammel, Michal; Crowe, James E; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-02-26

    The filoviruses, including Marburg and Ebola, express a single glycoprotein on their surface, termed GP, which is responsible for attachment and entry of target cells. Filovirus GPs differ by up to 70% in protein sequence, and no antibodies are yet described that cross-react among them. Here, we present the 3.6 Å crystal structure of Marburg virus GP in complex with a cross-reactive antibody from a human survivor, and a lower resolution structure of the antibody bound to Ebola virus GP. The antibody, MR78, recognizes a GP1 epitope conserved across the filovirus family, which likely represents the binding site of their NPC1 receptor. Indeed, MR78 blocks binding of the essential NPC1 domain C. These structures and additional small-angle X-ray scattering of mucin-containing MARV and EBOV GPs suggest why such antibodies were not previously elicited in studies of Ebola virus, and provide critical templates for development of immunotherapeutics and inhibitors of entry. PMID:25723165

  4. Toward Effective HIV Vaccination INDUCTION OF BINARY EPITOPE REACTIVE ANTIBODIES WITH BROAD HIV NEUTRALIZING ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; Nitti, Giovanni; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Jin, Lei; Symersky, Jindrich; Boivin, Stephane; Sienczyk, Marcin; Salas, Maria; Hanson, Carl V.; Paul, Sudhir

    2009-11-23

    We describe murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised by immunization with an electrophilic gp120 analog (E-gp120) expressing the rare ability to neutralize genetically heterologous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains. Unlike gp120, E-gp120 formed covalent oligomers. The reactivity of gp120 and E-gp120 with mAbs to reference neutralizing epitopes was markedly different, indicating their divergent structures. Epitope mapping with synthetic peptides and electrophilic peptide analogs indicated binary recognition of two distinct gp120 regions by anti-E-gp120 mAbs, the 421-433 and 288-306 peptide regions. Univalent Fab and single chain Fv fragments expressed the ability to recognize both peptides. X-ray crystallography of an anti-E-gp120 Fab fragment revealed two neighboring cavities, the typical antigen-binding cavity formed by the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and another cavity dominated by antibody heavy chain variable (VH) domain framework (FR) residues. Substitution of the FR cavity VH Lys-19 residue by an Ala residue resulted in attenuated binding of the 421-433 region peptide probe. The CDRs and VH FR replacement/silent mutation ratios exceeded the ratio for a random mutation process, suggesting adaptive development of both putative binding sites. All mAbs studied were derived from VH1 family genes, suggesting biased recruitment of the V gene germ line repertoire by E-gp120. The conserved 421-433 region of gp120 is essential for HIV binding to host CD4 receptors. This region is recognized weakly by the FR of antibodies produced without exposure to HIV, but it usually fails to induce adaptive synthesis of neutralizing antibodies. We present models accounting for improved CD4-binding site recognition and broad HIV neutralizing activity of the mAbs, long sought goals in HIV vaccine development.

  5. Prevalence and distribution of four serotypes of SMSV serum neutralizing antibodies in wild animal populations.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Akers, T G; Prato, C M; Bray, H

    1976-07-01

    Serum neutralizing antibodies to four serotypes of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSV) were demonstrated in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. These results show a wide geographic distribution of SMS viruses in the marine environment and indicate that certain terrestrial mammals have been infected with these so-called marine viruses. Evidence is presented supporting the theory that unidentified submammalian marine species are a reservoir for SMSV. PMID:16498871

  6. A Unique and Conserved Neutralization Epitope in H5N1 Influenza Viruses Identified by an Antibody against the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xueyong; Guo, Yong-Hui; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Ya-Di; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Li, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Wenli; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial efforts to control and contain H5N1 influenza viruses, bird flu viruses continue to spread and evolve. Neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA) could confer immunity to the diverse H5N1 virus strains and provide information for effective vaccine design. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody, H5M9, to most H5N1 clades and subclades that was elicited by immunization with viral HA of A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1), the immediate precursor of the current dominant strains of H5N1 viruses. The crystal structures of the Fab′ fragment of H5M9 in complexes with H5 HAs of A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 reveal a conserved epitope in the HA1 vestigial esterase subdomain that is some distance from the receptor binding site and partially overlaps antigenic site C of H3 HA. Further epitope characterization by selection of escape mutants and epitope mapping by flow cytometry analysis of site-directed mutagenesis of HA with a yeast cell surface display identified four residues that are critical for H5M9 binding. D53, Y274, E83a, and N276 are all conserved in H5N1 HAs and are not in H5 epitopes identified by other mouse or human antibodies. Antibody H5M9 is effective in protection of H5N1 virus both prophylactically and therapeutically and appears to neutralize by blocking both virus receptor binding and postattachment steps. Thus, the H5M9 epitope identified here should provide valuable insights into H5N1 vaccine design and improvement, as well as antibody-based therapies for treatment of H5N1 infection. PMID:24049169

  7. Influenza A HA's conserved epitopes and broadly neutralizing antibodies: a prediction method.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Ellis, John; Li, Jinyan

    2014-10-01

    A conserved epitope is an epitope retained by multiple strains of influenza as the key target of a broadly neutralizing antibody. Identification of conserved epitopes is of strong interest to help design broad-spectrum vaccines against influenza. Conservation score measures the evolutionary conservation of an amino acid position in a protein based on the phylogenetic relationships observed amongst homologous sequences. Here, Average Amino Acid Conservation Score (AAACS) is proposed as a method to identify HA's conserved epitopes. Our analysis shows that there is a clear distinction between conserved epitopes and nonconserved epitopes in terms of AAACS. This method also provides an excellent classification performance on an independent dataset. In contrast, alignment-based comparison methods do not work well for this problem, because conserved epitopes to the same broadly neutralizing antibody are usually not identical or similar. Location-based methods are not successful either, because conserved epitopes are located at both the less-conserved globular head (HA1) and the more-conserved stem (HA2). As a case study, two conserved epitopes on HA are predicted for the influenza A virus H7N9: One should match the broadly neutralizing antibodies CR9114 or FI6v3, while the other is new and requires validation by wet-lab experiments.

  8. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles

    PubMed Central

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses. PMID:27649230

  9. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles.

    PubMed

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses. PMID:27649230

  10. Identification of CD4-Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV-1 Infected Indian Individual.

    PubMed

    Khan, Lubina; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Kumar, Sanjeev; Nair, Ambili; Andrabi, Raiees; Clark, Brenda E; Auyeung, Kate; Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Vajpayee, Madhu; Wig, Naveet; Pantophlet, Ralph; Luthra, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting antibody specificities in the plasma of HIV-1 infected individuals that develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is likely to provide useful information for refining target epitopes for vaccine design. Several studies have reported CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies as neutralization determinants in the plasma of subtype B-infected individuals; however there is little information on the prevalence of CD4bs specificities in HIV-infected individuals in India. Here, we report on the presence of CD4bs antibodies and their contribution to virus neutralization in the plasma from a cohort of HIV-1 infected Indian individuals. Plasma from 11 of the 140 HIV-1 infected individuals (7.9%) studied here exhibited cross-neutralization activity against a panel of subtype B and C viruses. Analyses of these 11 plasma samples for the presence of CD4bs antibodies using two CD4bs-selective probes (antigenically resurfaced HXB2gp120 core protein RSC3 and hyperglycosylated JRFLgp120 mutant ΔN2mCHO) revealed that five (AIIMS 617, 619, 627, 642, 660) contained RSC3-reactive plasma antibodies and only one (AIIMS 660) contained ΔN2mCHO-reactive antibodies. Plasma antibody depletion and competition experiments confirmed that the neutralizing activity in the AIIMS 660 plasma was dependent on CD4bs antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report specifically on the presence of CD4bs antibodies in the plasma of a cohort of HIV-1 infected Indian donors. The identification of CD4bs dependent neutralizing antibodies in an HIV-1 infected Indian donor is a salient finding of this study and is supportive of ongoing efforts to induce similar antibodies by immunization.

  11. Autoreactivity of primary human immunoglobulins ancestral to hypermutated human antibodies that neutralize HCMV.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary R; Cho, Chin-wen; Schrader, John W

    2006-05-01

    The human antibody response to the AD-2S1 epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is dominated by a family of closely related somatically mutated antibodies. These antibodies neutralize viral infectivity and the genes encoding them are derived from two commonly used germ-line variable (V) region genes, IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Recombination of these V genes with the appropriate junctional diversity generates genes that encode primary immunoglobulins that bind to AD-2S1. To further understand the initial primary immunoglobulin response to AD-2S1 we synthesized the germ-line-based ancestor of one such family of antibodies and showed that it bound gB at the AD-2S1 epitope. Here we show that the germ-line ancestor of a second family of antibodies likewise binds to gB. We further show that one of the ancestral primary immunoglobulins, but not the other, also recognized autoantigens. In contrast, the hypermutated derivatives did not demonstrate autoreactivity and minor structural changes in the primary immunoglobulin were sufficient to generate or abolish autoreactivity or to change specificity. Thus, our demonstration that the ancestor of a highly mutated, non-autoreactive antiviral IgG antibody binds nuclear and cell-surface autoantigens indicates for the first time that self-reactivity is not necessarily a barrier to development into a follicular B lymphocyte that undergoes antigen-initiated affinity maturation.

