Sample records for elongated uppermost internode

  1. ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE Encodes a Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase That Epoxidizes Gibberellins in a Novel Deactivation Reaction in RiceW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongyou; Nomura, Takahito; Xu, Yonghan; Zhang, Yingying; Peng, Yu; Mao, Bizeng; Hanada, Atsushi; Zhou, Haicheng; Wang, Renxiao; Li, Peijin; Zhu, Xudong; Mander, Lewis N.; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; He, Zuhua

    2006-01-01

    The recessive tall rice (Oryza sativa) mutant elongated uppermost internode (eui) is morphologically normal until its final internode elongates drastically at the heading stage. The stage-specific developmental effect of the eui mutation has been used in the breeding of hybrid rice to improve the performance of heading in male sterile cultivars. We found that the eui mutant accumulated exceptionally large amounts of biologically active gibberellins (GAs) in the uppermost internode. Map-based cloning revealed that the Eui gene encodes a previously uncharacterized cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP714D1. Using heterologous expression in yeast, we found that EUI catalyzed 16α,17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs. Consistent with the tall and dwarfed phenotypes of the eui mutant and Eui-overexpressing transgenic plants, respectively, 16α,17-epoxidation reduced the biological activity of GA4 in rice, demonstrating that EUI functions as a GA-deactivating enzyme. Expression of Eui appeared tightly regulated during plant development, in agreement with the stage-specific eui phenotypes. These results indicate the existence of an unrecognized pathway for GA deactivation by EUI during the growth of wild-type internodes. The identification of Eui as a GA catabolism gene provides additional evidence that the GA metabolism pathway is a useful target for increasing the agronomic value of crops. PMID:16399803

  2. Rice HOX12 Regulates Panicle Exsertion by Directly Modulating the Expression of ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shaopei; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are key endogenous regulators of plant growth. Previous work identified ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1 (EUI1) as a GA-deactivating enzyme that plays an important role in panicle exsertion from the flag leaf sheath in rice (Oryza sativa). However, the mechanism that regulates EUI1 activity during development is still largely unexplored. In this study, we identified the dominant panicle enclosure mutant regulator of eui1 (ree1-D), whose phenotype is caused by the activation of the homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor HOX12. Diminished HOX12 expression by RNA interference enhanced panicle exsertion, mimicking the eui1 phenotype. HOX12 knockdown plants contain higher levels of the major biologically active GAs (such as GA1 and GA4) than the wild type. The expression of EUI1 is elevated in the ree1-D mutant but reduced in HOX12 knockdown plants. Interestingly, both HOX12 and EUI1 are predominantly expressed in panicles, where GA4 is highly accumulated. Yeast one-hybrid, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that HOX12 physically interacts with the EUI1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, plants overexpressing HOX12 in the eui1 mutant background retained the elongated uppermost internode phenotype. These results indicate that HOX12 acts directly through EUI1 to regulate panicle exsertion in rice. PMID:26977084

  3. EUI1, encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, regulates internode elongation by modulating gibberellin responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Anding; Qian, Qian; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Changxi; Lan, Ying; Tang, Jiuyou; Tang, Zuoshun; Cao, Shouyun; Wang, Xiujie; Xia, Kai; Fu, Xiangdong; Luo, Da; Chu, Chengcai

    2006-02-01

    Elongation of rice internodes is one of the most important agronomic traits, which determines the plant height and underlies the grain yield. It has been shown that the elongation of internodes is under genetic control, and various factors are implicated in the process. Here, we report a detailed characterization of an elongated uppermost internode1 (eui1) mutant, which has been used in hybrid rice breeding. In the eui1-2 mutant, the cell lengths in the uppermost internodes are significantly longer than that of wild type and thus give rise to the elongated uppermost internode. It was found that the level of active gibberellin was elevated in the mutant, whereas its growth in response to gibberellin is similar to that of the wild type, suggesting that the higher level accumulation of gibberellin in the eui1 mutant causes the abnormal elongation of the uppermost internode. Consistently, the expression levels of several genes which encode gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes were altered. We cloned the EUI1 gene, which encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, by map-based cloning and found that EUI1 was weakly expressed in most tissues, but preferentially in young panicles. To confirm its function, transgenic experiments with different constructs of EUI1 were conducted. Overexpression of EUI1 gave rise to the gibberellin-deficient-like phenotypes, which could be partially reversed by supplementation with gibberellin. Furthermore, apart from the alteration of expression levels of the gibberellin biosynthesis genes, accumulation of SLR1 protein was found in the overexpressing transgenic plants, indicating that the expression level of EUI1 is implicated in both gibberellin-mediated SLR1 destruction and a feedback regulation in gibberellin biosynthesis. Therefore, we proposed that EUI1 plays a negative role in gibberellin-mediated regulation of cell elongation in the uppermost internode of rice.

