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Sample records for eliminates migration capability

  1. The air elimination capabilities of pressure infusion devices and fluid-warmers.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, J; Macko, S; Weber, I; Rossaint, R

    2004-08-01

    Pressurised infusion devices may have only limited capability to detect and remove air during pressurised infusions. In order to assess pressure infusion systems with regard to their actual air elimination capabilities four disposable pressure infusion systems and fluid warmers were investigated: The Level 1 (L-1), Ranger (RA), Gymar (GY), and the Warmflo (WF). Different volumes of air were injected proximal to the heat exchanger and the remaining amount of air that was delivered at the end of the tubing was measured during pressurised infusions. Elimination of the injected air (100-200 ml) was superior by the RA system when compared to L-1 (p < 0.01). The GY and WF systems failed to eliminate the injected air. In conclusion, air elimination was best performed by the RA system. In terms of the risk of air embolism during pressurised infusions, improvements in air elimination of the investigated devices are still necessary. PMID:15270975

  2. Eliminating LH2 in LOX-collect space launchers - Key to on-demand capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leingang, J. L.; Carreiro, L. R.; Maurice, L. Q.

    1993-06-01

    Two air-breathing reusable two-stage space launch vehicle concepts are proposed, in which the first stage employs turboramjet propulsion and the second stage uses rockets, which are expected to provide very rapid response launch of 10,000 lb polar-orbit payloads. In both concepts, liquid oxygen (LOX) for the second stage is collected during first stage ascent, thus eliminating the need for LOX ground servicing facilities. In the first concept, liquid hydrogen in the amount just sufficient to condense and collect second state LOX is the only cryogenic fluid that is loaded on the vehicle at takeoff. The second concept uses the heat sink of conventional jet propulsion fuel and water coolant to drive a lightweight adaptation of the commercial LOX production process, eliminating all cryogenics at takeoff. Both concepts should permit true launch-on-demand capability with aircraftlike ground operations.

  3. Eliminating LH2 in LOX-collect space launchers - Key to on-demand capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.; Carreiro, L. R.; Maurice, L. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Two air-breathing reusable two-stage space launch vehicle concepts are proposed, in which the first stage employs turboramjet propulsion and the second stage uses rockets, which are expected to provide very rapid response launch of 10,000 lb polar-orbit payloads. In both concepts, liquid oxygen (LOX) for the second stage is collected during first stage ascent, thus eliminating the need for LOX ground servicing facilities. In the first concept, liquid hydrogen in the amount just sufficient to condense and collect second state LOX is the only cryogenic fluid that is loaded on the vehicle at takeoff. The second concept uses the heat sink of conventional jet propulsion fuel and water coolant to drive a lightweight adaptation of the commercial LOX production process, eliminating all cryogenics at takeoff. Both concepts should permit true launch-on-demand capability with aircraftlike ground operations.

  4. Modeling the capability of penetrating a jammed crowd to eliminate freezing transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Mahmod, Shuaib

    2016-05-01

    Frozen state from jammed state is one of the most interesting aspects produced when simulating the multidirectional pedestrian flow of high density crowds. Cases of real life situations for such a phenomenon are not exhaustively treated. Our observations in the Hajj crowd show that freezing transition does not occur very often. On the contrary, penetrating a jammed crowd is a common aspect. We believe the kindness of pedestrians facing others whose walking is blocked is a main factor in eliminating the frozen state as well as in relieving the jammed state. We refine the social force model by incorporating a new social force to enable the simulated pedestrians to mimic the real behavior observed in the Hajj area. Simulations are performed to validate the work qualitatively.

  5. Chronic exposure of low dose salinomycin inhibits MSC migration capability in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SCHERZAD, AGMAL; HACKENBERG, STEPHAN; FROELICH, KATRIN; RAK, KRISTEN; HAGEN, RUDOLF; TAEGER, JOHANNES; BREGENZER, MAXIMILLIAN; KLEINSASSER, NORBERT

    2016-01-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether antiprotozoal antibiotic that is used as a food additive, particularly in poultry farming. By consuming animal products, there may be a chronic human exposure to salinomycin. Salinomycin inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. As human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may differentiate into different mesenchymal cells, it thus appeared worthwhile to investigate whether chronic salinomycin exposure impairs the functional properties of MSC and induces genotoxic effects. Bone marrow MSC were treated with low-dose salinomycin (100 nM) (MSC-Sal) for 4 weeks, while the medium containing salinomycin was changed every other day. Functional changes were evaluated and compared to MSC without salinomycin treatment (MSC-control). MSC-Sal and MSC-control were positive for cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90), CD73 and CD44, and negative for CD34. There were no differences observed in cell morphology or cytoskeletal structures following salinomycin exposure. The differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was not counteracted by salinomycin, and proliferation capability was not inhibited following salinomycin exposure. The migration of MSC-Sal was attenuated significantly as compared to the MSC-control. There were no genotoxic effects after 4 weeks of salinomycin exposure. The present study shows an altered migration capacity as a sign of functional impairment of MSC induced by chronic salinomycin exposure. Further in vitro toxicological investigations, particularly with primary human cells, are required to understand the impact of chronic salinomycin consumption on human cell systems. PMID:26998269

  6. Capability of cross-hole electrical configurations for monitoring rapid plume migration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmunt, F.; Marcuello, A.; Ledo, J.; Queralt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool in geotechnical, hydrogeological or fluid/gas plume migration studies. It allows better characterization of deep subsurface structures and monitoring of the involved processes. However, due to the large amount of possible four-electrode combinations between boreholes, the choice of the most efficient ones for rapid plume migration experiments (real-time monitoring), becomes a challenge. In this work, a numerical simulation to assess the capabilities and constraints of the most common cross-hole configurations for real-time monitoring is presented. Four-electrode configurations, sensitivity, dependence on the body location and amount of data were taken into account. The analysis of anomaly detection and the symmetry of the sensitivity pattern of cross-hole configurations allowed significant reduction of the amount of data and maintaining the maximum potential resolution of each configuration for real-time monitoring. The obtained results also highlighted the benefit of using the cross-hole AB-MN configuration (with both current - or potential - electrodes located in the same borehole) combined with other configurations with complementary sensitivity pattern.

  7. Elimination of numerical dispersion in finite-difference modeling and migration by flux-corrected transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Tong; Larner, K.

    1993-11-01

    Finite-difference acoustic-wave modeling and reverse-time depth migration based on the full wave equation are general approaches that can take into account arbitary variations in velocity and density, and can handle turning waves well. However, conventional finite-difference methods for solving the acousticwave equation suffer from numerical dispersion when too few samples per wavelength are used. Here, we present two flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithms, one based the second-order equation and the other based on first-order wave equations derived from the second-order one. Combining the FCT technique with conventional finite-difference modeling or reverse-time wave extrapolation can ensure finite-difference solutions without numerical dispersion even for shock waves and impulsive sources. Computed two-dimensional migration images show accurate positioning of reflectors with greater than 90-degree dip. Moreover, application to real data shows no indication of numerical dispersion. The FCT correction, which can be applied to finite-difference approximations of any order in space and time, is an efficient alternative to use of approximations of increasing order.

  8. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  9. IL-17A promotes migration and tumor killing capability of B cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin; Weng, Chengyin; Mao, Haibo; Fang, Xisheng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Yong; Cao, Xiaofei; Li, Baoxiu; Chen, Xiaojun; Gan, Qinquan; Xia, Jianchuan; Liu, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that the accumulation of IL-17-producing cells could mediate tumor protective immunity by promoting the migration of NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. However, there were no reports concerning the effect of IL-17A on tumor infiltrating B cells. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of CD20+ B cells in the ESCC tumor nests and further addressed the effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells. There was positive correlation between the levels of CD20+ B cells and IL-17+ cells. IL-17A could promote the ESCC tumor cells to produce more chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL13, which were associated with the migration of B cells. In addition, IL-17A enhanced the IgG-mediated antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity of B cells against tumor cells. IL-17A-stimulated B cells gained more effective direct killing capability through enhanced expression of Granzyme B and FasL. The effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells was IL-17A pathway dependent, which could be inhibited by IL-17A inhibitor. This study provides further understanding of the roles of IL-17A in humoral response, which may contribute to the development of novel tumor immunotherapy strategy. PMID:26942702

  10. IL-17A promotes migration and tumor killing capability of B cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Weng, Chengyin; Mao, Haibo; Fang, Xisheng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Yong; Cao, Xiaofei; Li, Baoxiu; Chen, Xiaojun; Gan, Qinquan; Xia, Jianchuan; Liu, Guolong

    2016-04-19

    We have previously reported that the accumulation of IL-17-producing cells could mediate tumor protective immunity by promoting the migration of NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. However, there were no reports concerning the effect of IL-17A on tumor infiltrating B cells. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of CD20+ B cells in the ESCC tumor nests and further addressed the effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells. There was positive correlation between the levels of CD20+ B cells and IL-17+ cells. IL-17A could promote the ESCC tumor cells to produce more chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL13, which were associated with the migration of B cells. In addition, IL-17A enhanced the IgG-mediated antibody and complement mediated cytotoxicity of B cells against tumor cells. IL-17A-stimulated B cells gained more effective direct killing capability through enhanced expression of Granzyme B and FasL. The effect of IL-17A on the migration and cytotoxicity of B cells was IL-17A pathway dependent, which could be inhibited by IL-17A inhibitor. This study provides further understanding of the roles of IL-17A in humoral response, which may contribute to the development of novel tumor immunotherapy strategy.

  11. Introducing Dendrosomal Nanocurcumin as a Compound Capable of in vitro Eliminating Undifferentiated Stem Cells in Cell Therapy Practices.

    PubMed

    Javidi, M A; Zolghadr, F; Babashah, S; Sadeghizadeh, M

    2015-11-01

    One of the major obstacles needed to be overcome before using cell therapy for clinical purposes is the high probability of tumor formation in patients who receive the transplants, as undifferentiated stem cells (SCs) have the potential to form teratomas/teratocarcinoma in xenotransplants. In this study the ability of dendrosomal nanocurcumin (solublized curcumin using a biodegradable non-toxic nano-carrier) to affect undifferentiated/hazardous cell, and hence increasing the safety of cell therapy (particularly in diabetes type I) by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was examined. The results showed that after completion of differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs), the expression level of insulin increases, although there remains a minority of undifferentiated cells which still express nestin (gene which is expressed in progenitor stem cells of IPCs). It indicates the emergence of a heterogeneous population containing undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Furthermore our data demonstrated that the expression level of p53 decreases during differentiation of hMSCs into IPCs which implies a more favorable microenvironment for tumor formation following the transplantation of such a heterogeneous population. After treatment with dendrosomal nanocurcumin, nestin expression eliminated, however no significant effect on the expression and secretion of insulin was observed. Together our data shows that dendrosomal nanocurcumin have the ability to affect residual undifferentiated stem cells after the completion of differentiation of MSCs induced to differentiate into IPCs; while it exerts no significant harmful effect on the survival and function of differentiated cells. With regard to the obtained results in this study, exploiting dendrosomal nanocurcumin, after completion of induced differentiation of stem cells and prior to the transplantation step, can be suggested as a very efficient, safe and cost-effective method to

  12. Platelet factors induce chemotactic migration of murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells with different metastatic capabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Sarach, M. A.; Rovasio, R. A.; Eynard, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    The chemotactic response of neoplastic cells (NC) induced by soluble platelet factors was investigated. NC suspensions isolated from murine mammary gland adenocarcinomas having different metastatic capabilities were incubated in Boyden's chambers and challenged with (1) 'Early Platelet Factors' (EP), obtained from the soluble fraction of recently collagen-activated human platelets, and (2) 'Late Platelet Factors' (LP), isolated after 24 hours incubation of the platelet aggregates. Chemotaxis was expressed as the distance travelled by NC through nitrocellulose filters. NC isolated from M3, the tumour line having the stronger metastatic potential, showed a significant chemotactic response towards LP factors, whereas NC from the M2 line exhibiting the lower metastatic behaviour, showed a chemotactic response towards EP factors. Both tumour cell lines lacked motion capability towards the well known chemoattractant peptide N-f-Met-Leu-Phe-Phe as well as to serum, plasma, collagen type I or culture medium. The different chemotactic response of both tumour lines when they were challenged by concentration gradients of factors released by early or late collagen-activated human platelets, confirm a relationship between platelet activity and metastatic capabilities and suggests that platelet chemoattractants might play a role in the metastatic dissemination of these mammary gland adenocarcinomas. Images Figure 1 PMID:8217786

  13. Synthesis of N-styrenyl amidines from α,β-unsaturated nitrones and isocyanates through CO2 elimination and styrenyl migration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Dong-Liang; Pecak, Wiktoria H; Zhao, Meng; Wink, Donald J; Anderson, Laura L

    2014-07-18

    A mild, metal-free, and modular route for the preparation of N-styrenyl amidines from N-aryl-α,β-unsaturated nitrones and isocyanates has been developed that accesses an initial oxadiazolidinone intermediate that can undergo CO(2) elimination and styrenyl migration. The use of a migration event to install N-styrenyl amidine substituents circumvents a limitation of traditional Pinner-type methods for amidine synthesis that require the use of amine nucleophiles. The modularity of the nitrone and isocyanate reagents provides access to a variety of differentially substituted N-styrenyl amidines. The scope and tolerance of the method are presented, and preliminary mechanistic data for the transformation are discussed.

  14. Quantifying cross-border movements and migrations for guiding the strategic planning of malaria control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying human and malaria parasite movements is important for control planning across all transmission intensities. Imported infections can reintroduce infections into areas previously free of infection, maintain ‘hotspots’ of transmission and import drug resistant strains, challenging national control programmes at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Recent analyses based on mobile phone usage data have provided valuable insights into population and likely parasite movements within countries, but these data are restricted to sub-national analyses, leaving important cross-border movements neglected. Methods National census data were used to analyse and model cross-border migration and movement, using East Africa as an example. ‘Hotspots’ of origin-specific immigrants from neighbouring countries were identified for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Populations of origin-specific migrants were compared to distance from origin country borders and population size at destination, and regression models were developed to quantify and compare differences in migration patterns. Migration data were then combined with existing spatially-referenced malaria data to compare the relative propensity for cross-border malaria movement in the region. Results The spatial patterns and processes for immigration were different between each origin and destination country pair. Hotspots of immigration, for example, were concentrated close to origin country borders for most immigrants to Tanzania, but for Kenya, a similar pattern was only seen for Tanzanian and Ugandan immigrants. Regression model fits also differed between specific migrant groups, with some migration patterns more dependent on population size at destination and distance travelled than others. With these differences between immigration patterns and processes, and heterogeneous transmission risk in East Africa and the surrounding region, propensities to import malaria infections also likely show

  15. Migration and coherency stacking of the Friendswood reverse VSP data

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author applies processing methods to reverse VSP data: iterative conjugate gradient migration and coherency stacking. Iterative conjugate gradient migration helps to eliminate the migration artifacts and produce a reflectivity distribution which is consistent with the observed seismogram. The second method, coherent stacking, helps to coherently stack the prestack migrated sections to produce a more highly resolved composite migrated section. Numerical results show that these procedures are capable of eliminating a fault-like artifact from the conventionally processed VSP migrated section.

  16. Eliminating the redundant source effects from the cross-correlation reverse-time migration using a modified stabilized division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiancheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Cross-correlation reverse-time migration is the kernel of two-way wave-equation migration and inversion. However, it more or less tapers the spectrum of receiver data due to a redundant overlay of the source wavelet, whose amplitude spectrum is usually bandlimited and non-flat. To circumvent this issue, there are two optional strategies: whitening the source directly, or preconditioning the seismic traces by division with the amplitude spectrum of the source in the frequency domain. In this paper, we choose the latter one because the source signature is crucial to illumination compensation and seismic inversion. To avoid division by zero, a modified stabilized division algorithm based on the Taylor-expansion is developed. The modified division is easy to complete with computers and can be extend to any order. Moreover, when simulating 2-D source wavefield, the half-integral effect is also considered. We will demonstrate our proposed scheme using the Sigsbee2b synthetic data and a real field data.

  17. Antrodia camphorata extract induces replicative senescence in superficial TCC, and inhibits the absolute migration capability in invasive bladder carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Su, Ching-Hua; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei

    2007-01-01

    The Antrodia camphorata crude extract (ACCE), an extract obtained from a precious traditional Chinese folkloric herbal medicine Zhan-Ku (a camphor tree mushroom) since the 18th century, has showed rather significant inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) cell lines RT4, TSGH-8301, and T24. On treatment with ACCE at 100 microg/mL, the p53-independent overexpression of p21 with simultaneous down alteration of pRb was observed in RT4, which was thus speculative of proceeding through a mechanism of replicative senescence. On the contrary treatment with ACCE, at 50 microg/mL, resulting in simultaneous down-regulations of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1, with suppression of the absolute migrating capability of the two cell lines TSGH-8301 and T24, and eventually the cell deaths. We conclude that ACCE can be rather effective and beneficial in suppression of both the superficial cancer cell line RT4 and the metastatic cell lines (TSGH-8301 and T24) through different mechanisms.

  18. Eliminating non-renewable CO2 emissions from sewage treatment: an anaerobic migrating bed reactor pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2006-10-20

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate at pilot scale a high level of energy recovery from sewage utilising a primary Anaerobic Migrating Bed Reactor (AMBR) operating at ambient temperature to convert COD to methane. The focus is the reduction in non-renewable CO(2) emissions resulting from reduced energy requirements for sewage treatment. A pilot AMBR was operated on screened sewage over the period June 2003 to September 2004. The study was divided into two experimental phases. In Phase 1 the process operated at a feed rate of 10 L/h (HRT 50 h), SRT 63 days, average temperature 28 degrees C and mixing time fraction 0.05. In Phase 2 the operating parameters were 20 L/h, 26 days, 16 degrees C and 0.025. Methane production was 66% of total sewage COD in Phase 1 and 23% in Phase 2. Gas mixing of the reactor provided micro-aeration which suppressed sulphide production. Intermittent gas mixing at a useful power input of 6 W/m(3) provided satisfactory process performance in both phases. Energy consumption for mixing was about 1.5% of the energy conversion to methane in both operating phases. Comparative analysis with previously published data confirmed that methane supersaturation resulted in significant losses of methane in the effluent of anaerobic treatment systems. No cases have been reported where methane was considered to be supersaturated in the effluent. We have shown that methane supersaturation is likely to be significant and that methane losses in the effluent are likely to have been greater than previously predicted. Dissolved methane concentrations were measured at up to 2.2 times the saturation concentration relative to the mixing gas composition. However, this study has also demonstrated that despite methane supersaturation occurring, micro-aeration can result in significantly lower losses of methane in the effluent (<11% in this study), and has demonstrated that anaerobic sewage treatment can genuinely provide energy recovery. The goal of demonstrating a

  19. Comparison Rare Eearth Hydroxocomplexes Stability as Degree of Effect on their Migration Capability in Natural Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanchikova, Sophia; Biteikina, Raisa

    2010-05-01

    Comparison Rare Eearth Hydroxocomplexes Stability as Degree of Effect on their Migration Capability in Natural Hydrothermal Systems S.A. Stepanchikova, R.P. Biteikina Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia step@uiggm.nsc.ru The present work is devoted to a study of hydroxide complex formation in alkaline and near neutral solutions of rare earth elements. A stability dependence of complex form REE on atomic number is considered here as one of the factors influences their transfer and fractionation from a mineral forming fluids. The information obtained on this base about their content in minerals with a different conditions of formation is of interest in particular for a treatment of observed by many researchers their relative impoverishing by different groups of REE the minerals (1. The most frequently founded in literature date oh hydrolytic REE properties of including complete sets of their mono-hydroxide complexes stability constants fixate an essential (within of one log. unit) quite monotonous increase of stability during transition from "light" to "heavy" elements with insignificant "dip" on gadolinium. The successive increasing constant formation for hydroxide complexes is also observed in many theoretical papers. In fact, a high nuclear charge and " lanthanoide compression" contribute of ionic polarization, that should be resulted in increase of REE complexes stability in solutions. However, non-monotonous increase of log β with atomic number has often been observed by Guillamot and coauthors (2), estimated their comparative values by extraction and radiochemical measurement. Experiments were highly sensitive to reagent concentration because were carried out at Cm ~ 10-7. High values for Eu have been explained by nephelo-auxetic overlap effect with 4-f electron shells typical for OH- - ions. The aim of present work was to study the hydrolytic equilibria in REE solutions with a

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce WB-F344 oval cell viability and migration capability by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ying; Hu, Ronglin; Li, Dongming; Du, Jun; Jiao, Xingyuan; He, Xiaoshun

    2016-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) can blockDNA replication and transcription and altered HDAC expression was associated with tumorigenesis. This study investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on hepatic oval cells and aimed to delineate the underlying molecular events. Hepatic oval cells were treated with two different HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin-A (TSA). Cells were subjected to cell morphology, cell viability, cell cycle, and wound healing assays. The expression of proteins related to both apoptosis and the cell cycle, and proteins of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were analyzed by Western blot. The data showed that HDAC inhibitors reduced oval cell viability and migration capability, and arrested oval cells at the G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HDAC inhibitors altered cell morphology and reduced oval cell viability, and downregulated the expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, c-Myc and Bmi1 proteins, while also suppressing AKT/mTOR and its downstream target activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HDAC inhibitors affect oval cells by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling. PMID:26558695

  1. Stable optical oxygen sensing materials based on click-coupling of fluorinated platinum(II) and palladium(II) porphyrins—A convenient way to eliminate dye migration and leaching

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Nucleophilic substitution of the labile para-fluorine atoms of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl groups enables a click-based covalent linkage of an oxygen indicator (platinum(II) or palladium(II) 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin) to the sensor matrix. Copolymers of styrene and pentafluorostyrene are chosen as polymeric materials. Depending on the reaction conditions either soluble sensor materials or cross-linked microparticles are obtained. Additionally, we prepared Ormosil-based sensors with linked indicator, which showed very high sensitivity toward oxygen. The effect of covalent coupling on sensor characteristics, stability and photophysical properties is studied. It is demonstrated that leaching and migration of the dye are eliminated in the new materials but excellent photophysical properties of the indicators are preserved. PMID:23576845

  2. Molecular-beam experiments for photodissociation of propenal at 157 nm and quantum-chemical calculations for migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms in systems C3H4O and C3H3O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Chaudhuri, Chanchal; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the dynamics of photodissociation of propenal (acrolein, CH2CHCHO) at 157 nm in a molecular beam and of migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms in systems C3H4O and C3H3O using quantum-chemical calculations. Compared with the previous results of photodissociation of propenal at 193 nm, the major difference is that the C3H3O fragment present at the 193-nm photolysis disappears at the 157-nm photolysis whereas the C3H2O fragment absent at 193 nm appears at 157 nm. Optimized structures and harmonic vibrational frequencies of molecular species with gross formula C3H2-4O were computed at the level of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and total energies of those molecules at optimized structures were computed at the level of CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p). Based on the calculated potential-energy surfaces, we deduce that the C3H3O fragment observed in the photolysis of propenal at 193 nm is probably CHCCHOH (2A″) and/or CH2CCOH (2A″) produced from an intermediate hydroxyl propadiene (CH2CCHOH) following isomerization. Adiabatic and vertical ionization potentials of eight isomers of C3H3O and two isomers of C3H2O were calculated; CHCCHOH (2A″) and CH2CCOH (2A″) have ionization potentials in good agreement with the experimental value of ˜7.4 eV. We also deduce that all the nascent C3H3O fragments from the photolysis of propenal at 157 nm spontaneously decompose mainly to C2H3 + CO and C3H2O + H because of the large excitation energy. This work provides profound insight into the dynamics of migration and elimination of hydrogen atoms of propenal optically excited in the vacuum-ultraviolet region.

  3. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells express a restricted set of functionally active chemokine receptors capable of promoting migration to pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Valeria; Malosio, Maria Luisa; Marchesi, Federica; Mercalli, Alessia; Melzi, Raffaella; Giordano, Tiziana; Belmonte, Nathalie; Ferrari, Giuliana; Leone, Biagio Eugenio; Bertuzzi, Federico; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Allavena, Paola; Bonifacio, Ezio; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2005-07-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are stromal cells with the ability to proliferate and differentiate into many tissues. Although they represent powerful tools for several therapeutic settings, mechanisms regulating their migration to peripheral tissues are still unknown. Here, we report chemokine receptor expression on human BM-MSCs and their role in mediating migration to tissues. A minority of BM-MSCs (2% to 25%) expressed a restricted set of chemokine receptors (CXC receptor 4 [CXCR4], CX3C receptor 1 [CX3CR1], CXCR6, CC chemokine receptor 1 [CCR1], CCR7) and, accordingly, showed appreciable chemotactic migration in response to the chemokines CXC ligand 12 (CXCL12), CX3CL1, CXCL16, CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), and CCL19. Using human pancreatic islets as an in vitro model of peripheral tissue, we showed that islet supernatants released factors able to attract BM-MSCs in vitro, and this attraction was principally mediated by CX3CL1 and CXCL12. Moreover, cells with features of BM-MSCs were detected within the pancreatic islets of mice injected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive BM. A population of bona fide MSCs that also expressed CXCR4, CXCR6, CCR1, and CCR7 could be isolated from normal adult human pancreas. This study defines the chemokine receptor repertoire of human BM-MSCs that determines their migratory activity. Modulation of homing capacity may be instrumental for harnessing the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs. PMID:15784733

  4. Labor migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, P L

    1991-01-01

    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...."

  5. Rhodium-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in cycloadditions, inspiration from the recent "gold rush".

    PubMed

    Shu, Xing-Zhong; Shu, Dongxu; Schienebeck, Casi M; Tang, Weiping

    2012-12-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters offers versatile entries to allene and vinyl carbene intermediates for various fascinating subsequent transformations. Most π-acidic metals (e.g. gold and platinum) are capable of facilitating these acyloxy migration events. However, very few of these processes involve redox chemistry, which are well-known for most other transition metals such as rhodium. The coupling of acyloxy migration of propargylic esters with oxidative addition, migratory insertion, and reductive elimination may lead to ample new opportunities for the design of new reactions. This tutorial review summarizes recent developments in Rh-catalyzed 1,3- and 1,2-acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in a number of cycloaddition reactions. Related Au- and Pt-catalyzed cycloadditions involving acyloxy migration are also discussed.

  6. GMI Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strode, Sarah; Rodriguez, Jose; Steenrod, Steve; Liu, Junhua; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We describe the capabilities of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM) with a special focus on capabilities related to the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). Several science results based on GMI hindcast simulations and preliminary results from the ATom simulations are highlighted. We also discuss the relationship between GMI and GEOS-5.

  7. Return migration.

    PubMed

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  8. Migration without migraines

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, L.; Burton, A.; Lu, H.X.

    1994-12-31

    Accurate velocity models are a necessity for reliable migration results. Velocity analysis generally involves the use of methods such as normal moveout analysis (NMO), seismic traveltime tomography, or iterative prestack migration. These techniques can be effective, and each has its own advantage or disadvantage. Conventional NMO methods are relatively inexpensive but basically require simplifying assumptions about geology. Tomography is a more general method but requires traveltime interpretation of prestack data. Iterative prestack depth migration is very general but is computationally expensive. In some cases, there is the opportunity to estimate vertical velocities by use of well information. The well information can be used to optimize poststack migrations, thereby eliminating some of the time and expense of iterative prestack migration. The optimized poststack migration procedure defined here computes the velocity model which minimizes the depth differences between seismic images and formation depths at the well by using a least squares inversion method. The optimization methods described in this paper will hopefully produce ``migrations without migraines.``

  9. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-11-07

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  10. Slanted baffle mist eliminator

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for the elimination of mist from off-gas during vitrification f nuclear waste, where baffles are installed on a slant toward the flow of the off-gasses eliminating the need to expand the cross-sectional area of the duct size.

  11. Rhodium-Catalyzed Acyloxy Migration of Propargylic Esters in Cycloadditions, Inspiration from Recent “Gold Rush”

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xing-Zhong; Shu, Dongxu; Schienebeck, Casi M.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed acyloxy migration of propargylic esters offers versatile entries to allene and vinyl carbene intermediates for various fascinating subsequent transformations. Most π-acidic metals (e.g. gold and platinum) are capable of facilitating these acyloxy migration events. However, very few of these processes involve redox chemistry, which are well-known for most other transition metals such as rhodium. The coupling of acyloxy migration of propargylic esters with oxidative addition, migratory insertion, and reductive elimination may lead to ample new opportunities for the design of new reactions. This tutorial review summarizes recent developments in Rh-catalyzed 1,3- and 1,2-acyloxy migration of propargylic esters in a number of cycloaddition reactions. Related Au- and Pt-catalyzed cycloadditions involving acyloxy migration are also discussed. PMID:22895533

  12. Migration and malaria.

    PubMed

    Jitthai, Nigoon

    2013-01-01

    Migration is an important global issue as poorly managed migration can result in a diversity of problems, including an increase in the transmission of diseases such as malaria. There is evidence to suggest that malaria is no longer a forest-dependent disease and may largely be affected by population movements, mostly to agricultural areas. While internal and transnational migration has different legal implications in most countries, both types of migration occur for the same reasons; economic and/ or safety. Although migration in itself is not a definitive risk for malaria, several factors can put, migrants and local communities alike, in vulnerable situations. In particular, infrastructure and rural development, deforestation for logging and economic farming, political movements, and natural disasters are some of the major factors that push and pull people in and out of malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, understanding the changing socio-environmental situation as well as population movements and their associated risks for malaria infection, is critical for malaria control, containment, and elimination. Efforts to address these issues should include advocacy, mapping exercises and expanded/ strengthened surveillance to also include migrant health information systems. Malaria related information, prevention measures, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment should be made easily accessible for migrants regardless of their migration status; not only to ensure that they are equipped with appropriate knowledge and devices to protect themselves, but also to ensure that they are properly diagnosed and treated, to prevent further transmission, and to ensure that they are captured by the surveillance system. PMID:24159832

  13. Universal leakage elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-05-15

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions.

  14. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  15. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  16. Windmill tower shadow eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.J.

    1984-04-17

    In a wind driven propeller system an airfoil support for the shaft of a propeller having an even number of blades extends above and below the shaft a distance at least equal to the blade length and pivots with the propeller into the wind for substantially eliminating tower shadow effects on the propeller.

  17. Elimination chemistry in asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, J.L.; Ihsiung Wang; Martinez, D.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Elimination chemistry provides important information, not only about the chemical properties of asphalt, but also the chemical modification method of asphalt. The chemical reactions which use the natural abundance of radicals are important for free-radical halogenation reaction. Spectral data demonstrates the formation of halogenated asphalt. The utility of dehydrohalogenation modified asphalt is limited. However, the resulting dehydrohalogenation modified asphalt does produce a significant unsaturated intermediate, which can incorporate elastomeric polymers (and monomers) via condensation or addition process. The second chemical modification method is the Hofmann elimination reaction, which was performed by reaction of methyl iodide with asphalt, followed by treatment of base. Spectroscopic data shows that a methyl group attached to nitrogen or sulfur in asphalt after Hofmann elimination reaction. Physical data shows that the Hofmann elimination modification improved the quality of asphalt, such as low temperature susceptibility measured by PVN. The modified asphalt also studied by HP-GPC in order to correlate their physical properties. The result shows that the molecular size distribution has changed and reduced the amount of LMS. The amount of decreasing LMS is also dependent on the content of nitrogen and sulfur in asphalts.

