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Sample records for elin sundgaard jeanette

  1. Deconstructing Religion in Jeanette Winterson's "Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit": A Metacritical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shara, Zaydun

    2015-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed an interesting new dimension in creative writing as a number of novelists have addressed literary theory in their literary texts, thus acting as creative metacritics. One intriguing writer who addresses theory in her fiction is the British novelist Jeanette Winterson. In this paper I intend to present Winterson…

  2. Elin@: Electronic Library Information Navigator--Towards the "One Stop Shop" Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwerud, Anna; Jorgensen, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    Libraries subscribe to thousands of electronic journals and they are difficult for end-users to find. Journal and publisher interfaces and functionalities differ considerably. The recent development in e-media calls for central management of the resources. Lund University Libraries' Head Office has developed a service for presentation and…

  3. 75 FR 31509 - Rescinding the Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement: Prince George's County, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jeanette Mar, Environmental Program Manager, FHWA, DelMar Division, 10 S. Howard Street, Suite 2450, Baltimore, MD 21201, Telephone: (410) 779-7152, e-mail address Jeanette.Mar@dot.gov....) Issued on: May 27, 2010. Jeanette Mar, Environmental Program Manager. BILLING CODE 4910-22-P...

  4. 78 FR 64408 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements and Referendum Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeanette Palmer, Marketing...

  5. A "Curling teacher" in mathematics education: teacher identities and pedagogy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Annica

    2011-12-01

    In this article, I outline processes that supported or hindered Elin, a mathematics teacher, to engage in pedagogy development. In a setting inspired by critical mathematics education, Elin was encouraged to bring societal themes into her upper secondary teaching so that mathematics was connected to social science subjects. A classroom environment was set up in which classroom discourses supported students' negotiations about their learning of mathematics. In this new pedagogical discourse, projects were introduced that while addressing the mandated mathematical topics of the curriculum, changed some key elements in how mathematics had been previously taught as well as the relationships between participants. Elin's narrated identities provided ways to understand shifts in Elin's ways of acting when gradually transforming her teaching. Elin's identities illuminated how she became aware of herself, her teaching organisation and her different ways of interacting with students. She identified and acted upon her perceptions of the new possibilities and different responsibilities that actors in mathematics classrooms have. Elin's fluctuating teacher identities reveal why she struggled at times and how she was constrained in becoming the teacher she wanted to become.

  6. Computational Thinking: A Digital Age Skill for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, David; Harrison, John; Conery, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In a seminal article published in 2006, Jeanette Wing described computational thinking (CT) as a way of "solving problems, designing systems, and understanding human behavior by drawing on the concepts fundamental to computer science." Wing's article gave rise to an often controversial discussion and debate among computer scientists,…

  7. Sparking Interest in Nonfiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCully, Emily Arnold; Hopkinson, Deborah; Ryder, Joanne; Peters, Lisa Westberg; Arnosky, Jim; Geisert, Arthur; Krull, Kathleen; Murphy, Jim; Fritz, Jean; Stanley, Diane; Winter, Jeannette; Lester, Julius

    2000-01-01

    These 12 authors discuss how they write appealing nonfiction books for children: Emily Arnold McCully; Deborah Hopkinson; Joanne Ryder; Lisa Westberg Peters; Jim Arnosky; Arthur Geisert; Kathleen Krull; Jim Murphy; Jean Fritz; Diane Stanley; Jeanette Winter; and Julius Lester. Discussion includes research; illustrations; stylistic approach and…

  8. 75 FR 76704 - Endangered Species; File Nos. 13307, 13544, and 14586

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... given that NMFS has issued a permit and two permit modifications to take sea turtles and marine mammals... turtles and marine mammals had been submitted by Jeanette Wyneken, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton... Jeffrey Schmid, PhD, Conservancy of Southwest Florida, Naples, FL, for sea turtle research. On April...

  9. Sociology of Education: Research in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the premises, standards, requirements, and consequences of education in the Caribbean. Chapters in the first section, "Gender, Education and EmploymentBroken Promises," are: (1) "Educational Management from a Perspective of Care: Women Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago" (Jeanette Morris);…

  10. Exploring Issues about Computational Thinking in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.; Lyman, Eugene W., III

    2015-01-01

    The term computational thinking (CT) has been in academic discourse for decades, but gained new currency in 2006, when Jeanette Wing used it to describe a set of thinking skills that students in all fields may require in order to succeed. Wing's initial article and subsequent writings on CT have been broadly influential; experts in…

  11. Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers: A Team Effort. ERIC Digest #461.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This information sheet summarizes findings from two reports: "Staffing Patterns and Team Models in Infancy Programs" by Jeanette McCollum and Mary-alayne Hughes, and "Early Intervention Team Approaches: The Transdisciplinary Model" by Geneva Woodruff and Mary McGonigel. The digest outlines the provisions of the Education of the…

  12. 77 FR 63845 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020..., National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300, 301- 451-2020, hoshawb@mail.nih.gov..., MSC 9300, 301-451-2020, Jeanette.hosseini@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance...