  12. Influenza Virus-Specific Neutralizing IgM Antibodies Persist for a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Stavropoulou, Anastasia; Ashraf, Zuhha; Esser, E. Stein; Vassilieva, Elena; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios; Compans, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study, we followed the kinetics, longevity, and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies for 2 years following sublethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenges with 50× 50% lethal dose (LD50) mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, the virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies, and we found a significantly higher number of IgM-positive (IgM+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG+ plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months postexposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies did. PMID:25165027

  13. Honing a harder-hitting hammerhead improves broadly neutralizing antibody breadth and potency.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K

    2015-06-01

    While current HIV-1 therapies have greatly improved the quality and duration of life for infected individuals, a vaccine to prevent transmission of the virus is lacking. Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) with the capacity to neutralize multiple HIV-1 variants have been isolated from HIV-1-infected individuals, and there has been a great effort to investigate how these bnmAbs arise, due their potential for HIV-1 vaccination. In this issue of the JCI, Willis and colleagues apply a computational approach to design variants of the bnmAb PG9 in an attempt to enhance potency and neutralization breadth. One of these variants was able to target multiple PG9-resistant strains, as the result of stabilization of the long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3). The results of this study provide important insight and a unique approach to optimizing HIV-1 bnmABs.

  14. Combined cell culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of poliovirus neutralization- relevant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wahby, A F

    2000-11-01

    A combined cell culture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CCC-ELISA) was developed for measuring the neutralizing antipoliovirus antibodies in human sera. The binding of different concentrations of each of the three poliovirus types to BGM cells in the presence and absence of a constant dilution from each test and reference serum was measured in the CCC-ELISA. The titers of the viruses neutralized by each serum were measured with the titration curves and used for interpretation of neutralizing titers to the three poliovirus types. Analysis of human sera revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of the CCC-ELISA and the microneutralization assay were comparable. The CCC-ELISA is nonsubjective, rapid, and highly reproducible. Furthermore, the CCC-ELISA could potentially be used as a seroepidemiologic tool for assessment of the humoral response to the cell culture infectious viruses.

  15. Human IgG Subclasses against Enterovirus Type 71: Neutralization versus Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Feng; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Fang; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Chen, Wei; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The emerging human enterovirus 71 (EV71) represents a growing threat to public health, and no vaccine or specific antiviral is currently available. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is clinical used in treating severe EV71 infections. However, the discovery of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of EV71 infection illustrates the complex roles of antibody in controlling EV71 infection. In this study, to identify the distinct role of each IgG subclass on neutralization and enhancement of EV71 infection, different lots of pharmaceutical IVIG preparations manufactured from Chinese donors were used for IgG subclass fractionation by pH gradient elution with the protein A-conjugated affinity column. The neutralization and ADE capacities on EV71 infection of each purified IgG subclass were then assayed, respectively. The neutralizing activity of human IVIG is mainly mediated by IgG1 subclass and to less extent by IgG2 subclass. Interestingly, IgG3 fraction did not have neutralizing activity but enhanced EV71 infection in vitro. These results revealed the different roles of human IgG subclasses on EV71 infection, which is of critical importance for the rational design of immunotherapy and vaccines against severe EV71 diseases. PMID:23700449

  16. Persistence of Neutralizing Antibody Against Dengue Virus 2 After 70 Years from Infection in Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Muta, Yoshihito; Inoue, Shingo; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the duration of humoral immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) infection in Japanese who experienced acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic manifestations 70 years ago, when an epidemic of dengue occurred in Nagasaki, Japan, from 1942 to 1944. A Japanese volunteer requested serological diagnosis of DENV infection in 2014 and donated blood sample to measure the antibody titer against DENV by antiflavi IgG indirect ELISA, focus reduction neutralization test, and plaque reduction neutralization test. The serum sample of the volunteer was positive in flavi IgG ELISA and it indicated primary infection. In the neutralization test, the highest neutralizing titer was ≥218 for DENV-2. We report here the existence of DENV-specific antibodies in the serum of a person after 70 years from infection. Published reports indicated that DENV-1 was responsible for the 1942-1944 outbreak in Nagasaki. However, our data suggested that DENV-2 also played a role in this Nagasaki dengue epidemic. PMID:27493841

  17. Persistence of Neutralizing Antibody Against Dengue Virus 2 After 70 Years from Infection in Nagasaki

    PubMed Central

    Ngwe Tun, Mya Myat; Muta, Yoshihito; Inoue, Shingo; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the duration of humoral immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) infection in Japanese who experienced acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic manifestations 70 years ago, when an epidemic of dengue occurred in Nagasaki, Japan, from 1942 to 1944. A Japanese volunteer requested serological diagnosis of DENV infection in 2014 and donated blood sample to measure the antibody titer against DENV by antiflavi IgG indirect ELISA, focus reduction neutralization test, and plaque reduction neutralization test. The serum sample of the volunteer was positive in flavi IgG ELISA and it indicated primary infection. In the neutralization test, the highest neutralizing titer was ≥218 for DENV-2. We report here the existence of DENV-specific antibodies in the serum of a person after 70 years from infection. Published reports indicated that DENV-1 was responsible for the 1942–1944 outbreak in Nagasaki. However, our data suggested that DENV-2 also played a role in this Nagasaki dengue epidemic. PMID:27493841

  18. Yeast-produced recombinant virus-like particles of coxsackievirus A6 elicited protective antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Shen, Chaoyun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lili; Lan, Ke; Liu, Qingwei; Huang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) has recently emerged as the predominant pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), causing significant morbidity in children and adults. The increasing prevalence of CA6 infection and its associated disease burden underscore the need for effective CA6 vaccines. However, CA6 grows poorly in cultured cells, making it difficult to develop inactivated whole-virus or live attenuated vaccines. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based CA6 vaccine. CA6 VLPs were produced in Pichia pastoris yeast transformed with a vector encoding both P1 and 3CD proteins of CA6. Immunization with CA6 VLPs elicited CA6-specific serum antibodies in mice. Passive transfer of anti-VLP antisera protected recipient mice against lethal CA6 challenge. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CA6 VLPs represent a viable CA6 vaccine candidate which warrants further preclinical and clinical development. PMID:27315772

  19. Cross-Reactive and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Human Survivors of Natural Ebolavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Shen, Xiaoli; Murin, Charles D; Turner, Hannah L; David, Joshua A; Fusco, Marnie L; Lampley, Rebecca; Kose, Nurgun; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Branchizio, Andre; King, Hannah; Brown, Leland; Bryan, Christopher; Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Ward, Andrew B; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2016-01-28

    Recent studies have suggested that antibody-mediated protection against the Ebolaviruses may be achievable, but little is known about whether or not antibodies can confer cross-reactive protection against viruses belonging to diverse Ebolavirus species, such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). We isolated a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against BDBV glycoprotein (GP) using peripheral blood B cells from survivors of the 2007 BDBV outbreak in Uganda. We determined that a large proportion of mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against BDBV bind to the glycan cap and recognize diverse epitopes within this major antigenic site. We identified several glycan cap-specific mAbs that neutralized multiple ebolaviruses, including SUDV, and a cross-reactive mAb that completely protected guinea pigs from the lethal challenge with heterologous EBOV. Our results provide a roadmap to develop a single antibody-based treatment effective against multiple Ebolavirus infections. PMID:26806128

  20. Germline V-genes sculpt the binding site of a family of antibodies neutralizing human cytomegalovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Christy A.; Bryson, Steve; McLean, Gary R.; Creagh, A. Louise; Pai, Emil F.; Schrader, John W.

    2008-10-17

    Immunoglobulin genes are generated somatically through specialized mechanisms resulting in a vast repertoire of antigen-binding sites. Despite the stochastic nature of these processes, the V-genes that encode most of the antigen-combining site are under positive evolutionary selection, raising the possibility that V-genes have been selected to encode key structural features of binding sites of protective antibodies against certain pathogens. Human, neutralizing antibodies to human cytomegalovirus that bind the AD-2S1 epitope on its gB envelope protein repeatedly use a pair of well-conserved, germline V-genes IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Here, we present crystallographic, kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the binding site of such an antibody and that of its primary immunoglobulin ancestor. These show that these germline V-genes encode key side chain contacts with the viral antigen and thereby dictate key structural features of the hypermutated, high-affinity neutralizing antibody. V-genes may thus encode an innate, protective immunological memory that targets vulnerable, invariant sites on multiple pathogens.