  18. Modeling disease elimination.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce.

  19. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is. PMID:22942531

  20. Minding Rachlin's eliminative materialism.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist ontology of science, but without eliminating the phenomenology of consciousness. This view implies that to be judged human, machines not only must exhibit complicated temporally structured patterns of behavior, but also must have first-person conscious experience. Although confirming machine sentience is likely to be problematic, extended contact with a machine that results in a person interacting with it as if it were conscious could reasonably lead to the conclusion that for all intents and purposes it is. PMID:22942531

  1. Tackling Imported Malaria: An Elimination Endgame

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Ohrt, Colin; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    As countries move toward malaria elimination, imported infections become increasingly significant as they often represent the majority of cases, can sustain transmission, cause resurgences, and lead to mortality. Here we review and critique current methods to prevent malaria importation in countries pursuing elimination and explore methods applied in other transmission settings and to other diseases that could be transferred to support malaria elimination. To improve intervention targeting we need a better understanding of the characteristics of populations importing infections and their patterns of migration, improved methods to reliably classify infections as imported or acquired locally, and ensure early and accurate diagnosis. The potential for onward transmission in the most receptive and vulnerable locations can be predicted through high-resolution risk mapping that can help malaria elimination or prevention of reintroduction programs target resources. Cross border and regional initiatives can be highly effective when based on an understanding of human and parasite movement. Ultimately, determining the optimal combinations of approaches to address malaria importation will require an evaluation of their impact, cost effectiveness, and operational feasibility. PMID:26013369

  2. [Internal migration].

    PubMed

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  3. Migration Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-08-01

    The great variety of the architectures of the extra-solar planetary systems has revealed the fundamental role played by planetary migration: the interactions between the planets and the gaseous disk in which they form leads to a modification of their orbits. Here, I will review the basic processes and the most recent results in this area.Planets up to ~50 Earth masses are prone to so-called type I migration.I will describe the processes at play, namely the Lindblad and corotation torques, and explain how the total torque depends on the planet mass and the local disk structure. Application to realistic disks shows one or two sweet spot(s) for outward migration of planets roughly between 5 and 30 Earth masses around the snowline ; this is confirmed by dedicated 3D numerical simulations. This has strong consequences on the formation of hot Super-Earths or mini-Neptunes.For smaller mass planets, it has been recently proposed that the heating of the neighboring gas by the luminous planet can lead to a positive torque, hence promoting outward migration. On the other hand, if the planet is not a heat source, a cold finger appears, whose resulting torque is negative. Applications of these two recent results should be discussed.Giant planets open gaps in the proto-planetary disk, and then are supposedly subject to type II migration, following the viscous accretion of the disk. This standard picture has been questioned recently, as gas appears to drift through the gap. Although the gap opening process is well understood in 2D for a planet on a fixed orbit, recent results on 3D simulations or migrating planets make the picture more accurate.Our ever better understanding of planet-disk interactions is of crucial importance as the statistics on extra solar systems keep growing and the results of these interactions are now imaged.

  4. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  5. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  6. USA supports measles elimination.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The United States, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has approved an $8 million grant in support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goal to eliminate measles in the Americas by the year 2000. From 1996 to 2001, the grant will complement regional efforts to stop the disease. Mrs. Hillary Clinton had pledged the support on World Health Day 1995. Although record low levels of measles cases were reported in 1995 for the region, the virus could be imported from elsewhere in the world. A major obstacle is the accumulation of susceptible preschool-aged children. As the proportion of susceptibles expands, the risk of a measles outbreak increases, if the virus is reintroduced. To prevent this, follow-up campaigns are being conducted throughout the region, focusing on all children aged 1-4 years, regardless of previous vaccination or disease history. PAHO recommends follow-up whenever the number of susceptible preschool children approaches the size of an average birth cohort. The interval between these campaigns and the specific age group targeted will depend on the vaccination coverage obtained through routine services since the last campaign. Follow-up campaigns were conducted in Cuba in 1993; in Belize, Brazil, Columbia, and Jamaica in 1995; and in Chile and the countries of Central America during April 1996. 19 million children were reached. Follow-up campaigns are planned for the remaining countries of the English-speaking Caribbean later in 1996. USAID played a key role in the successful completion of the 1994 poliomyelitis eradication initiative; the agency contributed approximately 60% of the external costs associated with the hemispheric campaign.

  7. USA supports measles elimination.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The United States, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has approved an $8 million grant in support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goal to eliminate measles in the Americas by the year 2000. From 1996 to 2001, the grant will complement regional efforts to stop the disease. Mrs. Hillary Clinton had pledged the support on World Health Day 1995. Although record low levels of measles cases were reported in 1995 for the region, the virus could be imported from elsewhere in the world. A major obstacle is the accumulation of susceptible preschool-aged children. As the proportion of susceptibles expands, the risk of a measles outbreak increases, if the virus is reintroduced. To prevent this, follow-up campaigns are being conducted throughout the region, focusing on all children aged 1-4 years, regardless of previous vaccination or disease history. PAHO recommends follow-up whenever the number of susceptible preschool children approaches the size of an average birth cohort. The interval between these campaigns and the specific age group targeted will depend on the vaccination coverage obtained through routine services since the last campaign. Follow-up campaigns were conducted in Cuba in 1993; in Belize, Brazil, Columbia, and Jamaica in 1995; and in Chile and the countries of Central America during April 1996. 19 million children were reached. Follow-up campaigns are planned for the remaining countries of the English-speaking Caribbean later in 1996. USAID played a key role in the successful completion of the 1994 poliomyelitis eradication initiative; the agency contributed approximately 60% of the external costs associated with the hemispheric campaign. PMID:12347182

  8. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate.

  9. Neuronal migration on laminin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Crutcher, K A

    1992-03-20

    Chick sympathetic (E-9) or telencephalic (E-7) neurons were cultured at low density on poly-DL-ornithine (PORN), poly-L-lysine (POLS), laminin or laminin-covered PORN or POLS and monitored with time-lapse videomicroscopy. Neurons migrated on laminin, or laminin-covered PORN or POLS, but not on PORN or POLS alone. Neuronal migration did not involve interactions with other cells indicating that neurons are capable of independent migration when exposed to a laminin substrate. PMID:1600626

  10. [Theories on migration and migration policy].

    PubMed

    Waldrauch, H

    1995-01-01

    "In its first part the article gives a short historical overview of theories on migration.... The author tries to clarify the term[s]...'migration policy' and...'migration' itself and assesses the usefulness of various migration typologies. The final chapter analyses determinants and trends of migration policies in Europe in the 1990s: the continuing pressures for migration in developing countries, the end of numerous barriers to emigration, the revival of nationalistic concepts of immigration and exclusionary tendencies founded on culturalistic arguments, the process of harmonizing control mechanisms in the European Union, and the influence of international human rights declarations on the formulation of migration policies." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  11. Demystifying the selection of mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, P.; Cusack, R.; Hennessey, P.; Neuman, M. )

    1993-11-01

    In any process where gases and liquids come in intimate contact, mists are generated by the entrainment of liquid droplets into the gas streams. The formation of such mists often results in process inefficiencies and product loss in evaporators, knockout drums, distillation columns, and environmental scrubbers. Besides, these mists can cause serious damage to rotating equipment. hence the need to know how best to remove the liquid droplets from a misty gas stream. Today, one can select from many classes of equipment, known as mist eliminators or entrainment separators, designed to remove the liquid droplets along with any solid particles from the gas stream. Before arriving at a selection, one must weigh several important factors: The sizes of droplets that the separator must remove; The pressure drop that can be tolerated in achieving the required level of mist removal; Susceptibility of the separator to plugging by solids, if solids are present; Liquid handling capability of the separator; Whether the mist eliminator can be installed inside existing equipment, or if it requires a stand alone vessel instead; The availability of the materials of construction that are compatible with the process; and Costs of the mists eliminator itself and other required vessels, piping, instrumentation, and utilities.

  12. Digoxin elimination by exchange transfusion.

    PubMed

    Rosegger, H; Zach, M; Gleispach, H; Beitzke, A

    1977-02-21

    The report covers four cases presenting simultaneous indications for digitalisation and exchange transfusions. Intravenous administration of digoxin was followed: 1. by monitoring of the behaviour of the plasma digoxin level; 2. by determination of the total amount of glycoside eliminated by the blood exchange. Particular attention was paid to the effect of the delay between injection and exchange transfusion on the amount of digoxin eliminated. All four cases showed moderate falls in plasma levels. The amounts of digoxin eliminated by exchange transfusion were in reverse relationship to the delay between administration of digoxin and the blood exchange. At no time did the eliminated fraction exceed 5% of the total amount present in the body. PMID:837948

  13. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jennifer A; Medlock, Jan; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Aksoy, Serap; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense), cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic symbionts, as well

  14. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jennifer A; Medlock, Jan; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Aksoy, Serap; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense), cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic symbionts, as well

  15. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jennifer A.; Medlock, Jan; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Aksoy, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9–90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9–85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense), cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic symbionts, as

  16. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  17. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries.

  18. Malaria elimination: surveillance and response

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Daniel J; Winters, Anna M; Hamer, Davidson H

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria-associated morbidity and mortality across the globe. Nevertheless, sustained malaria control is essential to continue this downward trend. In some countries, where aggressive malaria control has reduced malaria to a low burden level, elimination, either nationally or subnationally, is now the aim. As countries or areas with a low malaria burden move towards elimination, there is a transition away from programs of universal coverage towards a strategy of localized detection and response to individual malaria cases. To do so and succeed, it is imperative that a strong surveillance and response system is supported, that community cadres are trained to provide appropriate diagnostics and treatment, and that field diagnostics are further developed such that their sensitivity allows for the detection and subsequent treatment of malaria reservoirs in low prevalence environments. To be certain, there are big challenges on the road to elimination, notably the development of drug and insecticide resistance. Nevertheless, countries like Zambia are making great strides towards implementing systems that support malaria elimination in target areas. Continued development of new diagnostics and antimalarial therapies is needed to support progress in malaria control and elimination. PMID:23265423

  19. Internationalization and migration pressure.

    PubMed

    Kultalahti, O

    1994-01-01

    The author first develops the concept of migration pressure, which is defined as the growth in the number of people wishing to migrate and the barriers preventing them from so doing. Both macro- and micro-level factors affecting migration pressure are identified. Historical trends in migration pressure in Finland are then discussed. The author then applies this concept to the analysis of current Finnish migration trends. The primary focus is on international migration.

  20. β-Alkyl Elimination: Fundamental Principles and Some Applications.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Matthew E; Dutta, Saikat; Veige, Adam S

    2016-07-27

    This review describes organometallic compounds and materials that are capable of mediating a rarely encountered but fundamentally important reaction: β-alkyl elimination at the metal-Cα-Cβ-R moiety, in which an alkyl group attached to the Cβ atom is transferred to the metal or to a coordinated substrate. The objectives of this review are to provide a cohesive fundamental understanding of β-alkyl-elimination reactions and to highlight its applications in olefin polymerization, alkane hydrogenolysis, depolymerization of branched polymers, ring-opening polymerization of cycloalkanes, and other useful organic reactions. To provide a coherent understanding of the β-alkyl elimination reaction, special attention is given to conditions and strategies used to facilitate β-alkyl-elimination/transfer events in metal-catalyzed olefin polymerization, which provide the well-studied examples.

  1. Modulation of Neuronal Migration by NMDA Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Hitoshi; Rakic, Pasko

    1993-04-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is essential for neuronal differentiation and establishment or elimination of synapses in a developing brain. The activity of the NMDA receptor has now been shown to also regulate the migration of granule cells in slice preparations of the developing mouse cerebellum. First, blockade of NMDA receptors by specific antagonists resulted in the curtailment of cell migration. Second, enhancement of NMDA receptor activity by the removal of magnesium or by the application of glycine increased the rate of cell movement. Third, increase of endogenous extracellular glutamate by inhibition of its uptake accelerated the rate of cell migration. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may play an early role in the regulation of calcium-dependent cell migration before neurons reach their targets and form synaptic contacts.

  2. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index.

  3. Eliminating sexism in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, T

    1993-01-01

    Sexism exists in many nursing classrooms without the teacher or students being aware of it. Speech patterns, written-communication, and pedagogical styles may contribute to sexism. Nurse educators need to take measures to identify and eliminate sexism from the classroom, because it subordinates and limits students. The classroom should promote gender-free situations that enhance and contribute to learning and advancement of all students.

  4. Testing and technical capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, R.W.; Dill, M.S.

    1984-05-01

    Capabilities of the following are outlined: state-of-the-art-services, measurement control and capabilities coordination, sampling and standard section, analytical technology section, environmental-industrial hygiene section, spectrochemical section, inorganic and production control section, instrumentation and control section, instrument technology, and mass spectrometry-isotopic section.

  5. XRCF Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reily, Cary; Kegely, Jeff; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center's X-ray Calibration Facility has been recently modified to test Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) developmental mirrors at cryogenic temperatures (35 degrees Kelvin) while maintaining capability for performance testing of x-ray optics and detectors. The facility's current cryo-optical testing capability and potential modifications for future support of NGST will be presented.

  6. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1997-02-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) mechanical; (2) environmental, gas, liquid; (3) electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (4) optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the report.

  7. CD44-related chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a cell surface receptor implicated with tumor cell invasion, mediates endothelial cell migration on fibrinogen and invasion into a fibrin matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Henke, C A; Roongta, U; Mickelson, D J; Knutson, J R; McCarthy, J B

    1996-01-01

    Microvascular endothelial cell invasion into the fibrin provisional matrix is an integral component of angiogenesis during wound repair. Cell surface receptors which interact with extracellular matrix proteins participate in cell migration and invasion. Malignant cells use CD44-related chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as a matrix receptor to mediate migration and invasion. In this study, we examine whether cell surface CSPG can mediate similar events in nonmalignant wound microvascular endothelial cells or whether use of CSPG for migration and invasion is a property largely restricted to malignant cells. After inhibiting CSPG synthesis with p-nitrophenyl beta-d xylopyranoside (beta-d xyloside), wound microvascular endothelial cells were capable of attaching and spreading on the surface of a fibrin gel; however, their ability to invade the fibrin matrix was virtually eliminated. To begin to examine the mechanism by which endothelial cells use CSPG to invade fibrin matrices, cell adhesion and migration on fibrinogen was examined. Endothelial cell adhesion and migration on fibrinogen were inhibited by both beta-d xyloside and after cleavage of chondroitin sulfate from the core protein by chondroitinase ABC. We have determined that wound microvascular endothelial cells express the majority of their proteoglycan as CSPG and that the CSPG core protein is immunologically related to CD44. PCR studies show that these cells express both the "standard" (CD44H) isoform and an isoform containing the variably spliced exon V3. In addition, anti-CD44 antibody blocks endothelial cell migration on fibrinogen. Affinity chromatography studies reveal that partially purified microvascular endothelial cell CSPG binds fibrinogen. These findings suggest that CD44-related CSPG, a molecule implicated in the invasive behavior of tumor cells, is capable of binding fibrinogen/fibrin, thereby mediating endothelial cell migration and invasion into the fibrin provisional matrix during wound

  8. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  9. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Thylefors, B; Alleman, M

    2006-12-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a severely disabling filarial disease that is endemic in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen. The disease causes a high burden of blindness and visual loss, along with itching and other severe dermal manifestations. It constitutes a significant obstacle to socio-economic development in highly endemic riverine areas, where the Simulium blackflies that act as vectors breed. Onchocerciasis has been subject to control efforts for more than 50 years, initially mainly through vector control but since 1988, with free access to ivermectin (Mectizan), also through large-scale chemotherapy. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa operated successfully from 1974 to 2002 in 11 countries, covering the worst savannah foci of the disease through vector control and, in its later stages, also through ivermectin distribution. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control was established in 1995, to cover the remaining endemic areas in Africa, with the sustainable annual distribution of ivermectin by 2010 its main goal. Meanwhile, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas is making rapid progress in the virtual regional elimination of the disease through ivermectin distribution, which is achievable primarily because the vectors in the western hemisphere are less efficient than those elsewhere. The global elimination of onchocerciasis as a public-health problem is now within reach but this will require long-term strategies to secure the great gains made so far, through ivermectin treatment and local vector control. Research is needed to define the optimal approaches with the existing tools and to intensify the development of alternative strategies, such as macrofilaricidal drugs for wide-scale use. PMID:17227651

  10. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Thylefors, B; Alleman, M

    2006-12-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a severely disabling filarial disease that is endemic in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen. The disease causes a high burden of blindness and visual loss, along with itching and other severe dermal manifestations. It constitutes a significant obstacle to socio-economic development in highly endemic riverine areas, where the Simulium blackflies that act as vectors breed. Onchocerciasis has been subject to control efforts for more than 50 years, initially mainly through vector control but since 1988, with free access to ivermectin (Mectizan), also through large-scale chemotherapy. The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa operated successfully from 1974 to 2002 in 11 countries, covering the worst savannah foci of the disease through vector control and, in its later stages, also through ivermectin distribution. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control was established in 1995, to cover the remaining endemic areas in Africa, with the sustainable annual distribution of ivermectin by 2010 its main goal. Meanwhile, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas is making rapid progress in the virtual regional elimination of the disease through ivermectin distribution, which is achievable primarily because the vectors in the western hemisphere are less efficient than those elsewhere. The global elimination of onchocerciasis as a public-health problem is now within reach but this will require long-term strategies to secure the great gains made so far, through ivermectin treatment and local vector control. Research is needed to define the optimal approaches with the existing tools and to intensify the development of alternative strategies, such as macrofilaricidal drugs for wide-scale use.

  11. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  12. Deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin reduces, but does not eliminate, traction force-transmission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliot; Ewald, Makena L; Sedarous, Mary; Kim, Timothy; Weyers, Brent W; Truong, Rose Hong; Yamada, Soichiro

    2016-09-30

    Collective migration of epithelial cells is an integral part of embryonic development, wound healing, tissue renewal and carcinoma invasion. While previous studies have focused on cell-extracellular matrix adhesion as a site of migration-driving, traction force-transmission, cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion is also capable of force-transmission. Using a soft elastomer coated with purified N-cadherin as a substrate and a Hepatocyte Growth Factor-treated, transformed MDCK epithelial cell line as a model system, we quantified traction transmitted by N-cadherin-mediated contacts. On a substrate coated with purified extracellular domain of N-cadherin, cell surface N-cadherin proteins arranged into puncta. N-cadherin mutants (either the cytoplasmic deletion or actin-binding domain chimera), however, failed to assemble into puncta, suggesting the assembly of focal adhesion like puncta requires the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain deleted N-cadherin expressing cells exerted lower traction stress than the full-length or the actin binding domain chimeric N-cadherin. Our data demonstrate that N-cadherin junctions exert significant traction stress that requires the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, but the loss of the cytoplasmic domain does not completely eliminate traction force transmission.

  13. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  14. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  15. The feasibility of eliminating podoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; M Tukahebwa, Edrida; Umulisa, Irenee; Molyneux, David H; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Podoconiosis is an inflammatory disease caused by prolonged contact with irritant minerals in soil. Major symptoms include swelling of the lower limb (lymphoedema) and acute pain. The disease has major social and economic consequences through stigma and loss of productivity. In the last five years there has been good progress in podoconiosis research and control. Addressing poverty at household level and infrastructure development such as roads, water and urbanization can all help to reduce podoconiosis incidence. Specific control methods include the use of footwear, regular foot hygiene and floor coverings. Secondary and tertiary prevention are based on the management of the lymphoedema-related morbidity and include foot hygiene, foot care, wound care, compression, exercises, elevation of the legs and treatment of acute infections. Certain endemic countries are taking the initiative to include podoconiosis in their national plans for the control of neglected tropical diseases and to scale up interventions against the disease. Advocacy is needed for provision of shoes as a health intervention. We suggest case definitions and elimination targets as a starting point for elimination of the disease. PMID:26600613

  16. Population, migration and urbanization.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  17. Metrology measurement capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division's (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  18. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/microwave); and optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. FM and T Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Department of energy`s Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 16 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in this report.

  19. Metrology measurement capability

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  20. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  1. Reasons for eliminating the "age 60" regulation for airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1981-08-01

    The calendar age of 60 is no longer medically justifiable as an upper age limit for airline pilots. Advances in gerontologic studies, clinical medicine, and operational flight proficiency evaluations, now allow individual pilot assessments for health status and performance capability. Individualizing the career duration of pilots by eliminating the present age 60 upper limitation will enhance flight safety and efficiency as healthy pilots continue their productive careers.

  2. Fiber length and orientation prevent migration in fluid filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiman, P. A.

    1966-01-01

    Stainless steel fiber web filter resists fiber migration which causes contamination of filtered fluids. This filter is capable of holding five times more particulate matter before arbitrary cutoff pressure drop and shows excellent retention in fuel flow at high rates.

  3. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  4. Elimination communication as colic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Geraldine J

    2014-09-01

    Colic is generally defined as excessive crying in early infancy and can have negative consequences on the infant as well as on the infant's family life. Excessive crying can result in escalating parental stress levels, abusive caregiver response, increased risk of shaken baby syndrome and parental postpartum depression. In addition to excessive crying, symptoms and descriptors of infant colic include inconsolable crying, screaming, legs drawn up against the abdomen, furrowing of eyebrows, distended abdomen, arched back, passing gas, post-feeding crying and difficulty defecating. There are few well-designed, reproducible, randomized, large-scale studies which demonstrate efficacy of any therapeutic method for colic. An unexplored etiology is that colic is functionally related to a decrease in stooling frequency. Gut distention may periodically result in intensifying discomfort for the infant and in concomitant inconsolable crying. Elimination communication (EC; also known as Natural Infant Hygiene and sometimes referred to as infant potty training, baby-led potty training or assisted infant toilet training) involves the use of cues by which the infant signals to the caregiver that the infant needs to micturate or defecate. Such cues can include types of crying, squirming, straining, wriggling, grimacing, fussing, vocalizing, intent look at caregiver, red face, passing gas and grunting, many of which are the same initial symptoms related to the onset of colicky infant states. A caregiver's attentive and nurturant response to an infant's cues involve uncovering the infant's intergluteal cleft and cradling the infant gently and non-coercively in a supported, secure squatting position. This position will increase the infant's anorectal angle thus facilitating complete defecation. It is hypothesized that effective and timely elimination will cause increased physical comfort for the infant; colic symptoms will concomitantly decrease.

  5. Seismic Imaging Processing and Migration

    2000-06-26

    Salvo is a 3D, finite difference, prestack, depth migration code for parallel computers. It is also capable of processing 2D and poststack data. The code requires as input a seismic dataset, a velocity model and a file of parameters that allows the user to select various options. The code uses this information to produce a seismic image. Some of the options available to the user include the application of various filters and imaging conditions. Themore » code also incorporates phase encoding (patent applied for) to process multiple shots simultaneously.« less

  6. Migrating thermospheric tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, M. E.; Roble, R. G.; Hackney, J.

    2001-07-01

    The capabilities of the global-scale wave model (GSWM) [Hagan et al., 1995, 1999] are extended to include migrating thermospheric solar tides. The GSWM thermospheric tidal forcing parameterization is based on neutral gas heating calculated from first principles in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere/ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM). This is the first time that a physics-based thermospheric forcing scheme has been used in a model like GSWM. Previous two-dimensional steady state linear tidal models used exospheric temperature measurements to calibrate upper atmospheric tidal forcing. New GSWM results illustrate thermospheric tidal responses that are largely consistent with tides in the TIE-GCM. Diurnal temperature amplitudes increase with increasing solar activity, but there is no analogous diurnal wind response. The thermospheric semidiurnal tide is much weaker than the diurnal tide. Semidiurnal temperature perturbations peak in the lower thermosphere where the semidiurnal forcing maximizes. The new in situ results must be combined with the GSWM upward propagating tide in the lower thermosphere, because the upward propagating components dominate the semidiurnal response throughout the region and the diurnal response below ˜130 km. In situ forcing accounts for most of the diurnal response aloft. Our preliminary evaluation of the GSWM thermospheric predictions is inconclusive. More extensive evaluations are necessary to make a firm assessment of whether the model captures the salient features of the seasonal and solar cycle variability of thermospheric tides.

  7. Cosmic Ray elimination using the Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco-Aguilera, M. T.; Cruz, J.; Altamirano, L.; Serrano, A.

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we present a method for the automatic cosmic ray elimination in a single CCD exposure using the Wavelet Transform. The proposed method can eliminate cosmic rays of any shape or size. With this method we can eliminate over 95% of cosmic rays in a spectral image.

  8. Human push capability.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  9. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  10. Project CAPABLE: Model Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madawaska School District, ME.

    Project CAPABLE (Classroom Action Program: Aim: Basic Learning Effectiveness) is a classroom approach which integrates the basic learning skills with content. The goal of the project is to use basic learning skills to enhance the learning of content and at the same time use the content to teach basic learning skills. This manual illustrates how…

  11. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  12. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  13. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  14. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths. PMID:15202293

  15. Costs and financial feasibility of malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Sabot, Oliver; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Kahn, James G; Basu, Suprotik; Tang, Linhua; Zheng, Bin; Gao, Qi; Zou, Linda; Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Usas, Jennifer; Barrett, Scott; Cohen, Jessica L; Jamison, Dean T; Feachem, Richard GA

    2010-01-01

    Summary The marginal costs and benefits of converting malaria programmes from a control to an elimination goal are central to strategic decisions, but empirical evidence is scarce. We present a conceptual framework to assess the economics of elimination and analyse a central component of that framework—potential short-term to medium-term financial savings. After a review that showed a dearth of existing evidence, the net present value of elimination in five sites was calculated and compared with effective control. The probability that elimination would be cost-saving over 50 years ranged from 0% to 42%, with only one site achieving cost-savings in the base case. These findings show that financial savings should not be a primary rationale for elimination, but that elimination might still be a worthy investment if total benefits are sufficient to outweigh marginal costs. Robust research into these elimination benefits is urgently needed. PMID:21035839

  16. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  17. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  18. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  19. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  20. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  1. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  2. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  3. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  4. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  5. History of migration studies in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Little, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    The earliest studies of human biological factors in migration in which a clear research design was employed date back to the early 20th century in the United States. Maurice Fishberg's study of Jewish migrants, published in 1905, antedated the classic study of Franz Boas initiated in 1908. There have been two main approaches. The first approach examined the impact of migration in relation to changing environment and the importance of environmental plasticity. For example, Fishberg reported that migrants had offspring different in stature from themselves and with differences thought to be due to improvements in the environment, although some selection of genetically determined traits was suggested. Subsequently, a number of research designs have been used, ranging from Boas's simple design of sedente (nonmigrant) adults and children compared with first- and second-generation migrants; Shapiro's extension of this study in Japanese migrants to Hawai'i; Goldstein's four-fold comparison of Mexican sedentes and their offspring in Mexico, and migrants to the USA and their offspring in the USA; and Lasker's extension of Goldstein's Mexican study by including comparison of sedentes with returning emigrants. More sophisticated designs were used by Harrison and Baker in examining altitude effects and changes in subsistence and lifestyle during the 1960s through to the 1980s. The second approach has focused on the effect of migration on gene flow. For example, the clinal variation of ABO blood groups in Europe and Australia is generally purported to result from past migration, although increasing random migration for blood groups is likely to eliminate clinal variation. Migration has usually been considered from a spatial (geographic) perspective, but more recent studies have also investigated the impact of social or occupational movement (social mobility) alone, or in combination with geographic migration, and tested whether such movements are selective or random for a number

  6. History of migration studies in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Little, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    The earliest studies of human biological factors in migration in which a clear research design was employed date back to the early 20th century in the United States. Maurice Fishberg's study of Jewish migrants, published in 1905, antedated the classic study of Franz Boas initiated in 1908. There have been two main approaches. The first approach examined the impact of migration in relation to changing environment and the importance of environmental plasticity. For example, Fishberg reported that migrants had offspring different in stature from themselves and with differences thought to be due to improvements in the environment, although some selection of genetically determined traits was suggested. Subsequently, a number of research designs have been used, ranging from Boas's simple design of sedente (nonmigrant) adults and children compared with first- and second-generation migrants; Shapiro's extension of this study in Japanese migrants to Hawai'i; Goldstein's four-fold comparison of Mexican sedentes and their offspring in Mexico, and migrants to the USA and their offspring in the USA; and Lasker's extension of Goldstein's Mexican study by including comparison of sedentes with returning emigrants. More sophisticated designs were used by Harrison and Baker in examining altitude effects and changes in subsistence and lifestyle during the 1960s through to the 1980s. The second approach has focused on the effect of migration on gene flow. For example, the clinal variation of ABO blood groups in Europe and Australia is generally purported to result from past migration, although increasing random migration for blood groups is likely to eliminate clinal variation. Migration has usually been considered from a spatial (geographic) perspective, but more recent studies have also investigated the impact of social or occupational movement (social mobility) alone, or in combination with geographic migration, and tested whether such movements are selective or random for a number

  7. MIGRATION OF SMALL MOONS IN SATURN's RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-02-20

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  8. Aquaporins and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, M C; Saadoun, S; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration. PMID:17968585

  9. Proactive Process-Level Live Migration and Back Migration in HPC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    As the number of nodes in high-performance computing environments keeps increasing, faults are becoming common place. Reactive fault tolerance (FT) often does not scale due to massive I/O requirements and relies on manual job resubmission. This work complements reactive with proactive FT at the process level. Through health monitoring, a subset of node failures can be anticipated when one's health deteriorates. A novel process-level live migration mechanism supports continued execution of applications during much of process migration. This scheme is integrated into an MPI execution environment to transparently sustain health-inflicted node failures, which eradicates the need to restart and requeue MPI jobs. Experiments indicate that 1-6.5 s of prior warning are required to successfully trigger live process migration while similar operating system virtualization mechanisms require 13-24 s. This self-healing approach complements reactive FT by nearly cutting the number of checkpoints in half when 70% of the faults are handled proactively. The work also provides a novel back migration approach to eliminate load imbalance or bottlenecks caused by migrated tasks. Experiments indicate the larger the amount of outstanding execution, the higher the benefit due to back migration.

  10. Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  11. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Genome elimination – whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent – is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict. PMID:25328085

  12. Mapping residual transmission for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Robert C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Kunene, Simon; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Hsiang, Michelle S; Perkins, T Alex; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tatem, Andrew J; Cohen, Justin M; Smith, David L

    2015-12-29

    Eliminating malaria from a defined region involves draining the endemic parasite reservoir and minimizing local malaria transmission around imported malaria infections . In the last phases of malaria elimination, as universal interventions reap diminishing marginal returns, national resources must become increasingly devoted to identifying where residual transmission is occurring. The needs for accurate measures of progress and practical advice about how to allocate scarce resources require new analytical methods to quantify fine-grained heterogeneity in malaria risk. Using routine national surveillance data from Swaziland (a sub-Saharan country on the verge of elimination), we estimated individual reproductive numbers. Fine-grained maps of reproductive numbers and local malaria importation rates were combined to show 'malariogenic potential', a first for malaria elimination. As countries approach elimination, these individual-based measures of transmission risk provide meaningful metrics for planning programmatic responses and prioritizing areas where interventions will contribute most to malaria elimination.

  13. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.

  14. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  15. Migration to Windows NT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  16. The Future of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book comprises papers delivered at a conference of National Experts on Migration. The principle objective of the conference was twofold: to examine significant trends that will affect the future of migration in countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and to identify the relevant issues that will have to…

  17. The Great Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the migration of African Americans in the United States and the reasons why African Americans migrated from the south. Focuses on issues, such as the effect of World War I, the opportunities offered in the north, and the emergence of a black industrial working class. (CMK)

  18. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  19. Migration and Environmental Hazards.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M

    2005-03-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations.

  20. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  1. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  2. On marriage and migration.