  13. "A Library They Deserve": The Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Davis, Marcia H.; Connolly, Faith

    2014-01-01

    The Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation has partnered with Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) to complete a series of reports examining the implementation and impact of the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project (Library Project). This report on the first year of the project examines the experiences of the…

  14. Reforming Personnel Preparation in Early Intervention: Issues, Models, and Practical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J., Ed.; And Others

    The 21 papers in this collection address changes and reforms in the preparation of teachers and other personnel concerned with early intervention with children having or at risk for disabilities. The papers are: (1) "Ecological Perspectives on Personnel Preparation: Rationale, Framework, and Guidelines for Change" (Pamela J. Winton, Jeanette A.…

  15. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  16. PILOT PROJECT CLOSE UP: ORD RESEARCH INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harvey, Jim and Elin Ulrich. 2004. Pilot Project Close Up: ORD Research Inventory. Changing Times. Pp. 1. (ERL,GB R1022).

    At the January 2003 summit, many people were drawn to our vision of improving ORD's internal communications by creating a "go-to" page that consolicat...

  17. Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    the investigators at Wake Forest (Zhongyu Li, MD, PhD, Mark Van Dyke, PhD, and Beth Paterson Smith, PhD). During the call, the subm ission of the...to D r. Darnell. In addition, docum ents were provided to document the breakdown of c osts, the tim eline for performance of preclinical work for

  18. RAS Ordinary Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    At the October 2013 meeting the President presented the Gold Medal to Prof. Chris Chapman, the Eddington Medal to Prof. James Binney, and Winton Capital Award to Dr Katherine Joy. Prof. Bob White gave the Harold Jeffreys Lecture on "Building the dynamic crust of Iceland by rifting and volcanism". At the November meeting, Prof. Eline Tolstoy gave the George Darwin Lecture on "Galactic palaeontology".

  19. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Solicitation or Contract Number CLIN SLIN OR ELIN * Item type(note (a)) ** Warranty item UII *** Warranty term... expiration(note (e)) Date * Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note (f)) ** Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier(note (g)) ** Warranty Guarantor Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note...

  20. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Solicitation or Contract Number CLIN SLIN OR ELIN * Item type(note (a)) ** Warranty item UII *** Warranty term... expiration(note (e)) Date * Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note (f)) ** Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier(note (g)) ** Warranty Guarantor Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note...

  1. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Solicitation or Contract Number CLIN SLIN OR ELIN * Item type(note (a)) ** Warranty item UII *** Warranty term... expiration(note (e)) Date * Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note (f)) ** Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier(note (g)) ** Warranty Guarantor Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note...

  2. 48 CFR 246.710-70 - Warranty attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Solicitation or Contract Number CLIN SLIN OR ELIN * Item type(note (a)) ** Warranty item UII *** Warranty term... expiration(note (e)) Date * Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note (f)) ** Warranty Administrator Enterprise Identifier(note (g)) ** Warranty Guarantor Enterprise Identifier Code Type(note...

  3. 75 FR 42446 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants Notice is hereby given that the following...-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF)--Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI.... dba E-Lines Shipping and Logistics, and Ocean Champ Shipping Limited (NVO), 1000 Corporate...

  4. Qualitative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James C., Ed.; James, Raymond A., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    "Qualitative evaluation" is the theme of this issue of the California Journal of Teacher Education. Ralph Tyler states that evaluation is essentially descriptive, and using numbers does not solve basic problems. Martha Elin Vernazza examines the issue of objectivity in history and its implications for evaluation. She posits that the…

  5. Shore Ice Ride-Up and Pile-Up Features. Part I. Alaska’s Beaufort Sea Coast,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    shore- frequent west of Narwhal Island (Fig. B2). However, lines over a number of seasons, along which this may be due to the fact that fewer aerial...obser- Narwhal Island. vations cover tens of thousands of kilometers It appears from historicalreports (Kovacs and Sodhi of shoreline, suggesting an...stresses can be concentrated at ice/shore east of Narwhal Island and of Jeanette and Tapkaluk contact points, thereby increasing the local stress level