  4. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice

    PubMed Central

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. Deepwater rice obtained the ability for rapid internode elongation to avoid drowning and adapt to flooded condition. How does it regulate internode elongation? Using both physiological and genetic approach, this paper shows that the plant hormone, gibberellin (GA) regulates internode elongation. PMID:24891164

  5. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  7. Overexpression of rice LRK1 restricts internode elongation by down-regulating OsKO2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengfei; Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Zha, Xiaojun; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yang, Jinshui; Luo, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) has the potential to undergo rapid internodal elongation which determines plant height. Gibberellin is involved in internode elongation. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are the largest subfamily of transmembrane receptor-like kinases in plants. LRR-RLKs play important functions in mediating a variety of cellular processes and regulating responses to environmental signals. LRK1, a PSK receptor homolog, is a member of the LRR-RLK family. In the present study, differences in ectopic expression of LRK1 were consistent with extent of rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that LRK1 restricts gibberellin biosynthesis during the internode elongation process by down-regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene coding for ent-kaurene oxidase.

  8. Internode and petiole elongation of soybean in response to photoperiod and end-of-day light quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Elongation of main stem internodes and petioles of soybeans, Glycine max 'Ransom,' was examined in response to various photoperiod/temperature combinations and to end-of-day (EOD) light quality. Photoperiod treatments consisted of 10, 14, and 16 h in combination with day/night temperatures of 18/14, 22/18, 26/22, 30/26, and 34/30 C. The EOD treatments consisted of exposing plants to illumination from either incandescent (high far-red component, FR) or fluorescent (high red component, R) lamps during the final 0.5 h of a 10-h photoperiod. Internode elongation was not significantly promoted by the photoperiod treatments, and, in fact, under the two highest temperature regimes, internode elongation was suppressed under the longer photoperiods. Petiole elongation, however, was enhanced under the longer photoperiods at all temperatures. In the EOD light study, internode and petiole elongation was significantly greater on plants exposed to 0.5 h EOD from incandescent lamps than from fluorescent. Under the incandescent EOD treatment, plants increased dry matter production by 41% and exhibited greater partitioning of assimilates in stem and root portions than under fluorescent EOD.

  9. Spatial gradients in cell wall composition and transcriptional profiles along elongating maize internodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and elongation zones contain mainly primary walls, while secondary cell wall deposition accelerates in the transition zone and predominates in the maturation zone. Results The major wall components cellulose, lignin and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) increased without any abrupt changes across the elongation, transition and maturation zones, although GAX appeared to increase more between the elongation and transition zones. Microarray analyses show that transcript abundance of key glycosyl transferase genes known to be involved in wall synthesis or re-modelling did not match the increases in cellulose, GAX and lignin. Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections. Genes with transcript profiles showing this pattern included secondary cell wall CesA genes, GT43 genes, some β-expansins, UDP-Xylose synthase and UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase, some xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases, genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and NAM and MYB transcription factor genes. Conclusions The data indicated that the enzymic products of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification remain active right along the maturation zone of elongating maize internodes, despite the fact that corresponding transcript levels peak earlier, near or in the transition zone. PMID:24423166

  10. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  11. Expression of beta-expansins is correlated with internodal elongation in deepwater rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Kende, H

    2001-10-01

    Fourteen putative rice (Oryza sativa) beta-expansin genes, Os-EXPB1 through Os-EXPB14, were identified in the expressed sequence tag and genomic databases. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences are highly conserved in all 14 beta-expansins. They have a series of conserved C (cysteine) residues in the N-terminal half of the protein, an HFD (histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate) motif in the central region, and a series of W (tryptophan) residues near the carboxyl terminus. Five beta-expansin genes are expressed in deepwater rice internodes, with especially high transcript levels in the growing region. Expression of four beta-expansin genes in the internode was induced by treatment with gibberellin and by wounding. The wound response resulted from excising stem sections or from piercing pinholes into the stem of intact plants. The level of wound-induced beta-expansin transcripts declined rapidly 5 h after cutting of stem sections. We conclude that the expression of beta-expansin genes is correlated with rapid elongation of deepwater rice internodes, it is induced by gibberellin and wounding, and wound-induced beta-expansin mRNA appears to turn over rapidly.

  12. Rice ethylene-response AP2/ERF factor OsEATB restricts internode elongation by down-regulating a gibberellin biosynthetic gene.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-09-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops.