    PubMed

    Stark, O

    1988-09-01

    Marriage, migration, and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility, and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. This paper examines the role of migration in obtaining joint labor market and marriage market equilibrium. When broadly interpreted, marriage and migration share a number of common features. Both involve search and its resolution (pairing of mates in the former and matching of labor and firms in the latter). In both cases, success in finding a partner is sensitive to the availability of partners and to the distribution of their endowments and traits. Almost always, and along with separation and divorce, marriage mandates spatial relocation which may translate into migration. Both involve a movement that is associated with adjustment costs from 1 state into another. The decisions to enter marriage and undertake employment or the decisions to divorce and quit a job depend on exogenous parameters, some of which are determined by the marriage market and the labor market. Since both marriage and divorce take place in the context of broadly defined markets, they may and often are analyzed applying market concepts, theorems, and solutions. Yet the authors could not pinpoint 1 single, systematic attempt that checks through the interactions between marriage and migration, so this paper attempts to rectify this state of research. Essentially, this paper 1) discusses individual decision making pending possible migration prior to or following marriage, 2) examines whether it is easier for a married couple or a single person to migrate, and 3) considers whether marriage dissolution could cause migration when marriage is the only reason that has kept a spouse from moving. This integrated research agenda for both marriage and migration can delineate interesting new implications to examine.

  3. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  4. Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

  5. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  6. PHOBICS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center of mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, we outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, we then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that we plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{zeta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi}{r_arrow} K{sup +}K{sup -} decays.

  7. [Determinants of migration to Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Kucinski, K; Rakowski, W

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine trends and determinants of internal migration to Warsaw, Poland. Consideration is given to occupational and socioeconomic status of migrants, rural-urban migration, and effects of migration on marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  8. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  9. Neuronal migration illuminated

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Niraj

    2011-01-01

    During vertebrate brain development, migration of neurons from the germinal zones to their final laminar positions is essential to establish functional neural circuits.1–3 Whereas key insights into neuronal migration initially came from landmark studies identifying the genes mutated in human cortical malformations,4 cell biology has recently greatly advanced our understanding of how cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors drive the morphogenic cell movements that build the developing brain. This Commentary & View reviews recent studies examining the role of the molecular motors during neuronal migration and critically examines current models of acto-myosin function in the two-step neuronal migration cycle. Given the apparent emerging diversity of neuronal sub-type cytoskeletal organizations, we propose that two approaches must be taken to resolve differences between the current migration models: the mechanisms of radial and tangential migration must be compared, and the loci of tension generation, migration substrates and sites of adhesion dynamics must be precisely examined in an integrated manner. PMID:20935494

  10. Women in migration.

    PubMed

    Morokvasic, M

    1984-01-01

    This special issue reflects the belated but growing scholarly appreciation of the specificity and importance of women in migration. Aside from the sheer numerical significance of female migration documented in this issue, women migrants encounter problems and make special contributions which render comprehension of their specificity critical to an understanding of international migration in general. In an introductory essay, Morokvasic surveys the state of knowledge concerning women in migration. The focus then shifts, in Part II, to regional and national case studies which collectively elucidate the multifaceted dimensions of the women in migration research issue through time and space. In Part III, an international comparison of female immigrants and their labor market characteristics reveals striking similarities but also important differences. The US Canada and Australia can be discretely compared through 5 census-based quantitative analyses. The role of migrant women in the labor market is also the theme of Part IV. But the 5 studies comprising this section are based on survey research or on discernible global trends in migration and employment. Part V is devoted to the theme of female rural to urban migration in the Third World.

  11. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  12. Development of host resistance to Fasciola hepatica after the elimination of primary infection with diamphenethide.

    PubMed

    Corba, J; Spaldonová, R

    1975-01-01

    We studied the specificity of the individual developmental stages of Fasciola hepatica for evoking immune response of the host to reinfection with this parasite, whereby the primary infection was eliminated by a dose of 150 mg/kg diamphenethide administered in various intervals. In rats we observed a state of hypersensitivity demonstrated by retarded migration and growth of the flukes and the reduction in the number of sexually developed parasites. The changes were most marked, if the elimination of the immunizing infection followed 8-10 weeks after primary infection.

  13. Capability 9.4 Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Rud

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on capability structure 9.4 servicing. The topics include: 1) Servicing Description; 2) Benefits of Servicing; 3) Drivers & Assumptions for Servicing; 4) Capability Breakdown Structure 9.4 Servicing; 5) Roadmap for Servicing; 6) 9.4 Servicing Critical Gaps; 7) Capability 9.4 Servicing; 8) Capability 9.4.1 Inspection; 9) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.1 Inspection; 10) Capability 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 11) State-of-the-Art/Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 12) Capability 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 13) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 14) Capability 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 15) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 16) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 17) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 18) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 19) Capability 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, Training; and 20) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, & Training;

  14. Overview of Experimental Capabilities - Supersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of experimental capabilities applicable to the area of supersonic research. The contents include: 1) EC Objectives; 2) SUP.11: Elements; 3) NRA; 4) Advanced Flight Simulator Flexible Aircraft Simulation Studies; 5) Advanced Flight Simulator Flying Qualities Guideline Development for Flexible Supersonic Transport Aircraft; 6) Advanced Flight Simulator Rigid/Flex Flight Control; 7) Advanced Flight Simulator Rapid Sim Model Exchange; 8) Flight Test Capabilities Advanced In-Flight Infrared (IR) Thermography; 9) Flight Test Capabilities In-Flight Schlieren; 10) Flight Test Capabilities CLIP Flow Calibration; 11) Flight Test Capabilities PFTF Flowfield Survey; 12) Ground Test Capabilities Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA); 13) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); 14) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); and 15) Ground Test Capabilities EDL Optical Measurement Capability (PIV) for Rigid/Flexible Decelerator Models.

  15. Influence of ethanol on human T-lymphocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaelin, R.M.; Semerjian, A.; Center, D.M.; Bernardo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because ethanol consumption is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, an examination was made of the effects of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde on human T-lymphocyte migration, an important functional component of cellular inflammatory responses. With a modified Boyden chamber system, ethanol at 0.25% and 0.50% (vol/vol) inhibited spontaneous motility of human T-lymphocytes, in a noncytotoxic manner, to 65% +/- 7% (mean +/- SEM) and 62% +/- 7% of control values of migration, respectively. When T-lymphocyte migration was stimulated by colchicine (10/sup -5/ mol/L), incubation with ethanol (0.25% and 0.50%, vol/vol) decreased migration to 80% +/- 4% and 66% +/- 8% of control values, respectively. Similar degrees of inhibition of migration were obtained with acetaldehyde at concentrations five to 10 times less than ethanol. Ethanol was similarly capable of inhibiting T cell migration induced by dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, but it had no effect on stimulated migration induced by a human chemokinetic lymphokine. The study demonstrates that ethanol, at concentrations achievable in vivo, is capable of depressing T-lymphocyte migration. This effect might contribute to the immunosuppression associated with ethanol consumption. 36 references, 4 figures.

  16. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  17. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  18. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  19. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  20. Indonesia's migration transition.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration. PMID:12347370

  1. Timescales of DNAPL migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueper, B.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D.

    2003-04-01

    Dense, non-aqueous phase liquids such as chlorinated solvents, PCB oils, creosote, and coal tar are common soil and groundwater contaminants at sites throughout the world. Current source zone remediation approaches typically assume that the residual and pooled DNAPL of interest is no longer migrating. The motivation for partial mass removal from a DNAPL source zone varies from site to site, but is often motivated by the belief that mass removal will lead to shorter steady-state plumes, shorter longevity of the source zone, and possibly aquifer restoration in a reasonable period of time. This talk addresses the issue of DNAPL migration timescales, and illustrates that certain types of DNAPL in certain geological environments are likely still migrating at some sites. The implication of this is that remedial strategies may need to be aimed at source zone stabilization in the short term, not partial mass removal for the reasons outlined above. The timescales of DNAPL migration at a site are influenced by many factors, including fluid properties, capillary properties, relative permeability characteristics, boundary conditions, and the volume and nature of release. Accurate prediction of DNAPL migration timescales requires a model that properly accounts for both the entry and terminal pressures in the capillary pressure -- saturation constitutive relationship, and properly accounts for relative permeability characteristics. This talk will address the above issues, and will present the results of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to illustrate the timescale of DNAPL migration in a variety of environments including fractured rock, fractured clay, and unconsolidated porous media.

  2. Advocating for malaria elimination - learning from the successes of other infectious disease elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Maxine A; Dean, Angela J; Chancellor, Arna

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination is back on the agenda, but it remains challenging for countries to make the transition from effective control to elimination. Many other infectious diseases have been targeted by globally-coordinated elimination advocacy campaigns, and advocacy has been considered an essential component of the success of other disease elimination programmes. What can the malaria community learn from these successes? A review of infectious disease elimination programmes to identify successful elements of advocacy for disease elimination was undertaken. Key elements are: (i) a global elimination plan, supported by international health bodies; (ii) thorough costings and tools to support the business case; (iii) an approach that is positioned within a development framework; (iv) core elimination advocacy messages; (v) provision of advocacy tools for partners (vi) extensive and effective community engagement; and (vii) strong partnerships. These features provide insights into 'what works' in global elimination advocacy. Advocacy is a powerful tool to support the long-term political and financial commitment necessary for malaria elimination. The global malaria community needs to work together, to ensure that the early steps towards the end goal of malaria elimination are taken. PMID:24902848

  3. Advocating for malaria elimination - learning from the successes of other infectious disease elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Maxine A; Dean, Angela J; Chancellor, Arna

    2014-06-05

    Malaria elimination is back on the agenda, but it remains challenging for countries to make the transition from effective control to elimination. Many other infectious diseases have been targeted by globally-coordinated elimination advocacy campaigns, and advocacy has been considered an essential component of the success of other disease elimination programmes. What can the malaria community learn from these successes? A review of infectious disease elimination programmes to identify successful elements of advocacy for disease elimination was undertaken. Key elements are: (i) a global elimination plan, supported by international health bodies; (ii) thorough costings and tools to support the business case; (iii) an approach that is positioned within a development framework; (iv) core elimination advocacy messages; (v) provision of advocacy tools for partners (vi) extensive and effective community engagement; and (vii) strong partnerships. These features provide insights into 'what works' in global elimination advocacy. Advocacy is a powerful tool to support the long-term political and financial commitment necessary for malaria elimination. The global malaria community needs to work together, to ensure that the early steps towards the end goal of malaria elimination are taken.

  4. Advocating for malaria elimination - learning from the successes of other infectious disease elimination programmes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination is back on the agenda, but it remains challenging for countries to make the transition from effective control to elimination. Many other infectious diseases have been targeted by globally-coordinated elimination advocacy campaigns, and advocacy has been considered an essential component of the success of other disease elimination programmes. What can the malaria community learn from these successes? A review of infectious disease elimination programmes to identify successful elements of advocacy for disease elimination was undertaken. Key elements are: (i) a global elimination plan, supported by international health bodies; (ii) thorough costings and tools to support the business case; (iii) an approach that is positioned within a development framework; (iv) core elimination advocacy messages; (v) provision of advocacy tools for partners (vi) extensive and effective community engagement; and (vii) strong partnerships. These features provide insights into ‘what works’ in global elimination advocacy. Advocacy is a powerful tool to support the long-term political and financial commitment necessary for malaria elimination. The global malaria community needs to work together, to ensure that the early steps towards the end goal of malaria elimination are taken. PMID:24902848

  5. Unique slider bed eliminates problematic idler rollers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Solidur Plastic's impact slide bed is an innovative solution to problems with idler rollers. The unit provides increased conveyor efficiency and prolonged belt life. It also reduces costly downtime and maintenance needs by eliminating typical idler and conveyor belting problems.

  6. Why Should We Pivot in Gaussian Elimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozema, Edward

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the use of computers to teacher college level mathematics. In particular, the Gaussian elimination procedure for solving a system of n linear equations in n unknowns, using a computer, is examined. (PK)

  7. Operator`s guide to eliminating bias in CEM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The inclusion of the t-test for bias in the Acid Rain Regulations, 40 CFR Part 75, signaled a marked improvement in the capability to detect a significant source of measurement error that had previously remained hidden. The capability to detect bias left environmental technicians and instrument operators with the often daunting job of, first, diagnosing the cause of the measurement bias, and, then, taking steps to correct it. This publication is intended to make that job easier. A pull-out chart, entitled Eliminating Bias in CEMS -- A Checklist, provides a comprehensive listing of the monitoring system problems that can cause systematic error. A brief description and potential corrective actions are shown for each problem. Finally, the Checklist directs users to the appropriate pages in the accompanying Operator`s Guide, where fuller descriptions of problems and remedies can be found. The accompanying Operator`s Guide to Eliminating Bias in Monitoring Systems is organized into eight chapters. The problem areas covered are: Probe Location and Stratification (Chapter 2), Extractive Sampling Systems (Chapter 3), In-Situ Gas Monitoring Systems and Opacity Monitors (Chapter 4), Flow Monitors (Chapter 5), Gas Analyzers (Chapter 6), and Data Acquisition and Handling Systems (Chapter 7). Chapter 8, the last chapter in the Operator`s Guide, discusses elements that should be incorporated into ongoing Quality Assurance Programs to detect and prevent the problems that produce systematic error in monitor measurements.

  8. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  9. Human rights and migration policies.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  10. LANL Analytical and Radiochemistry Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-07-27

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities.

  11. Intestinal elimination of ciprofloxacin in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, J; Dautrey, S; Farinoti, R; Carbon, C; Rubinstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The intestinal transepithelial elimination of ciprofloxacin was studied in a rabbit model. Jejunal, ileal, and cecal segments along with their intact blood vessels were isolated and perfused, and their contents were collected over a 120-min period following administration of a single parenteral dose of 27 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight. The intestinal elimination rates of ciprofloxacin were 0.126 +/- 0.084, 0.235 +/- 0.22, and 0.11 +/- 0.084 micrograms.min-1.cm-2 for the jejunal, ileal, and cecal segments, respectively. The calculated fractions of ciprofloxacin eliminated were 3.3 mg from the jejunum and 13.8 mg from the ileum, representing 19% of the administered dose. Additional amounts of 2.5 to 3.7 mg or 4.9 to 7.3% of the administered dose were eliminated from the cecum. Elimination was probably not due to a passive diffusion process but rather due to an active transepithelial transport. This intestinal elimination pattern of ciprofloxacin may explain the unusual activity of the fluoroquinolones in modifying the intestinal flora. PMID:8031042

  12. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  13. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  14. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed." PMID:12291410

  15. Biometrics and international migration.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  16. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-10

    This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension not fully fleshed out yet that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called 3+2 vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

  17. Migration from Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenaer, B. De

    Various chemical compounds can be present in foodstuffs which may induce health problems in humans. The origin of these compounds can be very diverse. Mathematical modeling can sometimes be used to predict the concentration of these chemicals in the food. Particularly for compounds which are produced in the food during, e.g., processing and for compounds which migrate from a food contact material this technique can be very fruitful. For the former type of compounds, classical chemical kinetics can be applied. In this contribution, the modeling of the migration from polymeric food contact materials is considered. This migration phenomenon can be modeled mathematically since the physical processes which govern this process are very well studied and understood. Therefore, initially some of these fundamentals will be discussed in more detail.

  18. More myths of migration.

    PubMed

    Basch, L; Lerner, G

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  19. [Migration, climate and health].

    PubMed

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel; Calballo, Manuel

    2009-10-26

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them.

  20. What's driving migration?

    PubMed

    Kane, H

    1995-01-01

    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  1. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  2. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  3. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  4. Migration strategies of insects.

    PubMed

    Dingle, H

    1972-03-24

    Physiological and ecological results from a variety of species are consistent with what seem to be valid general statements concerning insect migration. These are as follows: (i)During migration locomotory functions are enhanced and vegetative functions such as feeding and reproduction are suppressed. (ii) Migration usually occurs prereproductively in the life of the adult insect (the oogenesis-flight syndrome). (iii)Since migrant individuals are usually prereproductive, their reproductive values, and hence colonizing abilities, are at or near maximum. (iv) Migrants usually reside in temporary habitats. (v)Migrants have a high potential for population increase, r, which is also advantageous for colonizers. (vi)Both the physiological and ecological parameters of migration are modifiable by environmental factors (that is, phenotypically modifiable)to suit the prevailing conditions. Taken together, these criteria establish a comprehensive theory and adumbrate the basic strategy for migrant insects. This basic strategy is modified to suit the ecological requirements of individual species. Comparative studies of these modifications are of considerable theoretical and practical interest, the more so since most economically important insects are migrants. No satisfactory general statements can as yet be made with respect to the genotype and migration. Certainly we expect colonizing populiations to possess genotypes favoring a high r, but genotypic variation in r depends on the heritabilities of life table statistics, and such measurements are yet to be made (10, 53). The fact that flight duration can be increased by appropriate selection in Oncopeltus fasciatus, and the demonstration of additive genetic variance for this trait in Lygaeus kalmii, suggest that heritability studies of migratory behavior would also be worth pursuing. Most interesting of course, will be possible genetic correlations between migration and life history parameters. Also, migration often

  5. [Migration and health].

    PubMed

    Litvinjenko, S

    1997-01-01

    In the last decades of this century we are witnesses of frequent crises in different parts of the world produced by internal disturbance and wars. These crises, together with natural disasters, poverty and hunger, follow the history of mankind often forcing huge population groups to leave their homes. The harmful health consequences are among negative effects of migrations. While stable populations have well-tried routines for maintaining health, migrations mean abandoning such support systems. The increased exposure to harmful factors contributes more to the bad health condition of the migrant population. Setting of newcomers and local people together in the same homes, reduction in food and heating resources, drug shortage as well as importation of new infectious agents, may also endanger health of the native population. These observations have also been confirmed by Yugoslav experience. Depending on the fact whether a migration is elemental or organized i.e. dependent on its place in the large scale between these two extreme endpoints, the size of risk is also dependent on the consequences and degree of their difficulty. Mass health disturbances occur during migrations of the population from war regions, migrations from areas of natural disasters, mass pilgrimage, migrations of seasonal workers and migrations of armies during wars. However, even in these difficult times and conditions, a good organization can contribute to the mitigation of harmful consequences caused by these migrations. For instance, in 1942 there was an epidemic of typhus fever in Bosnia when many refugees crossed the Drina river on the way to Serbia escaping from Ustasha terrorism. At the Serbian side there were checkpoints where the refugees could taka a bath and where their laundry and clothing were depediculated with dry air, and after a two-week quarantine they could continue to Serbian provinces without making new foci of typhus fever. The most vulnerable and numerous group of refugees

  6. Toxicity of Carboxylic Acid-Containing Drugs: The Role of Acyl Migration and CoA Conjugation Investigated.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Toni; Hokkanen, Juho; Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Mattila, Sampo; Turpeinen, Miia; Tolonen, Ari

    2015-12-21

    Many carboxylic acid-containing drugs are associated with idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT), which may be caused by reactive acyl glucuronide metabolites. The rate of acyl migration has been earlier suggested as a predictor of acyl glucuronide reactivity. Additionally, acyl Coenzyme A (CoA) conjugates are known to be reactive. Here, 13 drugs with a carboxylic acid moiety were incubated with human liver microsomes to produce acyl glucuronide conjugates for the determination of acyl glucuronide half-lives by acyl migration and with HepaRG cells to monitor the formation of acyl CoA conjugates, their further conjugate metabolites, and trans-acylation products with glutathione. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity experiments were performed with HepaRG cells to compare the predictability of toxicity. Clearly, longer acyl glucuronide half-lives were observed for safe drugs compared to drugs that can cause IDT. Correlation between half-lives and toxicity classification increased when "relative half-lives," taking into account the formation of isomeric AG-forms due to acyl migration and eliminating the effect of hydrolysis, were used instead of plain disappearance of the initial 1-O-β-AG-form. Correlation was improved further when a daily dose of the drug was taken into account. CoA and related conjugates were detected primarily for the drugs that have the capability to cause IDT, although some exceptions to this were observed. Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity did not correlate to drug safety. On the basis of the results, the short relative half-life of the acyl glucuronide (high acyl migration rate), high daily dose and detection of acyl CoA conjugates, or further metabolites derived from acyl CoA together seem to indicate that carboxylic acid-containing drugs have a higher probability to cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI). PMID:26558897

  7. Eliminating discipline problems by strengthening academic performance.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, T; Roberts, M D

    1974-01-01

    Behavior modification procedures have typically been used to eliminate discipline problems in the classroom through reinforcement of nondisruptive behavior. This report demonstrates an alternative approach whereby discipline problems are eliminated by reinforcing relevant academic skills. Five fifth-grade boys, identified by their teacher as discipline problems, were observed. The teacher conducted 15-min performance sessions in her reading class during which written academic performance and disruptive behavior were recorded. These measures indicated that the boys' average level of disruption was 34%, while their reading performance was below 50%. When systematic token reinforcement was applied to reading performance only, the rate of disruption fell drastically, and reading performance increased. When the reinforcement procedure was withdrawn, disruption again rose, and reading performance declined. The reinstatement of reinforcement doubled reading performance and eliminated disruption. PMID:4465374

  8. Eliminating discipline problems by strengthening academic performance.

    PubMed

    Ayllon, T; Roberts, M D

    1974-01-01

    Behavior modification procedures have typically been used to eliminate discipline problems in the classroom through reinforcement of nondisruptive behavior. This report demonstrates an alternative approach whereby discipline problems are eliminated by reinforcing relevant academic skills. Five fifth-grade boys, identified by their teacher as discipline problems, were observed. The teacher conducted 15-min performance sessions in her reading class during which written academic performance and disruptive behavior were recorded. These measures indicated that the boys' average level of disruption was 34%, while their reading performance was below 50%. When systematic token reinforcement was applied to reading performance only, the rate of disruption fell drastically, and reading performance increased. When the reinforcement procedure was withdrawn, disruption again rose, and reading performance declined. The reinstatement of reinforcement doubled reading performance and eliminated disruption.

  9. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Famulare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016. PMID:26317401

  10. On Building Inexpensive Network Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Prof. Andrew; Allman, Mark; Taylor, Curtis R

    2011-01-01

    There are many deployed approaches for blocking unwanted traffic, either once it reaches the recipient's network, or closer to its point of origin. One of these schemes is based on the notion of traffic carrying capabilities that grant access to a network and/or end host. However, leveraging capabilities results in added complexity and additional steps in the communication process: Before communication starts a remote host must be vetted and given a capability to use in the subsequent communication. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mechanism that turns the answers provided by DNS name resolution---which Internet communication broadly depends on anyway---into capabilities. While not achieving an ideal capability system, we show the mechanism can be built from commodity technology and is therefore a pragmatic way to gain some of the key benefits of capabilities without requiring new infrastructure.

  11. Suppression of type I migration by disk winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Guillot, Tristan

    2015-12-01

    Context. Planets less massive than Saturn tend to rapidly migrate inward in protoplanetary disks. This is the so-called type I migration. Simulations attempting to reproduce the observed properties of exoplanets show that type I migration needs to be significantly reduced over a wide region of the disk for a long time. However, the mechanism capable of suppressing type I migration over a wide region has remained elusive. The recently found turbulence-driven disk winds offer new possibilities. Aims: We investigate the effects of disk winds on the disk profile and type I migration for a range of parameters that describe the strength of disk winds. We also examine the in situ formation of close-in super-Earths in disks that evolve through disk winds. Methods: The disk profile, which is regulated by viscous diffusion and disk winds, was derived by solving the diffusion equation. We carried out a number of simulations and plot here migration maps that indicate the type I migration rate. We also performed N-body simulations of the formation of close-in super-Earths from a population of planetesimals and planetary embryos. Results: We define a key parameter, Kw, which determines the ratio of strengths between the viscous diffusion and disk winds. For a wide range of Kw, the type I migration rate is presented in migration maps. These maps show that type I migration is suppressed over the whole close-in region when the effects of disk winds are relatively strong (Kw ≲ 100). From the results of N-body simulations, we see that type I migration is significantly slowed down assuming Kw = 40. We also show that the results of N-body simulations match statistical orbital distributions of close-in super-Earths.

  12. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X. X.; Li, C. L.; Xiong, C. B.

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  13. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    PubMed

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. PMID:27053288

  14. Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and programmatic aspects of the integrated analysis capability (IAC) are described. The (IAC) is an interdisciplinary analysis system containing a wide range of general purpose analysis programs that are interfaced via a common data base and a unified executive. The system is designed with significant interactive capability as well as the capability to support the entire range of design phases from the definition phase to the verification phase. The system functions as a standalone or interfaced with IPAD.

  15. Transit satellite system timing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finsod, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Current time transfer capabilities of the Transit Satellite System are reviewed. Potential improvements in the changes in equipment and operational procedures using operational satellites are discussed.

  16. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light <420 nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

  17. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light <420 nm for inclination compass function was not considered in previous monarch studies. The antennae are important for the inclination compass because they appear to contain light-sensitive magnetosensors. For migratory monarchs, the inclination compass may serve as an important orientation mechanism when directional daylight cues are unavailable and may also augment time-compensated sun compass orientation for appropriate directionality throughout the migration. PMID:24960099

  18. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J.; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use a magnetic compass, because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are being utilized to ultimately identify navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  19. Eliminating Sexism from Children's Theatre Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kaarin S.

    To help reduce sexism in children's theatre productions, directors should make a conscious effort to eliminate negative patterns from scripts. They should give attention to the roles of the characters, since female characters are often relegated to the roles of waiting for a male, a supportive parent or sister, or a passive admirer of a male.…

  20. Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)

  1. Efficient genotype elimination via adaptive allele consolidation.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, Nicoletta; Lettieri, Giuseppe; Martini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We propose the technique of Adaptive Allele Consolidation, that greatly improves the performance of the Lange-Goradia algorithm for genotype elimination in pedigrees, while still producing equivalent output. Genotype elimination consists in removing from a pedigree those genotypes that are impossible according to the Mendelian law of inheritance. This is used to find errors in genetic data and is useful as a preprocessing step in other analyses (such as linkage analysis or haplotype imputation). The problem of genotype elimination is intrinsically combinatorial, and Allele Consolidation is an existing technique where several alleles are replaced by a single “lumped” allele in order to reduce the number of combinations of genotypes that have to be considered, possibly at the expense of precision. In existing Allele Consolidation techniques, alleles are lumped once and for all before performing genotype elimination. The idea of Adaptive Allele Consolidation is to dynamically change the set of alleles that are lumped together during the execution of the Lange-Goradia algorithm, so that both high performance and precision are achieved. We have implemented the technique in a tool called Celer and evaluated it on a large set of scenarios, with good results.

  2. Lymphatic filariasis: Treatment, control and elimination.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Eric A

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disease not just treatable or controllable; it is a disease that can be eliminated. Indeed, LF is currently the target of a major global initiative to do just that; a few visionaries of the past 50 years did hypothesize that LF elimination was feasible. However, for most of the scientific and global health communities, the elimination of such a broadly disseminated, mosquito-borne disease has seemed highly unlikely. During the past decade, however, both the treatment strategies and the control strategies for LF have undergone profound paradigm shifts-all because of a rapid increase in knowledge and understanding of LF that derived directly from a series of remarkable achievements by the scientific and medical research communities. As a result, a public health dimension with a focus on affected populations, now supplements the earlier, predominantly patient-oriented clinical approach to LF. The early uncertainties, then the essential steps leading to this change in outlook are outlined below, followed by descriptions of the new strategy for LF elimination, the Global Programme created to attain this goal and the successes achieved to date.

  3. Eliminating Barriers to Dual Enrollment in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Rick; Gamez Vargas, Juanita; David, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy, financial, and transportation barriers have limited participation in dual enrollment for marginalized (low-socioeconomic, first-generation, and ethnic minority) students in Oklahoma. This chapter presents a collaborative effort by education and community leaders that has successfully eliminated these barriers and increased the number of…

  4. Taking Centrioles to the elimination round

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Todd; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2016-01-01

    Two recent papers published in The Journal of Cell Biology (Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016) and Science ((Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016; Pimenta-Marques et al., 2016) have begun to shed light on the mechanism of centriole elimination during female oogenesis, highlighting a protective role for Polo kinase and the pericentriolar material. PMID:27404354

  5. Eliminating Problems Caused by Multicollinearity: A Warning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    1982-01-01

    Explains why an econometric practice introduced by J.C. Soper cannot eliminate the problems caused by multicollinearity. The author suggests that it can be a useful technique in that it forces researchers to pay more attention to the specifications of their models. (AM)

  6. Dispensing system eliminates torsion in deployed hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dispensing system uses a rotating drum, transfer arm, and stationary drum to deploy, reel in, and store an attached hose. This system which eliminates torsion and minimizes strain and wear of flexible hoses, is used for handling flexible cables that have one end permanently attached to an outlet or connector.

  7. Rotational fluid coupling eliminates hose entanglements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubol, P. B.

    1966-01-01

    Rotational fluid coupling mechanism circulates a temperature controlled fluid between a stationary heat exchanger and a coolant plate on a rotating platform. The mechanism consists of two concentric cylinders containing one or more flexible tubes which are controlled and positioned in such a way that it eliminates tubing entanglement.

  8. Taking Centrioles to the Elimination Round.

    PubMed

    Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2016-07-11

    Two recent papers published in The Journal of Cell Biology (Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016) and Science (Pimenta-Marques et al., 2016) have begun to shed light on the mechanism of centriole elimination during female oogenesis, highlighting a protective role for Polo kinase and the pericentriolar material. PMID:27404354

  9. Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence Network (PREVNet) involves Canadian researchers and national organizations working to promote healthy relationships and prevent bullying. In this paper, we provide the rationale for establishing PREVNet, a description of the work of the network, and an assessment of the success of PREVNet.…

  10. Endemicity response timelines for Plasmodium falciparum elimination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2009-01-01

    Background The scaling up of malaria control and renewed calls for malaria eradication have raised interest in defining timelines for changes in malaria endemicity. Methods The epidemiological theory for the decline in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR, the prevalence of infection) following intervention was critically reviewed and where necessary extended to consider superinfection, heterogeneous biting, and aging infections. Timelines for malaria control and elimination under different levels of intervention were then established using a wide range of candidate mathematical models. Analysis focused on the timelines from baseline to 1% and from 1% through the final stages of elimination. Results The Ross-Macdonald model, which ignores superinfection, was used for planning during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP). In models that consider superinfection, PfPR takes two to three years longer to reach 1% starting from a hyperendemic baseline, consistent with one of the few large-scale malaria control trials conducted in an African population with hyperendemic malaria. The time to elimination depends fundamentally upon the extent to which malaria transmission is interrupted and the size of the human population modelled. When the PfPR drops below 1%, almost all models predict similar and proportional declines in PfPR in consecutive years from 1% through to elimination and that the waiting time to reduce PfPR from 10% to 1% and from 1% to 0.1% are approximately equal, but the decay rate can increase over time if infections senesce. Conclusion The theory described herein provides simple "rules of thumb" and likely time horizons for the impact of interventions for control and elimination. Starting from a hyperendemic baseline, the GMEP planning timelines, which were based on the Ross-Macdonald model with completely interrupted transmission, were inappropriate for setting endemicity timelines and they represent the most optimistic scenario for

  11. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  12. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  13. The commercialization of migration.

    PubMed

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  14. NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcoxon, Rita; Thronson, Harley; Varsi, Guilio; Mueller, Robert; Regenie, Victoria; Inman, Tom; Crooke, Julie; Coulter, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Exploration and the key architecture decisions that drive the direction for those capabilities. This report is being provided to the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team for consideration in development of an architecture approach and investment strategy to support NASA future mission, programs and budget requests. In addition, it will be an excellent reference for NASA's strategic planning. A more detailed set of roadmaps at the technology and sub-capability levels are available on CD. These detailed products include key driving assumptions, capability maturation assessments, and technology and capability development roadmaps.

  15. [Return migrations in the Italian migration system: a reexamination].

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, C; Heins, F

    1996-06-01

    The authors discuss trends in return migration in Italy, with a focus on regional differences. "On a regional level, the effects of return migration are very much connected with socio-economic structure. Only highly developed and autonomous regions can absorb productive investments and changes brought about by return migration. Several southern regions--especially those with greater migration experience--have shown in the last decades a very poor socio-economic development." The study is concerned with both internal and international migration. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)

  16. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Joyceen S.

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  17. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    PubMed

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  18. IAPs and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dubrez, Laurence; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj

    2015-03-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) constitute a family of cell signaling regulators controlling several fundamental biological processes such as innate immunity, inflammation, cell death, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies indicate a function for IAPs in the modulation of invasive and migratory properties of cells. Here, we present and discuss the mechanisms whereby IAPs can control cell migration.