  6. Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    Immunotype. MAJ Moore (0) 1981 The Association of Adolescent High Blood Pressure to Maternal 154 Toxemia. MAJ Moore (0) 1981 Somatomedin-C and Gonadal...Association of Adolescent High Blood Pressure to Maternal Toxemia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: MAJ Dan C. Moore, MC PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANTS: Jeanette Welker...244:2748-49, 1981. Yeatman, G.W.: Paternal Separation and the Military Dependent Child. Mil Med 146, May 81. Yeatman, G.W.: Twenty-four Hour Telephone

  7. Pacific Pediatric Advanced Care Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxin 11 Baseline Endotoxin ECMO eline otoxin O m l/m in /g ra m ti ss ue 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Cerebrum Cerebellum Midbrain Brainstem * * * * † † †† B...different from untreated endotoxin period pre-ECMO, pɘ.05) 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Cerebrum Cerebellum Midbrain Brainstem m l/m in /g ra m ti ss ue

  8. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 4. Analysis of Borehole Gravity Surveys and Other Geologic and Bathymetric Studies in Vicinity of OAK and KOA craters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    spectra were taken at room temperature with a Variarn E-Line Century Series spectrometer. The calcite spectrum is centered near 3,400 Gauss (G), and... Blanchard , S.C., and Chasteen, N.D., 1976, Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of a sea shell, Mytilus edulis: Journal of Physical Chemistry, v. 80, p...densification -- given axial symmetry, a sum (over all crater holes) of products R6z, divided by a sum of products RAz (R = horizontal range at a given

  9. Explicating alcohol's role in acquaintance sexual assault: complementary perspectives and convergent findings.

    PubMed

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Abbey, Antonia; Martell, Joel; Stoner, Susan A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Buck, Philip O; Masters, N Tatiana; McAuslan, Pamela; Beshears, Renee; Parkhill, Michele R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique

    2005-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. There were four presentations and a discussant. The symposium was co-chaired by Tina Zawacki and Jeanette Norris. The first presentation was made by Jeanette Norris, who found that alcohol consumption and preexisting alcohol expectancies affected women's hypothetical responses to a vignette depicting acquaintance sexual aggression. The second presentation was made by Joel Martell, who reported that alcohol-induced impairment of executive cognitive functioning mediated the effect of intoxication on men's perceptions of a sexual assault vignette. In the third presentation, Antonia Abbey found that the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved intoxication or force were more negative than were the experiences of women whose sexual assault involved verbal coercion. The fourth presentation was made by Tina Zawacki, who reported that men who perpetrated sexual assault only in adolescence differed from men who continued perpetration into adulthood in terms of their drinking patterns and attitudes toward women. William H. George discussed these findings in terms of their implications for theory development and prevention programming.

  10. Pacific Pediatric Advanced Care Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    to baseline levels. (*=different from baseline, pɘ.05; †=different from untreated endotoxin period pre-ECMO, pɘ.05) 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Cerebrum ...eline otoxin O m l/m in /g ra m ti ss ue 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Cerebrum Cerebellum Midbrain Brainstem * * * * † † †† B ra in M ic ro ci rc ul at or y

  11. Development of complex 3D microstructures based on computer generated holography and their usage for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palevicius, Arvydas; Grigaliunas, Viktoras; Janusas, Giedrius; Palevicius, Paulius; Sakalys, Rokas

    2016-04-01

    The main focus of the paper is the development of technological route of the production of complex 3D microstructure, from designing it by the method of computer generated holography till its physical 3D patterning by exploiting the process of electron beam lithography and thermal replication which is used for biomedical application. A phase data of a complex 3D microstructure was generated by using Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm which later was used to produce a computer generated hologram. Physical implementation of microstructure was done using a single layer polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a basis for 3D microstructure, which was exposed using e-beam lithography system e-Line and replicated, using high frequency vibration. Manufactured 3D microstructure is used for designing micro sensor for biomedical applications.

  12. The WC-130 Meteorological System and Its Utilization in Operational Weather Reconnaissance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    lI for rel v? and then become imnrersed in higher priority doti , i 2Ju,’t . . uita handl ing by the, weather Txon itor anrr t K- wr ict 0 ,t her elin...inc-v A t ict u. t jXir t’ tefl of tHeL clout lr*1 -5 dri j C’ t I ad’t’Ft rt, At. iii it rd 1* . -- , i’l, I Lid I’ i, .* tə )uul IwM I’’( ltv I, 3...vel -s ic ors for tiore AcUrdt e iii, sot t i ’t I t~I (4) the -- elt iI ity t o tert I n, vetLi cal wiri prof ile I n-I(,Iow fI iIltI leVt-tI a)AUt