  13. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor-like protein OsPIL1 functions as a key regulator of internode elongation and induces a morphological response to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Todaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazuo; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Ito, Yusuke; Matsukura, Satoko; Fujita, Yasunari; Yoshiwara, Kyouko; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms for plant growth restriction during stress conditions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a phytochrome-interacting factor-like protein, OsPIL1/OsPIL13, acts as a key regulator of reduced internode elongation in rice under drought conditions. The level of OsPIL1 mRNA in rice seedlings grown under nonstressed conditions with light/dark cycles oscillated in a circadian manner with peaks in the middle of the light period. Under drought stress conditions, OsPIL1 expression was inhibited during the light period. We found that OsPIL1 was highly expressed in the node portions of the stem using promoter-glucuronidase analysis. Overexpression of OsPIL1 in transgenic rice plants promoted internode elongation. In contrast, transgenic rice plants with a chimeric repressor resulted in short internode sections. Alteration of internode cell size was observed in OsPIL1 transgenic plants, indicating that differences in cell size cause the change in internode length. Oligoarray analysis revealed OsPIL1 downstream genes, which were enriched for cell wall-related genes responsible for cell elongation. These data suggest that OsPIL1 functions as a key regulatory factor of reduced plant height via cell wall-related genes in response to drought stress. This regulatory system may be important for morphological stress adaptation in rice under drought conditions. PMID:22984180

  14. Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changxi; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Zhou, Xie; Xia, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.

  15. Rice Ethylene-Response AP2/ERF Factor OsEATB Restricts Internode Elongation by Down-Regulating a Gibberellin Biosynthetic Gene1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-01-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops. PMID:21753115

  16. The effect of mepiquat chloride on elongation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) internode is associated with low concentration of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Mu, Chun; Du, Mingwei; Chen, Yin; Tian, Xiaoli; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2014-08-01

    The growth regulator mepiquat chloride (MC) is globally used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield loss. However, little information is available as to whether the modification of plant architecture by MC is related to alterations in gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism and signaling. Here, the role of GA metabolism and signaling was investigated in cotton seedlings treated with MC. The MC significantly decreased endogenous GA3 and GA4 levels in the elongating internode, which inhibited cell elongation by downregulating GhEXP and GhXTH2, and then reducing plant height. Biosynthetic and metabolic genes of GA were markedly suppressed within 2-10d of MC treatment, which also downregulated the expression of DELLA-like genes. A remarkable feedback regulation was observed at the early stage of MC treatment when GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression was evidently upregulated. Mepiquat chloride action was controlled by temporal translocation and spatial accumulation which regulated GA biosynthesis and signal expression for maintaining GA homeostasis. The results suggested that MC application could reduce endogenous GA levels in cotton through controlled GA biosynthetic and metabolic genes expression, which might inhibit cell elongation, thereby shortening the internode and reducing plant height. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of gene expression during development and expansion of vegetative stem internodes of bioenergy sorghum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H.; McKinley, Brian; Mullet, John E.

    Bioenergy sorghum accumulates 75% of shoot biomass in stem internodes. Grass stem internodes are formed during vegetative growth and elongate in response to developmental and environmental signals. To identify genes and molecular mechanisms that modulate the extent of internode growth, we conducted microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of four successive sub-apical vegetative internodes representing different stages of internode development of the bioenergy sorghum genotype R.07020. Stem internodes of sorghum genotype R.07020 are formed during the vegetative phase and their length is enhanced by environmental signals such as shade and floral induction in short days. During vegetative growth, the first visible andmore » youngest sub-apical internode was ~0.7 cm in length, whereas the fourth fully expanded internode was ~5 cm in length. Microscopic analyses revealed that all internode tissue types including pith parenchyma and vascular bundles are present in the four successive internodes. Growth in the first two sub-apical internodes occurred primarily through an increase in cell number consistent with expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication. Growth of the 3rd internode was associated with an increase in cell length and growth cessation in the 4th internode was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in secondary cell wall deposition. The expression of genes involved in hormone metabolism and signaling indicates that GA, BR, and CK activity decreased while ethylene, ABA, and JA increased in the 3rd/4th internodes. While the level of auxin appears to be increasing as indicated by the up-regulation of ARFs, down-regulation of TIR during development indicates that auxin signaling is also modified. The expression patterns of transcription factors are closely associated with their role during the development of the vegetative internodes. Microscopic and transcriptome analyses of four successive sub-apical internodes characterized

  18. Dynamics of gene expression during development and expansion of vegetative stem internodes of bioenergy sorghum

    DOE PAGES

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H.; McKinley, Brian; Mullet, John E.