  19. Migration and stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    Migration and stratification are increasingly intertwined. One day soon it will be impossible to understand one without the other. Both focus on life chances. Stratification is about differential life chances - who gets what and why - and migration is about improving life chances - getting more of the good things of life. To examine the interconnections of migration and stratification, we address a mix of old and new questions, carrying out analyses newly enabled by a unique new data set on recent legal immigrants to the United States (the New Immigrant Survey). We look at immigrant processing and lost documents, depression due to the visa process, presentation of self, the race-ethnic composition of an immigrant cohort (made possible by the data for the first time since 1961), black immigration from Africa and the Americas, skin-color diversity among couples formed by U.S. citizen sponsors and immigrant spouses, and English fluency among children age 8–12 and their immigrant parents. We find, inter alia, that children of previously illegal parents are especially more likely to be fluent in English, that native-born U.S. citizen women tend to marry darker, that immigrant applicants who go through the visa process while already in the United States are more likely to have their documents lost and to suffer visa depression, and that immigration, by introducing accomplished black immigrants from Africa (notably via the visa lottery), threatens to overturn racial and skin color associations with skill. Our analyses show the mutual embeddedness of migration and stratification in the unfolding of the immigrants' and their children's life chances and the impacts on the stratification structure of the United States. PMID:26321771

  20. Pathologic tooth migration.

    PubMed

    Brunsvold, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication of moderate to severe periodontitis and is often the motivation for patients to seek periodontal therapy. In this review of the literature, available information concerning prevalence, etiology, treatment, and prevention of pathologic tooth migration is summarized. Prevalence of PTM among periodontal patients has been reported to range from 30.03% to 55.8%. A survey of the literature regarding chief complaints of periodontal patients support these high prevalence findings. The etiology of PTM appears to be multifactorial. Periodontal bone loss appears to be a major factor in the etiology of PTM. Many aspects of occlusion can contribute to abnormal migration of teeth, and more than one of those factors may be present in an individual patient. Soft tissue forces of the tongue, cheeks, and lips are known to cause tooth movement and in some situations can cause PTM. Also considered important in the etiology of PTM is pressure produced from inflammatory tissues within periodontal pockets. Because extrusion is a common form of PTM, clinical observations support the theory that eruption forces sometimes play a role in the etiology of PTM. Many oral habits have been associated with PTM which are often difficult for the therapist to detect. Most cases of severe PTM require a team approach to achieve success. Periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment are often required. Many patient variables enter into the selection of treatment for PTM. In early stages of PTM, spontaneous correction of migrated teeth sometimes occurs after periodontal therapy. Light intrusive forces are used successfully to treat extrusion and flaring forms of PTM. Based on the literature reviewed, it appears that many cases of PTM could be prevented through the early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, occlusal contributing factors, gingival enlargement, and oral habits. PMID:15948679

  1. Gender and Migration from Albania

    PubMed Central

    STECKLOV, GUY; CARLETTO, CALOGERO; AZZARRI, CARLO; DAVIS, BENJAMIN

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women’s access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system—a product of the Communist era—while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women’s migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women. PMID:21308565

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  4. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  5. Gender and migration from Albania.

    PubMed

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  6. A Wave Equation Migration Method for Receiver Function Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Wen, L.; Zheng, T.

    2004-12-01

    A wave equation based poststack depth migration method is proposed to image the crustal and upper mantle structures using teleseismic receiver functions. By utilizing a frequency-wavenumber domain one-way phase-screen propagator for wavefield extrapolation in the migration scheme, the common conversion point (CCP) stacked receiver functions are backward propagated to construct the subsurface structural images. Synthetic experiments demonstrate the validity of the migration method for a variety of laterally heterogeneous models. The migrated images show considerable improvement over the CCP images in recovering the structural features. The phase-screen propagator migration method proves to be particularly useful for imaging complex structures and deep discontinuities overlain by strong shallow anomalies, because of its capability of handling lateral velocity variations. Influences of several factors on the image quality of the poststack migration are further investigated, including inter-station spacing, noise level of the data, velocity model used in migration, and earthquake distribution (incident direction of source fields). Theoretical derivation and numerical results suggest that both the CCP stacking and the poststack migration of receiver functions need to be designed in a target-oriented way for reliable and efficient imaging, and special consideration on earthquake distribution is particularly required in designing seismic experiments if structures of large dips are present. The proposed wav equation migration scheme is applied to image the Earth's internal structures using a number of dense field data sets collected at many seismic arrays in Asia. The constructed images reveal several interesting subsurface structures of the study regions and synthetic tests indicate that those subsurface features are well resolved by the seismic data. Significant improvements of the image quality demonstrate the great potential and flexibility of the proposed migration

  7. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  8. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas. PMID:27206924

  9. Should Pneumococcal Vaccines Eliminate Nasopharyngeal Colonization?

    PubMed Central

    Swiatlo, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important human pathogen. For more than 100 years, there have been vaccine efforts to prevent pneumococcal infection. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have significantly reduced invasive disease. However, these vaccines have changed pneumococcal ecology within the human nasopharynx. We suggest that elimination of the pneumococcus from the human nasopharynx can have consequences that should be considered as the next generation of pneumococcal vaccines is developed. PMID:27222469

  10. Capability 9.2 Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrasjek, June

    2005-01-01

    Modern operational concepts require significant bandwidths and multipoint communication capabilities. Provide voice, video and data communications among vehicles moving along the surface, vehicles in suborbital transport or reconnaissance, surface elements, and home planet facilities.

  11. MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.

  12. A nonlinear adaptive method of elimination of power line interference in ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Ziarani, Alireza K; Konrad, Adalbert

    2002-06-01

    A new method of elimination of power line noise in electrocardiogram signals is presented. The proposed method employs, as its main building block, a recently developed signal processing algorithm capable of extracting a specified component of a signal and tracking its variations over time. Design considerations and performance of the proposed method are presented with the aid of computer simulations. Superior performance is observed in terms of effective elimination of noise under conditions of varying powerline interference frequency. The proposed method presents a simple and robust structure which complies with practical constraints involved in the problem such as low computational resource availability and low sampling frequency.

  13. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J.

    2007-11-15

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  14. Role of genomics in eliminating health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Meghana V; Nolan, Michael; Sprouse, Marc; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Cross, Deanna; Roby, Rhonda; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education, and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2014 Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts in research, patient care, and community outreach on the “Role of Genomics in Eliminating Health Disparities.” Rapid advances in genomics and pharmacogenomics are leading the field of medicine to use genetics and genetic risk to build personalized or individualized medicine strategies. We are at a critical juncture of ensuring such rapid advances benefit diverse populations. Relatively few forums have been organized around the theme of the role of genomics in eliminating health disparities. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Gene-Environment Interactions and Health Disparities,” “Personalized Medicine and Elimination of Health Disparities,” and “Ethics and Public Policy in the Genomic Era.” This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates, and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID:26435701

  15. The near elimination of triplets in IVF.

    PubMed

    Gerris, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In Antwerp, single embryo transfers (SET) have increased, and this change in policy has seen the incidence of singletons rise from 70 to 90%, twins drop from 25 to 10%, and triplets drop from 1-2% to none at all. At a national and regional level, changes have been much more dramatic as a result of a change in the law in 2003 mandating SET. Data show a huge increase in the number of treatment cycles and a dramatic rise in SET. Rates of twins and triplets have dropped considerably. European data indicate wide differences in the incidence of triplets between countries, varying between 0% (e.g.Slovenia, Iceland, Lithuania) and 4.4% (Hungary), but almost nothing is known about the true incidence of fetal reduction. US data indicate some decrease in triplets during recent years, but certainly nowhere near elimination. These data suggest that in some countries, IVF triplets have almost been eliminated, but the problem is masked by significant fetal reductions. Where SET is not widely used, triplets are still frequent. A correlation appears to exist between the percentage of SET cycles and the incidence of triplets. It is suggested that the solution to almost totally eliminate triplets after IVF is single embryo transfer.

  16. Self-contact elimination by membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Grant M; Yamada, Soichiro

    2013-11-19

    Mutual, homophilic cell-cell adhesion between epithelial cells is required for proper maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Whereas opposing membranes from neighboring cells rapidly assemble junctional complexes, self-contacting membranes curiously do not, suggesting that cells have the ability to prevent the maturation of self-junctions. Using a self-contact-inducing microfabricated substrate, we show that self-contacts of normal epithelial cells are rapidly eliminated by membrane fusion between two opposing plasma membranes of a single cell. This membrane fusion is most frequently observed in E-cadherin-expressing epithelial cells, but not in fibroblasts. The efficiency of self-contact elimination depends on extracellular calcium concentration and the level of E-cadherin, suggesting that E-cadherin, although not required, enhances membrane fusion efficiency by bringing opposing membranes into close apposition to one another. Additionally, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition decreases self-contact-induced membrane fusion of epithelial cells, suggesting that this fusion may be mechanically regulated through the actin-myosin network. This self-contact-induced membrane fusion is a key elimination mechanism for unwanted self-junctions and may be a feature of cell self-recognition. PMID:24191042

  17. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. In Central America, it was first discovered in 1915 in El Salvador, from where it spread northwest to Guatemala and Mexico, and southeast to Nicaragua and Costa Rica, arriving also in Honduras in the late 1950s. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) by the antimalaria services of Costa Rica prevented its spread southwards, and similar IRS programmes appear to have eliminated it from El Salvador by the late 1970s. In 1997, by resolution of the Ministers of Health of the seven Central American countries, a multinational initiative against Chagas disease (IPCA) was launched with one of the specific objectives being the elimination of R. prolixus from the region. As a result, more and more infested areas were encountered, and progressively sprayed using an IRS strategy already deployed against Triatoma infestans in the southern cone countries of South America. In 2008, Guatemala became the first of these countries to be formally certified as free of Chagas disease transmission due to R. prolixus. The other infested countries have since been similarly certified, and none of these has reported the presence of R. prolixus since June 2010. Further surveillance is required, but current evidence suggests that R. prolixus may now been eliminated from throughout the mesoamerican region, with a corresponding decline in the incidence of T. cruzi infections. PMID:22357219

  18. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. PMID:27527748

  19. SD46 Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The displays for the Materials Conference presents some of the facilities and capabilities in SD46 that can be useful to a prospective researcher from University, Academia or other government labs. Several of these already have associated personnel as principal and co-investigators on NASA peer reviewed science investigations. 1. SCN purification facility 2. ESL facility 3. Static and Dynamic magnetic field facility 4. Microanalysis facility 5. MSG Investigation - PFMI 6. Thermo physical Properties Measurement Capabilities.

  20. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  1. QALYs and the capability approach.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Richard

    2005-08-01

    This explores the applicability of Sen's capability approach to the economic evaluation of health care programmes. An individual's 'capability set' describes his freedom to choose valuable activities and states of being ('functionings'). Direct estimation and valuation of capability sets is not feasible at present. Standard preference-based methods such as willingness to pay are feasible, but problematic due to the adaptive and constructed nature of individual preferences over time and under uncertainty. An alternative is to re-interpret the QALY as a cardinal and interpersonally comparable index of the value of the individual's capability set. This approach has limitations, since the link between QALYs and capabilities is not straightforward. Nevertheless, the QALY approach is recognisable as an application of the capability approach since it pays close attention to functionings, through the use of survey-based multi-attribute health state valuation instruments, and permits conceptions of value other than the traditional utilitarian ones of choice, desire-fulfilment and happiness. Furthermore, suitably re-interpreted, it can account for (i) non-separability between health and non-health components of value; and suitably modified it can also account for (ii) process attributes of care, which may have a direct effect on non-health functionings such as comfort and dignity, and (iii) sub-group diversity in the value of the same health functionings. PMID:15693028

  2. A novel approach to prevent repeated catheter migration in a patient with a baclofen pump: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ross, Donald A; Byers, Cornelia; Hall, Timothy

    2005-05-01

    We report a novel solution to a problem of repeated catheter migration that may aid others caring for patients with catheter migration problems. Catheter migration is a frequently reported complication of intrathecal drug delivery systems. We report on an ambulatory patient with a baclofen pump for control of spasticity due to cerebral palsy and dystonia; the patient suffered repeated episodes of catheter migration. The ultimate solution to the migrations was to place a pediatric pump in the lower thoracic, paraspinal region with the catheter entering the thoracic spine directly adjacent to the pump, thereby minimizing the differential motion between the pump and the spine, which was thought to be the cause of the repeated migration. This solution has not been previously described. Paraspinal pump placement may eliminate repeated catheter migration for patients with intrathecal drug pumps.

  3. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  4. Population, desertification, and migration.

    PubMed

    Westing, A H

    1994-01-01

    When an imbalance develops between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land, the persons thereby displaced are referred to as environmental refugees. The utilization of the land beyond sustainability leads to land degradation and ultimately, desertification. The social and political impacts of long-term environmental migration can be distinguished: a) at the site of origin of the displaced persons by the residual population; b) at rural sites of destination within the nation between the new arrivals and preestablished populations; c) in the cities within the nation; d) in the nonindustrialized foreign countries; and e) in the industrialized foreign countries. In the event that an area which had previously been devoted to pastoralism is converted to agriculture, the displaced pastoralists might respond through armed rebellion. In some instances, the disenchanted urban squatters become a politically restive and even a destabilizing force, as occurred in Sudan in the 1980s, especially in Khartoum and Port Sudan. The foreign countries to which many of the displaced persons are migrating are subjected to increasing levels of migrant-induced economic, cultural, and political strains. The growing problems associated with south-to-north migration across the Mediterranean Sea have recently led France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to enter into a consultative arrangement with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. All foreign aid to the nonindustrialized countries that attempts to ameliorate the problem of desertification must adopt integrated approaches that: a) address population issues; b) support environmental education; c) provide for the protection of biodiversity; d) encourage participatory forms of local and national government; e) provide opportunities for income generation outside the livestock sector; and f) foster political security and facilitate ecogeographical (subregional) cooperation.

  5. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  6. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration". PMID:22073693

  7. Physical view on migration modes

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility. PMID:26192136

  8. Migration of Asteroidal Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Bulirsh Stoer method of integration, we investigated the migration of dust particles under the gravitational influence of all planets, radiation pressure, Poynting Robertson drag and solar wind drag for equal to 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4. For silicate particles such values of correspond to diameters equal to about 40, 9, 4, 2, and 1 microns, respectively [1]. The relative error per integration step was taken to be less than 10sup-8. Initial orbits of the particles were close to the orbits of the first numbered mainbelt asteroids.

  9. A rapid photoelectric method for reading cell migration from agarose microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Rahman, S; Morlat, J L; Leca, G; Bouin, M

    1982-08-27

    A rapid photoelectric method for reading cell migration from agarose microdroplets is described. Practically instantaneous, the method eliminates drawing and planimetry and makes feasible the use of a wide range of antigen concentrations. The results obtained are similar to those obtained by planimetry, but the photoelectric method is more sensitive. Enhancement of migration as well as inhibition were significantly demonstrated by this method. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells was found to be bizonal, with 2 peaks, one at very low antigen concentrations (10(-3) microgram/ml ovalbumin) and one at 10 microgram/ml.

  10. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N. )

    1989-03-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, (6-{sup 3}H, 4-{sup 14}C)cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely.

  11. Income expectations, rural-urban migration and employment in Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M P

    1996-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework explaining the influence of economic conditions on rural-urban migration in tropical Africa. The model explains the continued process of migration despite high levels of urban unemployment. A lengthy discussion is devoted to short-, intermediate-, and long-term policies for relieving the urban unemployment problem. It is argued that efforts must be made to reduce the differences between the expectation of urban income and real rural income. No one single policy will slow rural-to-urban migration. The author suggests policies that would eliminate factor-price distortions, restrain urban wages, redirect development toward concentrated and comprehensive programs of rural development, resettle and repatriate unemployed urban migrants, and establish capital-goods industries. The capital-goods industries would develop labor-intensive technologies for agriculture and industry. The theoretical model assumes that migrants make decisions about moving on the basis of an expected income and the expectation of an urban job. It is argued that the urban-rural income differences and the probability of securing an urban job determine the rate and extent of rural-urban migration in Africa. If the migrant has a low probability of finding regular wage employment in the short term, but expects the probability to increase over time, the migrant would make a rational decision to migrate. Policies that operate solely on urban labor demand are considered unlikely to reduce urban unemployment. This model better estimates the shadow prices of rural labor.

  12. Natural Environment Capabilities at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    The Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is integral in developing, maintaining, and investigating NASA missions such as Space Launch Systems (SLS), currently under development, as well as many NASA and other agency satellite missions. We present the space environment capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at MSFC. These in-house capabilities include model development, analysis of space and terrestrial related data, spacecraft charging anomaly investigations, surface charging modeling including Nascap-2k, space environment definition and radiation parts assessment. All aspects of space and terrestrial design are implemented with the goal of devising missions to be successful at launch and in the space environment of LEO, polar, GEO, and interplanetary orbits. In this poster, we show examples of recent applications of branch capabilities to NASA missions.

  13. Waveguide arrangements based on adiabatic elimination

    DOEpatents

    Suchowski, Haim; Mrejen, Michael; Wu, Chihhui; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-13

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanophotonics. In one aspect, an arrangement of waveguides includes a substrate and three waveguides. Each of the three waveguides may be a linear waveguide. A second waveguide is positioned between a first waveguide and a third waveguide. The dimensions and positions of the first, the second, and the third waveguides are specified to substantially eliminate coupling between the first waveguide and the third waveguide over a distance of about 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters along lengths of the first waveguide, the second waveguide, and the third waveguide.

  14. Should mandatory energy reporting be eliminated

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.

    1981-08-01

    Energy users report problems with the Industrial Reporting Program (IRP), a joint voluntary energy-efficiency program which began in 1975. Since energy-intensive industries were already organizing voluntary reporting, the new program required unnecessary expenditures. The Reagan administration's plan to eliminate the program by not funding it is opposed by many energy managers who want the data collected to help them with their management programs. Their interest is primarily in a data base because energy costs provide adequate incentives to conserve. They also want interaction (preferably voluntary) between industry and goverment on efficiency-improvement opportunities. (DCK)

  15. Live cell imaging analysis of the epigenetic regulation of the human endothelial cell migration at single-cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunhong; Yu, Zhilong; Zhou, Ying; Tao, Louis; Pang, Yuhong; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiannian; Qiu, Haiwei; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Zitian; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in cell migration. Although many methods have been developed to measure the motility of mammalian cells, accurate quantitative assessments of the migration speed of individual cells remain a major challenge. It is difficult for conventional scratch assays to differentiate proliferation from migration during the so-called wound-healing processes because of the long experimental time required. In addition, it is also challenging to create identical conditions for evaluating cell migration by conventional methods. We developed a microfluidic device with precisely created blanks allowing for robust and reproducible cell migration inside accurately-controlled microenvironments to study the regulatory effect of the epigenetic regulator histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on cell migration. Through analyzing time-lapse imaging of the cells migrating into individual blank regions, we can measure the migration speed parameter for human primary cells within a few hours, eliminating the confounding effect of cell proliferation. We also developed an automatic image analysis and a numeric model-based data fitting to set up an integrated cell migration analysis system at single-cell resolution. Using this system, we measured the motility of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the migration speed reduction due to the silencing of HDAC7 and various other genes. We showed that the migration behaviour of these human primary cells are clearly regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, demonstrating the great potential of this accurate and robust assay in the fields of quantitatively migration studies and high-throughput screening.

  16. Process migration in UNIX environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1988-01-01

    To support process migration in UNIX environments, the main problem is how to encapsulate the location dependent features of the system in such a way that a host independent virtual environment is maintained by the migration handlers on the behalf of each migrated process. An object-oriented approach is used to describe the interaction between a process and its environment. More specifically, environmental objects were introduced in UNIX systems to carry out the user-environment interaction. The implementation of the migration handlers is based on both the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion.

  17. Elimination of frequency noise from groundwater measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.M.; Bryce, R.W.; Strait, S.R.; Yeatman, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Groundwater response to atmospheric fluctuation can be effectively removed from downhole-pressure records using the systematic approach. The technique is not as successful for removal of earth tides, due to a probable discrepancy between the actual earth tide and the theoretical earth tide. The advantage of the systematic technique is that a causative relationship is established for each component of the pressure response removed. This concept of data reduction is easily understood and well accepted. The disadvantage is that a record of the stress causing the pressure fluctuation must be obtained. This may be done by monitoring or synthesizing the stress. Frequency analysis offers a simpler way to eliminate the undesirable hydrologic fluctuations from the downhole pressure. Frequency analysis may prove to be impractical if the fluctuations being removed have broadband characteristics. A combination of the two techniques, such as eliminating the atmospheric effect with the systematic method and the earth-tide fluctuations with the frequency method, is the most effective and efficient approach.

  18. Auditing reduces accidents by eliminating unsafe practices

    SciTech Connect

    Collinge, J.A. )

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that auditing for unsafe acts can remove the basic causes of accidents through the adoption of a proactive approach to safety. The process of auditing for unsafe acts is aimed at eliminating unsafe situations and practices by a method of constructive dialogue between managers and workers. One of the major objectives of the process is to change the cultural attitude toward safety so that it is viewed as a personal responsibility of each member of management, supervision, and the workforce. In large organizations it is common to see policy statements concerning the health and safety of employees and people associated with the business, such as contractors. In recent years, such organizations have also placed emphasis on statements related to protecting the environment. Policy guidelines for Shell companies are unambiguous: Health. The companies conduct business in such a way as to avoid harm to the health of employees and others, and to promote, as appropriate, the health of employees. Safety. Companies work on the principle that all injuries should be prevented and actively promote the high standards of safety consciousness and discipline that this principle demands. Environment. Companies pursue progressive reductions of emissions, effluents, and discharges of waste materials known to have a negative impact on the environment, with the ultimate aim of eliminating those discharges.

  19. Eliminating Cell Broadband Engine™ DMA Buffer Overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Masana

    This paper presents effective and efficient implementation techniques for DMA buffer overflow elimination on the Cell Broadband Engine™ (Cell/B.E.) processor. In the Cell/B.E. programming model, application developers manually issue DMA commands to transfer data from the system memory to the local memories of the Cell/B.E. cores. Although this allows us to eliminate cache misses or cache invalidation overhead, it requires careful management of the buffer arrays for DMA in the application programs to prevent DMA buffer overflows. To guard against DMA buffer overflows, we introduced safe DMA handling functions for the applications to use. To improve and minimize the performance overhead of buffer overflow prevention, we used three different optimization techniques that take advantage of SIMD operations: branch-hint-based optimizations, jump-table-based optimizations and self-modifying-based optimizations. Our optimized implementation prevents all DMA buffer overflows with minimal performance overhead, only 2.93% average slowdown in comparison to code without the buffer overflow protection.

  20. The elimination of Chagas' disease from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    MASSAD, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY On 9 June 2006 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) presented the Minister of Health of Brazil with the International Elimination of Transmission of Chagas' Disease Certificate. This act was the culmination of an intensive process that began in 1991 with the Southern Cone Initiative, a joint agreement between the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru, to control Chagas' disease by the elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans. This initiative has been highly successful and the prevalence area of the vector diminished rapidly in the last years. As a consequence, the current seroprevalence in children aged between 0 and 5 years is of the order of 10−5, a clear indication that transmission, if it is occurring, is only accidental. In this review I calculate the basic reproduction number, R0, for Chagas' disease and demonstrate that its relatively low value (1·25) explains why vectorial transmission was interrupted relatively easily. In addition, I used a mathematical model to forecast how long the remaining cases of the disease, as well as the additional vertically transmitted cases will last. PMID:18053273

  1. Demonstration of new PCSD capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    The new, more flexible and more friendly graphics capabilities to be available in later releases of the Pilot Climate Data System were demonstrated. The LIMS-LAMAT data set was chosen to illustrate these new capabilities. Pseudocolor and animation were used to represent the third and fourth dimensions, expanding the analytical capabilities available through the traditional two-dimensional x-y plot. In the new version, variables for the axes are chosen by scrolling through viable selections. This scrolling feature is a function of the new user interface customization. The new graphics are extremely user friendly and should free the scientist to look at data and converse with it, without doing any programming. The system is designed to rapidly plot any variable versus any other variable and animate by any variable. Any one plot in itself is not extraordinary; however, the fact that a user can generate the plots instead of a programmer distinguishes the graphics capabilities of the PCDS from other software packages. In addition, with the new CDF design, the system will become more generic, and the new graphics will become much more rigorous in the area of correlative studies.

  2. Resistor pulse-handling capability

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, L.E.

    1981-04-01

    Methods for calculating pulse-handling capabilities of various resistor types are described. The work represents a compilation of studies derived from various sources, as indicated in the bibliography. The results indicate that resistors may be subjected to short-duration pulses exceeding their rated powers without sustaining permanent damage.

  3. Research for new UAV capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Leadabrand, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses research for new Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) capabilities. Findings indicate that UAV performance could be greatly enhanced by modest research. Improved sensors and communications enhance near term cost effectiveness. Improved engines, platforms, and stealth improve long term effectiveness.

  4. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  5. Capability and Learning to Choose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBmann, Ortrud

    2009-01-01

    The Capability Approach (henceforth CA) is in the first place an approach to the evaluation of individual well-being and social welfare. Many disciplines refer to the CA, first and foremost welfare economics, development studies and political philosophy. Educational theory was not among the first disciplines that took notice of the CA, but has a…

  6. Wavefront construction Kirchhoff migration with ray-amplitude corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, Michael C.; Hildebrand, S. T.; Huang, L.; Alde, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Kirchhoff migration using ray tracing travel times has been a popular imaging method for many years. There are significant limitations in the ability of Kirchhoff migration using only first arrivals to reliably image regions of complex structure. Thus, new methods for imaging have been sought. One approach for improving imaging capability is to use ray tracing methods that allow the calculation of multiple-valued travel time tables to be used in migration. Additional improvements in ray-based imaging methods may be obtained by including amplitudes and phases of rays calculated using some ray tracing approach. One approach for calculating multiple-valued travel time tables along with estimates of amplitudes and phases is the use of wavefront construction ray tracing. We introduce our wavefront construction-based migration algorithm and present some example images obtained using the method. We compare the images obtained with those obtained using a dual-domain wave-equation migration method that we call Extended Local Rytov Fourier migration method.

  7. Gas chromatographic identification of interferences and their elimination in measuring total reduced sulfur gases

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, T.L.C. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports on a selective filter that is capable of eliminating positive interference in the coulometric measurement of ambient concentrations of total reduced sulfur gases which has been successfully developed and field tested. Most of the interference was found to be caused by terpenes, which react with bromine, the active reagent in the coulometric titrators. Terpenes are given off by conifer trees in the natural environment as well as emitted in pulping and other wood-handling and lumber manufacturing operations.

  8. Kirchhoff migration without phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Patrick; Guevara Vasquez, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    We present a simple, frequency domain, preprocessing step to Kirchhoff migration that allows the method to image scatterers when the wave field phase information is lost at the receivers, and only intensities are measured. The resulting imaging method does not require knowing the phases of the probing field or manipulating the phase of the wave field at the receivers. In a regime where the scattered field is small compared to the probing field, the problem of recovering the full-waveform scattered field from intensity data can be formulated as an embarrassingly simple least-squares problem. Although this only recovers the projection (on a known subspace) of the full-waveform scattered field, we show that, for high frequencies, this projection gives Kirchhoff images asymptotically identical to the images obtained with full waveform data. Our method can also be used when the source is modulated by a Gaussian process and autocorrelations are measured at an array of receivers.

  9. Chandra Contaminant Migration Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; O'Dell, Steve L.

    2014-01-01

    High volatility cleans OBFs and low volatility produces a high build-up at OBF centers; only a narrow (factor of 2 or less) volatility range produces the observed spatial pattern. Simulations predict less accumulation above outer S-array CCDs; this may explain, in part, gratings/imaging C/MnL discrepancies. Simulations produce a change in center accumulation due solely to DH heater ON/OFF temperature change; but a 2nd contaminant and perhaps a change in source rate is also required. Emissivity E may depend on thickness; another model parameter. Additional physics, e.g., surface migration, is not warranted at this time. At t approx. 14 yrs, model produced 0.22 grams of contaminant, 0.085 grams remaining within ACIS cavity; 7 percent (6mg) on OBFs.

  10. Migration and women's health.

    PubMed

    Adanu, Richard M K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2009-08-01

    Women have been migrating at similar rates to men for the past 40 years, and comprised about half of all migrants in 2005. Women and children are most affected by displacement as a result of wars and human trafficking. In some cases, the health of female migrants is improved via integration into better health systems in the host country. More often, however, the health of female migrants is affected negatively. Women are doubly disadvantaged because they are discriminated against as women and as migrants. Female migrants are also highly vulnerable to acts of sexual abuse, rape, and violence. This is especially true for women in refugee camps, whose reproductive health needs are often overlooked. To improve the health of female migrants it is important to develop and implement policies that recognize and insist on the respect of the rights of migrants. PMID:19539929

  11. Migration issues important -- Mongolia.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Migration and urbanization are issues that require increasing attention in Mongolia. Mr. Sodov Sonin, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, stated at the Forum that fertility has declined, but mortality, in particular the mortality of children and mothers, is still too high. In addition, there is a significant gap between the knowledge of and behaviors concerning reproductive health, which is one of the causes of the country's high abortion rates. However, on the positive side, literacy is high among women--70% of the students in Mongolia's higher educational institutions are female and the State recognizes equal rights for women. Moreover, programs that promote health and education, including the National Program on Reproductive Health, are being implemented; but despite all these, Mongolia still lacks the human and financial resources to implement the ICPD Program of Action satisfactorily. The country also needs dramatic changes in mind-set and in terms of capacity building, given its ongoing socioeconomic transition. PMID:12295512

  12. Lewis base mediated β-elimination and Lewis acid mediated insertion reactions of disilazido zirconium compounds.

    PubMed

    Yan, KaKing; Duchimaza Heredia, Juan J; Ellern, Arkady; Gordon, Mark S; Sadow, Aaron D

    2013-10-01

    The reactivity of a series of disilazido zirconocene complexes is dominated by the migration of anionic groups (hydrogen, alkyl, halide, OTf) between the zirconium and silicon centers. The direction of these migrations is controlled by the addition of two-electron donors (Lewis bases) or two-electron acceptors (Lewis acids). The cationic nonclassical [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)2](+) ([2](+)) is prepared from Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}H (1) and B(C6F5)3 or [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4], while reactions of B(C6F5)3 and Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}R (R = Me (3), Et (5), n-C3H7 (7), CH═CHSiMe3 (9)) provide a mixture of [2](+) and [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiRMe2)](+). The latter products are formed through B(C6F5)3 abstraction of a β-H and R group migration from Zr to the β-Si center. Related β-hydrogen abstraction and X group migration reactions are observed for Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)2}X (X = OTf (11), Cl (13), OMe (15), O-i-C3H7 (16)). Alternatively, addition of DMAP (DMAP = 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) to [2](+) results in coordination to a Si center and hydrogen migration to zirconium, giving the cationic complex [Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)(SiMe2DMAP)}H](+) ([19](+)). Related hydrogen migration occurs from [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiMe2OCHMe2)](+) ([18](+)) to give [Cp2Zr{N(SiMe2DMAP)(SiMe2OCHMe2)}H](+) ([22](+)), whereas X group migration is observed upon addition of DMAP to [Cp2ZrN(SiHMe2)(SiMe2X)](+) (X = OTf ([12](+)), Cl ([14](+))) to give [Cp2Zr{N(SiHMe2)(SiMe2DMAP)}X](+) (X = OTf ([26](+)), Cl ([20](+))). The species involved in these transformations are described by resonance structures that suggest β-elimination. Notably, such pathways are previously unknown in early metal amide chemistry. Finally, these migrations facilitate direct Si-H addition to carbonyls, which is proposed to occur through a pathway that previously had been reserved for later transition metal compounds.