  13. Prism-pair interferometer for precise measurement of the refractive index of optical glass by using a spectrum lamp.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    A prism-pair interferometer for a spectrum lamp was developed for precise measurement of the refractive index of a prism of optical glass. Previously we reported the prism-pair interferometer with a He-Ne laser light source, resulting in a measurement uncertainty of 1.1×10⁻⁶. However, most of the refractive-index values managed by optical glass manufacturers are conventionally measured with spectrum lamps. We have optimized the prism-pair interferometer for spectrum lamps and implemented a signal-processing technique from Fourier-transform spectroscopy. When the refractive index is measured, the wavelength of the spectrum lamp is simultaneously calibrated by part of the interferometer, so that the resulting refractive index is traceable to a national standard of length. The combined standard uncertainty for a refractive index measured with the e-line (546 nm) of a Hg lamp is 6.9×10⁻⁶.

  14. Age-related and sex-related changes in the normal soft tissue profile of native Northern Sudanese subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Gibelli, Daniele M; Codari, Marina; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Elamin, Fadil

    2016-02-01

    Information about age-related and sex-related normative measurements of the nasolabial region in native Northern Sudanese subjects is scanty. We have therefore used a hand-held laser scanner to measure nasolabial angles and distances, and collected the 3-dimensional coordinates of seven landmarks on the facial soft tissues from 654 healthy native Northern Sudanese subjects (327 male and 327 female, aged 4-30 years). From these we calculated five angles and two linear distances and took the mean (SD) for age and sex, and compared them using factorial analysis of variance. All measurements analysed were significantly modified by age in both sexes (p < 0.01) except for the distance from the lower lip to Ricketts' E-line. Sex had a significant effect on the mentolabial and maxillary prominence angles and both distances (p < 0.005). Nasal convexity and the interlabial angle became more obtuse with growth, while the nasolabial and mentolabial angles reduced progressively with female subjects having significantly more obtuse mentolabial angles (p < 0.001). The maxillary prominence angle progressively decreased during childhood, and increased after adolescence, with larger values in male subjects. The upper and lower lip distances from Ricketts' E-line were also significantly larger in male subjects (p < 0.003), but the difference reduced with age. Overall, there were several differences when we compared our data with published data for African and white subjects, which points to the need for ethnic-specific data. Measurements collected in the current study could be used for the quantitative description of facial morphology in native Northern Sudanese children, adolescents, and young adults.

  15. Mechanical properties and morphological analysis of the transitional zone between meniscal body and ligamentous meniscal attachments.

    PubMed

    Freutel, M; Scholz, N B; Seitz, A M; Ignatius, A; Dürselen, L

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies reporting on meniscal root tears have been published. While the meniscus and its ligamentous meniscal attachments have been studied before, little is known about the transitional zone between these two structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to mechanically and morphologically characterize the transitional zone between meniscus and its meniscal attachments. Dumbbell-shaped specimens were obtained from the transitional zone between meniscus and its meniscal attachments of 6 knee joints. Samples were divided into tibial and central layers of the anterior lateral (AL), anterior medial (AM), posterior lateral (PL) and posterior medial (PM) transitional region. Testing was performed to obtain the dissipated energy during hysteresis as well as the linear modulus (Elin), the maximum strain (εmax), the maximum engineering stress (σmax,eng) and location of rupture during tensile test to failure. Two additional knee joints were used to investigate morphological differences between meniscus, transitional zone and meniscal attachments in 8µm transverse slices. The central layer of the AL, AM and PL dissipated up to 48% less energy than the tibial layer. Elin was highest in the tibial layer of the PM with 107.4±61.1MPa and lowest in the central layer of the PL with 56.0±20.5MPa. The maximum strain was higher in the central layer than in the tibial layer at the AL, AM, and PL locations. The average σmax,eng was 12.7±9.9MPa over all location and layers. 78% of the samples ruptured during tensile test to failure in the transitional zone. The morphological evaluation showed a smooth transitional zone with a transitional curve which was either linear or bell-shaped. The strength found in the transitional zone was lower than in the meniscus and the meniscal attachments, which corresponds well to clinical findings.