    2017-06-21

    Bioenergy sorghum accumulates 75% of shoot biomass in stem internodes. Grass stem internodes are formed during vegetative growth and elongate in response to developmental and environmental signals. To identify genes and molecular mechanisms that modulate the extent of internode growth, we conducted microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of four successive sub-apical vegetative internodes representing different stages of internode development of the bioenergy sorghum genotype R.07020. Stem internodes of sorghum genotype R.07020 are formed during the vegetative phase and their length is enhanced by environmental signals such as shade and floral induction in short days. During vegetative growth, the first visible andmore » youngest sub-apical internode was ~0.7 cm in length, whereas the fourth fully expanded internode was ~5 cm in length. Microscopic analyses revealed that all internode tissue types including pith parenchyma and vascular bundles are present in the four successive internodes. Growth in the first two sub-apical internodes occurred primarily through an increase in cell number consistent with expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication. Growth of the 3rd internode was associated with an increase in cell length and growth cessation in the 4th internode was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in secondary cell wall deposition. The expression of genes involved in hormone metabolism and signaling indicates that GA, BR, and CK activity decreased while ethylene, ABA, and JA increased in the 3rd/4th internodes. While the level of auxin appears to be increasing as indicated by the up-regulation of ARFs, down-regulation of TIR during development indicates that auxin signaling is also modified. The expression patterns of transcription factors are closely associated with their role during the development of the vegetative internodes. Microscopic and transcriptome analyses of four successive sub-apical internodes characterized

  19. Physical basis for altered stem elongation rates in internode length mutants of Pisum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Reid, J. B.; Davies, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Biophysical parameters related to gibberellin (GA)-dependent stem elongation were examined in dark-grown stem-length genotypes of Pisum sativum L. The rate of internode expansion in these genotypes is altered due to recessive mutations which affect either the endogenous levels of, or response to, GA. The GA deficient dwarf L181 (ls), two GA insensitive semierectoides dwarfs NGB5865 and NGB5862 (lka and lkb, respectively) and the slender' line L197 (la crys), which is tall regardless of GA content, were compared to the wild-type tall cultivar, Torsdag. Osmotic pressure, estimated by vapor pressure osmometry, and turgor pressure, measured directly with a pressure probe, did not correlate with the differences in growth rate among the genotypes. Mechanical wall properties of frozen-thawed tissue were measured using a constant force assay. GA deficiency resulted in increased wall stiffness judged both on the basis of plastic compliance and plastic extensibility normalized for equal stem circumference. Plastic compliance was not reduced in the GA insensitive dwarfs, though lka reduced circumference-normalized plasticity. In contrast, in vivo wall relaxation, determined by the pressure-block technique, differed among genotypes in a manner which did correlate with extension rates. The wall yield threshold was 1 bar or less in the tall lines, but ranged from 3 to 6 bars in the dwarf genotypes. The results with the ls mutant indicate that GA enhances stem elongation by both decreasing the wall yield threshold and increasing the wall yield coefficient. In the GA-insensitive mutants, lka and lkb, the wall yield threshold is substantially elevated. Plants possessing lka may also possess a reduced wall yield coefficient.

  20. Immunolocalization of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the shoot internodes of Fargesia yunnanensis bamboo during development

    Treesearch

    Shuguang Wang; Yongpeng Ma; Chengbin Wan; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Yujun Wang; Changming Wang

    2016-01-01

    The Bambusoideae subfamily includes the fastest-growing plants worldwide, as a consequence of fast internode elongation. However, few studies have evaluated the temporal and spatial distribution of endogenous hormones during internode elongation. In this paper, endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were detected in different developmental...

  1. Leaf-induced gibberellin signaling is essential for internode elongation, cambial activity, and fiber differentiation in tobacco stems.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

    2012-01-01

    The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C(19)-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling.

  2. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Williams, Brad J.; Thangella, Padmavathi A. V.; Ladak, Adam; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Zhao, Kangmei; Callister, Stephen J.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic, and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II) at booting stage, from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of trypsin-digested proteins from this internode at booting reveals 2,547 proteins with at least two unique peptides in two biological replicates. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including a leucine rich repeat-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS/MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (booting/elongation, early mature, mature, and post mature) indicates that internode secondary metabolites are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ across stem maturation. This work fills a void of in-depth proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes characteristic of internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties. PMID:28751896

  3. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lin, Fan; Williams, Brad J.; Thangella, Padmavathi A. V.

    Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II) at booting stage, cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of trypsin-digested peptides of size-fractionated proteins extracted from this internode at booting reveals 2547proteins withmore » at least two unique peptides. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of the internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including an LRR-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of internode proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (elongation, early mature, mature and post mature) indicates that secondary metabolites in stems are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ during stem maturation. This work fills a void of knowledge of proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes during internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties.« less

  4. Leaf-Induced Gibberellin Signaling Is Essential for Internode Elongation, Cambial Activity, and Fiber Differentiation in Tobacco Stems[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Jonathan; Voronin, Nickolay; Gong, Fan; Sun, Tai-ping; Hedden, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Aloni, Roni

    2012-01-01

    The gibberellins (GAs) are a group of endogenous compounds that promote the growth of most plant organs, including stem internodes. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) the presence of leaves is essential for the accumulation of bioactive GAs and their immediate precursors in the stem and consequently for normal stem elongation, cambial proliferation, and xylem fiber differentiation. These processes do not occur in the absence of maturing leaves but can be restored by application of C19-GAs, identifying the presence of leaves as a requirement for GA signaling in stems and revealing the fundamental role of GAs in secondary growth regulation. The use of reporter genes for GA activity and GA-directed DELLA protein degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana confirms the presence of a mobile signal from leaves to the stem that induces GA signaling. PMID:22253226

  5. Silencing SlMED18, tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene, restricts internode elongation and leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunshu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Jianling; Yu, XiaoHui; Guo, Jun-E; Liang, Honglian; Liao, Changguang; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-19

    Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves. The contents of endogenous bioactive GA 3 in SlMED18 silenced lines were slightly less than that in wild type. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes such as SlGACPS and SlGA20x2, auxin transport genes (PIN1, PIN4, LAX1 and LAX2) and several key regulators, KNOX1, KNOX2, PHAN and LANCEOLATE(LA), which involved in the leaf morphogenesis were significantly down-regulated in SlMED18-RNAi lines. These results illustrated that SlMED18 plays an essential role in regulating plant internode elongation and leaf expansion in tomato plants and it acts as a key positive regulator of gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as auxin proper transport signalling. These findings are the basis for understanding the function of the individual Mediator subunits in tomato.

  6. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  7. The Location of Genes Governing Long First Internode of Corn

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Knowing breeding behavior and cytological location of traits helps breeders. My objective was to locate dominant genes for long first internode of corn (Zea mays L.). I determined that Hopi Indian corn PI213733 (variety Komona) displayed the trait and grew well in the U.S. Corn Belt. I crossed PI213733 to 26 translocation tester stocks in Minnesota inbred A188 background, backcrossed semi-sterile plants carrying the translocation to A188 the next generation, and grew the segregating generation planted in trenches 15 cm deep with ridges of dirt 10 cm high one year, in trenches 25 cm deep the other year and also at normal (6 cm) depth. Emerged plants were classified for semi-sterility or for normal pollen. I concluded from multiple testers for each chromosome arm that dominant genes for long first internode are located (chromosome and region) on 3S, on 6 near the centromere, and on 9S; spurious associations occurred for two testers. Measurement of cell lengths indicated that PI213733 had more cells than A188 both in upper and in lower mesocotyl sections and that lower, older cells elongated sooner. I found a normal-sized kernel with twin embryos that developed two long first internode seedlings indicating that the amount of endosperm did not limit mesocotyl growth. PMID:9093865

  8. Shaping the shoot: the relative contribution of cell number and cell shape to variations in internode length between parent and hybrid apple trees.

    PubMed

    Ripetti, V; Escoute, J; Verdeil, J L; Costes, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic control of plant size and shape is a promising perspective, particularly in fruit trees, in order to select desirable genotypes. A recent study on architectural traits in an apple progeny showed that internode length was a highly heritable character. However, few studies have been devoted to internode cellular patterning in dicotyledonous stems, and the interplay between the two elementary cell processes that contribute to their length, i.e. cell division and elongation, is not fully understood. The present study aimed at unravelling their contributions in the genetic variation of internode length in a selection of F(1) and parent genotypes of apple tree, by exploring the number of cells and cell shape within mature internodes belonging to the main axes. The results highlighted that both the variables were homogeneous in samples collected either along a sagital line or along the pith width, and suggest that cell lengthening was homogeneous during internode development. They allowed the total number of cells to be estimated on the internode scale and opened up new perspectives for simplifying tissue sampling procedures for further investigations. Differences in internode length were observed between the genotypes, in particular between the parents, and partly resulted from a compensation between cell number and cell length. However, genetic variations in internode length primarily involved the number of cells, while cell length was more secondary. These results argue for an interplay between cellular and organismal control of internode shape that may involve the rib meristem.