  13. STARS DO NOT EAT THEIR YOUNG MIGRATING PLANETS: EMPIRICAL CONSTRAINTS ON PLANET MIGRATION HALTING MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Plavchan, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of ''hot Jupiters'' very close to their parent stars confirmed that Jovian planets migrate inward via several potential mechanisms. We present empirical constraints on planet migration halting mechanisms. We compute model density functions of close-in exoplanets in the orbital semi-major axis-stellar mass plane to represent planet migration that is halted via several mechanisms, including the interior 1:2 resonance with the magnetospheric disk truncation radius, the interior 1:2 resonance with the dust sublimation radius, and several scenarios for tidal halting. The models differ in the predicted power-law dependence of the exoplanet orbital semi-major axis as a function of stellar mass, and thus we also include a power-law model with the exponent as a free parameter. We use a Bayesian analysis to assess the model success in reproducing empirical distributions of confirmed exoplanets and Kepler candidates that orbit interior to 0.1 AU. Our results confirm a correlation of the halting distance with stellar mass. Tidal halting provides the best fit to the empirical distribution of confirmed Jovian exoplanets at a statistically robust level, consistent with the Kozai mechanism and the spin-orbit misalignment of a substantial fraction of hot Jupiters. We can rule out migration halting at the interior 1:2 resonances with the magnetospheric disk truncation radius and the interior 1:2 resonance with the dust disk sublimation radius, a uniform random distribution, and a distribution with no dependence on stellar mass. Note that our results do not rule out Type-II migration, but rather eliminate the role of a circumstellar disk in stopping exoplanet migration. For Kepler candidates, which have a more restricted range in stellar mass compared to confirmed planets, we are unable to discern between the tidal dissipation and magnetospheric disk truncation braking mechanisms at a statistically significant level. The power-law model favors exponents in the range of

  14. Cohort Size Effects and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.

    1983-01-01

    Explores whether changes in the size of cohorts entering the labor force affected the propensity within the U.S. labor force to migrate and socioeconomic circumstances of migrants at destination within 1965-76. Suggests that a significant reduction in the volume of migration among members of the baby boom cohort was the primary adjustment…

  15. Migration in asymmetric, random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Wang, Dong

    Migration is a key mechanism for expansion of communities. As a population migrates, it experiences a changing environment. In heterogeneous environments, rapid adaption is key to the evolutionary success of the population. In the case of human migration, environmental heterogeneity is naturally asymmetric in the North-South and East-West directions. We here consider migration in random, asymmetric, modularly correlated environments. Knowledge about the environment determines the fitness of each individual. We find that the speed of migration is proportional to the inverse of environmental change, and in particular we find that North-South migration rates are lower than East-West migration rates. Fast communication within the population of pieces of knowledge between individuals, similar to horizontal gene transfer in genetic systems, can help to spread beneficial knowledge among individuals. We show that increased modularity of the relation between knowledge and fitness enhances the rate of evolution. We investigate the relation between optimal information exchange rate and modularity of the dependence of fitness on knowledge. These results for the dependence of migration rate on heterogeneity, asymmetry, and modularity are consistent with existing archaeological facts.

  16. Africa: Setting for Human Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuba, Babacar Diop

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of African migrations can help to understand prehistoric, historical, ancient modern and contemporaneous migrations. Movements of populations were and continue to be so intense that, for some analysts, they constitute one of the dominant trends of the history and destiny of the very old continent. African and non-African states, whether…

  17. Merlin's wizardry guides cohesive migration.

    PubMed

    Zoch, Ansgar; Morrison, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Cells often migrate in tightly connected groups with coordinated movement and polarity. The collective migration of epithelial cell sheets is now shown to be mediated by a signalling axis that involves the merlin tumour-suppressor protein, the tight-junction-associated angiomotin-Rich1 complex and the Rac1 small GTPase. PMID:25720961

  18. Evaluation of static eliminators containing polonium-210

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Six static eliminators containing radioactive polonium-210 microspheres were examined subsequent to a contamination incident at a commercial facility. It was found that cracked and broken microspheres were being produced and incorporated into new devices and even as received devices were potential sources of contamination. It is shown that rough handling of the devices may initiate polonium-210 leakage during or prior to service. The epoxy binder used in the devices appears to suffer significant environmental and material damage even under ambient conditions. The effects of solvents, heat, moisture, or vibration during service may accelerate this damage. The breakdown of the epoxy binder appears to be a significant contributor to the contamination by loose microspheres or microsphere fragments.

  19. Detergent water use eliminates VOC concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article describes an electronics manufacturer`s use of detergent water and mechanical equipment (heated pressure washers and floor scrubbers) to replace volatile organic compounds. The cleaning formula development and detergent recovery system are emphasized. Detailed chemical analyses of the waste detergent water and spent filters are provided. The rationale for using detergent water; a process flow diagram for cleaning, recovery and storage; and cost considerations are summarized. At a cost of $300,000, the system removed a significant source of air emissions and enabled the plant to eliminate 30 tons of liquid hazardous waste, improve cleaning effectiveness, and save $99,000 per year in cleaning-related costs. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  1. Error-eliminating rapid ultrasonic firing

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1993-08-24

    A system for producing reliable navigation data for a mobile vehicle, such as a robot, combines multiple range samples to increase the confidence'' of the algorithm in the existence of an obstacle. At higher vehicle speed, it is crucial to sample each sensor quickly and repeatedly to gather multiple samples in time to avoid a collision. Erroneous data is rejected by delaying the issuance of an ultrasonic energy pulse by a predetermined wait-period, which may be different during alternate ultrasonic firing cycles. Consecutive readings are compared, and the corresponding data is rejected if the readings differ by more than a predetermined amount. The rejection rate for the data is monitored and the operating speed of the navigation system is reduced if the data rejection rate is increased. This is useful to distinguish and eliminate noise from the data which truly represents the existence of an article in the field of operation of the vehicle.

  2. Error-eliminating rapid ultrasonic firing

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram

    1993-08-24

    A system for producing reliable navigation data for a mobile vehicle, such as a robot, combines multiple range samples to increase the "confidence" of the algorithm in the existence of an obstacle. At higher vehicle speed, it is crucial to sample each sensor quickly and repeatedly to gather multiple samples in time to avoid a collision. Erroneous data is rejected by delaying the issuance of an ultrasonic energy pulse by a predetermined wait-period, which may be different during alternate ultrasonic firing cycles. Consecutive readings are compared, and the corresponding data is rejected if the readings differ by more than a predetermined amount. The rejection rate for the data is monitored and the operating speed of the navigation system is reduced if the data rejection rate is increased. This is useful to distinguish and eliminate noise from the data which truly represents the existence of an article in the field of operation of the vehicle.

  3. Astrocytes Control Synapse Formation, Function, and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won-Suk; Allen, Nicola J.; Eroglu, Cagla

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes, through their close associations with synapses, can monitor and alter synaptic function, thus actively controlling synaptic transmission in the adult brain. Besides their important role at adult synapses, in the last three decades a number of critical findings have highlighted the importance of astrocytes in the establishment of synaptic connectivity in the developing brain. In this article, we will review the key findings on astrocytic control of synapse formation, function, and elimination. First, we will summarize our current structural and functional understanding of astrocytes at the synapse. Then, we will discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which developing and mature astrocytes instruct the formation, maturation, and refinement of synapses. Our aim is to provide an overview of astrocytes as important players in the establishment of a functional nervous system. PMID:25663667

  4. Cell competition: how to eliminate your neighbours

    PubMed Central

    Amoyel, Marc; Bach, Erika A.

    2014-01-01

    A conventional view of development is that cells cooperate to build an organism. However, based on studies of Drosophila, it has been known for years that viable cells can be eliminated by their neighbours through a process termed cell competition. New studies in mammals have revealed that this process is universal and that many factors and mechanisms are conserved. During cell competition, cells with lower translation rates or those with lower levels of proteins involved in signal transduction, polarity and cellular growth can survive in a homogenous environment but are killed when surrounded by cells of higher fitness. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field as well as the mechanistic steps involved in this phenomenon, which have shed light on how and why cell competition exists in developing and adult organisms. PMID:24550108

  5. Targeting Human Transmission Biology for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Buckee, Caroline; Marti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, despite decades of public health efforts. The recent commitment by many endemic countries to eliminate malaria marks a shift away from programs aimed at controlling disease burden towards one that emphasizes reducing transmission of the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gametocytes, the only developmental stage of malaria parasites able to infect mosquitoes, have remained understudied, as they occur in low numbers, do not cause disease, and are difficult to detect in vivo by conventional methods. Here, we review the transmission biology of P. falciparum gametocytes, featuring important recent discoveries of genes affecting parasite commitment to gametocyte formation, microvesicles enabling parasites to communicate with each other, and the anatomical site where immature gametocytes develop. We propose potential parasite targets for future intervention and highlight remaining knowledge gaps. PMID:26086192

  6. Lean for Government: Eliminating the Seven Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2012-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and a slow economy, it is becoming increasingly important for all government agencies to become more efficient. Citizens expect and deserve efficient and effective services from federal, state and local government agencies. One of the best methods to improve efficiency and eliminate waste is to institute the business process improvement methodologies known collectively as Lean; however, with reduced budgets, it may not be possible to train everyone in Lean or to engage the services of a trained consultant. It is possible, however, to raise awareness of the "Seven Wastes" of Lean in each employee, and encourage them to identify areas for improvement. Management commitment is vital to the success of these initiatives, and it is also important to develop the right metrics that will track the success of these changes.

  7. Eliminating iodine deficiency: obstacles and their removal.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Fagela-Domingo, Carmelita

    2008-12-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a global concern for developing countries and some industrialised countries. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation, posing a threat to the social and economic development of countries. Initiatives were developed and instituted to accelerate progress to achieve the goal of universal salt iodisation (USI). However, these efforts were not successful in eliminating iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in some countries. Every year, 50 million children are born without the protection that iodine offers to the growing brain and body and about 18 million suffer some significant degree of mental impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and non-governmental organisations assist to ensure that populations at risk have access to iodised salt. This paper will review the highlights of iodine deficiency and present the experiences in the various countries in Asia, i.e. assessments of the situation, action plans, and obstacles to implementation. PMID:19904447

  8. Human-Centered Design Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  9. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  10. Improving the RPC rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Iuppa, R.; Liberti, B.; Paolozzi, L.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.; Toppi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the basis of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  11. Elimination of tilmicosin in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Atef, M; Abo el-Sooud, K; Nahed, E; Tawfik, M

    1999-07-01

    Tilmicosin was injected subcutaneously to lactating ewes once at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. to determine its plasma, milk, urine and ruminal juice concentrations. Tilmicosin could be detected in all those fluids 30 minutes after injection. Milk and urine concentrations were higher than those of plasma and ruminal juice. The drug was detectable in milk, urine and plasma for 9, 4 and 3 days after injection, respectively. No amount of tilmicosin could be detected in ruminal juice 12 hours following administration. The mean peak concentration of tilmicosin in plasma and milk (Cmax) were 1.29 and 9.5 micrograms ml-1 and were obtained at (Tmax) 5.235 and 15.093 hours, respectively. The drug was slowly eliminated from plasma and milk as indicated by its long half-life (t1/2el) of 15.4 and 26.2 hours, respectively. The mean binding of tilmicosin to plasma and milk proteins in vitro was 16.8% and 26.8%, respectively. The drug was not bound to ruminal juice at any extent. The rate of tilmicosin renal clearance revealed that it was correspondingly increased with higher blood concentrations. While creatinine clearance showed no significant change after tilmicosin administration. The ratio (fractional clearance) between tilmicosin renal clearance to creatinine clearance was less than one indicating that the glomerular filtration is the main pathway of elimination through kidneys. The rate of ruminal gas fermentation in ewes was inhibited after subcutaneous injection of tilmicosin at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. The tested samples taken at different time intervals from the rumen of ewes showed a subsequent reduction in the rate of fermentation as compared to control samples. The reduction was correspondingly increased with the increase of tilmicosin concentration in ruminal juice and returned to normal thereafter.

  12. Diamond Machining Applications And Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Roland J.

    1983-12-01

    Aspheric surface generation and precision machining have been important technologies at Hughes Optical Products, Inc. (formerly Optical Division, Bell & Howell Company) for over twenty years. Present machining capabilities and supporting services which are available on a custom basis are described. A variety of applications of diamond machining are illustrated, involving not only the usual reflective materials such as aluminum, copper, and electroless nickel but also such IR refractive materials as germanium, silicon, and chalcogenide glasses.

  13. 32nm overlay improvement capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Brad; Huang, Kevin; O'Brien, Kelly; Tien, David; Tsai, Frank; Minvielle, Anna; Singh, Lovejeet; Schefske, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The industry is facing a major challenge looking forward on the technology roadmap with respect to overlay control. Immersion lithography has established itself as the POR for 45nm and for the next few nodes. As the gap closes between scanner capability and device requirements new methodologies need to be taken into consideration. Double patterning lithography is an approach that's being considered for 32 and below, but it creates very strict demands for overlay performance. The fact that a single layer device will need to be patterned using two sequential single processes creates a strong coupling between the 1st and 2nd exposure. The coupling effect during the double patterning process results in extremely tight tolerances for overlay error and scanner capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore a new modeling method to improve lithography performance for the 32nm node. Not necessarily unique for double patterning, but as a general approach to improve overlay performance regardless of which patterning process is implemented. We will achieve this by performing an in depth source of variance analysis of current scanner performance and project the anticipated improvements from our new modeling approach. Since the new modeling approach will involve 2nd and 3rd order corrections we will also provide and analysis that outlines current metrology capabilities and sampling optimizations to further expand the opportunities of an efficient implementation of such approach.

  14. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  15. Neuritin 1 promotes neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Zito, Arianna; Cartelli, Daniele; Cappelletti, Graziella; Cariboni, Anna; Andrews, William; Parnavelas, John; Poletti, Angelo; Galbiati, Mariarita

    2014-01-01

    Neuritin 1 (Nrn1 or cpg15-1) is an activity-dependent protein involved in synaptic plasticity during brain development, a process that relies upon neuronal migration. By analyzing Nrn1 expression, we found that it is highly expressed in a mouse model of migrating immortalized neurons (GN11 cells), but not in a mouse model of non-migrating neurons (GT1-7 cells). We thus hypothesized that Nrn1 might control neuronal migration. By using complementary assays, as Boyden's microchemotaxis, scratch-wounding and live cell imaging, we found that GN11 cell migration is enhanced when Nrn1 is overexpressed and decreased when Nrn1 is silenced. The effects of Nrn1 in promoting neuronal migration have been then confirmed ex vivo, on rat cortical interneurons, by Boyden chamber assays and focal electroporation of acute embryonic brain slices. Furthermore, we found that Nrn1 level modulation affects GN11 cell morphology. The process is also paralleled by Nrn1-induced α-tubulin post-translational modifications, a well-recognized marker of microtubule stability. Altogether, the data demonstrate a novel function of Nrn1 in promoting migration of neuronal cells and indicate that Nrn1 levels impact on microtubule stability. PMID:23212301

  16. Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. Migration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I

    1998-01-01

    This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.

  17. Migration of dispersive GPR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, M.H.; Oden, C.P.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Electrical conductivity and dielectric and magnetic relaxation phenomena cause electromagnetic propagation to be dispersive in earth materials. Both velocity and attenuation may vary with frequency, depending on the frequency content of the propagating energy and the nature of the relaxation phenomena. A minor amount of velocity dispersion is associated with high attenuation. For this reason, measuring effects of velocity dispersion in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data is difficult. With a dispersive forward model, GPR responses to propagation through materials with known frequency-dependent properties have been created. These responses are used as test data for migration algorithms that have been modified to handle specific aspects of dispersive media. When either Stolt or Gazdag migration methods are modified to correct for just velocity dispersion, the results are little changed from standard migration. For nondispersive propagating wavefield data, like deep seismic, ensuring correct phase summation in a migration algorithm is more important than correctly handling amplitude. However, the results of migrating model responses to dispersive media with modified algorithms indicate that, in this case, correcting for frequency-dependent amplitude loss has a much greater effect on the result than correcting for proper phase summation. A modified migration is only effective when it includes attenuation recovery, performing deconvolution and migration simultaneously.

  18. The Capabilities of Space Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two years the U.S. space station program has evolved to a three-phased international program, with the first phase consisting of the use of the U.S. Space Shuttle and the upgrading and use of the Russian Mir Space Station, and the second and third phases consisting of the assembly and use of the new International Space Station. Projected capabilities for research, and plans for utilization, have also evolved and it has been difficult for those not directly involved in the design and engineering of these space stations to learn and understand their technical details. The Committee on the Space Station of the National Research Council, with the concurrence of NASA, undertook to write this short report in order to provide concise and objective information on space stations and platforms -- with emphasis on the Mir Space Station and International Space Station -- and to supply a summary of the capabilities of previous, existing, and planned space stations. In keeping with the committee charter and with the task statement for this report, the committee has summarized the research capabilities of five major space platforms: the International Space Station, the Mir Space Station, the Space Shuttle (with a Spacelab or Spacehab module in its cargo bay), the Space Station Freedom (which was redesigned to become the International Space Station in 1993 and 1994), and Skylab. By providing the summary, together with brief descriptions of the platforms, the committee hopes to assist interested readers, including scientists and engineers, government officials, and the general public, in evaluating the utility of each system to meet perceived user needs.

  19. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    abstract Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic

  20. Mapping internal connectivity through human migration in malaria endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bird, Tom J; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Pezzulo, Carla; Tejedor, Natalia; Waldock, Ian C; Sadler, Jason D; Garcia, Andres J; Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility continues to increase in terms of volumes and reach, producing growing global connectivity. This connectivity hampers efforts to eliminate infectious diseases such as malaria through reintroductions of pathogens, and thus accounting for it becomes important in designing global, continental, regional, and national strategies. Recent works have shown that census-derived migration data provides a good proxy for internal connectivity, in terms of relative strengths of movement between administrative units, across temporal scales. To support global malaria eradication strategy efforts, here we describe the construction of an open access archive of estimated internal migration flows in endemic countries built through pooling of census microdata. These connectivity datasets, described here along with the approaches and methods used to create and validate them, are available both through the WorldPop website and the WorldPop Dataverse Repository. PMID:27529469

  1. Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Renren; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qingxiao; Han, Yu; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan; Liu, Xiaogang

    2011-10-23

    Photon upconversion is promising for applications such as biological imaging, data storage or solar cells. Here, we have investigated upconversion processes in a broad range of gadolinium-based nanoparticles of varying composition. We show that by rational design of a core-shell structure with a set of lanthanide ions incorporated into separated layers at precisely defined concentrations, efficient upconversion emission can be realized through gadolinium sublattice-mediated energy migration for a wide range of lanthanide activators without long-lived intermediary energy states. Furthermore, the use of the core-shell structure allows the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. This effect enables fine-tuning of upconversion emission through trapping of the migrating energy by the activators. Indeed, the findings described here suggest a general approach to constructing a new class of luminescent materials with tunable upconversion emissions by controlled manipulation of energy transfer within a nanoscopic region.

  2. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  3. Determining your organization's 'risk capability'.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Bill; Hancock, Melinda

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of a provider's level of risk capability should focus on three key elements: Business intelligence, including sophisticated analytical models that can offer insight into the expected cost and quality of care for a given population. Clinical enterprise maturity, marked by the ability to improve health outcomes and to manage utilization and costs to drive change. Revenue transformation, emphasizing the need for a revenue cycle platform that allows for risk acceptance and management and that provides incentives for performance against defined objectives. PMID:24851456

  4. Population commission discusses international migration.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  5. Hardware Development of Bubble Migration Unit for Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Cui, H. L.; Duan, L.; Kang, Q.

    Since Young et al 1959 first investigated on thermocapillary motion of bubbles or drops with their linear YGB model the foundational studies have been made from almost every aspects When a bubble or droplet was introduced into a fluid with temperature gradient the migration of bubble or droplet would be induced by interfacial tension gradient On the earth the movement is driven by the combination of the buoyancy and interfacial tension The interfacial tension driven motion is masked by the gravity The space experiment is an opportunity to eliminate the gravitational effect A space experiments were arranged to study isolated bubble migration and interaction between bubbles on board the Chinese 22nd recovery satellite The space experiments were conducted successfully in the autumn of 2005 This paper presents the Bubble Migration Unit BMU in the space experiment BMU consists of test cell of migration power supply temperature measurement and control system fluid management bubble generation motor service thermo expansion chamber optical diagnostics setup and image record system etc The dimension of the rectangular test cell is 70mm in height and a square cross section of 40 40mm The cell is filled with Shin Etsu 5cS silicon oil as continuous phase The viewing windows were clamped by two aluminum blocks The resistor heating film and Peltier elements were mounted on the blocks to actuate heating and cooling respectively A stable temperature gradient was established between the top and the bottom blocks

  6. Grating lobe elimination in steerable parametric loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2011-02-01

    In the past two decades, the majority of research on the parametric loudspeaker has concentrated on the nonlinear modeling of acoustic propagation and pre-processing techniques to reduce nonlinear distortion in sound reproduction. There are, however, very few studies on directivity control of the parametric loudspeaker. In this paper, we propose an equivalent circular Gaussian source array that approximates the directivity characteristics of the linear ultrasonic transducer array. By using this approximation, the directivity of the sound beam from the parametric loudspeaker can be predicted by the product directivity principle. New theoretical results, which are verified through measurements, are presented to show the effectiveness of the delay-and-sum beamsteering structure for the parametric loudspeaker. Unlike the conventional loudspeaker array, where the spacing between array elements must be less than half the wavelength to avoid spatial aliasing, the parametric loudspeaker can take advantage of grating lobe elimination to extend the spacing of ultrasonic transducer array to more than 1.5 wavelengths in a typical application.

  7. Elimination of formate production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rydzak, Thomas; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-07-11

    We study the ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly degrade cellulose and ferment resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol makes it a promising platform organism for cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Currently, however, ethanol yield are far below theoretical maximum due to branched product pathways that divert carbon and electrons towards formate, H2, lactate, acetate, and secreted amino acids. To redirect carbon and electron flux away from formate, pyruvate:formate lyase (pfl) and respective PFL-activating enzyme were deleted. Formate production in the resulting Δpfl strain was eliminated and acetate production decreased by 50% on both complex and defined medium. Growth ratemore » of Δpfl decreased by 2.9-fold on defined medium and diauxic growth was observed on complex medium. Supplementation of defined medium with 2 mM formate restored Δpfl growth rate to 80% of the parent strain. Finally, we discuss the role of pfl in metabolic engineering strategies and C1 metabolism.« less

  8. Eliminating poverty will help women most.

    PubMed

    Short, C

    1997-01-01

    It is both possible and affordable to eliminate poverty. It is also necessary to promote peaceful existence in the next century and to reduce population pressure. A key to poverty reduction is to increase equality between men and women. Women must be given access to reproductive health services and care so that they can bear their children safely and protect themselves from infection. The maternal mortality risk in Africa far exceeds that in developed countries, and many more women suffer permanent disability from child birth. At least 120 million have an unmet need for contraception, and more than 90% of AIDS cases occur among the impoverished and marginalized population of developing countries. In addition to meeting the reproductive health needs of men and women, the needs of youth must be met through coherent and coordinated efforts that support the work of all partners in development according to an agreed upon agenda crafted by developing countries. The priorities must be to 1) increase access to reproductive health information, services, and commodities and 2) to minimize the need for abortion while recognizing that women should be able to make their own moral choices and to obtain a safe abortion. The goals of the international development community for 2015 are to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty, to ensure reproductive health for all, and to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality.

  9. Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers

    DOEpatents

    Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

    1992-06-09

    An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera employing a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image sensor is disclosed. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register while the decaying image on the phosphor being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period, occurring after the phosphor image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers. Image charge is then transferred from the photosites and to the vertical registers and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers and, and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites. 3 figs.

  10. Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers

    DOEpatents

    Turko, Bojan T.; Yates, George J.

    1992-01-01

    An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera (10) employing a charge coupled device (CCD) (12) as an image sensor. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera (10) prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period (76) for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register (28) while the decaying image on the phosphor (39) being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period (78), occurring after the phosphor (39) image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers (32). Image charge is then transferred from the photosites (36) and (38) to the vertical registers (32) and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera (10) to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers (28) and (32), and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites (36) and (37).

  11. NASTRAN migration to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Gordon C.; Turner, Horace Q.

    1990-01-01

    COSMIC/NASTRAN, as it is supported and maintained by COSMIC, runs on four main-frame computers - CDC, VAX, IBM and UNIVAC. COSMIC/NASTRAN on other computers, such as CRAY, AMDAHL, PRIME, CONVEX, etc., is available commercially from a number of third party organizations. All these computers, with their own one-of-a-kind operating systems, make NASTRAN machine dependent. The job control language (JCL), the file management, and the program execution procedure of these computers are vastly different, although 95 percent of NASTRAN source code was written in standard ANSI FORTRAN 77. The advantage of the UNIX operating system is that it has no machine boundary. UNIX is becoming widely used in many workstations, mini's, super-PC's, and even some main-frame computers. NASTRAN for the UNIX operating system is definitely the way to go in the future, and makes NASTRAN available to a host of computers, big and small. Since 1985, many NASTRAN improvements and enhancements were made to conform to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. A major UNIX migration effort was incorporated into COSMIC NASTRAN 1990 release. As a pioneer work for the UNIX environment, a version of COSMIC 89 NASTRAN was officially released in October 1989 for DEC ULTRIX VAXstation 3100 (with VMS extensions). A COSMIC 90 NASTRAN version for DEC ULTRIX DECstation 3100 (with RISC) is planned for April 1990 release. Both workstations are UNIX based computers. The COSMIC 90 NASTRAN will be made available on a TK50 tape for the DEC ULTRIX workstations. Previously in 1988, an 88 NASTRAN version was tested successfully on a SiliconGraphics workstation.

  12. [Oxyuriasis and prehistoric migrations].

    PubMed

    Araújo, A; Ferreira, L F

    1995-01-01

    Parasite findings in archeological material have made it possible to trace the dispersion of infectious agents and their human hosts in ancient times. These findings allow us to re-examine theories proposed at the beginning of the century concerning transpacific contacts that Asian populations may have had with South America. This has been the case, for example, with hookworm eggs found in archeological material dating up to 7,000 years before present. Because of the increase in scientific production in this area, it has now become necessary to undertake syntheses that assess the state of the art and propose workable paleoepidemological models of the prehistoric dispersion of human parasitoses. Based on findings of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in archeological material in the Americas, the present study is an effort in this direction. Unlike the hookworm, the pinworm does not require a soil cycle in order to be transmitted from one host to another, thereby meaning that its persistence in a given human population does not depend on climatic conditions. Thus, it could have been brought from the old to the new continent, possibly by human migrations across the Bering Strait. This may explain the greater geographical dispersion and dissemination of these findings in North America from 10,000 yrs B.P. till today. In South America, on the other hand, archeological findings have only confirmed existence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs within the Andean region, with findings located specifically in Chile and northern Argentina. Although a large number of samples have been examined, no such eggs have been found in coprolites in Brazil. The paper discusses models that account for the known distribution of this parasitosis in prehistoric populations. PMID:11625244

  13. Geologic migration potentials of technetium-99 and neptunium-237.

    PubMed

    Bondietti, E A; Francis, C W

    1979-03-30

    Relatively mobile TcO(+)(-) and NpO(2)(+) can be chemically reduced to less soluble oxidation states in the presence of igneous rocks, as predicted by oxidation-reduction measurements. Current risk assessments, which consider technetium and neptunium as potentially capable of migrating from high-level radioactive waste repositories, may be overestimating their potential hazard to the public since the Fe(II) content of many subsurface waters may maintain these elements in less soluble oxidation states.

  14. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  15. Nonequilibrium migration in human history.

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, J

    1999-01-01

    A nonequilibrium migration model is proposed and applied to genetic data from humans. The model assumes symmetric migration among all possible pairs of demes and that the number of demes is large. With these assumptions it is straightforward to allow for changes in demography, and here a single abrupt change is considered. Under the model this change is identical to a change in the ancestral effective population size and might be caused by changes in deme size, in the number of demes, or in the migration rate. Expressions for the expected numbers of sites segregating at particular frequencies in a multideme sample are derived. A maximum-likelihood analysis of independent polymorphic restriction sites in humans reveals a decrease in effective size. This is consistent with a change in the rates of migration among human subpopulations from ancient low levels to present high ones. PMID:10581291

  16. Correctness criteria for process migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

  17. Homeward bound: Yemeni return migration.

    PubMed

    Colton, N A

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the return migration of Yemenis from Saudi Arabia during the period 1970-1989. "Through the use of original, empirical data collected in Yemen, this article sheds light on who these returning migrants are, where they have come from, and what sort of future awaits them.... The survey conducted on return migration was administered in the winter and spring of 1989 in a region of North Yemen called al-Hujariyya."

  18. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  19. Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Sean

    2015-01-01

    While at the KSC, I was given the opportunity of assisting the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) specifically the Propellant Transfer System (PTS) lead by my mentor, Brian Nufer. While waiting to test different components in the PTS, I was able to assist with testing for the Hose Management Assembly (HMA) and was able to work on a simulation in Labview. For the HMA, I was able to help with testing of a coating as well as to help test the durability of the pinch rollers in space. In Labview, I experimented with building a simulation for the PTS, to show where fluids and gases were flowing depending on which valves in the PTS were opened. Not all of the integrated parts required assembly level testing, which allowed me to test these parts individually by myself and document the results. I was also able to volunteer to assist project NEO, allowing me to gain some knowledge of cryogenic fluid systems.

  20. Integrated Urban Dispersion Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2003-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for developing a detailed understanding of three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). The accurate and timely prediction of the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous materials in densely populated urban areas is a critical homeland and national security need for emergency preparedness, risk assessment, and vulnerability studies. The main challenges in high-fidelity numerical modeling of urban dispersion are the accurate prediction of peak concentrations, spatial extent and temporal evolution of harmful levels of hazardous materials, and the incorporation of detailed structural geometries. Current computational tools do not include all the necessary elements to accurately represent hazardous release events in complex urban settings embedded in high-resolution terrain. Nor do they possess the computational efficiency required for many emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We are developing a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability, able to efficiently predict dispersion in diverse urban environments for a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temporal and spatial scales, and release event scenarios. This new computational fluid dynamics capability includes adaptive mesh refinement and it can simultaneously resolve individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features), treat complex building and structural geometries (e.g., stadiums, arenas, subways, airplane interiors), and cope with the full range of atmospheric conditions (e.g. stability). We are developing approaches for seamless coupling with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models to provide realistic forcing of the urban-scale model, which is critical to its performance in real-world conditions.

  1. Advanced Capabilities for Wind Tunnel Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Danehy, Paul M.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing methods and test technologies for the 21st century using advanced capabilities are presented. These capabilities are necessary to capture more accurate and high quality test results by eliminating the uncertainties in testing and to facilitate verification of computational tools for design. This paper discusses near term developments underway in ground testing capabilities, which will enhance the quality of information of both the test article and airstream flow details. Also discussed is a selection of new capability investments that have been made to accommodate such developments. Examples include advanced experimental methods for measuring the test gas itself; using efficient experiment methodologies, including quality assurance strategies within the test; and increasing test result information density by using extensive optical visualization together with computed flow field results. These points could be made for both major investments in existing tunnel capabilities or for entirely new capabilities.