  16. Wind profiler observations of a sting jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.; Parton, G.

    2009-09-01

    Some of the most damaging surface winds experienced in midlatitude cyclonic storms have been attributed to a phenomenon known as a sting jet. Previous studies have deduced how sting jets develop from their mid-tropospheric origin, but there have been no direct observations of these wind features in the mid-troposphere. During windstorm Jeanette on the 27th October 2002, the tip of the storm's cloud head passed over a VHF wind profiler at Aberystwyth, Wales, allowing the structure of a sting jet to be measured with high spatial and temporal resolution. These observations showed a multiple slantwise structure to the sting jet region with two tails of increased winds which persisted after the passing of the cloud head aloft. Simulations by the Met Office Unified Model (UM) showed that the slantwise structure followed ?w surfaces, and that the sting jet descended along ? surfaces as it passed over the UK, accelerating and drying during its descent. The horizontal and vertical scales of the observed structures are compatible with slantwise convection releasing Conditional Symmetric Instability within the cloud head. Further observations of the sting jet were obtained by a UHF wind profiler at Cardington in eastern England, where the sting jet had merged with the cold conveyor belt circulating around the storm. An unstable temperature profile in the lowest kilometre over Cardington enabled damaging gusts of strong winds to be brought to the surface in convective plumes; however, this strong vertical mixing was not represented correctly in the UM.

  17. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sanchez, Esteban; Muñoz-Marquez, Ezequiel; Sida-Arreola, Juan Pedro; Flores-Cordova, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L) using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow), Sweet/Robusto (green), Fascinato/Robusto (red), Orangela/Terrano (orange), and Fascinato/Terrano (red). The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September. PMID:26783714

  18. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sanchez, Esteban; Muñoz-Marquez, Ezequiel; Sida-Arreola, Juan Pedro; Flores-Cordova, Maria Antonia

    2015-06-23

    Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow), Sweet/Robusto (green), Fascinato/Robusto (red), Orangela/Terrano (orange), and Fascinato/Terrano (red). The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  19. Characterization of the nutraceutical quality and antioxidant activity in bell pepper in response to grafting.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sánchez, Esteban; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ezequiel; Guevara-Aguilar, Alexandro

    2013-12-16

    The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05). The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.

  20. How does alcohol contribute to sexual assault? Explanations from laboratory and survey data.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Testa, Maria; Parks, Kathleen; Norris, Jeanette; Martin, Susan E; Livingston, Jennifer A; McAuslan, Pam; Clinton, A Monique; Kennedy, Cheryl L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Martell, Joel

    2002-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium of the 2001 RSA Meeting in Montreal, Canada. The chair was Antonia Abbey and the organizers were Tina Zawacki and Philip O. Buck. There were four presentations and a discussant. The first presentation was made by Maria Testa whose interviews with sexual assault victims suggest that there may be differences in the characteristics of sexual assaults in which both the victim and perpetrator were using substances as compared to when only the perpetrator was using substances. The second presentation was made by Tina Zawacki whose research found that perpetrators of sexual assaults that involved alcohol were in most ways similar to perpetrators of sexual assaults that did not involve alcohol, although they differed on impulsivity and several alcohol measures. The third presentation was made by Kathleen Parks who described how alcohol consumption affected women's responses to a male confederate's behavior in a simulated bar setting. The fourth presentation was made by Jeanette Norris who found that alcohol and expectancies affected men's self-reported likelihood of acting like a hypothetical sexually aggressive man. Susan E. Martin discussed the implications of these studies and made suggestions for future research.

  1. Comparative Study of Multicast Protection Algorithms Using Shared Links in 100GET Transport Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Samer; Haidine, Abdelfattah; Lehnert, Ralf; Tuerk, Stefan

    In recent years new challenges have emerged in the telecommunications market resulting from the increase of network traffic and strong competition. Because of that, service providers feel constrained to replace expensive and complex IP-routers with a cheap and simple solution which guarantees the requested quality of services (QoS) with low cost. One of these solutions is to use the Ethernet technology as a switching layer, which results in using the cheap Ethernet services (E-Line, E-LAN and E-Tree) and to replace the expensive IP-routers. To achieve this migration step, new algorithms that support the available as well as the future services have to be developed. In this paper, we investigate the multicast protection issue. Three multicast protection algorithms based on the shared capacity between primary and backup solutions are proposed and evaluated. The blocking probability is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms. The sub-path algorithm resulted in a low blocking probability compared with the other algorithms.

  2. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  3. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets.