  1. Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Corti, Davide; Misasi, John; Mulangu, Sabue; Stanley, Daphne A; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wollen, Suzanne; Ploquin, Aurélie; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Staupe, Ryan P; Bailey, Michael; Shi, Wei; Choe, Misook; Marcus, Hadar; Thompson, Emily A; Cagigi, Alberto; Silacci, Chiara; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Laurent; Sallusto, Federica; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Kisalu, Neville; Gordon, Ingelise; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Trefry, John C; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2016-03-18

    Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Strikingly, monotherapy with mAb114 protected macaques when given as late as 5 days after challenge. Treatment with a single human mAb suggests that a simplified therapeutic strategy for human Ebola infection may be possible.

  2. Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody.

    PubMed

    Corti, Davide; Misasi, John; Mulangu, Sabue; Stanley, Daphne A; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Wollen, Suzanne; Ploquin, Aurélie; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Staupe, Ryan P; Bailey, Michael; Shi, Wei; Choe, Misook; Marcus, Hadar; Thompson, Emily A; Cagigi, Alberto; Silacci, Chiara; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Laurent; Sallusto, Federica; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Kisalu, Neville; Gordon, Ingelise; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Trefry, John C; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2016-03-18

    Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Strikingly, monotherapy with mAb114 protected macaques when given as late as 5 days after challenge. Treatment with a single human mAb suggests that a simplified therapeutic strategy for human Ebola infection may be possible. PMID:26917593

  3. Characterization and Formulation of Multiple Epitope-Specific Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies for Passive Immunization against Cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Deborah A.; Auerbach-Dixon, Beth A.; Riggs, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals. Neither immunization nor parasite-specific pharmaceuticals that are consistently effective against this organism are available. While polyclonal antibodies against whole C. parvum reduce infection, their efficacy and predictability are suboptimal. We hypothesized that passive immunization against cryptosporidiosis could be improved by using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting functionally defined antigens on the infective stages. We previously reported that the apical complex and surface-exposed zoite antigens CSL, GP25-200, and P23 are critical in the infection process and are therefore rational targets. In the present study, a panel of 126 MAbs generated against affinity-purified CSL, GP25-200, and P23 was characterized to identify the most efficacious neutralizing MAb formulation targeting each antigen. To identify neutralizing MAbs, sporozoite infectivity following exposure to individual MAbs was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 126 MAbs evaluated, 47 had neutralizing activity. These were then evaluated individually in oocyst-challenged neonatal mice, and 14 MAbs having highly significant efficacy were identified for further testing in formulations. Epitope specificity assays were performed to determine if candidate MAbs recognized the same or different epitopes. Formulations of two or three neutralizing MAbs, each recognizing distinct epitopes, were then evaluated. A formulation of MAbs 3E2 (anti-CSL [αCSL]), 3H2 (αGP25-200), and 1E10 (αP23) provided highly significant additive efficacy over that of either individual MAbs or combinations of two MAbs and reduced intestinal infection by 86 to 93%. These findings indicate that polyvalent neutralizing MAb formulations targeting epitopes on defined antigens may provide optimal passive immunization against cryptosporidiosis. PMID:10768951

  4. Frequency and domain specificity of toxin-neutralizing paratopes in the human antibody response to anthrax vaccine adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Reason, Donald; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Zhou, Jianhui

    2009-05-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition unit of the binary anthrax toxin system and the primary immunogenic component in both the current and proposed "next-generation" anthrax vaccines. Several studies utilizing animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies, acquired by either active or passive immunization, are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. To investigate the human antibody response to anthrax immunization, we have established a large panel of human PA-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from multiple individuals vaccinated with the currently approved anthrax vaccine BioThrax. We have determined that although these antibodies bind PA in standard binding assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, capture assays, and dot blots, less than 25% are capable of neutralizing lethal toxin (LT) in vitro. Nonneutralizing antibodies also fail to neutralize toxin when present in combination with other nonneutralizing paratopes. Although neutralizing antibodies recognize determinants throughout the PA monomer, they are significantly less common among those paratopes that bind to the immunodominant amino-terminal portion of the molecule. These findings demonstrate that PA binding alone is not sufficient to neutralize LT and suggest that for an antibody to effectively block PA-mediated toxicity, it must bind to PA such that one of the requisite toxin functions is disrupted. A vaccine design strategy that directed a higher percentage of the antibody response toward neutralizing epitopes may result in a more efficacious vaccine for the prevention of anthrax infection.

  5. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schiefd, William R.; Crowe, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. PMID:24725940

  6. Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine elicits bactericidal antibodies against variant M subtypes.

    PubMed

    Dale, James B; Penfound, Thomas; Chiang, Edna Y; Long, Valerie; Shulman, Stanford T; Beall, Bernard

    2005-07-01

    Group A streptococci cause a wide spectrum of clinical illness. One of several strategies for vaccine prevention of these infections is based on the type-specific M protein epitopes. A multivalent M protein-based vaccine containing type-specific determinants from 26 different M serotypes is now in clinical trials. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that, within some serotypes, the amino-terminal M protein sequence may show natural variation, giving rise to subtypes. This raises the possibility that vaccine-induced antibodies against the parent type may not be as effective in promoting bactericidal killing of variant subtypes. In the present study we used rabbit antisera against the 26-valent M protein-based vaccine in bactericidal tests against M1, M3, and M5 streptococci, which were represented by multiple subtypes. We show that the vaccine antibodies effectively promoted in vitro bactericidal activity despite the fact that the M proteins contained naturally occurring variant sequences in the regions corresponding to the vaccine sequence. Our results show that the variant M proteins generally do not result in significant differences in opsonization promoted by rabbit antisera raised against the 26-valent vaccine, suggesting that a multivalent M protein vaccine may not permit variant subtypes of group A streptococci to escape in a highly immunized population.

  7. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies. PMID:24964084

  8. Analysis of Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies in Human HFMD Serum with an EV71 Pseudovirus-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies. PMID:24964084

  9. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  10. Establishment of titration system for human herpesvirus 6 and evaluation of neutralizing antibody response to the virus.

    PubMed

    Asada, H; Yalcin, S; Balachandra, K; Higashi, K; Yamanishi, K

    1989-10-01

    The susceptibilities of seven T-cell lines to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection were examined. MT-4 cells were the most susceptible of these lines to infection with this virus. Therefore, chemically adhered MT-4 cell monolayers were used for infectious HHV-6 assay by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) staining. When cell monolayers were fixed 30 to 45 h postinfection, the foci stained with IFA were easy to count and a linear relationship was observed between the number of foci and the virus concentration. MT-4 cell monolayers were also used for a focus reduction neutralizing-antibody test. In this test, sera from patients in the convalescent stage of exanthem subitum all showed significant neutralizing activity (1:80 to 1:320), whereas sera from patients in the acute stage of disease showed no detectable neutralizing activity. The titers of neutralizing antibody correlated well with the levels of anti-HHV-6 antibodies detected by IFA.

  11. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Du, Anariwa; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. • Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. • The antibodies predominantly recognized α-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). • The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. • The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short α-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the α-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  12. Developmental Pathway of the MPER-Directed HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8.

    PubMed

    Soto, Cinque; Ofek, Gilad; Joyce, M Gordon; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; Longo, Nancy S; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinghe; Parks, Robert; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey E; Alam, S Munir; Haynes, Barton F; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Antibody 10E8 targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41, neutralizes >97% of HIV-1 isolates, and lacks the auto-reactivity often associated with MPER-directed antibodies. The developmental pathway of 10E8 might therefore serve as a promising template for vaccine design, but samples from time-of-infection-often used to infer the B cell record-are unavailable. In this study, we used crystallography, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and functional assessments to infer the 10E8 developmental pathway from a single time point. Mutational analysis indicated somatic hypermutation of the 2nd-heavy chain-complementarity determining region (CDR H2) to be critical for neutralization, and structures of 10E8 variants with V-gene regions reverted to genomic origin for heavy-and-light chains or heavy chain-only showed structural differences >2 Å relative to mature 10E8 in the CDR H2 and H3. To understand these developmental changes, we used bioinformatic sieving, maximum likelihood, and parsimony analyses of immunoglobulin transcripts to identify 10E8-lineage members, to infer the 10E8-unmutated common ancestor (UCA), and to calculate 10E8-developmental intermediates. We were assisted in this analysis by the preservation of a critical D-gene segment, which was unmutated in most 10E8-lineage sequences. UCA and early intermediates weakly bound a 26-residue-MPER peptide, whereas HIV-1 neutralization and epitope recognition in liposomes were only observed with late intermediates. Antibody 10E8 thus develops from a UCA with weak MPER affinity and substantial differences in CDR H2 and H3 from the mature 10E8; only after extensive somatic hypermutation do 10E8-lineage members gain recognition in the context of membrane and HIV-1 neutralization.