  9. Differentially Expressed microRNAs and Target Genes Associated with Plastic Internode Elongation in Alternanthera philoxeroides in Contrasting Hydrological Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gengyun; Deng, Ying; Geng, Yupeng; Zhou, Chengchuan; Wang, Yuguo; Zhang, Wenju; Song, Zhiping; Gao, Lexuan; Yang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is crucial for plants to survive in changing environments. Discovering microRNAs, identifying their targets and further inferring microRNA functions in mediating plastic developmental responses to environmental changes have been a critical strategy for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In this study, the dynamic expression patterns of microRNAs under contrasting hydrological habitats in the amphibious species Alternanthera philoxeroides were identified by time course expression profiling using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 128 known and 18 novel microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed under contrasting hydrological habitats. The microRNA:mRNA pairs potentially associated with plastic internode elongation were identified by integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles, and were validated by qRT-PCR and 5′ RLM-RACE. The results showed that both the universal microRNAs conserved across different plants and the unique microRNAs novelly identified in A. philoxeroides were involved in the responses to varied water regimes. The results also showed that most of the differentially expressed microRNAs were transiently up-/down-regulated at certain time points during the treatments. The fine-scale temporal changes in microRNA expression highlighted the importance of time-series sampling in identifying stress-responsive microRNAs and analyzing their role in stress response/tolerance. PMID:29259617

  10. Gravimorphism in rice and barley: promotion of leaf elongation by vertical inversion in agravitropically growing plants.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1998-12-01

    We have compared shoot responses of agravitropic rice and barley plants to vertical inversion with those of normal ones. When rice plants were vertically inverted, the main stems of a japonica type of rice, cv. Kamenoo, showed negative gravitropism at nodes 2-15 of both elongated and non-elongated internodes. However, shoots of lazy line of rice, lazy-Kamenoo, bent gravitropically at nodes 11-15 only elongated internodes but not at nodes 2-10 of non-elongated ones. Thus, shoots of Kamenoo responded gravitropically at all stages of growth, whereas shoots of lazy-Kamenoo did not show gravitropic response before heading. In Kamenoo plants, lengths of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade were shortened by vertical inversion, but those of the vertically inverted plants of lazy-Kamenoo were significantly longer than the plants in an upright position. When agravitropic and normal plants of barley were vertically inverted, the same results as in rice were obtained; elongation of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade was inhibited in normal barley plants, Chikurin-Ibaragi No. 1, but significantly stimulated in agravitropic plants of serpentina barley. These results suggest that vertical inversion of rice and barley plants enhances the elongation growth of leaves in the absence of tropistic response.

  11. Hormonal and gravitropic specificity in the regulation of growth and cell wall synthesis in pulvini and internodes from shoots of Avena sativa L. (oat).

    PubMed Central

    Montague, M J

    1995-01-01

    Segments can be cut from the peduncular-1 internode of oat (Avena sativa L.) shoots so as to contain the graviresponsive leaf-sheath pulvinus and gibberellin-sensitive internodal tissue. Incorporation of [14C]glucose was used to monitor cell wall synthesis in these two tissues as affected by gravistimulus, indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and fusicoccin (FC). Pulvinar cell wall synthesis was promoted by IAA and FC (both within about 1 h), as well as by gravistimulus (starting between 3 and 6 h), whereas GA3 had no effect on nongravistimulated pulvini. In contrast, GA3 and FC promoted internodal cell wall synthesis (initiated between 1 and 2 h), whereas IAA and gravistimulus caused a decrease in internodal uptake. FC preferentially promoted incorporation into the matrix component of the wall in both tissues. Gravistimulus failed to increase responsiveness of pulvinar tissue to IAA, whereas GA3 partially overcame gravistimulus-promoted incorporation into pulvinar cell wall, probably because of preferential movement of label into the rapidly elongating internode. The results demonstrate that these eight stimulus/tissue combinations can be examined easily in an isolated 10-mm stem segment, providing new opportunities for the comparative study of tissue- and stimulus-specific events in gene regulation and signal transduction in agronomically important cereals. PMID:11536686

  12. Plasticity of Sorghum Stem Biomass Accumulation in Response to Water Deficit: A Multiscale Analysis from Internode Tissue to Plant Level