  2. The stress response predicts migration failure but not migration rate in a semelparous fish.

    PubMed

    Cook, Katrina V; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hinch, Scott G; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings from iteroparous species suggest that glucocorticoid secretion following acute stress can mediate behavior and survival strategies, ultimately influencing fitness. However, these correlates of the stress response may not exist in semelparous animals given the inability to maximize fitness by delaying reproduction. We measured baseline and stress-induced cortisol concentrations in semelparous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) following exposure to an acute stressor at the mouth of the Fraser River in British Columbia. The homing fish were then radio-tagged and tracked throughout their in-river migration. Findings reveal that the stress response (i.e. change from baseline to stress-induced cortisol) was predictive of mortality; fish failing to leave the release site had a significantly greater stress response (mean±SE=1004.0±75.3ng/mL) compared to fish capable of successfully migrating beyond one of the most difficult areas of passage over 100 river kilometers upstream (mean±SE=780.7±66.7ng/mL). However, there were no associations between swimming behaviors, both immediately following release and to last point of detection, and the stress response. This study also introduced an unique method of tagging migrating salmon that allows for rapid capture and sampling and thus provides the first assessment of true baseline cortisol concentrations at river-entry for migrating Pacific salmon in the wild. Results show the stress response to be linked to survival in a semelparous species and therefore set the stage for further exploration into how the evolutionary theories underlying relationships between stress responsiveness and fitness may differ between semelparous and iteroparous species. PMID:24769043

  3. Single-cell Migration Chip for Chemotaxis-based Microfluidic Selection of Heterogeneous Cell Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Allen, Steven G.; Ingram, Patrick N.; Buckanovich, Ronald; Merajver, Sofia D.; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-05-01

    Tumor cell migration toward and intravasation into capillaries is an early and key event in cancer metastasis, yet not all cancer cells are imbued with the same capability to do so. This heterogeneity within a tumor is a fundamental property of cancer. Tools to help us understand what molecular characteristics allow a certain subpopulation of cells to spread from the primary tumor are thus critical for overcoming metastasis. Conventional in vitro migration platforms treat populations in aggregate, which leads to a masking of intrinsic differences among cells. Some migration assays reported recently have single-cell resolution, but these platforms do not provide for selective retrieval of the distinct migrating and non-migrating cell populations for further analysis. Thus, to study the intrinsic differences in cells responsible for chemotactic heterogeneity, we developed a single-cell migration platform so that individual cells’ migration behavior can be studied and the heterogeneous population sorted based upon chemotactic phenotype. Furthermore, after migration, the highly chemotactic and non-chemotactic cells were retrieved and proved viable for later molecular analysis of their differences. Moreover, we modified the migration channel to resemble lymphatic capillaries to better understand how certain cancer cells are able to move through geometrically confining spaces.

  4. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  5. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  6. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  7. Distance and Intrastate College Student Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, James; Winters, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of student migration focus on "interstate" migration of college students, largely because the aggregate data typically used are limited in geographic specificity to states. However, interstate migration is only a small part of the total student migration. Public institutions generally get most of their students from within their…

  8. Rural-Urban Migration in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, T. Paul

    The rural-urban migration pattern in Colombia during the last 25 years has resulted in a population increase in urban areas from 30 to 52 percent of the total population. This study explores the causes of internal migration. Migration rates are estimated for various groups in the population to clarify who migrates and to where. A model of…

  9. [On the theoretical basis of migration research].

    PubMed

    Soderling, I

    1980-01-01

    A critique of current theories of migration is first presented. The author suggests that a variety of theories is needed to explain different types of migration. The model used to study internal migration at the Institute of Migration in Turku, Finland, is then described. (summary in ENG) PMID:12265094

  10. Bubble Eliminator Based on Centrifugal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Lee, Wenshan

    2004-01-01

    The fluid bubble eliminator (FBE) is a device that removes gas bubbles from a flowing liquid. The FBE contains no moving parts and does not require any power input beyond that needed to pump the liquid. In the FBE, the buoyant force for separating the gas from the liquid is provided by a radial pressure gradient associated with a centrifugal flow of the liquid and any entrained bubbles. A device based on a similar principle is described in Centrifugal Adsorption Cartridge System (MSC- 22863), which appears on page 48 of this issue. The FBE was originally intended for use in filtering bubbles out of a liquid flowing relatively slowly in a bioreactor system in microgravity. Versions that operate in normal Earth gravitation at greater flow speeds may also be feasible. The FBE (see figure) is constructed as a cartridge that includes two concentric cylinders with flanges at the ends. The outer cylinder is an impermeable housing; the inner cylinder comprises a gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane covering a perforated inner tube. Multiple spiral disks that collectively constitute a spiral ramp are mounted in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The liquid enters the FBE through an end flange, flows in the annular space between the cylinders, and leaves through the opposite end flange. The spiral disks channel the liquid into a spiral flow, the circumferential component of which gives rise to the desired centrifugal effect. The resulting radial pressure gradient forces the bubbles radially inward; that is, toward the inner cylinder. At the inner cylinder, the gas-permeable, liquid-impermeable membrane allows the bubbles to enter the perforated inner tube while keeping the liquid in the space between the inner and outer cylinders. The gas thus collected can be vented via an endflange connection to the inner tube. The centripetal acceleration (and thus the radial pressure gradient) is approximately proportional to the square of the flow speed and

  11. International migration: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  12. International migration: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements. PMID:12320315

  13. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  14. Variable-capacitance tachometer eliminates troublesome magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Dual variable-capacitance tachometer measures angular speed and sense of rotation without magnetic components. Thus it eliminates magnetic flux interference with associated instrumentation in an electromechanical system.

  15. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    SciTech Connect

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  16. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  17. Seismic Analysis Capability in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic analysis is a technique which pertains to loading described in terms of boundary accelerations. Earthquake shocks to buildings is the type of excitation which usually comes to mind when one hears the word seismic, but this technique also applied to a broad class of acceleration excitations which are applied at the base of a structure such as vibration shaker testing or shocks to machinery foundations. Four different solution paths are available in NASTRAN for seismic analysis. They are: Direct Seismic Frequency Response, Direct Seismic Transient Response, Modal Seismic Frequency Response, and Modal Seismic Transient Response. This capability, at present, is invoked not as separate rigid formats, but as pre-packaged ALTER packets to existing RIGID Formats 8, 9, 11, and 12. These ALTER packets are included with the delivery of the NASTRAN program and are stored on the computer as a library of callable utilities. The user calls one of these utilities and merges it into the Executive Control Section of the data deck to perform any of the four options are invoked by setting parameter values in the bulk data.

  18. JEM/SMILES observation capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Yasuko J.; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Mendrok, Jana; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Moller, Joakim; Manabe, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Nishibori, Toshiyuki

    2009-09-01

    A new generation of sub-millimeter-wave receivers employing sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor) detector technology will provide new opportunities for precise passive remote sensing observation of minor constituents in atmosphere. Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to be onbord the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS) as a collaboration project of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). SMILES scheduled to be launch in September 11, 2009 by the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Mission Objectives are: i) Space demonstration of superconductive mixer and 4-K mechanical cooler for the submillimeter limb emission sounding, and ii) global observations of atmospheric minor constituents. JEM/SMILES will allow to observe the atmospheric species such as O3, H35Cl, H37 Cl, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, and HNO3, CH3CN, and Ozone isotope species with the precisions in a few to several tens percents from upper troposphere to the mesosphere. We have estimated the observation capabilities of JEM/SMILES. This new technology may allow us to open new issues in atmospheric science.

  19. NASA Dryden's UAS Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The vision of NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is to "fly what others only imagine." Its mission is to advance technology and science through flight. Objectives supporting the mission include performing flight research and technology integration to revolutionize aviation and pioneer aerospace technology, validating space exploration concepts, conducting airborne remote sensing and science missions, and supporting operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. A significant focus of effort in recent years has been on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), both in support of the Airborne Science Program and as research vehicles to advance the state of the art in UAS. Additionally, the Center has used its piloted aircraft in support of UAS technology development. In order to facilitate greater access to the UAS expertise that exists at the Center, that expertise has been organized around three major capabilities. The first is access to high-altitude, long-endurance UAS. The second is the establishment of a test range for small UAS. The third is safety case assessment support.

  20. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  1. Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate by plasma flame made of microwave plasma and burning hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S. C.; Uhm, H. S.; Hong, Y. C.; Park, Y. G.; Park, J. S.

    2008-06-15

    Elimination of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in liquid phase was studied by making use of a microwave plasma burner, exhibiting a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The microwave plasma burner consisted of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The burner flames were sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into the microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated near perfect elimination of DMMP in the microwave plasma burner. This was confirmed by gas chromatography spectra as supporting data, revealing the disappearance of even intermediary compounds in the process of DMMP destruction. The experimental results and the physical configuration of the microwave plasma burner may provide an effective means of on-site removal of chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  2. Seasonal Survival Probabilities Suggest Low Migration Mortality in Migrating Bats

    PubMed Central

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation. PMID:24454906

  3. Seasonal survival probabilities suggest low migration mortality in migrating bats.

    PubMed

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and site fidelity with Cormack-Jolly-Seber models that accounted for the presence of transients fitted with Bayesian methods and assessed differences between sexes and seasons. Activity peaked in autumn and spring, whereas very few individuals were caught during summer. We hypothesize that the study site is a migratory stopover site used during fall and spring migration for most individuals, but there is also evidence for wintering. Additionally, we found strong clues for mating during fall. Summer survival that included two major migratory journeys was identical to winter survival in males and slightly higher in females, suggesting that the migratory journeys did not bear significant costs in terms of survival. Transience probability was in both seasons higher in males than in females. Our results suggest that, similarly to birds, Leisler's bat also use stopover sites during migration with high site fidelity. In contrast to most birds, the stopover site was also used for mating and migratory costs in terms of survival seemed to be low. Transients' analyses highlighted strong individual variation in site use which makes particularly challenging the study and modelling of their populations as well as their conservation.

  4. Protein migration from transplanted nuclei in Amoeba proteus. I. The relation to the cell cycle and RNA migration, as studied by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, K.I.; Bell, L.G.

    1982-11-01

    Autoradiography has been used to examine the migration of proteins from a radioactivity labelled amoeba nucleus following transplantation into an unlabelled homophasic amoeba. Nuclei were transferred at three times in the cell cycle coinciding with DNA synthesis (4 h post-division); a peak of RNA synthesis (25 h); and a relative lull in synthetic activity (43 h). Six amino acids were added individually to the culture medium to label the nuclear proteins. Migration of the proteins from the donor nucleui and least with proteins labelled with the basic amino acids. All amino acids exhibited the greatest extent of migration following the 25-h transfers, i.e., coinciding with a peak of RNA synthesis at 26-27.5 h. Actinomycin D (actD) inhibition of RNA synthesis reduced, but did not eliminate the extent of protein migration from the transplanted nucleus, thus indicating the existence of two classes of migratory proteins. Firstly, proteins, associated with RNA transport, which migrated mainly into the host cytoplasm. The second class migrated into the host nucleus from the transplanted nucleus, irrespective of RNA synthesis. The shuttling character of the latter class of proteins is consistent with a role of regulation of nuclear activity.

  5. Thread Migration in the Presence of Pointers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronk, David; Haines, Matthew; Mehrotra, Piyush

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic migration of lightweight threads supports both data locality and load balancing. However, migrating threads that contain pointers referencing data in both the stack and heap remains an open problem. In this paper we describe a technique by which threads with pointers referencing both stack and non-shared heap data can be migrated such that the pointers remain valid after migration. As a result, threads containing pointers can now be migrated between processors in a homogeneous distributed memory environment.

  6. Ethical concerns in nurse migration.

    PubMed

    McElmurry, Beverly J; Solheim, Karen; Kishi, Rieko; Coffia, Marcia A; Woith, Wendy; Janepanish, Poolsuk

    2006-01-01

    International nurse migration is natural and to be expected. Recently, however, those who have fostered nurse migration believe that it will solve nursing shortages in developed countries and offer nurse migrants better working conditions and an improved quality of life. Whether natural or manipulated, migration flow patterns largely occur from developing to developed countries. In this article, nurse migration is examined using primary health care (PHC) as an ethical framework. The unmanaged flow of nurse migrants from developing to developed countries is inconsistent with "health for all" principles. Removing key health personnel from countries experiencing resource shortages is contrary to PHC equity. Often, nurse migrants are placed in vulnerable, inequitable work roles, and employing nurse migrants fails to address basic causes of nurse shortages in developed countries, such as dissatisfaction with work conditions and decreased funding for academic settings. Nurse migration policies and procedures can be developed to satisfy PHC ethics criteria if they (1) leave developing countries enhanced rather than depleted, (2) contribute to country health outcomes consistent with essential care for all people, (3) are based on community participation, (4) address common nursing labor issues, and (5) involve equitable and clear financial arrangements. PMID:16873045

  7. Sedimentary record of erg migration

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, M.L.

    1986-06-01

    The sedimentary record of erg (eolian sand sea) migration consists of an idealized threefold division of sand-sea facies sequences. The basal division, here termed the fore-erg, is composed of a hierarchy of eolian sand bodies contained within sediments of the flanking depositional environment. The fore-erg represents the downwind, leading edge of the erg and records the onset of eolian sedimentation. Basin subsidence coupled with erg migration places the medial division, termed the central erg, over the fore-erg strata. Eolian influence on regional sedimentation patterns is greatest in the central erg, and most of the sand transported and deposited in the erg is contained within this region. Reduction in sand supply and continued erg migration will cover the central-erg deposits with a veneer of back-erg deposits. This upper division of the erg facies sequence resembles closely the fore-erg region. Back-erg deposits may be thin due to limited eolian influence on sedimentation or incomplete erg migration, or they may be completely absent because of great susceptibility to postdepositional erosion. Tectonic, climatic, and eustatic influences on sand-sea deposition will produce distinctive variations or modifications of the idealized erg facies sequence. The resulting variants in the sedimentary record of erg migration are illustrated with ancient examples from western North America, Europe, southern Africa, and South America. 38 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Scalable evaluation of platelet aggregation by the degree of blood migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Suk-Heung; Lim, Chae-Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-12-01

    Platelet aggregation plays a key role in vascular thrombosis. Antiplatelet drug therapy is commonly used for the prevention of abnormal platelet aggregation. So, measuring platelet aggregation function is critically important in clinical field. Here, we introduce a scalable evaluation method of platelet aggregation measured with the degree of blood migration through microchannel in a microfluidic chip. Unlike conventional methods that require expertise with system physics to operate devices, our approach is using microfluidics system, which requires only a syringe vacuum. The scalable migration factors, migration distance and touchdown time, are capable of distinguishing various antiplatelet drug effects under microfluidics and would be effective for the quick and easy evaluation of quantitative platelet aggregation.

  9. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    PubMed Central

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  10. Controlled-aperture wave-equation migration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.; Sun, H.; Li, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We present a controlled-aperture wave-equation migration method that no1 only can reduce migration artiracts due to limited recording aperlurcs and determine image weights to balance the efl'ects of limited-aperture illumination, but also can improve thc migration accuracy by reducing the slowness perturbations within thc controlled migration regions. The method consists of two steps: migration aperture scan and controlled-aperture migration. Migration apertures for a sparse distribution of shots arc determined using wave-equation migration, and those for the other shots are obtained by interpolation. During the final controlled-aperture niigration step, we can select a reference slowness in c;ontrollecl regions of the slowness model to reduce slowncss perturbations, and consequently increase the accuracy of wave-equation migration inel hods that makc use of reference slownesses. In addition, the computation in the space domain during wavefield downward continuation is needed to be conducted only within the controlled apertures and therefore, the computational cost of controlled-aperture migration step (without including migration aperture scan) is less than the corresponding uncontrolled-aperture migration. Finally, we can use the efficient split-step Fourier approach for migration-aperture scan, then use other, more accurate though more expensive, wave-equation migration methods to perform thc final controlled-apertio.ee migration to produce the most accurate image.

  11. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  12. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  13. Neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xin; Shi, Song-Hai

    2012-01-01

    The neocortex, the evolutionarily newest part of the cerebral cortex, controls nearly all aspects of behavior, including perception, language and decision-making. It contains an immense number of neurons that can be broadly divided into two groups, excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons. These neurons are predominantly produced through extensive progenitor cell divisions during the embryonic stages. Moreover, they are not randomly dispersed, but spatially organized into horizontal layers that are essential for neocortex function. The formation of this laminar structure requires exquisite control of neuronal migration from their birthplace to their final destination. Extensive research over the past decade has greatly advanced our understanding of the production and migration of both excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons in the developing neocortex. In this review, we aim to give an overview on the molecular and cellular processes of neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. PMID:24014417

  14. Migration, refugees, and health risks.

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, M.; Nerukar, A.

    2001-01-01

    Migration both voluntary and forced is increasing all over the world. People are moving in larger numbers faster and further than at any other time in history. This is happening at a time when many countries are ill-prepared to deal with a changing demography and when policies and attitudes to population movement and immigration are hardening. The health implications of this are many, and, in some cases, illness and death rates associated with migration are exacerbated by a lack of policies needed to make migration a healthy and socially productive process. From a public health point of view, this is having and will continue to have serious ramifications for the people that move, the family they leave behind, and the communities that host the newcomers. PMID:11485671

  15. Migration, refugees, and health risks.

    PubMed

    Carballo, M; Nerukar, A

    2001-01-01

    Migration both voluntary and forced is increasing all over the world. People are moving in larger numbers faster and further than at any other time in history. This is happening at a time when many countries are ill-prepared to deal with a changing demography and when policies and attitudes to population movement and immigration are hardening. The health implications of this are many, and, in some cases, illness and death rates associated with migration are exacerbated by a lack of policies needed to make migration a healthy and socially productive process. From a public health point of view, this is having and will continue to have serious ramifications for the people that move, the family they leave behind, and the communities that host the newcomers.

  16. 3 CFR - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 17, 2012 Implementing the Prison Rape... victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination...

  17. Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…

  18. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  19. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  20. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  1. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  2. 10 CFR 63.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 63.23 Section 63.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses License Application § 63.23 Elimination of repetition. In...

  3. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  4. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...

  5. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...

  6. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...

  7. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...

  8. 10 CFR 60.23 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 60.23 Section 60.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Applications § 60.23 Elimination of repetition. In its application,...

  9. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  10. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  11. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  12. 10 CFR 61.21 - Elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elimination of repetition. 61.21 Section 61.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.21 Elimination of repetition. In its application, the applicant may incorporate by...

  13. Gains and Pitfalls of Quantifier Elimination as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Quantifier Elimination is a procedure that allows simplification of logical formulas that contain quantifiers. Many mathematical concepts are defined in terms of quantifiers and especially in calculus their use has been identified as an obstacle in the learning process. The automatic deduction provided by quantifier elimination thus allows…

  14. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 52.8 - Combining licenses; elimination of repetition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. 52.8 Section 52.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.8 Combining licenses; elimination of repetition. (a)...

  19. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

  20. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  1. The migration transition in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1996-01-01

    "Exploring the unique experience of migration transition in Malaysia, this paper identifies the turning points in relation to the level and nature of economic and labor market developments in Malaysia. Examining the development dynamics that mark the passage from exporting labor to depending on foreign labor, the paper concludes that such dynamics are influenced not only by economic but also sociocultural, demographic and policy factors. Several lessons from the Malaysian experience are drawn at the end to be utilized by other countries that still have to reach the turning points of the migration transition." PMID:12320775

  2. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  3. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  4. [Family reunification, family-formation migration, and return migration of Turks and Moroccans].

    PubMed

    De Beer, J; Kuijper, H; Noordam, R

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyze migration patterns to the Netherlands from Turkey and Morocco for the period 1977-1989. Three distinct phases emerge: labor migration, family-reunification migration, and family-formation migration. The rise in migration from Turkey and Morocco during the second half of the 1980s is attributed to family-formation migration, which is defined as a member of the second generation marrying a partner from the country of origin. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. [Switzerland eliminates measles. National Strategy for the Elimination of Measles 2011-2015].

    PubMed

    Koch, D; Richard, J-L; Hanhart, J; Eckert, T; Eigenmann Schüttel, S

    2013-09-01

    The measles virus circulates within Switzerland in an endemic way leading to sporadic outbreaks. The most recent outbreak occurred in 2011. It lasted 9 months and had 687 reported cases. This is in contrast to 2012 when there were 66 cases,corresponding to an incidence of 8 cases per million inhabitants. During 2008-2010, the average national vaccination coverage for one or two doses of measles vaccine amounted to 92 and 83 % for 2-year-olds, 95 and 85 % for 8-year-olds, and 95 and 85 % for 16-year-olds, respectively. To improve the national vaccination coverage, the Federal Council adopted the National Strategy for the Elimination of Measles 2011-2015 in 2011.The strategy was drawn up in a participative process led by the Federal Office for Public Health.The cantons as key partners were represented by the Conference of the Cantonal Directors for Public Health and the Association of Cantonal Health Officers. The strategy pursues the vision of eliminating measles in Switzerland in order to protect the population against measles and its complications, including all persons who may not be vaccinated for medical reasons. The strategy comprises six axes of intervention:(1)political engagement and support by all stakeholders, (2)a targeted ≥ 95 % two-dose vaccination coverage for all 2-year-olds, (3)easier access and incentives for the booster vaccination for everyone in the 2-year-old age group up to those born in 1964, (4)communication and promotion, (5)uniform national outbreak control, and (6)targeted surveillance.

  6. Organisational Capability--What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Organisational capability is rapidly becoming recognized as the key to organizational success. However, the lack of research on it has been well documented in the literature, and organizational capability remains an elusive concept. Yet an understanding of organizational capability can offer insights into how RTOs might work most effectively,…

  7. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  8. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  9. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  10. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  11. 47 CFR 95.655 - Frequency capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency capability. 95.655 Section 95.655... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.655 Frequency capability. (a) No transmitter will be certificated for use in the CB service if it is equipped with a frequency capability not...

  12. Selecting Capabilities for Quality of Life Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    The capability approach advocates that interpersonal comparisons be made in the space of functionings and capabilities. However, Amartya Sen has not specified which capabilities should be selected as the relevant ones. This has provoked two types of criticism. The stronger critique is Martha Nussbaum's claim that Sen should endorse one specific…

  13. Large block migration experiments: INTRAVAL phase 1, Test Case 9

    SciTech Connect

    Gureghian, A.B.; Noronha, C.J. . Office of Waste Technology Development); Vandergraaf, T.T. )

    1990-08-01

    The development of INTRAVAL Test Case 9, as presented in this report, was made possible by a past subsidiary agreement to the bilateral cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) encompassing various aspects of nuclear waste disposal research. The experimental aspect of this test case, which included a series of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the migration of tracers in a single, natural fracture, was undertaken by AECL. The numerical simulation of the results of these experiments was performed by the Battelle Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD) by calibrating an in-house analytical code, FRACFLO, which is capable of predicting radionuclide transport in an idealized fractured rock. Three tracer migration experiments were performed, using nonsorbing uranine dye for two of them and sorbing Cs-137 for the third. In addition, separate batch experiments were performed to determine the fracture surface and rock matrix sorption coefficients for Cs-137. The two uranine tracer migration experiment were used to calculate the average fracture aperture and to calibrate the model for the fracture dispersivity and matrix diffusion coefficient. The predictive capability of the model was then tested by simulating the third, Cs-137, tracer test without changing the parameter values determined from the other experiments. Breakthrough curves of both the experimental and numerical results obtained at the outlet face of the fracture are presented for each experiment. The reported spatial concentration profiles for the rock matrix are based solely on numerical predictions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Correlation between cell migration and reactive oxygen species under electric field stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shang-Ying; Hou, Hsien-San; Sun, Yung-Shin; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Lo, Kai-Yin

    2015-09-01

    Cell migration is an essential process involved in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Electric fields (EFs) are one of the many physical and chemical factors known to affect cell migration, a phenomenon termed electrotaxis or galvanotaxis. In this paper, a microfluidics chip was developed to study the migration of cells under different electrical and chemical stimuli. This chip is capable of providing four different strengths of EFs in combination with two different chemicals via one simple set of agar salt bridges and Ag/AgCl electrodes. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded inside this chip to study their migration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to different EF strengths and the presence of β-lapachone. We found that both the EF and β-lapachone level increased the cell migration rate and the production of ROS in an EF-strength-dependent manner. A strong linear correlation between the cell migration rate and the amount of intracellular ROS suggests that ROS are an intermediate product by which EF and β-lapachone enhance cell migration. Moreover, an anti-oxidant, α-tocopherol, was found to quench the production of ROS, resulting in a decrease in the migration rate. PMID:26487906

  15. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  16. Zebrafish germ cells: motility and guided migration.

    PubMed

    Paksa, Azadeh; Raz, Erez

    2015-10-01

    In the course of embryonic development, the process of cell migration is critical for establishment of the embryonic body plan, for morphogenesis and for organ function. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration is thus crucial for understanding developmental processes and clinical conditions resulting from abnormal cell migration such as cancer metastasis. The long-range migration of primordial germ cells toward the region at which the gonad develops occurs in embryos of various species and thus constitutes a useful in vivo model for single-cell migration. Recent studies employing zebrafish embryos have greatly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms facilitating the migration of these cells en route to their target.

  17. A Discrete Cell Migration Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Kruse, Kara L; Ward, Richard C; O'Quinn, Elizabeth; Woerner, Matthew M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2007-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is a fundamental process in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a precursor to development of cardiovascular disease and a potential response to injury of an arterial wall. Boyden chamber experiments are used to quantify the motion of cell populations in response to a chemoattractant gradient (i.e., cell chemotaxis). We are developing a mathematical model of cell migration within the Boyden chamber, while simultaneously conducting experiments to obtain parameter values for the migration process. In the future, the model and parameters will be used as building blocks for a detailed model of the process that causes intimal hyperplasia. The cell migration model presented in this paper is based on the notion of a cell as a moving sensor that responds to an evolving chemoattractant gradient. We compare the results of our three-dimensional hybrid model with results from a one-dimensional continuum model. Some preliminary experimental data that is being used to refine the model is also presented.

  18. Externality, migration, and urban crises.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Y

    1980-01-01

    The author analyzes a special aspect of the short-run dynamics of an urban area which arises when there is a contrast between different types of households. The possibility of cumulative or catastrophic processes because of migration by poor families and then by rich families in or out of an urban area is discussed

  19. The OECD and International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  20. Migration and circulation in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Brea, J A

    1991-01-01

    "This study investigates labor mobility in Ecuador as a function of the socioeconomic structure of places and personal attributes of migrants and circulators (short-term movers).... Particular attention is given to the role of agrarian change in altering established migration and circulation patterns." The author finds that "circulation may significantly alter family organization and the role of women in many Ecuadorian communities."

  1. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  2. Youth Migration from Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.; Monk, David H.

    The persistent net loss of young people from rural areas has potentially contradictory implications for educational policy. Believing that youth migration to urban areas is inevitable, one school board might feel obligated to prepare students for urban jobs. Another board might view such actions as community suicide and attempt to slow…

  3. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  4. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    PubMed

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  5. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    PubMed

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  6. [Agricultural migration has changed face].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, D

    1991-04-01

    Movements related to colonization of new lands for cultivation or pasturing have constituted the dominant form of migration in the Sahel countries since the colonial period. the relative importance of such movements declined with the development of labor migration, but geographic mobility continues to be an integral part of Sahel life. A principal strategy during crises of agricultural production was the vast movement of population toward new lands, but such movements had little macroeconomic or macrosocial importance given the low population density and technical development of the time; the family subsistence enterprise was merely displaced. The artificial division into separate countries in the colonial era brought some control of migratory movements, and especially those across international borders, but such migrations increased again after independence and especially during the prolonged drought. Rural migration has been encouraged by development of transportation and communication facilities and by progress in controlling endemic diseases such as river blindness and sleeping sickness. Contemporary migration differs fundamentally from agricultural migration of the past. Migration has become, in addition to a survival strategy, a strategy of economic and social advancement. The change of residence is often accompanied by a restructuring of economic activities and substantial increases in the household's resources. Migrants attempt to produce enough for their own consumption, with some left for sale. They may also take on secondary employment, especially in the dry season: sale of firewood, petty trading, artisanal production. Spontaneous population movements seem to benefit the migrants, improving family and national agricultural production and contributing to a better distribution of rural population, but they have a high social and ecological cost and should receive more attention from planners and researchers in the context of the current campaign against

  7. Identification of cancer stem cells and a strategy for their elimination

    PubMed Central

    Dolgova, Evgenia V; Alyamkina, Ekaterina A; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Tyrinova, Tamara V; Kozel, Artem V; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Andrushkevich, Oleg M; Zavyalov, Evgeniy L; Romaschenko, Alexander V; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Stupak, Vyacheslav V; Mishinov, Sergey V; Rogachev, Vladimir A; Proskurina, Anastasia S; Mayorov, Vladimir I; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2014-01-01

    It has been established previously that up to 40% of mouse CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells are capable of internalizing exogenous dsDNA fragments both in vivo and ex vivo. Importantly, when mice are treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide and dsDNA, the repair of interstrand crosslinks in hematopoietic progenitors is attenuated, and their pluripotency is altered. Here we show for the first time that among various actively proliferating mammalian cell populations there are subpopulations capable of internalizing dsDNA fragments. In the context of cancer, such dsDNA-internalizing cell subpopulations display cancer stem cell-like phenotype. Furthermore, using Krebs-2 ascites cells as a model, we found that upon combined treatment with cyclophosphamide and dsDNA, engrafted material loses its tumor-initiating properties which we attribute to the elimination of tumor-initiating stem cell subpopulation or loss of its tumorigenic potential. PMID:25117082

  8. Intestinal elimination of sparfloxacin, fleroxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, E; Dautrey, S; Farinoti, R; St Julien, L; Ramon, J; Carbon, C

    1995-01-01

    The intestinal transepithelial elimination of sparfloxacin and fleroxacin was compared with that of ciprofloxacin in a rat model following a single parenteral administration of 25 mg of each of the antibiotics per kg of body weight. All three fluoroquinolones were eliminated through the small intestine. Ciprofloxacin was eliminated in the proximal jejunum at a rate of 1.97 +/- 0.70 micrograms/cm2, while the elimination rates of fleroxacin and sparfloxacin were 0.64 +/- 026 and 0.21 +/- 0.10 micrograms/cm2, respectively, over a 90-min collection period. In the ileum, the elimination rates of ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and sparfloxacin over the same period were 1.44 +/- 0.77, 1.00 +/- 0.33, and 0.41 +/- 0.26 micrograms/mc2, respectively. These data suggest that these fluoroquinolones undergo a transepithelial elimination process in the small intestine. This route of elimination may be important in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. PMID:7695338

  9. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  10. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie; Levitz, Sarah; Stothard, J Russell; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Garba, Amadou; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Schur, Nadine; Person, Bobbie; Colley, Daniel G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-11-01

    It is time to raise global awareness to the possibility of schistosomiasis elimination and to support endemic countries in their quest to determine the most appropriate approaches to eliminate this persistent and debilitating disease. The main interventions for schistosomiasis control are reviewed, including preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel, snail control, sanitation, safe water supplies, and behaviour change strategies supported by information, education and communication (IEC) materials. Differences in the biology and transmission of the three main Schistosoma species (i.e. Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum), which impact on control interventions, are considered. Sensitive diagnostic procedures to ensure adequate surveillance in areas attaining low endemicity are required. The importance of capacity building is highlighted. To achieve elimination, an intersectoral approach is necessary, with advocacy and action from local communities and the health community to foster cooperative ventures with engineers, the private sector, governments and non-governmental organizations specialized in water supply and sanitation. Examples of successful schistosomiasis control programmes are reviewed to highlight what has been learnt in terms of strategy for control and elimination. These include St. Lucia and other Caribbean islands, Brazil and Venezuela for S. mansoni; Saudi Arabia and Egypt for both S. mansoni and S. haematobium; Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritius and the Islamic Republic of Iran for S. haematobium; Japan and the People's Republic of China for S. japonicum. Additional targets for elimination or even eradication could be the two minor human schistosome species S. guineenisis and S. intercalatum, which have a restricted distribution in West and Central Africa. The examples show that elimination of schistosomiasis is an achievable and desirable goal requiring full integration of preventive chemotherapy with the tools of transmission

  11. The Use of Cellulose Membrane to Eliminate Burst Release from Intravaginal Rings.

    PubMed

    Helbling, Ignacio M; Ibarra, Juan C D; Luna, Julio A

    2016-07-01

    Burst release was observed when ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) intravaginal rings were tested for progesterone release in our previous work (Helbling et al. Pharm Res. 31(3):795-808, 2014). Burst release is undesirable in controlled delivery devices because release is uncontrollable and higher levels of active pharmaceutical ingredient could lead to the occurrence of adverse effect. The present contribution is about the use of membranes to coat EVA rings to eliminate burst release. Physicochemical state of progesterone in uncoated rings and the solubility and diffusion coefficient in membrane were studied. Hormone delivery from several rings of different sizes was compared. A mathematical model was used to analyze the effects of membrane properties on delivery rate. No chemical interactions were detected between hormone and polymer. Hormone was mainly forming amorphous aggregates inside rings, and migration to membrane was not observed during storage. Diffusion coefficient was smaller in membrane (∼10(-8) cm(2) s(-1)) than in matrix (∼10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). Zero-order release kinetics were obtained for coated rings, and release rate decreases as the thickness of the coat increases. Cellulose membrane successfully eliminates burst release and controls the delivery from EVA rings. The equations developed can be used to determine the appropriate coat thickness to produce specific release rate.