  13. Structural Bases of Coronavirus Attachment to Host Aminopeptidase N and Its Inhibition by Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mudgal, Gaurav; Ordoño, Desiderio; Enjuanes, Luis; Casasnovas, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses of animals and humans associated mostly with enteric and respiratory diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and 10–20% of all common colds. A subset of CoVs uses the cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, as a cell entry receptor. In these viruses, the envelope spike glycoprotein (S) mediates the attachment of the virus particles to APN and subsequent cell entry, which can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe the crystal structures of the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of two closely related CoV strains, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV), in complex with their receptor, porcine APN (pAPN), or with a neutralizing antibody. The data provide detailed information on the architecture of the dimeric pAPN ectodomain and its interaction with the CoV S. We show that a protruding receptor-binding edge in the S determines virus-binding specificity for recessed glycan-containing surfaces in the membrane-distal region of the pAPN ectodomain. Comparison of the RBDs of TGEV and PRCV to those of other related CoVs, suggests that the conformation of the S receptor-binding region determines cell entry receptor specificity. Moreover, the receptor-binding edge is a major antigenic determinant in the TGEV envelope S that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies. Our results provide a compelling view on CoV cell entry and immune neutralization, and may aid the design of antivirals or CoV vaccines. APN is also considered a target for cancer therapy and its structure, reported here, could facilitate the development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22876187

  14. Structural bases of coronavirus attachment to host aminopeptidase N and its inhibition by neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Juan; Santiago, César; Mudgal, Gaurav; Ordoño, Desiderio; Enjuanes, Luis; Casasnovas, José M

    2012-01-01

    The coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses of animals and humans associated mostly with enteric and respiratory diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and 10-20% of all common colds. A subset of CoVs uses the cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, as a cell entry receptor. In these viruses, the envelope spike glycoprotein (S) mediates the attachment of the virus particles to APN and subsequent cell entry, which can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe the crystal structures of the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of two closely related CoV strains, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV), in complex with their receptor, porcine APN (pAPN), or with a neutralizing antibody. The data provide detailed information on the architecture of the dimeric pAPN ectodomain and its interaction with the CoV S. We show that a protruding receptor-binding edge in the S determines virus-binding specificity for recessed glycan-containing surfaces in the membrane-distal region of the pAPN ectodomain. Comparison of the RBDs of TGEV and PRCV to those of other related CoVs, suggests that the conformation of the S receptor-binding region determines cell entry receptor specificity. Moreover, the receptor-binding edge is a major antigenic determinant in the TGEV envelope S that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies. Our results provide a compelling view on CoV cell entry and immune neutralization, and may aid the design of antivirals or CoV vaccines. APN is also considered a target for cancer therapy and its structure, reported here, could facilitate the development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22876187

  15. Developmental Pathway of the MPER-Directed HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; Longo, Nancy S.; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinghe; Parks, Robert; Eudailey, Joshua; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Mullikin, James C.; Connors, Mark; Mascola, John R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Kwong, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody 10E8 targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41, neutralizes >97% of HIV-1 isolates, and lacks the auto-reactivity often associated with MPER-directed antibodies. The developmental pathway of 10E8 might therefore serve as a promising template for vaccine design, but samples from time-of-infection—often used to infer the B cell record—are unavailable. In this study, we used crystallography, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and functional assessments to infer the 10E8 developmental pathway from a single time point. Mutational analysis indicated somatic hypermutation of the 2nd-heavy chain-complementarity determining region (CDR H2) to be critical for neutralization, and structures of 10E8 variants with V-gene regions reverted to genomic origin for heavy-and-light chains or heavy chain-only showed structural differences >2 Å relative to mature 10E8 in the CDR H2 and H3. To understand these developmental changes, we used bioinformatic sieving, maximum likelihood, and parsimony analyses of immunoglobulin transcripts to identify 10E8-lineage members, to infer the 10E8-unmutated common ancestor (UCA), and to calculate 10E8-developmental intermediates. We were assisted in this analysis by the preservation of a critical D-gene segment, which was unmutated in most 10E8-lineage sequences. UCA and early intermediates weakly bound a 26-residue-MPER peptide, whereas HIV-1 neutralization and epitope recognition in liposomes were only observed with late intermediates. Antibody 10E8 thus develops from a UCA with weak MPER affinity and substantial differences in CDR H2 and H3 from the mature 10E8; only after extensive somatic hypermutation do 10E8-lineage members gain recognition in the context of membrane and HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:27299673

  16. Inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine delivered to rat skin via high density microprojection array elicits potent neutralising antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Muller, David A.; Pearson, Frances E.; Fernando, Germain J.P.; Agyei-Yeboah, Christiana; Owens, Nick S.; Corrie, Simon R.; Crichton, Michael L.; Wei, Jonathan C.J.; Weldon, William C.; Oberste, M. Steven; Young, Paul R.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is progressing rapidly, and the live attenuated Sabin strains in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are being removed sequentially, starting with type 2 in April 2016. For risk mitigation, countries are introducing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into routine vaccination programs. After April 2016, monovalent type 2 OPV will be available for type 2 outbreak control. Because the current IPV is not suitable for house-to-house vaccination campaigns (the intramuscular injections require health professionals), we developed a high-density microprojection array, the Nanopatch, delivered monovalent type 2 IPV (IPV2) vaccine to the skin. To assess the immunogenicity of the Nanopatch, we performed a dose-matched study in rats, comparing the immunogenicity of IPV2 delivered by intramuscular injection or Nanopatch immunisation. A single dose of 0.2 D-antigen units of IPV2 elicited protective levels of poliovirus antibodies in 100% of animals. However, animals receiving IPV2 by IM required at least 3 immunisations to reach the same neutralising antibody titres. This level of dose reduction (1/40th of a full dose) is unprecedented for poliovirus vaccine delivery. The ease of administration coupled with the dose reduction observed in this study points to the Nanopatch as a potential tool for facilitating inexpensive IPV for mass vaccination campaigns. PMID:26911254

  17. H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Thornburg, Natalie J.; Zhang, Heng; Bangaru, Sandhya; Kose, Nurgun; Lampley, Rebecca M.; Bombardi, Robin G.; Yu, Yingchun; Graham, Stephen; Branchizio, Andre; Yoder, Sandra M.; Rock, Michael T.; Creech, C. Buddy; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Wilson, Ian A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with influenza H7 strains. Epitope-mapping studies using neutralization escape mutant analysis, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography revealed that these neutralizing mAbs bind near the receptor-binding pocket on HA. All 5 neutralizing mAbs possessed low numbers of somatic mutations, suggesting the clones arose from naive B cells. The most potent mAb, H7.167, was tested as a prophylactic treatment in a mouse intranasal virus challenge study, and systemic administration of the mAb markedly reduced viral lung titers. PMID:26950424

  18. [Comparison of 2 in vitro methods of titration of antibodies neutralizing the classic swine plague virus].

    PubMed

    Corthier, G

    1976-01-01

    Swine fever virus neutralization have been studied by the following method: variable plaque forming units numbers are mixed with a predetermined serum dilution. Infectivity is measured before (VO) and after (Vr) neutralization reaction. Neutralization index (N.I. = logVo/V) represent the difference between the two titers. It had been demonstrated that mass law is a good approximation to describe swine fever virus neutralization. So the most useful form in which to express the relation between N.I. and dilution logarithm (log D) is NI = NIo--K log D (I) where K is the constante corresponding to the slope of neutralization curve. A sligh K variation is observed according to immunoglobulin classes sharing antibody activity. Average K value is equal to 3. NIO is the NI obtained when extrapolating the curve to log D = o. These results have permitted to compare the two seroneutralization methods commonly used: "constant serum" method and "variable serum" method (determination of serum dilution inhibiting 50% of infectivity: D50). From formula (I) the following relation can be obtained: see formular. Theoretical and experimental log D50 values were appromaximatively the same (difference inferior or equal to 0.3). So D50 can be calculated by both methods.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of serum antibodies elicited in adults by Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcus type 6A capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Parke, J C; Bell, C; Schlesselman, J J; Sutton, A; Wang, Z; Schiffman, G; Karpas, A; Shiloach, J

    1986-01-01

    Covalent binding to immunogenic proteins increases the immunogenicity of the capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcus type 6A (Pn6A). Conjugates composed of Hib, Pn6A, or the cross-reacting Escherichia coli K100 covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) were injected into young adult volunteers. Local reactions were common and were probably due to Arthus reactivity mediated by the preexisting antibodies reacting with the TT component of the conjugates. Fever occurred in about 10% of the volunteers after the first injection; no volunteers had fever after the second injection. Similar levels of Hib or Pn6A antibodies were elicited by either 50- or 100-micrograms doses or by concurrent injection of two different conjugates (Hib-TT and Pn6A-TT or Hib-TT and K100-TT). The Hib-TT elicited about a 180-fold increase in Hib antibodies, and the Pn6A-TT conjugate elicited about an 8-fold increase in Pn6A antibodies after one injection. Booster reactions were not elicited in adults; similar levels of antibodies in the five experimental groups suggested that the responses elicited by the conjugates were maximal. A one-way cross-reaction was noted as Pn6A conjugates elicited rises of Hib antibodies in 13 of 20 volunteers; only 4 of 59 volunteers immunized with Hib-TT had increases in Pn6A antibodies. The preimmunization Hib antibodies were composed of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG. The postimmunization sera showed an increase in all three isotypes; the elevation of the IgG was the highest of the three isotypes. Conjugate-induced antibodies to both the polysaccharide and TT exerted biological activities that have been correlated with immunity. Adsorption of the Hib-TT onto aluminium hydroxide resulted in higher levels and an earlier Hib antibody response in infant rhesus. These results encourage the evaluation of Hib and Pn6A conjugates in human children and infants. PMID:3516876