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Lisa; Rouan, Lauriane; Jaffuel, Sylvie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Roques, Sandrine; Soutiras, Armelle; Baptiste, Christelle; Bastianelli, Denis; Fabre, Denis; Dubois, Cécile; Pot, David; Luquet, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit. Two hybrids (G1, G4) different in stem biochemical composition (G4, more lignified, less sweet) were evaluated during 2 years in the field in Southern France, under two water treatments differentiated during stem elongation (irrigated; 1 month dry-down until an average soil water deficit of -8.85 bars). Plant phenology was observed weekly. At the end of the water treatment and at final harvest, plant height, stem and leaf dry-weight and the size, biochemical composition and tissue histology of internodes at 2–4 positions along the stem were measured. Stem biomass accumulation was significantly reduced by drought (in average 42% at the end of the dry-down). This was due to the reduction of the length, but not diameter, of the internodes expanded during water deficit. These internodes had more soluble sugar but lower lignin and cellulose contents. This was associated with a decrease of the areal proportion of lignified cell wall in internode outer zone whereas the areal proportion of this zone was not affected. All internodes for a given genotype and environment followed a common histochemical dynamics. Hemicellulose content and the areal proportion of inner vs. outer internode tissues were set up early during internode growth and were not drought responsive. G4 exhibited a higher drought sensitivity than G1 for plant height only. At final

  13. Simplification of a light-based model for estimating final internode length in greenhouse cucumber canopies.

    PubMed

    Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Light quantity and quality affect internode lengths in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whereby leaf area and the optical properties of the leaves mainly control light quality within a cucumber plant community. This modelling study aimed at providing a simple, non-destructive method to predict final internode lengths (FILs) using light quantity and leaf area data. Several simplifications of a light quantity and quality sensitive model for estimating FILs in cucumber have been tested. The direct simplifications substitute the term for the red : far-red (R : FR) ratios, by a term for (a) the leaf area index (LAI, m(2) m(-2)) or (b) partial LAI, the cumulative leaf area per m(2) ground, where leaf area per m(2) ground is accumulated from the top of each plant until a number, n, of leaves per plant is reached. The indirect simplifications estimate the input R : FR ratio based on partial leaf area and plant density. In all models, simulated FILs were in line with the measured FILs over various canopy architectures and light conditions, but the prediction quality varied. The indirect simplification based on leaf area of ten leaves revealed the best fit with measured data. Its prediction quality was even higher than of the original model. This study showed that for vertically trained cucumber plants, leaf area data can substitute local light quality data for estimating FIL data. In unstressed canopies, leaf area over the upper ten ranks seems to represent the feedback of the growing architecture on internode elongation with respect to light quality. This highlights the role of this domain of leaves as the primary source for the specific R : FR signal controlling the final length of an internode and could therefore guide future research on up-scaling local processes to the crop level.

  14. SUI-family genes encode phosphatidylserine synthases and regulate stem development in rice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hengfu; Gao, Peng; Liu, Chengwu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhongchi; Luo, Da

    2013-01-01

    In vascular plants, the regulation of stem cell niche determines development of aerial shoot which consists of stems and lateral organs. Intercalary meristem (IM) controls internode elongation in rice and other grasses, however little attention has been paid to the underlying mechanism of stem cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the stem development in rice and showed that the Shortened Uppermost Internode 1 (SUI1) family of genes are pivotal for development of rice stems. We demonstrated that SUI-family genes regulate the development of IM for internode elongation and also the cell expansion of the panicle stem rachis in rice. The SUI-family genes encoded base-exchange types of phosphatidylserine synthases (PSSs), which possessed enzymatic activity in a yeast complementary assay. Overexpression of SUI1 and SUI2 caused outgrowths of internodes during vegetative development, and we showed that expression patterns of Oryza Sativa Homeobox 15 (OSH15) and Histone4 were impaired. Furthermore, genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that overexpression and RNA knockdown of SUI-family genes affected downstream gene expression related to phospholipid metabolic pathways. Moreover, using Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry, we analyzed PS contents in different genetic backgrounds of rice and showed that the quantity of very long chain fatty acids PS is affected by transgene of SUI-family genes. Our study reveals a new mechanism conveyed by the SUI1 pathway and provides evidence to link lipid metabolism with plant stem cell maintenance.