  12. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin (“old drugs”) to their recently recognized CSC targets (“new uses”) within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the “old drugs–new uses” repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. PMID:21600837

  13. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin ("old drugs") to their recently recognized CSC targets ("new uses") within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the "old drugs-new uses" repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. PMID:21600837

  14. Enhancement of the migrated results with the deblurring filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Li; Takahashi, Kazunori; Sato, Motoyuki

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we introduce a method that uses the deblurring filter to further improve the migrated GPR results. While applying migration to near range radar systems such as GPR, we may suffer from the imaging artifacts or low resolution due to the limited aperture size or coarsely sampled data. In order to solve this problem, least square approach can be applied. It can be presented with the following equations: The forward modelling can be presented as a linear calculation as (1) d = Lm (1) The real inverse processing should be (2) m = L‑1d (2) Here d is the acquired GPR data, L is the forward modelling matrix and m is the reflectivity model of the survey area. Since the inverse matrix L‑1 PIC is almost impossible to determine, we normally use the simplified method that use the adjoint matrix as the estimation of the inverse matrix. And it is proved that migration is just the adjoint matrix of the forward modelling matrix. Hence the migration processing can be written as (3) m* = LTd (3) The analytic least square solution can be given as (4) m* = (LTL + μI)‑1 LTd (4) The least square results give much higher resolution and most of the artifacts can be eliminated. But this method requires extremely large computation so it is not really practical. Here we propose another approach, by combining (1) and (3) we can also get (5) m = (LTL)‑1 m* (5) It indicates that we may further improve the migrated results with an inverse filter (LTL)‑1. Actually, this is known as the deblurring processing for imaging problem. This deblurring filter is still very difficult to solve for the whole imaging area, but we can use the local filters at different position instead of a whole filter. In order to realize this method, a dictionary needs to be reconstructed correspond to the antenna configuration and the background velocity first. At each local window we put a point scatter in the middle and calculate the forward modelling result and the migrated result of this local

  15. Enhancement of the migrated results with the deblurring filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Li; Takahashi, Kazunori; Sato, Motoyuki

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we introduce a method that uses the deblurring filter to further improve the migrated GPR results. While applying migration to near range radar systems such as GPR, we may suffer from the imaging artifacts or low resolution due to the limited aperture size or coarsely sampled data. In order to solve this problem, least square approach can be applied. It can be presented with the following equations: The forward modelling can be presented as a linear calculation as (1) d = Lm (1) The real inverse processing should be (2) m = L-1d (2) Here d is the acquired GPR data, L is the forward modelling matrix and m is the reflectivity model of the survey area. Since the inverse matrix L-1 PIC is almost impossible to determine, we normally use the simplified method that use the adjoint matrix as the estimation of the inverse matrix. And it is proved that migration is just the adjoint matrix of the forward modelling matrix. Hence the migration processing can be written as (3) m* = LTd (3) The analytic least square solution can be given as (4) m* = (LTL + μI)-1 LTd (4) The least square results give much higher resolution and most of the artifacts can be eliminated. But this method requires extremely large computation so it is not really practical. Here we propose another approach, by combining (1) and (3) we can also get (5) m = (LTL)-1 m* (5) It indicates that we may further improve the migrated results with an inverse filter (LTL)-1. Actually, this is known as the deblurring processing for imaging problem. This deblurring filter is still very difficult to solve for the whole imaging area, but we can use the local filters at different position instead of a whole filter. In order to realize this method, a dictionary needs to be reconstructed correspond to the antenna configuration and the background velocity first. At each local window we put a point scatter in the middle and calculate the forward modelling result and the migrated result of this local window. Then

  16. Cutaneous tuberculosis with a difference: Documenting transfollicular elimination of granulomas.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag A; Khopkar, Uday

    2016-01-01

    A patient presented with a an asymptomatic brown to erythematous, scaly indurated solitary plaque on his elbow. The lesion was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris on the basis of clinical features and biopsy findings. The histopathology further revealed a granuloma within the follicular infundibulum, which was possibly being expelled out. The phenomenon of transepidermal elimination has been described previously in many conditions, including cutaneous tuberculosis; however, transfollicular elimination of the granuloma has not been reported. We report this unusual phenomenon as a possible mode of elimination of the granuloma. PMID:27559508

  17. Commitment of measles elimination by 2020: challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S R

    2015-02-01

    The eleven member states of World Health Organization South-East Asia Region committed to eliminate measles by 2020. In phased manner, Government of India is working on this goal, and has introduced two-dose strategy for measles vaccine in the routine immunization. Molecular epidemiology of measles in India has been considerably growing that would be useful for understanding the circulation of wild type measles in pre- and post-elimination period. However, importations of cases from other countries may be likely. This article describes major challenges to achieve the measles elimination goal in India.

  18. Cutaneous tuberculosis with a difference: Documenting transfollicular elimination of granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Chirag A.; Khopkar, Uday

    2016-01-01

    A patient presented with a an asymptomatic brown to erythematous, scaly indurated solitary plaque on his elbow. The lesion was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris on the basis of clinical features and biopsy findings. The histopathology further revealed a granuloma within the follicular infundibulum, which was possibly being expelled out. The phenomenon of transepidermal elimination has been described previously in many conditions, including cutaneous tuberculosis; however, transfollicular elimination of the granuloma has not been reported. We report this unusual phenomenon as a possible mode of elimination of the granuloma. PMID:27559508

  19. Do Protozoa Control the Elimination of Vibrio choleraein Brackish Water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Pérez, María Elena; Macek, Miroslav; Castro Galván, María Teresa

    2004-05-01

    Elimination of inoculated Vibrio cholerae (107 cells ml-1) within a brackish water bacteria assemblage (Mecoacán Lagoon, State of Tabasco, Mexico) was studied in laboratory microcosms with filtration-fractionated water. Feeding of a ciliate, Cyclidium glaucoma was evaluated using fluorescently labelled V. cholerae o1. Even though V. cholerae was not exploited as the major food source, ciliates were able to eliminate it efficiently. An addition of chitin directly supported the growth of bacteria, although not so much of V. cholerae, and indirectly the growth of the protistan assemblage. Generally, the changes in a bacterial assemblage structure were the most important in V. cholerae elimination.

  20. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Abubakar, Ibrahim; D'Ambrosio, Lia; de Vries, Gerard; Diel, Roland; Douglas, Paul; Falzon, Dennis; Gaudreau, Marc-Andre; Goletti, Delia; González Ochoa, Edilberto R; LoBue, Philip; Matteelli, Alberto; Njoo, Howard; Solovic, Ivan; Story, Alistair; Tayeb, Tamara; van der Werf, Marieke J; Weil, Diana; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed; Al Lawati, Mohamed R M; Aliberti, Stefano; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Barreira, Draurio; Bhatia, Vineet; Blasi, Francesco; Bloom, Amy; Bruchfeld, Judith; Castelli, Francesco; Centis, Rosella; Chemtob, Daniel; Cirillo, Daniela M; Colorado, Alberto; Dadu, Andrei; Dahle, Ulf R; De Paoli, Laura; Dias, Hannah M; Duarte, Raquel; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Gaga, Mina; Getahun, Haileyesus; Glaziou, Philippe; Goguadze, Lasha; Del Granado, Mirtha; Haas, Walter; Järvinen, Asko; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Mosca, Davide; Nahid, Payam; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Noguer, Isabel; O'Donnell, Joan; Pace-Asciak, Analita; Pompa, Maria G; Popescu, Gilda G; Robalo Cordeiro, Carlos; Rønning, Karin; Ruhwald, Morten; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Simunović, Aleksandar; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Sulis, Giorgia; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Umeki, Kazunori; Uplekar, Mukund; van Weezenbeek, Catharina; Vasankari, Tuula; Vitillo, Robert J; Voniatis, Constantia; Wanlin, Maryse; Raviglione, Mario C

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes an action framework for countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence (<100 TB cases per million population) that are striving for TB elimination. The framework sets out priority interventions required for these countries to progress first towards "pre-elimination" (<10 cases per million) and eventually the elimination of TB as a public health problem (less than one case per million). TB epidemiology in most low-incidence countries is characterised by a low rate of transmission in the general population, occasional outbreaks, a majority of TB cases generated from progression of latent TB infection (LTBI) rather than local transmission, concentration to certain vulnerable and hard-to-reach risk groups, and challenges posed by cross-border migration. Common health system challenges are that political commitment, funding, clinical expertise and general awareness of TB diminishes as TB incidence falls. The framework presents a tailored response to these challenges, grouped into eight priority action areas: 1) ensure political commitment, funding and stewardship for planning and essential services; 2) address the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups; 3) address special needs of migrants and cross-border issues; 4) undertake screening for active TB and LTBI in TB contacts and selected high-risk groups, and provide appropriate treatment; 5) optimise the prevention and care of drug-resistant TB; 6) ensure continued surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation and case-based data management; 7) invest in research and new tools; and 8) support global TB prevention, care and control. The overall approach needs to be multisectorial, focusing on equitable access to high-quality diagnosis and care, and on addressing the social determinants of TB. Because of increasing globalisation and population mobility, the response needs to have both national and global dimensions.

  1. Towards tuberculosis elimination: an action framework for low-incidence countries.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Abubakar, Ibrahim; D'Ambrosio, Lia; de Vries, Gerard; Diel, Roland; Douglas, Paul; Falzon, Dennis; Gaudreau, Marc-Andre; Goletti, Delia; González Ochoa, Edilberto R; LoBue, Philip; Matteelli, Alberto; Njoo, Howard; Solovic, Ivan; Story, Alistair; Tayeb, Tamara; van der Werf, Marieke J; Weil, Diana; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed; Al Lawati, Mohamed R M; Aliberti, Stefano; Arrazola de Oñate, Wouter; Barreira, Draurio; Bhatia, Vineet; Blasi, Francesco; Bloom, Amy; Bruchfeld, Judith; Castelli, Francesco; Centis, Rosella; Chemtob, Daniel; Cirillo, Daniela M; Colorado, Alberto; Dadu, Andrei; Dahle, Ulf R; De Paoli, Laura; Dias, Hannah M; Duarte, Raquel; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Gaga, Mina; Getahun, Haileyesus; Glaziou, Philippe; Goguadze, Lasha; Del Granado, Mirtha; Haas, Walter; Järvinen, Asko; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Mosca, Davide; Nahid, Payam; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Noguer, Isabel; O'Donnell, Joan; Pace-Asciak, Analita; Pompa, Maria G; Popescu, Gilda G; Robalo Cordeiro, Carlos; Rønning, Karin; Ruhwald, Morten; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Simunović, Aleksandar; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Sulis, Giorgia; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Umeki, Kazunori; Uplekar, Mukund; van Weezenbeek, Catharina; Vasankari, Tuula; Vitillo, Robert J; Voniatis, Constantia; Wanlin, Maryse; Raviglione, Mario C

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes an action framework for countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence (<100 TB cases per million population) that are striving for TB elimination. The framework sets out priority interventions required for these countries to progress first towards "pre-elimination" (<10 cases per million) and eventually the elimination of TB as a public health problem (less than one case per million). TB epidemiology in most low-incidence countries is characterised by a low rate of transmission in the general population, occasional outbreaks, a majority of TB cases generated from progression of latent TB infection (LTBI) rather than local transmission, concentration to certain vulnerable and hard-to-reach risk groups, and challenges posed by cross-border migration. Common health system challenges are that political commitment, funding, clinical expertise and general awareness of TB diminishes as TB incidence falls. The framework presents a tailored response to these challenges, grouped into eight priority action areas: 1) ensure political commitment, funding and stewardship for planning and essential services; 2) address the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups; 3) address special needs of migrants and cross-border issues; 4) undertake screening for active TB and LTBI in TB contacts and selected high-risk groups, and provide appropriate treatment; 5) optimise the prevention and care of drug-resistant TB; 6) ensure continued surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation and case-based data management; 7) invest in research and new tools; and 8) support global TB prevention, care and control. The overall approach needs to be multisectorial, focusing on equitable access to high-quality diagnosis and care, and on addressing the social determinants of TB. Because of increasing globalisation and population mobility, the response needs to have both national and global dimensions. PMID:25792630

  2. The circular migration of smallholders in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bigsten, A

    1996-01-01

    Circular migration is a central phenomenon in the lives of smallholders in East Africa. Many migration decisions are not individual decisions, but rather household decisions in which the household allocates its labor force among activities to maximize household utility. A probit model which incorporates circular migration and takes into account contacts, information, and indivisibilities is used to analyze migration among 763 farm households in the Central and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. Study data are from a 1982 survey. The pull of high urban wages appears to be a far more important determinant of migration decision outcomes than the push of land scarcity, while a strong local nonagricultural economy does not seem to restrict migration. Networks of personal contacts were found to be highly significant determinants of migration. These findings suggest that rural development will probably not reduce the flow of migration.

  3. Individual Decisions to Migrate During Civil Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on forced migration limits our understanding of how violence affects migration to competing destinations. This article adds to the literature on forced migration by studying how armed violence during a period of civil conflict in south-central Nepal influenced the likelihood of local, internal, and international migration. We find that violence has a nonlinear effect on migration, such that low to moderate levels of violence reduce the odds of movement, but when violence reaches high levels, the odds of movement increase. We also find that the effect of violence on mobility increases as the distance of the move increases. When we consider the influence of violence on microlevel decision-making, we find that the effects of individual and household-level determinants were mostly consistent with hypotheses derived from contemporary theories of voluntary migration and that no predictor of migration influenced the decision to migrate differently in the presence of violence. PMID:21541805

  4. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions. PMID:27356396

  5. Dead-End Elimination with a Polarizable Force Field Repacks PCNA Structures

    PubMed Central

    LuCore, Stephen D.; Litman, Jacob M.; Powers, Kyle T.; Gao, Shibo; Lynn, Ava M.; Tollefson, William T.A.; Fenn, Timothy D.; Washington, M. Todd; Schnieders, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A balance of van der Waals, electrostatic, and hydrophobic forces drive the folding and packing of protein side chains. Although such interactions between residues are often approximated as being pairwise additive, in reality, higher-order many-body contributions that depend on environment drive hydrophobic collapse and cooperative electrostatics. Beginning from dead-end elimination, we derive the first algorithm, to our knowledge, capable of deterministic global repacking of side chains compatible with many-body energy functions. The approach is applied to seven PCNA x-ray crystallographic data sets with resolutions 2.5–3.8 Å (mean 3.0 Å) using an open-source software. While PDB_REDO models average an Rfree value of 29.5% and MOLPROBITY score of 2.71 Å (77th percentile), dead-end elimination with the polarizable AMOEBA force field lowered Rfree by 2.8–26.7% and improved mean MOLPROBITY score to atomic resolution at 1.25 Å (100th percentile). For structural biology applications that depend on side-chain repacking, including x-ray refinement, homology modeling, and protein design, the accuracy limitations of pairwise additivity can now be eliminated via polarizable or quantum mechanical potentials. PMID:26287633

  6. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  7. Migration policies and return migration with particular reference to Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Chepulis, R L

    1981-09-01

    "The essay analyses some of the most recent migratory trends in Europe in the light of labour turnover, integration and assimilation. The author states that [since] World War II the expansion of the European and international capitalistic system has encouraged or discouraged, according to the various circumstances, the transferral of workers to different countries. "Particular attention has been given to the case of Yugoslavia. The changing of its migration policies has often coincided with the different modalities of flows." (summary in FRE)

  8. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable. PMID:25251339

  9. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable.

  10. A Heuristic Placement Selection of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Energy-Saving in Cloud Computing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable. PMID:25251339

  11. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. PMID:25933063

  12. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement.

  13. Controlled Surface Topography regulates Collective 3D Migration by Epithelial-Mesenchymal Composite Embryonic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H.; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R.; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multicellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multicellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. PMID:25933063

  14. The zebrafish trilobite gene is essential for tangential migration of branchiomotor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Stephanie; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Newborn neurons migrate extensively in the radial and tangential directions to organize the developing vertebrate nervous system. We show here that mutations in zebrafish trilobite (tri) that affect gastrulation-associated cell movements also eliminate tangential migration of motor neurons in the hindbrain. In the wild-type hindbrain, facial (nVII) and glossopharyngeal (nIX) motor neurons are induced in rhombomeres 4 and 6, respectively, and migrate tangentially into r6 and r7 (nVII), and r7 (nIX). In all three tri alleles examined, although normal numbers of motor neurons are induced, nVII motor neurons are found exclusively in r4, and nIX-like motor neurons are found exclusively in r6. The migration of other neuronal and non-neuronal cell types is unaffected in tri mutants. Rhombomere formation and the development of other hindbrain neurons are also unaffected in tri mutants. Furthermore, tangential neuronal migration occurs normally in the gastrulation mutant knypek, indicating that the trilobite neuron phenotype does not arise non-specifically from aberrant gastrulation-associated movements. We conclude that trilobite function is specifically required for two types of cell migration that occur at different stages of zebrafish development. PMID:11820812

  15. Specific Intensity Direct Current (DC) Electric Field Improves Neural Stem Cell Migration and Enhances Differentiation towards βIII-Tubulin+ Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiping; Steiger, Amanda; Nohner, Mitch; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Control of stem cell migration and differentiation is vital for efficient stem cell therapy. Literature reporting electric field–guided migration and differentiation is emerging. However, it is unknown if a field that causes cell migration is also capable of guiding cell differentiation—and the mechanisms for these processes remain unclear. Here, we report that a 115 V/m direct current (DC) electric field can induce directional migration of neural precursor cells (NPCs). Whole cell patching revealed that the cell membrane depolarized in the electric field, and buffering of extracellular calcium via EGTA prevented cell migration under these conditions. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that the same electric intensity could also be used to enhance differentiation and increase the percentage of cell differentiation into neurons, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The results indicate that DC electric field of this specific intensity is capable of promoting cell directional migration and orchestrating functional differentiation, suggestively mediated by calcium influx during DC field exposure. PMID:26068466

  16. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Travis W.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Holdaway, Richard N.; Sagar, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old) of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean. PMID:25493430

  17. Diffusion filter eliminates fringe effects of coherent laser light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsasky, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Diffusion filter comprised of small particles in colloidal suspension reduces the coherence of a laser beam used as a photographic light source. Interference patterns which obscure details in photographic film are eliminated, the intensity and collimation are moderately affected.

  18. Elimination of protease-inhibitor complexes from the arthritic joint.

    PubMed

    Ekerot, L; Ohlsson, K; Necking, L

    1985-01-01

    In the rheumatic joint, destructive proteolytic enzymes are released and counteracted by complexation to the predominant inhibitors alpha 2-macroglobulin and alpha 1-antitrypsin. The articular elimination of these complexes is thought to be of decisive importance in the protease-inhibitor interplay influencing the inhibitory capacity of the synovial fluid. Protease-alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes showed an intraarticular half-life shorter than 2 hours in arthritis and were eliminated by various routes including phagocytosis in cells of the synovial membrane and in regional lymph nodes, in addition to haematogenous resorption and uptake in the liver. The phagocytosed complexes were degraded to low-molecular-weight metabolites excretable in the urine. The articular elimination of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes seemed to be an equivalent process, but an additional intrasynovial dissociation of the complexes was also indicated. Thus the intraarticularly released elastase seemed to be bound and eliminated in complex with alpha 2-macroglobulin. PMID:2414244

  19. [Molecular surveillance shows progress in measles elimination process].

    PubMed

    Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    Measles is a severe disease caused by infection with the measles virus. Complications after the onset of infection lead to 1-3 fatalities per 1,000 cases in industrialized countries. If more than 95 % of the global population were vaccinated twice with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, measles could be eliminated worldwide. The elimination of measles and rubella should be reached in the WHO Europe region in 2015. One important criterion for elimination of the measles virus consists in the analysis of the duration of transmission chains initiated by the import of measles virus. To assign measles viruses to outbreaks and transmission chains, genetic characterization is necessary. These investigations have been performed continually at the National Reference Center Measles, Mumps, Rubella since 1999, when the German Intervention Program was launched. This article summarizes our experiences with measles virus genotyping and new developments with respect to measles elimination in Germany. PMID:23990085

  20. Saturation current spikes eliminated in saturable core transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core saturation causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.

  1. [Molecular surveillance shows progress in measles elimination process].

    PubMed

    Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

    2013-09-01

    Measles is a severe disease caused by infection with the measles virus. Complications after the onset of infection lead to 1-3 fatalities per 1,000 cases in industrialized countries. If more than 95 % of the global population were vaccinated twice with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, measles could be eliminated worldwide. The elimination of measles and rubella should be reached in the WHO Europe region in 2015. One important criterion for elimination of the measles virus consists in the analysis of the duration of transmission chains initiated by the import of measles virus. To assign measles viruses to outbreaks and transmission chains, genetic characterization is necessary. These investigations have been performed continually at the National Reference Center Measles, Mumps, Rubella since 1999, when the German Intervention Program was launched. This article summarizes our experiences with measles virus genotyping and new developments with respect to measles elimination in Germany.

  2. Adhesive-backed terminal board eliminates mounting screws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Low-profile terminal board is used in dense electronic circuits where mounting and working space is limited. The board has a thin layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive backing which eliminates the need for mounting screws.

  3. SORPTION ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: ELIMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption was found to be greatly affected by the biological activity in wastewater solids. wo experimental techniques, cyanide treatment and pasteurization, were developed for eliminating the biological activity during isotherm measurements. oth methods are effective; however, pa...

  4. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature. PMID:12313840

  5. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cotlear, D

    1984-06-01

    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  6. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  7. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. Japanese Migration and the Americas: An Introduction to the Study of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Brunette, Rachel

    This curriculum module introduces students to the study of migration, including a brief overview of some categories of migration and reasons why people migrate. As a case study, the module uses the Japanese migration experience in the United States, Peru, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The module introduces students to…

  9. Slow Reductive Elimination from Arylpalladium Parent Amido Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report reductive eliminations of primary arylamines from a series of bisphosphine-ligated arylpalladium(II) parent amido complexes that counter several established trends. In contrast to arylamido and alkylamido complexes of the aromatic bisphosphines DPPF and BINAP, parent amido complexes, do not form or undergo reductive elimination of monoarylamines. However, arylpalladium parent amido complexes ligated by the alkylbisphosphine CyPF-t-Bu form in good yield and undergo reductive elimination. Despite the basicity of parent amido ligand and the typically faster reductive elimination from complexes containing more basic amido ligands, the CyPF-t-Bu-ligated arylpalladium parent amido complexes undergo reductive elimination much more slowly than the analogous complexes containing arylamido or alkylamido ligands. Moreover, the parent amido complexes form more rapidly and are more stable thermodynamically in a series of exchange processes than the arylamido complexes. Computational studies support the overriding influence of steric effects on the stability and reactivity of the parent amido complex. The slow rate of reductive elimination causes the arylpalladium amido complex to be the resting state of the coupling of aryl halides with ammonia catalyzed by CyPF-t-Bu-ligated palladium, and this resting state contrasts the Pd(0) or arylpalladium(II) resting states of reactions of aryl halides with amines catalyzed by most palladium complexes. PMID:20695642

  10. Leprosy: too complex a disease for a simple elimination paradigm.

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Suneetha, Sujai

    2005-01-01

    Can leprosy be eliminated? This paper considers the question against the background of the WHO programme to eliminate leprosy. In 1991 the World Health Assembly set a target of eliminating leprosy as a public health problem by 2000. Elimination was defined as reaching a prevalence of < 1 case per 10 000 people. The elimination programme has been successful in delivering highly effective antibiotic therapy worldwide. However, despite this advance, new-case detection rates remain stable in countries with the highest rates of endemic leprosy, such as Brazil and India. This suggests that infection has not been adequately controlled by antibiotics alone. Leprosy is perhaps more appropriately classed as a chronic stable disease than as an acute infectious disease responsive to elimination strategies. In many countries activities to control and treat leprosy are being integrated into the general health-care system. This reduces the stigma associated with leprosy. However, leprosy causes long-term immunological complications, disability and deformity. The health-care activities of treating and preventing disabilities need to be provided in an integrated setting. Detecting new cases and monitoring disability caused by leprosy will be a challenge. One solution is to implement long-term surveillance in selected countries with the highest rates of endemic disease so that an accurate estimate of the burden of leprosy can be determined. It is also critical that broad-based research into this challenging disease continues until the problems are truly solved. PMID:15798849

  11. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Winnen, M.; Plaisier, A. P.; Alley, E. S.; Nagelkerke, N. J. D.; van Oortmarssen, G.; Boatin, B. A.; Habbema, J. D. F.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community. METHODS: ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation model for onchocerciasis transmission, was used to explore the implications of different treatment intervals, coverage levels and precontrol endemicities for the likelihood of elimination. FINDINGS: Simulations suggested that control strategies based exclusively on ivermectin mass treatments could eliminate onchocerciasis. The duration of treatment required to eliminate infection depended heavily on the treatment programme and precontrol endemicity. In areas with medium to high levels of infection, annual mass treatments with 65% coverage for at least 25 years were necessary. Model predictions suggested that durations exceeding 35 years would be required if there were much heterogeneity in exposure to vector bites and, consequently, wide individual variation in microfilaria counts. If the treatment interval were reduced from 12 to 6 months the time for completion of the programme could be more than halved and elimination could be accomplished in areas of hyperendemicity, provided that the effects of each treatment would be the same as with annual treatments. However, it was doubtful whether high coverage levels could be sustained long enough to achieve worldwide eradication. CONCLUSION: Elimination of onchocerciasis from most endemic foci in Africa appears to be possible. However, the requirements in terms of duration, coverage, and frequency of treatment may be prohibitive in highly endemic areas. PMID:12077614

  12. Elimination of amino acids in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Druml, W; Bürger, U; Kleinberger, G; Lenz, K; Laggner, A

    1986-01-01

    Plasma amino acid concentrations and the elimination of parenterally administered amino acids were investigated in 12 patients with nonhypercatabolic acute renal failure. A distinctive plasma amino acid pattern could be observed: plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and methionine were increased, those of valine and leucine decreased. Of the nonessential amino acids, cystine, taurine und tyrosine had elevated but none of them reduced plasma concentrations. The elimination of amino acids was evaluated in a monocompartment model after bolus injection of an amino acid solution containing essential and nonessential amino acids. Pharmacokinetic parameters of 17 amino acids were calculated. The mean elimination half-time was raised by 25%. The elimination half-time of phenylalanine, methionine, glutamic acid, proline and ornithine was increased. Histidine was the only amino acid with--however insignificantly--accelerated elimination from the intravascular compartment. The total clearance rate and total transfer rate was not altered (107 and 97% of normal, respectively). The clearance of threonine, lysine, serine, glycine and histidine was increased, of valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid and to a minor degree of methionine was decreased. The transfer rate of methionine, lysine, glycine was elevated, of valine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and ornithine reduced. The demonstration of these pronounced alterations of amino acid elimination in acute renal failure may have major consequences in parenteral amino acid therapy.

  13. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.

  14. Neural crest migration: trailblazing ahead

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic cell migration patterns are amazingly complex in the timing and spatial distribution of cells throughout the vertebrate landscape. However, advances in in vivo visualization, cell interrogation, and computational modeling are extracting critical features that underlie the mechanistic nature of these patterns. The focus of this review highlights recent advances in the study of the highly invasive neural crest cells and their migratory patterns during embryonic development. We discuss these advances within three major themes and include a description of computational models that have emerged to more rapidly integrate and test hypothetical mechanisms of neural crest migration. We conclude with technological advances that promise to reveal new insights and help translate results to human neural crest-related birth defects and metastatic cancer. PMID:25705385

  15. China: surplus labour and migration.

    PubMed

    Banister, J; Taylor, J R

    1989-12-01

    Surplus labor force and migration trends in China are examined, with emphasis on the impact of underemployment in rural areas. "Government policy encourages surplus labourers to transfer out of crop farming into agricultural sidelines or non-agricultural work. Peasants are urged to stay where they are, shifting jobs without shifting location; however, many rural areas are poorly endowed for providing alternative employment, so their surplus workers must also leave the village to find work. Many do not formally migrate, but rather move on a seasonal basis or set up 'temporary' residence in an urban place. This 'floating' population has been escalating rapidly in recent years....[The authors argue] that China's cities and towns can absorb millions of surplus labourers from rural areas each year, to the mutual benefit of sending and receiving areas." PMID:12342630

  16. Physicists' Forced Migrations under Hitler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerchen, Alan

    2011-03-01

    When the Nazis came to power in early 1933 they initiated formal and informal measures that forced Jews and political opponents from public institutions such as universities. Some physicists retired and others went into industry, but most emigrated. International communication and contact made emigration a viable option despite the desperate economic times in the Great Depression. Another wave of emigrations followed the annexation of Austria in 1938. Individual cases as well as general patterns of migration and adaptation to new environments will be examined in this presentation. One important result of the forced migrations was that many of the physicists expelled under Hitler played important roles in strengthening physics elsewhere, often on the Allied side in World War II.

  17. Multiscreen backpropagator for fast 3D elastic prestack migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ru-Shan; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    1994-09-01

    Due the huge amount of computation and internal memory required, wave backpropagation becomes the bottleneck of prestack migration or other 3D imaging/inversion procedures. We propose to use the multi-screen backpropagator for 3D prestack migration in laterally inhomogeneous background (depth migration). Multi-screen (phase-screen for scalar waves, elastic complex-screen for elastic waves) backpropagator shuttles between space-domain and wavenumber-domain using FFT and therefore avoids the time-demanding matrix multiplication. The time saving is tremendous for large-size elastic wave problems. Because it needs to store the medium parameters only one grid-plane for each step, the enormous computer memory saving makes it capable of handling large 3D problem prohibitive to other methods. The method of elastic complex screen (ECS) is a one-way propagation algorithm by neglecting the backscattered waves. However, all the forward multiple-scattering effect, such as the focusing/defocusing, diffraction, interference, wave conversion between P and S, interface waves, guided waves, etc., can be correctly handled. In this paper first the Love integral and Love migration integral are introduced. The formulation of elastic complex-screen as elastic wave one-way propagator is summarized. Numerical tests and comparisons with other full-wave methods (elastic wave finite difference and eigenfunction expansion method) are presented to show the validity of the propagator. Finally, two numerical examples of single-shot prestack migration using the ECS backpropagator, one for homogeneous background and the other for inhomogeneous background, are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  18. Robotic Access to Planetary Surfaces Capability Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A set of robotic access to planetary surfaces capability developments and supporting infrastructure have been identified. Reference mission pulls derived from ongoing strategic planning. Capability pushes to enable broader mission considerations. Facility and flight test capability needs. Those developments have been described to the level of detail needed for high-level planning. Content and approach. Readiness and metrics. Rough schedule and cost. Connectivity to mission concepts.

  19. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  20. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    PubMed

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  1. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    PubMed

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  2. Population forecasting with endogenous migration: an application to trans-Tasman migration.