  20. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis of Epitope Binding by Neutralizing and Nonneutralizing Forms of the Anti-HIV-1 Antibody 4E10

    PubMed Central

    Rujas, Edurne; Gulzar, Naveed; Morante, Koldo; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Scott, Jamie K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 4E10 antibody recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 Env glycoprotein gp41 transmembrane subunit, exhibiting one of the broadest neutralizing activities known to date. The neutralizing activity of 4E10 requires solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues at the apex of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3 loop, but the molecular basis for this requirement has not been clarified. Here, we report the cocrystal structures and the energetic parameters of binding of a peptide bearing the 4E10-epitope sequence (4E10ep) to nonneutralizing versions of the 4E10 Fab. Nonneutralizing Fabs were obtained by shortening and decreasing the hydrophobicity of the CDR-H3 loop (termed ΔLoop) or by substituting the two tryptophan residues of the CDR-H3 apex with Asp residues (termed WDWD), which also decreases hydrophobicity but preserves the length of the loop. The analysis was complemented by the first crystal structure of the 4E10 Fab in its ligand-free state. Collectively, the data ruled out major conformational changes of CDR-H3 at any stage during the binding process (equilibrium or transition state). Although these mutations did not impact the affinity of wild-type Fab for the 4E10ep in solution, the two nonneutralizing versions of 4E10 were deficient in binding to MPER inserted in the plasma membrane (mimicking the environment faced by the antibody in vivo). The conclusions of our structure-function analysis strengthen the idea that to exert effective neutralization, the hydrophobic apex of the solvent-exposed CDR-H3 loop must recognize an antigenic structure more complex than just the linear α-helical epitope and likely constrained by the viral membrane lipids. IMPORTANCE The broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 4E10 antibody blocks infection caused by nearly all viral strains and isolates examined thus far. However, 4E10 (or 4E10-like) antibodies are rarely found in HIV-1-infected individuals or elicited through vaccination

  1. Detection of canine distemper virus serum neutralizing antibodies in captive U.S. phocids.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Meredith M; Gamble, Kathryn C; Travis, Dominic A

    2013-03-01

    Antibodies to morbilliviruses have been documented in free-ranging pinnipeds throughout populations in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, but not from the Pacific Ocean. As a symbolic geographic barrier between the exposed Atlantic and naive Pacific populations, the captive phocid population in North America had undocumented serologic status. In this study, canine distemper virus (CDV) serum neutralization assays were used to assess the prevalence of antibodies in this population with participation of 25 U.S. institutions from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus, n = 6) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina, n = 108). Historic and environmental risk factors associated with the epidemiology of distemper virus were collected by survey. Based on antibodies to canine distemper virus, the prevalence of exposure in this population was 25.5%, with 28 seals (grey, n = 2; harbor, n = 26) demonstrating antibody titers > or = 1:16, and positive titers ranged from 1:4 to 1:1,536. By survey analysis, strong associations with seropositive status were identified for captive origin (P = 0.013) and movement among institutions (P = 0.024). Size of population has positive correlation with likelihood of seropositive seals at an institution (P = 0.020). However, no major husbandry or enclosure-based risk factors were identified in institutions with seropositive seals, and no interaction between individual or institutional risk factors was identified. Previously undocumented prior to this study, CDV antibodies were measured in harbor seals (n = 2) recently stranded from the Pacific coast. PMID:23505705

  2. 3BNC117 a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Suppresses Viremia in HIV-1-Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, Marina; Klein, Florian; Lorenzi, Julio C. C.; Seaman, Michael S.; West, Anthony P.; Buckley, Noreen; Kremer, Gisela; Nogueira, Lilian; Braunschweig, Malte; Scheid, Johannes F.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Shimeliovich, Irina; Ben Avraham-Shulman, Sivan; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; Platten, Martin; Lehmann, Clara; Burke, Leah A.; Hawthorne, Thomas; Gorelick, Robert J.; Walker, Bruce D.; Keler, Tibor; Gulick, Roy M.; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Schlesinger, Sarah J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 immunotherapy with a combination of first generation monoclonal antibodies was largely ineffective in pre-clinical and clinical settings and was therefore abandoned1–3. However, recently developed single cell based antibody cloning methods have uncovered a new generation of far more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-14,5. These antibodies can prevent infection and suppress viremia in humanized mice (hu-mice) and nonhuman primates, but their potential for human HIV-1 immunotherapy has not been evaluated6–10. Here we report the results of a first-in-man dose escalation phase 1 clinical trial of 3BNC117, a potent human CD4 binding site antibody11, in uninfected and HIV-1-infected individuals. 3BNC117 infusion was well tolerated and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetics. A single 30 mg/kg infusion of 3BNC117 reduced the viral load (VL) in HIV-1-infected individuals by 0.8 – 2.5 log10 and viremia remained significantly reduced for 28 days. Emergence of resistant viral strains was variable, with some individuals remaining sensitive to 3BNC117 for a period of 28 days. We conclude that as a single agent 3BNC117 is safe and effective in reducing HIV-1 viremia, and that immunotherapy should be explored as a new modality for HIV-1 prevention, therapy, and cure. PMID:25855300

  3. ELPylated haemagglutinins produced in tobacco plants induce potentially neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang T; Pohl, Julia; Floss, Doreen M; Rabenstein, Frank; Veits, Jutta; Le, Binh T; Chu, Ha H; Hause, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Conrad, Udo

    2013-06-01

    Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production.

  4. Autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody responses following initial seroconversion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Moog, C; Fleury, H J; Pellegrin, I; Kirn, A; Aubertin, A M

    1997-01-01

    In the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, patients develop a strong and persistent immune response characterized by the production of HIV-specific antibodies. The aim of our study was to analyze the appearance of autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. For this purpose, primary strains have been isolated from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects prior to seroconversion (in one case) or within 1 to 8 months after seroconversion. Sera, collected at the same time as the virus was isolated and at various times after isolation, have been analyzed for their ability to neutralize the autologous primary strains isolated early after infection, heterologous primary isolates, and cell-line adapted strains. Our neutralization assay, which combines serial dilutions of virus and serial dilutions of sera, is based on the determination of the serum dilution at which a fixed reduction in virus titer (90%) occurs. We have shown that (i) we could not detect autologous neutralizing antibodies in sera collected at the same time as we isolated viruses; (ii) we detected neutralizing antibodies against the autologous strains about 1 year after seroconversion, occasionally after 8 months, but sera were not always available to exclude the presence of neutralizing antibodies at earlier times; (iii) after 1 year, the neutralization response was highly specific to virus present during the early phase of HIV infection; and (iv) heterologous neutralization of primary isolates was detected later (after about 2 years). These results reveal the enormous diversity of neutralization determinants on primary isolates as well as a temporal evolution of the humoral response generating cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094648

  5. Purified envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants induce individual, type-specific neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Pyle, S W; Hatch, W C; Dunlop, N M; Bess, J W; Kelliher, J C; Arthur, L O; Fischinger, P J

    1988-01-01

    Repeated immunizations of goats, horses, or chimpanzees with envelope glycoprotein gp120 isolated from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resulted in type-specific neutralizing-antibody responses, which began to decay approximately 20 days following the administration of antigen. This was true repeatedly for serum samples from animals hyperimmunized with gp120s from either the HTLV-IIIB (IIIB) or the envelope-divergent HTLV-IIIRF (RF) HIV-1 isolates. Animals previously immunized with the IIIB gp120 were then inoculated with purified RF gp120. The first response in these animals was an anamnestic resurgence of neutralizing antibody to IIIB without detectable neutralizing antibody for RF. However, with later RF gp120 boosts, the IIIB neutralizing-antibody titers fell and an RF type-specific neutralizing-antibody response developed. When assessed with other HIV-1 variants, no group-specific neutralizing antibody was seen in any of the vaccination protocols evaluated. These results will pose real obstacles in the development of an effective vaccine for HIV. PMID:3392769

  6. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2-7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2-7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2-7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences, which

  7. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B

    PubMed Central

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2–7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2–7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2–7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences

  8. Development of human-like scFv-Fc antibodies neutralizing Botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Rasetti-Escargueil, Christine; Avril, Arnaud; Chahboun, Siham; Tierney, Rob; Bak, Nicola; Miethe, Sebastian; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R; Thullier, Philippe; Hust, Michael; Pelat, Thibaut; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. BoNTs have been classified as category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To date, 7 subtypes of BoNT/B were identified showing that subtypes B1 (16 strains) and B2 (32 strains) constitute the vast majority of BoNT/B strains. Neutralizing antibodies are required for the development of anti-botulism drugs to deal with the potential risk. In this study, macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized with recombinant light chain (LC) or heavy chain (HC) of BoNT/B2, followed by the construction of 2 hyper-immune phage display libraries. The best single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) isolated from each library were selected according to their affinities and cross reactivity with BoNT/B1 toxin subtype. These scFvs against LC and HC were further analyzed by assessing the inhibition of in vitro endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B1 and B2 and neutralization of BoNT/B1 and B2 toxin-induced paralysis in the mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. The antibodies B2-7 (against HC) and BLC3 (against LC) were produced as scFv-Fc, and, when tested individually, neutralized BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 in a mouse ex vivo phrenic nerve assay. Whereas only scFv-Fc BLC3 alone protected mice against BoNT/B2-induced paralysis in vivo, when B2-7 and BLC3 were combined they exhibited potent synergistic protection. The present study provided an opportunity to assess the extent of antibody-mediated neutralization of BoNT/B1 and BoNT/B2 subtypes in ex vivo and in vitro assays, and to confirm the benefit of the synergistic effect of antibodies targeting the 2 distinct functional domains of the toxin in vivo. Notably, the framework regions of the most promising antibodies (B2-7 and BLC3) are close to the human germline sequences, which

  9. Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress.

    PubMed

    Fox, Julie M; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Fong, Rachel H; Kahle, Kristen M; Smit, Jolanda M; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J; Crowe, James E; Fremont, Daved H; Rossmann, Michael G; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-11-19

    We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry and egress, and bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern.

  10. Broadly Neutralizing Alphavirus Antibodies Bind an Epitope on E2 and Inhibit Entry and Egress.

    PubMed

    Fox, Julie M; Long, Feng; Edeling, Melissa A; Lin, Hueylie; van Duijl-Richter, Mareike K S; Fong, Rachel H; Kahle, Kristen M; Smit, Jolanda M; Jin, Jing; Simmons, Graham; Doranz, Benjamin J; Crowe, James E; Fremont, Daved H; Rossmann, Michael G; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-11-19

    We screened a panel of mouse and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus and identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, and O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins and viruses, and multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry and egress, and bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern. PMID:26553503

  11. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Leaman, Daniel P.; Kim, Arthur S.; Torrents de La Peña, Alba; Sliepen, Kwinten; Yasmeen, Anila; Derking, Ronald; Ramos, Alejandra; de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Klein, Florian; Burton, Dennis R.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Poignard, Pascal; Moore, John P.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-09-01

    The recent identification of three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against gp120-gp41 interface epitopes has expanded the targetable surface on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer. By using biochemical, biophysical and computational methods, we map the previously unknown trimer epitopes of two related antibodies, 3BC315 and 3BC176. A cryo-EM reconstruction of a soluble Env trimer bound to 3BC315 Fab at 9.3 Å resolution reveals that the antibody binds between two gp41 protomers, and neutralizes the virus by accelerating trimer decay. In contrast, bnAb 35O22 binding to a partially overlapping quaternary epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface does not induce decay. A conserved gp41-proximal glycan at N88 was also shown to play a role in the binding kinetics of 3BC176 and 3BC315. Finally, our data suggest that the dynamic structure of the Env trimer influences exposure of bnAb epitopes.

  12. Protective efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in a nonhuman primate model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Ishijima, Mari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Megumi; Matsuyama, Yukie; Igarashi, Manabu; Nakayama, Eri; Kuroda, Makoto; Saijo, Masayuki; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Douglas; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In this study, we used two clones of human-mouse chimeric MAbs (ch133 and ch226) with strong neutralizing activity against ZEBOV and evaluated their protective potential in a rhesus macaque model of EHF. Reduced viral loads and partial protection were observed in animals given MAbs ch133 and ch226 combined intravenously at 24 hours before and 24 and 72 hours after challenge. MAbs circulated in the blood of a surviving animal until virus-induced IgG responses were detected. In contrast, serum MAb concentrations decreased to undetectable levels at terminal stages of disease in animals that succumbed to infection, indicating substantial consumption of these antibodies due to virus replication. Accordingly, the rapid decrease of serum MAbs was clearly associated with increased viremia in non-survivors. Our results indicate that EBOV neutralizing antibodies, particularly in combination with other therapeutic strategies, might be beneficial in reducing viral loads and prolonging disease progression during EHF.

  13. Neutralizing antibody immune response in children with primary and secondary rotavirus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Arias, C F; López, S; Mascarenhas, J D; Romero, P; Cano, P; Gabbay, Y B; de Freitas, R B; Linhares, A C

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the neutralizing antibody immune response to six human rotavirus serotypes (G1 to G4, G8, and G9) in Brazilian children with primary and secondary rotavirus infections and correlated the response with the G serotype of the infecting rotavirus strain. Twenty-five children were studied: 17 had a single rotavirus infection, 4 were reinfected once, and 4 experienced three infections. Two of the reinfections were by non-group A rotaviruses. Among the 25 primary infections, we observed homotypic as well as heterotypic responses; the serotype G1 viruses, which accounted for 13 of these infections, induced mostly a homotypic response, while infections by serotype G2 and G4 viruses induced, in addition to the homotypic, a heterotypic response directed primarily to serotype G1. Two of the primary infections induced heterotypic antibodies to 69M, a serotype G8 virus that by RNA electrophoresis analysis was found not to circulate in the population during the time of the study. The specificity of the neutralizing antibody immune response induced by a virus of a given serotype was the same in primary as well as secondary infections. These results indicate that the heterotypic immune response induced in a primary rotavirus infection is an intrinsic property of the virus strain, and although there seem to be general patterns of serotype-specific seroconversion, these may vary from serotype to serotype and from strain to strain within a serotype. PMID:7496929

  14. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Leaman, Daniel P.; Kim, Arthur S.; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Sliepen, Kwinten; Yasmeen, Anila; Derking, Ronald; Ramos, Alejandra; de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Klein, Florian; Burton, Dennis R.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Poignard, Pascal; Moore, John P.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    The recent identification of three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against gp120–gp41 interface epitopes has expanded the targetable surface on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer. By using biochemical, biophysical and computational methods, we map the previously unknown trimer epitopes of two related antibodies, 3BC315 and 3BC176. A cryo-EM reconstruction of a soluble Env trimer bound to 3BC315 Fab at 9.3 Å resolution reveals that the antibody binds between two gp41 protomers, and neutralizes the virus by accelerating trimer decay. In contrast, bnAb 35O22 binding to a partially overlapping quaternary epitope at the gp120–gp41 interface does not induce decay. A conserved gp41-proximal glycan at N88 was also shown to play a role in the binding kinetics of 3BC176 and 3BC315. Finally, our data suggest that the dynamic structure of the Env trimer influences exposure of bnAb epitopes. PMID:26404402

  15. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji; Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kuhara, Motoki; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  16. Antibodies to a conformational epitope on gp41 neutralize HIV-1 by destabilizing the Env spike.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Leaman, Daniel P; Kim, Arthur S; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Sliepen, Kwinten; Yasmeen, Anila; Derking, Ronald; Ramos, Alejandra; de Taeye, Steven W; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Klein, Florian; Burton, Dennis R; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Poignard, Pascal; Moore, John P; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W; Zwick, Michael B; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    The recent identification of three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against gp120-gp41 interface epitopes has expanded the targetable surface on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer. By using biochemical, biophysical and computational methods, we map the previously unknown trimer epitopes of two related antibodies, 3BC315 and 3BC176. A cryo-EM reconstruction of a soluble Env trimer bound to 3BC315 Fab at 9.3 Å resolution reveals that the antibody binds between two gp41 protomers, and neutralizes the virus by accelerating trimer decay. In contrast, bnAb 35O22 binding to a partially overlapping quaternary epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface does not induce decay. A conserved gp41-proximal glycan at N88 was also shown to play a role in the binding kinetics of 3BC176 and 3BC315. Finally, our data suggest that the dynamic structure of the Env trimer influences exposure of bnAb epitopes. PMID:26404402

  17. Protective efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in a nonhuman primate model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Ishijima, Mari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Megumi; Matsuyama, Yukie; Igarashi, Manabu; Nakayama, Eri; Kuroda, Makoto; Saijo, Masayuki; Feldmann, Friederike; Brining, Douglas; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2012-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, with human case fatality rates up to 90%. Today, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor a treatment available for Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF). Single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) have been successfully used in passive immunization experiments in rodent models, but have failed to protect nonhuman primates from lethal disease. In this study, we used two clones of human-mouse chimeric MAbs (ch133 and ch226) with strong neutralizing activity against ZEBOV and evaluated their protective potential in a rhesus macaque model of EHF. Reduced viral loads and partial protection were observed in animals given MAbs ch133 and ch226 combined intravenously at 24 hours before and 24 and 72 hours after challenge. MAbs circulated in the blood of a surviving animal until virus-induced IgG responses were detected. In contrast, serum MAb concentrations decreased to undetectable levels at terminal stages of disease in animals that succumbed to infection, indicating substantial consumption of these antibodies due to virus replication. Accordingly, the rapid decrease of serum MAbs was clearly associated with increased viremia in non-survivors. Our results indicate that EBOV neutralizing antibodies, particularly in combination with other therapeutic strategies, might be beneficial in reducing viral loads and prolonging disease progression during EHF. PMID:22558378