  4. Tracking changes in natural organic carbon character during artificial infiltration using flourescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Lavonen, Elin; McCleaf, Philip; Hummel, Angelica; Berggren Kleja, Dan; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2016-04-01

    In many Nordic countries more than half of the drinking water is produced using surface water. Artificial infiltration allows increasing water withdrawal from groundwater but may not be sustainable during longer periods. Here we report results from a one year study on changes in dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and DOC character along the whole infiltration area starting with the stream water until the drinking water plant raw water intake. Both DOC, fluorescence spectroscopy and LC-OCD are used to understand the observed changes in the aquatic phase. Large seasonal changes close to the infiltration basin contrasts with stable conditions further away. Selective removal of terrestrial type of DOC is coherent using both analytical techniques. A simple empirical relationship between Humic like material and absorbance developed elsewhere also holds in this system (Köhler et al 2016). Fluorescence is a fast and promising tool for tracking changes in natural organic carbon character during artificial infiltration. References Stephan J. Köhler, Elin Lavonen, Alexander Keucken, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Tom Spanjer and Kenneth Persson. Upgrading coagulation with hollow-fibre nanofiltration for improved organic matter removal during surface water treatment Water research (2016) 89:232-240.

  5. A comparison of sole carbon source utilization patterns and phospholipid fatty acid profiles to detect changes in the root microflora of hydroponically grown crops.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S; Bååth, E; Alsanius, B; Englund, J E; Sundin, P; Gertsson, U E; Jensén, P

    2001-04-01

    Sole carbon source utilization (SCSU) patterns and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were compared with respect to their potential to characterize root-inhabiting microbial communities of hydroponically grown crops. Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum cv. Evident), lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids), and four different cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cvs. Gitana, Armada, Aromata, and Elin) were grown in 1-L black plastic beakers placed in a cultivation chamber with artificial light. In addition to the harvest of the plants after 6 weeks, plants of one tomato cultivar, cv. Gitana, were also harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. The cultivation in this study was performed twice. Principal component analysis was used to analyze the data. Both characterization methods had the ability to discriminate between the root microflora of different plant species, cultivars, and one tomato cultivar at different ages. Differences in both SCSU patterns and PLFA profiles were larger between plant species than between cultivars, but for both methods the largest differences were between the two cultivations. Still, the differences between treatments were always due to differences in the same PLFAs in both cultivations. This was not the case for the SCSU patterns when different plant ages were studied. Furthermore, PLFA profiles showed less variation between replicates than did SCSU patterns. This larger variation observed among the SCSU data indicates that PLFA may be more useful to detect changes in the root microflora of hydroponically grown crops than the SCSU technique.

  6. Exploring New Ways to Deliver Value to Healthcare Organizations: Algorithmic Testing, Data Integration, and Diagnostic E-consult Service.

    PubMed

    Risin, Semyon A; Chang, Brian N; Welsh, Kerry J; Kidd, Laura R; Moreno, Vanessa; Chen, Lei; Tholpady, Ashok; Wahed, Amer; Nguyen, Nghia; Kott, Marylee; Hunter, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    As the USA Health Care System undergoes transformation and transitions to value-based models it is critical for laboratory medicine/clinical pathology physicians to explore opportunities and find new ways to deliver value, become an integral part of the healthcare team. This is also essential for ensuring financial health and stability of the profession when the payment paradigm changes from fee-for-service to fee-for-performance. About 5 years ago we started searching for ways to achieve this goal. Among other approaches, the search included addressing the laboratory work-ups for specialists' referrals in the HarrisHealth System, a major safety net health care organization serving mostly indigent and underserved population of Harris County, TX. We present here our experience in improving the efficiency of laboratory testing for the referral process and in building a prototype of a diagnostic e-consult service using rheumatologic diseases as a starting point. The service incorporates algorithmic testing, integration of clinical, laboratory and imaging data, issuing structured comprehensive consultation reports, incorporating all the relevant information, and maintaining personal contacts and an e-line of communications with the primary providers and referral center personnel. Ongoing survey of providers affords testimony of service value in terms of facilitating their work and increasing productivity. Analysis of the cost effectiveness and of other value indicators is currently underway. We also discuss our pioneering experience in building pathology residents and fellows training in integrated diagnostic consulting service.