    PubMed

    Gorbey, S; James, D; Poot, J

    1999-04-01

    "This article focuses on forecasting migration between Australia and New Zealand (trans-Tasman migration), which is largely visa-free and therefore resembles internal migration. Net trans-Tasman migration is a major component of New Zealand population change and is embedded in this article in a Bayesian or unrestricted vector autoregression (VAR) model, which includes foreign and domestic economic variables. When time series of net migration are available, this approach provides a useful input into forecasting population growth in the short run in the absence of major policy changes. This conclusion applies equally to interregional migration and to unrestricted international migration between economically integrated nations."

  3. Stiff DAE integrator with sensitivity analysis capabilities

    2007-11-26

    IDAS is a general purpose (serial and parallel) solver for differential equation (ODE) systems with senstivity analysis capabilities. It provides both forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis options.

  4. EMERGING CAPABILITIES FOR MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION WITH POLYCHROMATIC MICRODIFFRACTION8

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E; Larson, Ben C; Budai, John D; Specht, Eliot D; Barabash, Rozaliya; Pang, Judy; Tischler, Jonathan; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Polychromatic microdiffraction is an emerging tool for mapping local crystal structure with submicron three-dimensional resolution. The method is sensitive to the local crystal phase, crystallographic orientation, elastic strain, and lattice curvature. For many materials it is also nondestructive, which allows for unique experiments that probe how particular structural configurations evolve during processing and service. This capability opens up the possibility of testing and guiding theories without the limitations imposed by destructive techniques, surface-limited measurements or ensemble averages. This new capability will impact long-standing issues of materials science ranging from the factors that control anisotropic materials deformation to factors that influence grain growth, grain boundary migration, electromigration and stress driven materials evolution. Such mesoscopic phenomena are at the heart of virtually all materials processing and form the basis for modern materials engineering. Here we describe the state-of-the-art, and discuss new instrumentation with the promise of better sensitivity and better real and reciprocal space resolution. Example science and future research opportunities are described.

  5. Lessons from the motorized migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Lishman, W.A.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ten experiments have been conducted to determine if cranes can be led on migration and if those so trained will repeat migrations on their own. Results have been mixed as we have experienced the mishaps common to pilot studies. Nevertheless, we have learned many valuable lessons. Chief among these are that cranes can be led long distances behind motorized craft (air and ground), and those led over most or the entire route will return north come spring and south in fall to and from the general area of training. However, they will follow their own route. Groups transported south and flown at intervals along the route will migrate but often miss target termini. If certain protocol restrictions are followed, it is possible to make the trained cranes wild, however, the most practical way of so doing is to introduce them into a flock of wild cranes. We project that it is possible to create or restore wild migratory flocks of cranes by first leading small groups from chosen northern to southern termini.

  6. International migration statistics in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garcia Y Griego, M

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, Mexico has experienced both large-scale emigration directly, mostly to the US, and the mass immigration of Central American refugees. The implementation of the US Immigration and Control Act of 1986 and the possible escalation of armed conflicts in Central America may result in expanded inflows either of returning citizens or of new refugee waves. To develop appropriate policy responses, Mexico needs reliable information on international migration flows. This research note reviews available sources of that information--arrival and departure statistics, population censuses, refugee censuses, and survey data--and concludes that most of them are relatively weak. Currently, the published data on entries and departures provide little information on the demographic impact of legal migration, although they suggest that the inflow of foreigners is small. The census corroborates such findings, but it yields inadequate demographic detail. The movement of Mexican nationals, on the other hand, is poorly reflected by both sources. The void they leave has been palliated somewhat by surveys, but the only nationally representative survey on emigration was carried out in the late 1970s and might be a less than ideal basis for current policy formulation. It is hoped that as the relevance of international migration becomes more evident, steps towards the improvement of existing statistical systems may be undertaken. In the absence of such measures, policy-makers and researchers will have to continue relying on ad hoc surveys to answer the most pressing questions on the subject. PMID:12280914

  7. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  8. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    PubMed Central

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin; Thorup, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses varied from travelling toward the first stopover in northern Europe to flying toward the Central-African winter grounds, the latter including several stopovers in unfamiliar areas. Apparently, the cuckoos possess spatial knowledge far beyond their population-specific flyway scale, and make individual decisions likely based on an assessment of perceived gain and cost of alternative route options. PMID:26549318

  9. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  10. Deep scattering layer migration and composition: observations from a diving saucer.

    PubMed

    Barham, E G

    1966-03-18

    The distribution of a myctophid fish and physonect siphonophores observed during dives in the Soucoupe off Baja California closely correlates with scattering layers recorded simultaneously with a 12-kcy/sec echo sounder. These organisms were observed while they were migrating vertically, and at their night and daytime levels. They are capable of rapid, extensive changes in depth. PMID:17817303

  11. Managing international migration: past, present, and future trends and issues.

    PubMed

    Hammar, T

    1991-01-01

    The author provides a brief overview of current international migration trends. Aspects considered include economic motives for migration, refugee migration, migration policies and human rights, and political factors. Comments by Jean-Yves Carlier are included (pp. 192-3).

  12. Control of binucleate cell migration in the placenta of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Wooding, F B; Flint, A P; Heap, R B; Morgan, G; Buttle, H L; Young, I R

    1986-03-01

    In the ruminant placenta 15-20% of the trophectodermal epithelium consists of granulated binucleate cells (BNC). In the sheep the granules contain ovine placental lactogen (oPL). These cells migrate from the trophectoderm to form fetomaternal hybrid tissue from implantation to term. The number of BNC, their percentage migration and the potential secretory activity of the syncytium they form were estimated by semiquantitative transmission electron-microscopical techniques after several surgical techniques and hormone or drug infusions. BNC numbers decrease normally just before parturition, and this fall could be eliminated by fetal hypophysectomy or induced early by administration of tetracosactrin to intact or hypophysectomized fetuses. If only one twin was treated with tetracosactrin the placenta of the untreated twin did not show the fall in BNC numbers found in the other unless it died in utero some time before sampling. This indicates fetal control of BNC number and migration. However, fetal catheterization, hypophysectomy, stalk section, adrenalectomy, infusion of mouse epidermal growth factor or bromocriptine had little or no effect on binucleate cell numbers or migration percentages. Maternal carunclectomy, ovariectomy, or epostane or bromocriptine administration also had no consistent significant effect. Previous reports of degeneration of BNC structure plus a decrease in their number (with bromocriptine) or an increase in migration frequency (after adrenalectomy or stalk section) have not been confirmed by this study. The BNC migration delivers the oPL-containing BNC granules close to the maternal circulation but the variation in migration seems only loosely correlated with the reported maternal oPL concentrations. The results indicate that BNC migration is independent of the hormonal milieu, but that BNC production is greatly modified by the hormonal changes just before parturition, with cortisol production by the fetus a possible primary cause. PMID

  13. Overview of NASA MSFC IEC Federated Engineering Collaboration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moushon, Brian; McDuffee, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The MSFC IEC federated engineering framework is currently developing a single collaborative engineering framework across independent NASA centers. The federated approach allows NASA centers the ability to maintain diversity and uniqueness, while providing interoperability. These systems are integrated together in a federated framework without compromising individual center capabilities. MSFC IEC's Federation Framework will have a direct affect on how engineering data is managed across the Agency. The approach is directly attributed in response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB) finding F7.4-11 which states the Space Shuttle Program has a wealth of data sucked away in multiple databases without a convenient way to integrate and use the data for management, engineering, or safety decisions. IEC s federated capability is further supported by OneNASA recommendation 6 that identifies the need to enhance cross-Agency collaboration by putting in place common engineering and collaborative tools and databases, processes, and knowledge-sharing structures. MSFC's IEC Federated Framework is loosely connected to other engineering applications that can provide users with the integration needed to achieve an Agency view of the entire product definition and development process, while allowing work to be distributed across NASA Centers and contractors. The IEC DDMS federation framework eliminates the need to develop a single, enterprise-wide data model, where the goal of having a common data model shared between NASA centers and contractors is very difficult to achieve.

  14. Long-range seasonal migration in insects: mechanisms, evolutionary drivers and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Myriad tiny insect species take to the air to engage in windborne migration, but entomology also has its 'charismatic megafauna' of butterflies, large moths, dragonflies and locusts. The spectacular migrations of large day-flying insects have long fascinated humankind, and since the advent of radar entomology much has been revealed about high-altitude night-time insect migrations. Over the last decade, there have been significant advances in insect migration research, which we review here. In particular, we highlight: (1) notable improvements in our understanding of lepidopteran navigation strategies, including the hitherto unsuspected capabilities of high-altitude migrants to select favourable winds and orientate adaptively, (2) progress in unravelling the neuronal mechanisms underlying sun compass orientation and in identifying the genetic complex underpinning key traits associated with migration behaviour and performance in the monarch butterfly, and (3) improvements in our knowledge of the multifaceted interactions between disease agents and insect migrants, in terms of direct effects on migration success and pathogen spread, and indirect effects on the evolution of migratory systems. We conclude by highlighting the progress that can be made through inter-phyla comparisons, and identify future research areas that will enhance our understanding of insect migration strategies within an eco-evolutionary perspective.

  15. Long-range seasonal migration in insects: mechanisms, evolutionary drivers and ecological consequences.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Myriad tiny insect species take to the air to engage in windborne migration, but entomology also has its 'charismatic megafauna' of butterflies, large moths, dragonflies and locusts. The spectacular migrations of large day-flying insects have long fascinated humankind, and since the advent of radar entomology much has been revealed about high-altitude night-time insect migrations. Over the last decade, there have been significant advances in insect migration research, which we review here. In particular, we highlight: (1) notable improvements in our understanding of lepidopteran navigation strategies, including the hitherto unsuspected capabilities of high-altitude migrants to select favourable winds and orientate adaptively, (2) progress in unravelling the neuronal mechanisms underlying sun compass orientation and in identifying the genetic complex underpinning key traits associated with migration behaviour and performance in the monarch butterfly, and (3) improvements in our knowledge of the multifaceted interactions between disease agents and insect migrants, in terms of direct effects on migration success and pathogen spread, and indirect effects on the evolution of migratory systems. We conclude by highlighting the progress that can be made through inter-phyla comparisons, and identify future research areas that will enhance our understanding of insect migration strategies within an eco-evolutionary perspective. PMID:25611117

  16. Trends in return migration to the South.

    PubMed

    Long, L H; Hansen, K A

    1975-11-01

    The rate of return migration to the South rose by nearly 19 percent between the late 1950's and the late 1960's and was an important factor in changing the South's overall migration pattern. But an increase in the rate of return migration was somewhat less important in changing Southern migration than (1) a decline in the rate of out-migration of native Southerners and (2) an increase in the rate at which non-Southern-born persons move to the South. The probability of former migrants returning to the South was over four times greater for whites than for blacks in the 1955-1960 period and three and one-fourth times greater in the 1965-1970 period. Since 1970 the rate of return migration has apparently continued to rise at a faster rate for blacks, but the black rate of return migration is still below the white rate.

  17. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force. PMID:12265626

  18. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  19. Social Physics and China's Population Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Lin; Li, Ding

    Based on the social physics theory, this paper analyzes the economic disparities between different regions in China, and contributes a conceptual model of population migration among eastern, central, western and north-eastern regions. The national 1% population sample investigation data is adopted to build a network of inter-provincial population migration, and the population migration network is analyzed with social network analysis. The results are shown that there is a very strong correlation between migrant population and economy disparity in China, and the migration with obviously geographical characteristics. The eastern region is the main areas for migration-inflow; the central region is the main areas of migration-outflow; the western region is relatively “locked-up”, with a little of population flow; and the migration of the northeast is mainly within its own regional territory.

  20. Capability and Health Functioning in Ethiopian Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabsout, Ramzi

    2011-01-01

    From a recent Ethiopian representative household survey this paper empirically operationalizes concepts from the capability approach to shed light on the relationship between conversion factors, capability inputs and health functionings. The subjects of the study are women in partnership. The results suggest their health functionings are…

  1. Dynamic networked combat capability (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John G.

    2005-05-01

    Dynamic Networked Combat Capability is a transformational concept to enable network centric warfare at the tactical level - the immediate attack of targets of opportunity using any and all assets available: any sensor, any effect generator and any decider against any target. More specifically, the DARPA goal is to provide enabling technologies that will permit the Services to build such a capability.

  2. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to...

  3. Action Learning, Performativity and Negative Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the concept of negative capability as a human capacity for containment and contrasts it with well-valued positive capability as expressed through performativity in organisations and society. It identifies the problem of dispersal--the complex ways we behave in order to avoid the emotional challenges of living with uncertainty.…

  4. Building Organisational Capability the Private Provider Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Organisational capability is recognised as a key to organisational success. The combination of human capital (peoples' skills and knowledge), social capital (relationships between people) and organisational capital (the organisation's processes), is central to building an organisation's capability. This paper, presented at the 2008 annual…

  5. Remote manipulator system steering capability for SVDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    Details of the remote manipulator system steering capability to be implemented into the space vehicle dynamics simulator are reported. The resolve rate law is included as part of the overall steering capability. The steering model includes three automatic modes, four manual augmented modes, and a single joint rate mode.

  6. Space Communications Capability Roadmap Interim Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearing, Robert; Regan, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Identify the need for a robust communications and navigation architecture for the success of exploration and science missions. Describe an approach for specifying architecture alternatives and analyzing them. Establish a top level architecture based on a network of networks. Identify key enabling technologies. Synthesize capability, architecture and technology into an initial capability roadmap.

  7. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  8. Adult Financial Capability Framework. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Both the Financial Services Authority and the Basic Skills Agency are committed to supporting those individuals and organisations working to improve the financial capability of themselves and others. The development of the National Strategy for Financial Capability, coordinated by the Financial Services Authority, and the commissioning of a…

  9. Defining and Assessing Enterprise Capability in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Hughes, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument for assessing enterprise capability in schools. The approach to assessing enterprise capability builds on previous work by including three dimensions: self-efficacy, aspirations and knowledge and awareness. We find significant but weak associations between these three constructs suggesting that…

  10. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to...

  11. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to...

  12. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to...

  13. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to...

  14. Curriculum Mapping to Embed Graduate Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, David; Riddle, Matthew; Knewstubb, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Graduate capabilities are an essential aspect of undergraduate development in higher education. Accordingly, La Trobe University's "Design for learning" has identified particular university-wide graduate capabilities and required all faculties to explicitly embed these in their curricula. The Faculty of Law and Management developed an approach to…

  15. Cultivating Human Capabilities in Venturesome Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Padraig

    2013-01-01

    The notion of competencies has been a familiar feature of educational reform policies for decades. In this essay, Padraig Hogan begins by highlighting the contrasting notion of capabilities, pioneered by the research of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. An educational variant of the notion of capabilities then becomes the basis for exploring…

  16. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  17. GABAergic inhibition regulates developmental synapse elimination in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hisako; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Kitamura, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kano, Masanobu

    2012-04-26

    Functional neural circuit formation during development involves massive elimination of redundant synapses. In the cerebellum, one-to-one connection from excitatory climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) is established by elimination of early-formed surplus CFs. This process depends on glutamatergic excitatory inputs, but contribution of GABAergic transmission remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate impaired CF synapse elimination in mouse models with diminished GABAergic transmission by mutation of a single allele for the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67, by conditional deletion of GAD67 from PCs and GABAergic interneurons or by pharmacological inhibition of cerebellar GAD activity. The impaired CF synapse elimination was rescued by enhancing GABA(A) receptor sensitivity in the cerebellum by locally applied diazepam. Our electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging data suggest that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition onto the PC soma from molecular layer interneurons influences CF-induced Ca2+ transients in the soma and regulates CF synapse elimination from postnatal day 10 (P10) to around P16. PMID:22542190

  18. Progress toward regional measles elimination--worldwide, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Perry, Robert T; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2014-11-14

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Member states of all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to <5 cases per million; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. This report updates the 2000-2012 report and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000-2013. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 72% worldwide, from 146 to 40 per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 75%, from 544,200 to 145,700. Four of six WHO regions have established regional verification commissions (RVCs); in the European (EUR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR), 19 member states successfully documented the absence of endemic measles. Resuming progress toward 2015 milestones and elimination goals will require countries and their partners to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  19. Effective program management: a cornerstone of malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Jonathan; Case, Peter; Tulloch, Jim; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Newby, Gretchen; Gueye, Cara Smith; Koita, Kadiatou; Gosling, Roly

    2015-07-01

    Effective program management is essential for successful elimination of malaria. In this perspective article, evidence surrounding malaria program management is reviewed by management science and malaria experts through a literature search of published and unpublished gray documents and key informant interviews. Program management in a malaria elimination setting differs from that in a malaria control setting in a number of ways, although knowledge and understanding of these distinctions are lacking. Several core features of successful health program management are critical to achieve elimination, including effective leadership and supervision at all levels, sustained political and financial commitment, reliable supply and control of physical resources, effective management of data and information, appropriate incentives, and consistent accountability. Adding to the complexity, the requirements of an elimination program may conflict with those of a control regimen. Thus, an additional challenge is successfully managing program transitions along the continuum from control to elimination to prevention of reintroduction. This article identifies potential solutions to these challenges by exploring managerial approaches that are flexible, relevant, and sustainable in various cultural and health system contexts.

  20. Surveillance and response to drive the national malaria elimination program.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin-Yu; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Vong, Sirenda; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The national action plan for malaria elimination in China (2010-2020) was issued by the Chinese Ministry of Health along with other 13 ministries and commissions in 2010. The ultimate goal of the national action plan was to eliminate local transmission of malaria by the end of 2020. Surveillance and response are the most important components driving the whole process of the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP), under the technical guidance used in NMEP. This chapter introduces the evolution of the surveillance from the control to the elimination stages and the current structure of national surveillance system in China. When the NMEP launched, both routine surveillance and sentinel surveillance played critical role in monitoring the process of NMEP. In addition, the current response strategy of NMEP was also reviewed, including the generally developed "1-3-7 Strategy". More effective and sensitive risk assessment tools were introduced, which cannot only predict the trends of malaria, but also are important for the design and adjustment of the surveillance and response systems in the malaria elimination stage. Therefore, this review presents the landscape of malaria surveillance and response in China as well as their contribution to the NMEP, with a focus on activities for early detection of malaria cases, timely control of malaria foci and epidemics, and risk prediction. Furthermore, challenges and recommendations for accelerating NMEP through surveillance are put forward. PMID:25476882

  1. Effect of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 blockade of Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, H Ch; Zhang, Y X; Liu, Y; Wang, Q Sh

    2016-07-14

    We investigated the effect of the IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 in the blockade of the Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells. We examined the effects of IL-17 antibody or IL-35 treatment alone or in combination on cell invasion and migration capabilities with Transwell chambers. The mRNA levels of Hes1, Hes5, and Hey1 were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of N1ICD, Snail, and E-cadherin protein expressions were measured with western blot. The expression of Hes1, Hes5, Hey1 and N1ICD were all very high in hepatoma cell lines, and were positively correlated with the invasive migration capabilities of the cells. The combination of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab with IL-35 could effectively inhibit the Notch signaling pathway, as well as the invasive migration of the cells. Snail and E-cadherin are involved in the migration of hepatoma cells, and it has been established that Snail can regulate the expression of E-cadherin. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can increase E-cadherin and decrease Snail expression, which are positively correlated with cell invasive migration capabilities. Overall, treatment with both IL-17 antibody and IL-35 is more effective than each treatment alone. Notch signaling is activated in hepatoma cell lines and increases with the enhancement of cell invasive migration capabilities. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can block the Notch signaling pathway, simultaneously reducing the invasive migration capability of hepatoma cells.

  2. Palladium catalyzed coupling reactions: mechanism of reductive elimination. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980. [Ethane elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Stille, J.K.

    1980-09-01

    The 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane from three cis-bis(phosphine)-dimethylpalladium complexes, L/sub 2/Pd(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/,CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/), and three trans analogs (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ and L/sub 2/ = 2,11-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)benzo(c)phenanthrene (TRANSPHOS)) was carried out. The three cis complexes underwent reductive elimination in the presence of coordinating solvents (DMSO, DMF, and THF). The trans complexes which could isomerize to cis (L = PPh/sub 3/, PPh/sub 2/CH/sub 3/) did so in polar solvents and then underwent reductive elimination. TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium would not undergo reductive elimination of ethane. The eliminations from the cis isomers were intramolecular and displayed first order kinetics. Although TRANSPHOS dimethylpalladium(II) would not undergo a 1,1-reductive elimination of ethane, the addition of CD/sub 3/I to a DMSO solution of this complex at 25/sup 0/C rapidly produced CD/sub 3/-CH/sub 3/, implicating a transient palladium(IV) intermediate. E- and Z-bromostyrylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(0) react with methyl lithium in THF at ambient temperature to give the E- and Z- propenylbenzenes, respectively. At -78/sup 0/C, the intermediate E- and Z-styrylmethylbis(diphenylmethylphosphine)palladium(II) complexes (9a,b) can be isolated. On raising the temperature of solutions of 9a,b in THF, E- and Z-propenylbenzenes are produced. The reductive elimination reaction is intramolecular and first order in dialkylpalladium(II) complex.

  3. China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forden, Geoffrey

    2008-04-01

    Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly

  4. Enhanced Monte-Carlo-Linked Depletion Capabilities in MCNPX

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, Michael L.; Hendricks, John S.; Anghaie, Samim

    2006-07-01

    As advanced reactor concepts challenge the accuracy of current modeling technologies, a higher-fidelity depletion calculation is necessary to model time-dependent core reactivity properly for accurate cycle length and safety margin determinations. The recent integration of CINDER90 into the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code provides a completely self-contained Monte-Carlo-linked depletion capability. Two advances have been made in the latest MCNPX capability based on problems observed in pre-released versions: continuous energy collision density tracking and proper fission yield selection. Pre-released versions of the MCNPX depletion code calculated the reaction rates for (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,a), and (n,?) by matching the MCNPX steady-state 63-group flux with 63-group cross sections inherent in the CINDER90 library and then collapsing to one-group collision densities for the depletion calculation. This procedure led to inaccuracies due to the miscalculation of the reaction rates resulting from the collapsed multi-group approach. The current version of MCNPX eliminates this problem by using collapsed one-group collision densities generated from continuous energy reaction rates determined during the MCNPX steady-state calculation. MCNPX also now explicitly determines the proper fission yield to be used by the CINDER90 code for the depletion calculation. The CINDER90 code offers a thermal, fast, and high-energy fission yield for each fissile isotope contained in the CINDER90 data file. MCNPX determines which fission yield to use for a specified problem by calculating the integral fission rate for the defined energy boundaries (thermal, fast, and high energy), determining which energy range contains the majority of fissions, and then selecting the appropriate fission yield for the energy range containing the majority of fissions. The MCNPX depletion capability enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code

  5. Philippine migration policy: dilemmas of a crisis.

    PubMed

    Battistella, G

    1999-04-01

    Philippine migration policy is traced from the early 1970s to the present. The main migration trends in the 1990s are described. An assessment is made of the efficacy and appropriateness of present migration policy in light of the economic crisis. A regional approach to migration policy is necessary in order to encourage placing migration as a greater priority on national agendas and in bilateral agreements. In the Philippines, migrants are considered better paid workers, which diminishes their importance as a legislative or program priority. Santo Tomas (1998) conducted an empirical assessment of migration policies in the Philippines, but refinement is needed. Although migration is a transnational experience, there is little dialogue and cooperation among countries. Philippine migration policy defines its role as an information resource for migrants. Policy shifted from labor export to migrant management in the public and private sectors. Predeparture information program studies are recommending a multi-stage process that would involve all appropriate parties. There is talk of including migration information in the education curriculum. There are a variety of agendas, competing interests, and information resources between migration networks and officiating agencies. The Asian financial crisis may have a mild impact, but there are still issues of reintegration, protection, and employment conditions

  6. CTH reference manual : composite capability and technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Christopher T.; Schumacher, Shane C.

    2009-02-01

    The composite material research and development performed over the last year has greatly enhanced the capabilities of CTH for non-isotropic materials. The enhancements provide the users and developers with greatly enhanced capabilities to address non-isotropic materials and their constitutive model development. The enhancements to CTH are intended to address various composite material applications such as armor systems, rocket motor cases, etc. A new method for inserting non-isotropic materials was developed using Diatom capabilities. This new insertion method makes it possible to add a layering capability to a shock physics hydrocode. This allows users to explicitly model each lamina of a composite without the overhead of modeling each lamina as a separate material to represent a laminate composite. This capability is designed for computational speed and modeling efficiency when studying composite material applications. In addition, the layering capability also allows a user to model interlaminar mechanisms. Finally, non-isotropic coupling methods have been investigated. The coupling methods are specific to shock physics where the Equation of State (EOS) is used with a nonisotropic constitutive model. This capability elastically corrects the EOS pressure (typically isotropic) for deviatoric pressure coupling for non-isotropic materials.

  7. Community psychology and the capabilities approach.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2015-06-01

    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles-what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen's focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum's specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology's focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters.

  8. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." PMID:12285774

  9. Savings, remittances, and return migration.

    PubMed

    Merkle, L; Zimmermann, K F

    1992-01-01

    "We use a data set of immigrants to West Germany to simultaneously study both savings and remittances which we relate to individual characteristics, economic variables, migration experiences and remigration plans. Section 2 discusses the basic hypotheses and explains the data. Section 3 presents the empirical study and Section 4 summarizes." The results suggest that "savings and remittances of migrants can be well explained by remigration plans and economic as well as demographic variables. However, the planned future duration of residence in Germany has a negative and significant effect only on remittances."

  10. Asian student migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  11. Clandestine labor migration to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsay, C

    1992-01-01

    "Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor."

  12. Use of a static eliminator to improve powder flow.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Kalyana C; Hammond, Stephen V; Muzzio, Fernando J; Shinbrot, Troy

    2009-03-18

    Glidants and lubricants have long been used to improve the flow and processing of pharmaceutical and other powder blends. In this letter, we find that similar improvements can be attained, without additives, by using a simple static eliminator. These results indicate, first, that electrostatic effects on powder blends may be a significant cause of powder aggregation and flow instabilities, and second, that common additives such as magnesium stearate, colloidal silica, and talc may have as their chief effect the reduction of static. This suggests both that intelligent placement of static eliminators can eliminate the need for some of these additives and that judicious engineering of ionic and cationic additives may be effective in improving flow of "clingy" materials.

  13. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, N; Dimitrov, S; Georgieva, D; Van Gestel, C A M; Hankard, P; Spurgeon, D; Li, H; Mekenyan, O

    2010-08-15

    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of chemicals are among the important factors that may significantly affect the bioaccumulation process in soil organisms. This study attempts to model elimination kinetics of organic chemicals in earthworms by accounting for the effects of both chemical and biological properties, including metabolism. The modeling approach that has been developed is based on the concept for simulating metabolism used in the BCF base-line model developed for predicting bioaccumulation in fish. Metabolism was explicitly accounted for by making use of the TIMES engine for simulation of metabolism and a set of principal transformations. Kinetic characteristics of transformations were estimated on the basis of observed kinetics data for the elimination of organic chemicals from earthworms. PMID:20185163

  14. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Pecoul, Bernard; Rijal, Suman; Boehme, Catharina; Aksoy, Serap; Malecela, Mwelecele; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Reeder, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world’s greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12]), additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts. PMID:26934395

  15. Fast control latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Cao, Ping; Liu, Shu-bin; An, Qi

    2016-09-01

    A new fanning topology is proposed to precisely fan out fast control signals in the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII) end-cap time-of-flight (ETOF) electronics. However, uncertainty in transfer latency is introduced by the new fanning channel, which will degrade the precision of fast control. In this paper, latency uncertainty elimination for the BESIII ETOF upgrade is introduced. The latency uncertainty is determined by a Time-Digital-Converter (TDC) embedded in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and is eliminated by re-capturing at synchronous and determinate time. Compared with the existing method of Barrel-cap TOF (BTOF), it has advantages of flexible structure, easy calibration and good adaptability. Field tests on the BESIII ETOF system show that this method effectively eliminates transfer latency uncertainty. Supported by CAS Maintenance Project for Major Scientific and Technological Infrastructure (IHEP-SW-953/2013)

  16. Modeling Selective Elimination of Quiescent Cancer Cells from Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Stephen P.; Rickelmann, Andrew D.; Meguiar, Kaille F.; Xiao, Annie; Dosch, Joseph; Leung, Brendan M.; Cai Lesher-Perez, Sasha; Chitta, Shashank; Luker, Kathryn E.; Takayama, Shuichi; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with many types of malignancy commonly harbor quiescent disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow. These cells frequently resist chemotherapy and may persist for years before proliferating as recurrent metastases. To test for compounds that eliminate quiescent cancer cells, we established a new 384-well 3D spheroid model in which small numbers of cancer cells reversibly arrest in G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle when cultured with bone marrow stromal cells. Using dual-color bioluminescence imaging to selectively quantify viability of cancer and stromal cells in the same spheroid, we identified single compounds and combination treatments that preferentially eliminated quiescent breast cancer cells but not stromal cells. A treatment combination effective against malignant cells in spheroids also eliminated breast cancer cells from bone marrow in a mouse xenograft model. This research establishes a novel screening platform for therapies that selectively target quiescent tumor cells, facilitating identification of new drugs to prevent recurrent cancer. PMID:26408255

  17. The ontogenetic development of orientation capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emlen, S. T.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of celestial references on the navigation ability of birds are discussed. Tests were conducted in a planetarium with indigo buntings to determine the amount of stellar pattern which could be removed before disorientation occurred. It was determined that young birds have a predisposition to respond to the apparent rotational motion of the night sky. It was concluded that the peak in responsiveness to rotational information is presented during the first summer of life, prior to the first migration season.

  18. Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data from 12 weather surveillance radar stations and modelled diurnal probability of occurrence for 142 species of nocturnal migrants. We first model the capacity of seasonal atmospheric conditions (wind and precipitation) and ecological productivity (vegetation greenness) to predict autumn migration intensity. We then test predictions, formulated under optimal migration theory, on how migration timing should be related to assemblage-level estimates of body size and total migration distance within the context of dietary guild (insectivore and omnivore) and level of dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 3. Our results indicate seasonal declines in ecological productivity delineate the beginning and end of peak migration, whose intensity is best predicted by the velocity of winds at migration altitudes. Insectivorous migrants departed earlier in the season and, consistent with our predictions, large-bodied and long-distance insectivorous migrants departed the earliest. Contrary to our predictions, large-bodied and some long-distance omnivorous migrants departed later in the season, patterns that were replicated in part by insectivorous migrants that displayed dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 4. Our findings indicate migration timing in the region is dictated by optimality strategies, modified based on the breadth and flexibility of migrant's foraging diets, with declining ecological productivity defining possible resource thresholds during which

  19. The meningeal lymphatic system: a route for HIV brain migration?

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Rose, Rebecca; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Nolan, David J; Salemi, Marco; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Two innovative studies recently identified functional lymphatic structures in the meninges that may influence the development of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Until now, blood vessels were assumed to be the sole transport system by which HIV-infected monocytes entered the brain by bypassing a potentially hostile blood-brain barrier through inflammatory-mediated semi-permeability. A cascade of specific chemokine signals promote monocyte migration from blood vessels to surrounding brain tissues via a well-supported endothelium, where the cells differentiate into tissue macrophages capable of productive HIV infection. Lymphatic vessels on the other hand are more loosely organized than blood vessels. They absorb interstitial fluid from bodily tissues where HIV may persist and exchange a variety of immune cells (CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) with surrounding tissues through discontinuous endothelial junctions. We propose that the newly discovered meningeal lymphatics are key to HIV migration among viral reservoirs and brain tissue during periods of undetectable plasma viral loads due to suppressive combinational antiretroviral therapy, thus redefining the migration process in terms of a blood-lymphatic transport system.

  20. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J.; Alegana, Victor A.; Caughlin, T. Trevor; zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W.; Smith, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913