  18. Hypervariable antigenic region 1 of classical swine fever virus E2 protein impacts antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xun; Wang, Zuohuan; Cao, Tong; Tong, Chao; Geng, Shichao; Gu, Yuanxing; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-07-19

    Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. There are three hypervariable antigenic regions (HAR1, HAR2 and HAR3) of E2 that are different between the group 1 vaccine C-strain and group 2 clinical isolates. This study was aimed to characterize the antigenic epitope region recognized by monoclonal antibody 4F4 (mAb-4F4) that is present in the group 2 field isolate HZ1-08, but not in the C-strain, and examine its impact on neutralization titers when antisera from different recombinant viruses were cross-examined. Indirect ELISA with C-strain E2-based chimeric proteins carrying the three HAR regions showed that the mAb-4F4 bound to HAR1 from HZ1-08 E2, but not to HAR2 or HAR3, indicating that the specific epitope is located in the HAR1 region. Of the 6 major residues differences between C-strain and field isolates, Glu713 in the HAR1 region of strain HZ1-08 is critical for mAb-4F4 binding either at the recombinant protein level or using intact recombinant viruses carrying single mutations. C-strain-based recombinant viruses carrying the most antigenic part of E2 or HAR1 from strain HZ1-08 remained non-pathogenic to pigs and induced good antibody responses. By cross-neutralization assay, we observed that the anti-C-strain serum lost most of its neutralization capacity to RecC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 (subgroup 2.1d field isolate in 2014), and vice versa. More importantly, the RecC-HAR1 virus remained competent in neutralizing ReC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 strains without compromising the neutralization capability to the recombinant C-strain. Thus, we propose that chimeric C-strain carrying the HAR1 region of field isolates is a good vaccine candidate for classical swine fever.

  19. Hypervariable antigenic region 1 of classical swine fever virus E2 protein impacts antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xun; Wang, Zuohuan; Cao, Tong; Tong, Chao; Geng, Shichao; Gu, Yuanxing; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-07-19

    Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against CSFV infection. There are three hypervariable antigenic regions (HAR1, HAR2 and HAR3) of E2 that are different between the group 1 vaccine C-strain and group 2 clinical isolates. This study was aimed to characterize the antigenic epitope region recognized by monoclonal antibody 4F4 (mAb-4F4) that is present in the group 2 field isolate HZ1-08, but not in the C-strain, and examine its impact on neutralization titers when antisera from different recombinant viruses were cross-examined. Indirect ELISA with C-strain E2-based chimeric proteins carrying the three HAR regions showed that the mAb-4F4 bound to HAR1 from HZ1-08 E2, but not to HAR2 or HAR3, indicating that the specific epitope is located in the HAR1 region. Of the 6 major residues differences between C-strain and field isolates, Glu713 in the HAR1 region of strain HZ1-08 is critical for mAb-4F4 binding either at the recombinant protein level or using intact recombinant viruses carrying single mutations. C-strain-based recombinant viruses carrying the most antigenic part of E2 or HAR1 from strain HZ1-08 remained non-pathogenic to pigs and induced good antibody responses. By cross-neutralization assay, we observed that the anti-C-strain serum lost most of its neutralization capacity to RecC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 (subgroup 2.1d field isolate in 2014), and vice versa. More importantly, the RecC-HAR1 virus remained competent in neutralizing ReC-HZ-E2 and QZ-14 strains without compromising the neutralization capability to the recombinant C-strain. Thus, we propose that chimeric C-strain carrying the HAR1 region of field isolates is a good vaccine candidate for classical swine fever. PMID:27317266

  20. Development of a high-throughput β-Gal-based neutralization assay for quantitation of herpes simplex virus-neutralizing antibodies in human samples.

    PubMed

    Baccari, Amy; Cooney, Michael; Blevins, Tamara P; Morrison, Lynda A; Larson, Shane; Skoberne, Mojca; Belshe, Robert B; Flechtner, Jessica B; Long, Deborah

    2016-07-19

    Measurement of neutralizing antibodies against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. The established plaque-reduction neutralization assay is time consuming, labor intensive, and difficult to validate and transfer. Here, we describe the characterization of a HSV-neutralization assay based on the expression of a reporter gene, β-galactosidase (β-Gal). Using previously constructed HSV-β-Gal recombinant viruses, HSV-2/Gal and HSV-1/tk12, we developed a colorimetric β-Gal-based neutralization assay that is sensitive and highly reproducible, and performed in less than 48h. HSV-1 and HSV-2 neutralizing titers measured by the β-Gal-based neutralization assay were equivalent to those obtained by a plaque reduction neutralization assay. Intra- and inter-assay precision studies demonstrated that the β-Gal-based assay was repeatable and yielded low and acceptable variation. In addition, comparison of HSV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers measured in two independent laboratories by two unique β-Gal-based assays showed a highly significant correlation (r=0.9499, p<0.0001) between the two assays. The new assay will serve as an important tool both for preclinical and clinical trials of new HSV vaccines.

  1. Bovine antibody against Cryptosporidium parvum elicits a circumsporozoite precipitate-like reaction and has immunotherapeutic effect against persistent cryptosporidiosis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, M W; Cama, V A; Leary, H L; Sterling, C R

    1994-01-01

    Control of cryptosporidiosis is currently hampered by the absence of drugs or vaccines proven consistently effective against Cryptosporidium parvum. On the basis of observations that anti-C. parvum antibody has therapeutic effect against cryptosporidiosis, cows were immunized with C. parvum to produce hyperimmune colostral antibody. An antibody-rich fraction was prepared and differentiated from control (nonhyperimmune) antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and in vitro neutralizing titer against DEAE-cellulose-isolated C. parvum sporozoites. Oocyst, purified sporozoite, and merozoite antigens recognized by hyperimmune antibody were defined by Western blot (immunoblot). Hyperimmune antibody recognized antigens common to oocysts, sporozoites, and merozoites, as well as stage-specific antigens. Upon incubation with hyperimmune antibody, sporozoites underwent distinct morphologic changes characterized by progressive formation and eventual release of membranous sporozoite surface antigen-antibody complexes, similar to the malaria circumsporozoite precipitate reaction. The infectivity of sporozoites having undergone this reaction was neutralized. The reaction was minimal or absent on sporozoites incubated with control antibody. To determine therapeutic effect in vivo, persistent C. parvum infection was established in adult severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice by oral inoculation with 10(7) oocysts. At 5 weeks postinfection, infected mice were treated for 10 days with hyperimmune or control antibody by inclusion in drinking water and daily gavage. Fecal oocyst shedding and infection scores in the gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder/common bile duct in hyperimmune antibody-treated mice were significantly lower than those in the control antibody-treated mice. Hyperimmune bovine antibody prepared against C. parvum may provide a first-generation therapy for control of cryptosporidiosis. Additionally

  2. Chimeric hemagglutinin influenza virus vaccine constructs elicit broadly protective stalk-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian; Pica, Natalie; Hai, Rong; Margine, Irina; Palese, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current influenza virus vaccine strategies stimulate immune responses toward the globular head domain of the hemagglutinin protein in order to inhibit key steps of the virus life cycle. Because this domain is highly variable across strains, new vaccine formulations are required in most years. Here we demonstrate a novel vaccine strategy that generates immunity to the highly conserved stalk domain by using chimeric hemagglutinin constructs that express unique head and stalk combinations. By repeatedly immunizing mice with constructs that expressed the same stalk but an irrelevant head, we specifically stimulated a stalk-directed response that provided broad-based heterologous and heterosubtypic immunity in mice. Notably, our vaccination scheme provides a universal vaccine approach that protects against challenge with an H5 subtype virus. Furthermore, through in vivo studies using passively transferred antibodies or depletion of CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated the critical role that humoral mechanisms of immunity play in the protection observed. The present data suggest that a vaccine strategy based on the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin protein could be used in humans to broadly protect against a variety of influenza virus subtypes. PMID:23576508

  3. Structural details of HIV-1 recognition by the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2F5: epitope conformation, antigen-recognition loop mobility, and anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    Julien, Jean-Philippe; Bryson, Steve; Nieva, Jose L; Pai, Emil F

    2008-12-12

    2F5 is a monoclonal antibody with potent and broadly neutralizing activity against HIV-1. It targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein and interferes with the process of fusion between viral and host cell membranes. This study presents eight 2F5 F(ab)' crystal structures in complex with various gp41 peptide epitopes. These structures reveal several key features of this antibody-antigen interaction. (1) Whenever free of contacts caused by crystal artifacts, the extended complementarity-determining region H3 loop is mobile; this is true for ligand-free and epitope-bound forms. (2) The interaction between the antibody and the gp41 ELDKWA epitope core is absolutely critical, and there are also close and specific contacts with residues located N-terminal to the epitope core. (3) Residues located at the C-terminus of the gp41 ELDKWA core do not interact as tightly with the antibody. However, in the presence of a larger peptide containing the gp41 fusion peptide segment, these residues adopt a conformation consistent with the start of an alpha-helix. (4) At high sulfate concentrations, the electron density maps of 2F5 F(ab)'-peptide complexes contain a peak that may mark a binding site for phosphate groups of negatively charged lipid headgroups. The refined atomic-level details of 2F5 paratope-epitope interactions revealed here should contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of 2F5-based virus neutralization, in general, and prove important for the design of potential vaccine candidates intended to elicit 2F5-like antibody production.