  7. The Transpolar Drift in the Central Arctic Ocean as Measured by AON Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Kwok, R.; Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Rigor, I. G.; Alkire, M. B.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Steele, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Transpolar Drift of sea ice across Arctic Ocean was arguably the first major element of Arctic Ocean circulation to be discovered. Nansen's plan for his pioneering Fram expedition was based on the observation of the drift of the wreckage of the De Long's ill-fated Jeanette from near Wrangle Island to the southern coast of Greenland. In this context the Transpolar Drift characterizes the large-scale motion of sea ice, but the term can be applied to the geostrophic circulation of the upper ocean as well. The Transpolar Drift of sea ice and upper ocean are related because both are driven, at least in part, by the gradient in dynamic ocean topography (DOT, sea surface height - geoid) associated with the Transpolar Front between Pacific and Atlantic-derived waters. Starting in the 1990s, major changes in direction of the ocean and ice transpolar drifts characterized shifts between anticyclonic and cyclonic ocean circulation. These affect the dominant pathways of ice, freshwater, and chemical constituents through Arctic Basin. Consequently, tracking behavior of the Transpolar Drift has been a high priority for the AON North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO). Recent hydrographic sections across the 90°E (from NPEO) and 90°W (from the Switchyard Project) longitude lines mainly straddle the Drift so that dynamic heights derived from the hydrography can be used as a proxy for DOT, and annual sections of geostrophic velocity determined. Sections along 0° and 180° longitude usually cross the Transpolar Front and Drift at a more oblique angle but provide a measure of Transpolar Drift direction. Hydrography results will be compared with DOT from satellite remote sensing, optimally interpolated satellite and buoy-derived ice drift, and changes in chemical constituents to describe the significance of and recent changes in the Transpolar Drift.

  8. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  9. Correlation Between Cephalometric Measures and End-of-Treatment Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-nan; Bai, Ding; Feng, Xue; Liu, Yue-hua; Chen, Wen-jing; Li, Song; Han, Guang-li; Jiang, Ruo-ping; Xu, Tian-min

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists evaluated 108 Chinese patients' facial attractiveness from set of photographs (frontal, lateral, and frontal smiling photos) taken at the end of orthodontic treatment. These 108 patients, which contained an equal number of patients with Class I, II, and III malocclusion, were randomly selected from 6 orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients (rs) analyses were performed to examine agreement in ranking between all judge pairs. Pearson correlation and multivariate regression were performed to examine the correlation between cephalometric measures and end-of-treatment Photo Attractiveness Rank.96.68% judge pairs showed moderate correlated (+0.4 ≤ rs < +0.7) subjective rankings. Cephalometric measures significantly correlated with end-of-treatment Photo Attractiveness Rank included interincisal angle (r = 0.330, P < 0.05), L1/MP° (r = 0.386, P < 0.05), L1-NBmm (r = 0.451, P < 0.01), L1/NB° (r = 0.374, P < 0.05), and profile angle (r = 0.353, P < 0.05) in Class I patients with an explained variance of 32.8%, and ANB angle (r = 0.432, P < 0.01), angle of convexity (r = 0.448, P < 0.01), profile angle (r = 0.488, P < 0.01), Li to E-line (r = 0.374, P < 0.05), Li to B-line (r = 0.543, P < 0.01), and Z angle (r = 0.543, P < 0.01) in Class II patient with an explained variance of 43.3%.There was less association than expected between objective measurements on the lateral cephalograms and clinicians' rankings of facial attractiveness on clinical photography in Chinese patients. Straight-stand lower incisor was desired for facial attractiveness of Class I malocclusion; and sagittal relationship and lip prominence influence the esthetics of Class II malocclusion in Chinese population.

  10. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    groups. In particular, help was provided to students and scientists from non-EU countries. It is our great pleasure to thank those people and institutions whose help and support was crucial to the success of the meeting. We appreciate the enthusiastic support of our colleagues of the academic community, especially those from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and the Universities of Cagliari, Pisa, Torino and Mississippi. Financial support was provided by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, the Universities of Cagliari, Torino, Pisa and Mississippi. This was used largely to support participants, especially younger people. Special thanks go to Pietro Menotti (University of Pisa) and Stefano Sciuto (University of Torino) for their friendship and their universities' financial contributions. It is also a pleasure to acknowledge financial support from the Regione Autonoma della Sardegna and from Tiscali, the communications and Internet company, for providing free telephone cards. Technical support and local organisation was provided by the Sezione di Cagliari of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Warmest thanks go to our administrative and technical staff - Maria Assunta Lecca and Simona Renieri, for their untiring assistance, and to Palmasera Village and Hotel Smeraldo for their splendid hospitality. And finally, our gratitude goes to all the participants and especially the many experienced scientists. Their contributions highlighted the meeting and were largely without support. The success of the meeting is due to them and to the enthusiasm of the younger participants. The Editors January 2006 COMMITTEES Organising Committee Mariano Cadoni (Università and INFN Cagliari) Marco Cavaglià (University of Mississippi) Jeanette E. Nelson (Università and INFN Torino) Advisory Committee Orfeu Bertolami (IST Lisboa, Portugal) Luca Bombelli (Univ. Mississippi) Steve Carlip (UC Davis, USA) Alessandro D'Adda (INFN Torino, Italy) Stanley Deser (Brandeis, USA