  4. Ability to develop broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies is not restricted by the germline immunoglobulin gene repertoire1

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Cathrine; Shrestha, Ram K.; Lambson, Bronwen E.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Wright, Imogen A.; Naicker, Dshanta; Goosen, Mark; Berrie, Leigh; Ismail, Arshad; Garrett, Nigel; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Moore, Penny L.; Travers, Simon A.; Morris, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The human immunoglobulin repertoire is vast, producing billions of unique antibodies from a limited number of germline immunoglobulin genes. The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) is central to antigen binding and is comprised of 48 functional genes. Here we analyzed whether HIV-1 infected individuals who develop broadly neutralizing antibodies show a distinctive germline IGHV profile. Using both 454 and Illumina technologies we sequenced the IGHV repertoire of 28 HIV-infected South African women from the Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South African (CAPRISA) 002 and 004 cohorts, 13 of whom developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of the 259 IGHV alleles identified in this study, approximately half were not found in the International Immunogenetics Database (IMGT). This included 85 entirely novel alleles and 38 alleles that matched rearranged sequences in non-IMGT databases. Analysis of the rearranged H chain V region genes of monoclonal antibodies isolated from 7 of the CAPRISA women and previously isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies from other donors provided evidence that at least 8 novel or non-IMGT alleles contributed to functional antibodies. Importantly, we found that despite a wide range in the number of IGHV alleles in each individual, including alleles used by known broadly neutralizing antibodies, there were no significant differences in germline IGHV repertoires between individuals who do and do not develop broadly neutralizing antibodies. This study reports novel IGHV repertoires and highlights the importance of a fully comprehensive immunoglobulin database for germline gene usage prediction. Furthermore, these data suggest a lack of genetic bias in broadly neutralizing antibody development in HIV-1 infection, with implications for HIV vaccine design. PMID:25825450

  5. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  6. Electrophile-Modified Lipoic Derivatives of PDC-E2 Elicits Anti-mitochondrial Antibody Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Naiyanetr, Phornnop; Butler, Jeffrey D.; Meng, Liping; Pfeiff, Janice; Kenny, Thomas P.; Guggenheim, Kathryn G.; Reiger, Roman; Lam, Kit; Kurth, Mark J.; Ansari, Aftab. A.; Coppel, Ross L.; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Gershwin, M. Eric; Leung, Patrick S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis. Based upon these data, we have focused on covalent modifications of the lipoic acid disulfide ring and subsequent analysis of such xenobiotics coupled to a 15mer of PDC-E2 for immunoreactivity against a broad panel of sera from patients with PBC and controls. Our results demonstrate that AMA-positive PBC sera demonstrate marked reactivity against 6,8-bis(acetylthio)octanoic acid, implying that chemical modification of the lipoyl ring, i.e. disruption of the S-S disulfide, renders lipoic acid to its reduced form that will promote xenobiotic modification. This observation is particularly significant in light of the function of the lipoyl1oiety in electron transport of which the catalytic disulfide constantly opens and closes and, thus, raises the intriguing thesis that common electrophilic agents, i.e. acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may lead to xenobiotic modification in genetically susceptible individuals that results in the generation of AMAs and ultimately clinical PBC. PMID:21763105

  7. Electrophile-modified lipoic derivatives of PDC-E2 elicits anti-mitochondrial antibody reactivity.

    PubMed

    Naiyanetr, Phornnop; Butler, Jeffrey D; Meng, Liping; Pfeiff, Janice; Kenny, Thomas P; Guggenheim, Kathryn G; Reiger, Roman; Lam, Kit; Kurth, Mark J; Ansari, Aftab A; Coppel, Ross L; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Gershwin, M Eric; Leung, Patrick S C

    2011-11-01

    Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis. Based upon these data, we have focused on covalent modifications of the lipoic acid disulfide ring and subsequent analysis of such xenobiotics coupled to a 15mer of PDC-E2 for immunoreactivity against a broad panel of sera from patients with PBC and controls. Our results demonstrate that AMA-positive PBC sera demonstrate marked reactivity against 6,8-bis(acetylthio)octanoic acid, implying that chemical modification of the lipoyl ring, i.e. disruption of the S-S disulfide, renders lipoic acid to its reduced form that will promote xenobiotic modification. This observation is particularly significant in light of the function of the lipoyl moiety in electron transport of which the catalytic disulfide constantly opens and closes and, thus, raises the intriguing thesis that common electrophilic agents, i.e. acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may lead to xenobiotic modification in genetically susceptible individuals that results in the generation of AMAs and ultimately clinical PBC.

  8. Recognition of influenza H3N2 variant virus by human neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bangaru, Sandhya; Nieusma, Travis; Kose, Nurgun; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Kaplan, Bryan S.; King, Hannah G.; Singh, Vidisha; Lampley, Rebecca M.; Cisneros, Alberto; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Lai, Lilin; Richt, Juergen A.; Webby, Richard J.; Ward, Andrew B.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, over 300 human cases of infection, especially in exposed children, with the influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) virus that circulates in swine in the US have been reported. The structural and genetic basis for the lack of protection against H3N2v induced by vaccines containing seasonal H3N2 antigens is poorly understood. We isolated 17 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralized H3N2v virus from subjects experimentally immunized with an H3N2v candidate vaccine. Six mAbs exhibited very potent neutralizing activity (IC50 < 200 ng/ml) against the H3N2v virus but not against current human H3N2 circulating strains. Fine epitope mapping and structural characterization of antigen-antibody complexes revealed that H3N2v specificity was attributable to amino acid polymorphisms in the 150-loop and the 190-helix antigenic sites on the hemagglutinin protein. H3N2v-specific antibodies also neutralized human H3N2 influenza strains naturally circulating between 1995 and 2005. These results reveal a high level of antigenic relatedness between the swine H3N2v virus and previously circulating human strains, consistent with the fact that early human H3 seasonal strains entered the porcine population in the 1990s and reentered the human population, where they had not been circulating, as H3N2v about a decade later. The data also explain the increased susceptibility to H3N2v viruses in young children, who lack prior exposure to human seasonal strains from the 1990s. PMID:27482543

  9. Optimal Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Clade C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K.; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R.; Barouch, Dan H.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C.; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27028935

  10. Optimal combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention and treatments of HIV-1 clade C infection

    DOE PAGES

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan Scott; et al

    2016-03-30

    In this study, the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and themore » gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.« less

  11. Rapid detection of neutralizing antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus using quantitative high-content screening.

    PubMed

    Eschbaumer, Michael; Law, Sampson; Solis, Cristina; Chernick, Adam; van der Meer, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses in cattle worldwide. Humoral immunity to BVDV plays a major role in the protection against infection and disease. In vitro serum neutralization tests can quantify humoral responses, but standard protocols are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The objective of this study was to develop a highly sensitive assay based on high-content cell-by-cell screening that is faster and less subjective than the conventional protocols. It can detect a neutralizing antibody response within the first week after infection of an animal, takes less than 24h to complete and excludes operator bias by automated data acquisition and analysis.

  12. Priming a broadly neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 using a germline-targeting immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Joseph G.; Ota, Takayuki; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Kulp, Daniel W.; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Skog, Patrick D.; Thinnes, Theresa C.; Bhullar, Deepika; Briney, Bryan; Menis, Sergey; Jones, Meaghan; Kubitz, Mike; Spencer, Skye; Adachi, Yumiko; Burton, Dennis R.; Schief, William R.; Nemazee, David

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01-class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to VRC01-class bnAb precursors and immunized knock-in mice expressing germline-reverted VRC01 heavy chains. Induced antibodies showed characteristics of VRC01-class bnAbs, including a short light chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDRL3) and mutations that favored binding to near-native HIV-1 gp120 constructs. In contrast, native-like immunogens failed to activate VRC01-class precursors. The results suggest that rational epitope design can prime rare B cell precursors for affinity maturation to desired targets. PMID:26089355