  11. Obituary: Jeannette Virginia Lincoln, 1915-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Helen E.

    2004-12-01

    the WDC-A for STP and the STP Division Chief for NOAA NGDC. She was passionate about the World Data Center system and maintaining data archives for future generations. She would introduce herself as "I am the World Data Center for Solar-Terrestrial Physics." Attending many foreign and U.S. meetings, she constantly searched for new data sets to add to the STP collection. She retired in 1980 after 38 years of federal service. When she was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in March 2000, she said: "My work with the World Data Centers introduced me to colleagues worldwide that became a source of much enjoyment, seeing them periodically at the international scientific meetings in Europe, Asia, and Australia." She was a past chair of the Denver Section of the Society of Women Engineers and very active in encouraging girls to study math and science. A member of the Association of Federal Professional and Administrative Women (AFPAW) and the Federally Employed Women (FEW), she supported improving the status of women. Virginia categorized herself as a joiner. She was active in many organizations, achieving life membership in the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA). In her younger days she was a figure skater and she enjoyed square dancing, playing golf, and traveling. She also enjoyed the arts and held season tickets to the University of Colorado Artist Series, the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, the opera, and the Colorado Music Festival. She was preceded in death by her parents and her brother Rush. Survivors include a nephew, Rush B. Lincoln III, a niece Deborah Lincoln Niekras, four great nieces and a great nephew. Her memoirs, "My Busy Life: How I Never Stopped Enjoying It" by Jeanette Virginia Lincoln, are available at the Carnegie Library in Boulder, Colorado. Also available are her history of her father "Rush Blodget Lincoln, My Father - the General" and a history of her mother's family

  12. No Place to Hide: Missing Primitive Stars Outside Milky Way Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    few minor light chemical elements, have all been created by the various generations of stars. [2] As every rainbow demonstrates, white light can be split up into different colours. Astronomers artificially split up the light they receive from distant objects into its different colours (or wavelengths). However, where we distinguish seven rainbow colours, astronomers map hundreds of finely nuanced colours, producing a spectrum - a record of the different amounts of light the object emits in each narrow colour band. The details of the spectrum - more light emitted at some colours, less light at others - provide tell-tale signs about the chemical composition of the matter producing the light. [3] The Dwarf galaxies Abundances and Radial-velocities Team (DART) has members from institutes in nine different countries. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in Astronomy and Astrophysics ("The NIR Ca II triplet at low metallicity", E. Starkenburg et al.). Another paper is also in preparation (Tafelmeyer et al.) that presents the UVES measurements of several primitive stars. The team is composed of Else Starkenburg, Eline Tolstoy, Amina Helmi, and Thomas de Boer (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, the Netherlands), Vanessa Hill (Laboratoire Cassiopée, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, France), Jonay I. González Hernández (Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Meudon, France and Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain), Mike Irwin (University of Cambridge, UK), Giuseppina Battaglia (ESO), Pascale Jablonka and Martin Tafelmeyer (Université de Genève, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland), Matthew Shetrone (University of Texas, McDonald Observatory, USA), and Kim Venn (University of Victoria, Canada). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is

  13. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    institute directed by Professor Wolfgang Ernst. The story of how this particular collaboration developed is interesting because it illustrates again how important personal contacts and social interactions are in the progress of science. In 2007 I was contacted by Bodil Holst, then of the TU-Graz and now at the Technical University of Bergen in Norway, about the possibility of having one of her very bright graduate students visit Clemson for a few months as a part of his work in analyzing some He atom scattering data that they had taken on silica glass surfaces. A decade earlier Holst had been a postdoctoral research associate at the Toennies laboratory in Göttingen during several of the summers I was also there and, although we never worked directly together at that time, we had many interesting discussions about science and other subjects. The student, Wolfram Steurer, arrived in Clemson in the middle of the fall semester with his belongings in a bag that was smaller than the guitar he carried strapped over his back. He immediately created for himself a place in our department, and by the time he left three months later we had developed some rudimentary ideas of how to analyze the data he had, and we also suspected that this data might reveal some new aspects of the dynamics of glass surfaces that had not been realized before. Wolfram delved into this problem with a vengeance, and shortly afterwards we began a series of papers involving Holst, Ernst and Steurer and the Graz graduate students, Andreas Apfolter and Mattias Koch, as well as Elin Søndergård of the French CNRS laboratory located at the St Gobain Corporation's research facilities in Paris. It was this initial contact with Holst a decade earlier that eventually led to a productive period of research on glass surfaces, something that I would have never predicted beforehand, but a collaboration that shows every sign of continuing into the future to produce new and interesting results. So, this brings the history