  15. Interactions of light and gravity in Chara internodal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staves, Mark P.; Whitsit, Kimberly; Yeung, Edward

    2005-08-01

    The "shoots" of Chara corallina are composed of large (ca. 2-5 cm length and 0.5 mm diameter) internodal cells alternating with smaller, node-forming cells. We find that these shoots are both negatively gravitropic as well as positively phototropic. Differential growth in response to both gravity and light typically takes place in the two most apical (youngest) internodal cells, however the plants can be manipulated so that all curvature takes place in a single cell. We grew Chara in aquaria filled with artificial pond water with their rhizoids in 35 mm film canisters containing soil. Thus, it was easy to reorient the axis of the plant with respect to gravity. Experimental plants were allowed to develop to a stage where they had one or two visible internodal cells. In the absence of light, internodal cells are negatively gravitropic. If gravistimulated (horizontal) internodal cells are illuminated with white light from above, gravity and light act together and more rapid curvature ensues. If however, gravistimulated internodal cells are illuminated from below, gravity and light act antagonistically and light can overcome the gravity signal. We find that gravistimulated cells illuminated from below will bend up (i.e. negatively gravitropic and negatively phototropic) at light intensities below ca. 1 μmol m-2 s-1 whereas they curve downward (positively gravitropic and positively phototropic) at higher light intensities. Preliminary studies indicate that both blue and green light stimulate phototropism whereas red light is not effective. Chara thus provides a system in which a single, statolith-free cell responds to both light and gravity and in which the interactions of the light- and gravity-induced signal transduction pathways can be investigated.

  16. Effect of Limb Lengthening on Internodal Length and Conduction Velocity of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Anderson, Heather; Cottrell, David; Sherman, Diane L.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Brophy, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internodal length on the velocity of conduction of peripheral nerve action potentials are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong dependence of conduction velocity on internodal length. However, a theoretical analysis has suggested that this relationship may be lost above a nodal separation of ∼0.6 mm. Here we measured nerve conduction velocities in a rabbit model of limb lengthening that produced compensatory increases in peripheral nerve growth. Divided tibial bones in one hindlimb were gradually lengthened at 0.7 mm per day using an external frame attached to the bone. This was associated with a significant increase (33%) of internodal length (0.95–1.3 mm) in axons of the tibial nerve that varied in proportion to the mechanical strain in the nerve of the lengthened limb. Axonal diameter, myelin thickness, and g-ratios were not significantly altered by limb lengthening. Despite the substantial increase in internodal length, no significant change was detected in conduction velocity (∼43 m/s) measured either in vivo or in isolated tibial nerves. The results demonstrate that the internode remains plastic in the adult but that increases in internodal length of myelinated adult nerve axons do not result in either deficiency or proportionate increases in their conduction velocity and support the view that the internodal lengths of nerves reach a plateau beyond which their conduction velocities are no longer sensitive to increases in internodal length. PMID:23467369

  17. Internode length is reduced during myelination and remyelination by neurofilament medium phosphorylation in motor axons.

    PubMed

    Villalón, Eric; Barry, Devin M; Byers, Nathan; Frizzi, Katie; Jones, Maria R; Landayan, Dan S; Dale, Jeffrey M; Downer, Natalie L; Calcutt, Nigel A; Garcia, Michael L

    2018-05-14

    The distance between nodes of Ranvier, referred to as internode length, positively correlates with axon diameter, and is optimized during development to ensure maximal neuronal conduction velocity. Following myelin loss, internode length is reestablished through remyelination. However, remyelination results in short internode lengths and reduced conduction rates. We analyzed the potential role of neurofilament phosphorylation in regulating internode length during remyelination and myelination. Following ethidium bromide induced demyelination, levels of neurofilament medium (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) phosphorylation were unaffected. Preventing NF-M lysine-serine-proline (KSP) repeat phosphorylation increased internode length by 30% after remyelination. To further analyze the role of NF-M phosphorylation in regulating internode length, gene replacement was used to produce mice in which all KSP serine residues were replaced with glutamate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Mimicking constitutive KSP phosphorylation reduced internode length by 16% during myelination and motor nerve conduction velocity by ~27% without altering sensory nerve structure or function. Our results suggest that NF-M KSP phosphorylation is part of a cooperative mechanism between axons and Schwann cells that together determine internode length, and suggest motor and sensory axons utilize different mechanisms to establish internode length. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Examining the Uppermost Surface of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the properties of the uppermost lunar surface is critical as it is the optical surface that is probed by remote-sensing data, like that which is and will be generated by instruments on orbiting missions (e.g. M3, LRO). The uppermost material is also the surface with which future lunar astronauts and their equipment will be in direct contact, and thus understanding its properties will be important for dust mitigation and toxicology issues. Furthermore, exploring the properties of this uppermost surface may provide insight into conditions at this crucial interface, such as grain charging and levitation

  19. Profile based image analysis for identification of chopped biomass stem nodes and internodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of their significant variation in chemical composition, segregation of chopped biomass into nodes and internodes helps in efficient utilization of these feedstocks. Stem internodes having low ash content are a better feedstock for bioenergy and biofuel applications than nodes. However, separ...

  20. Ethylene is not involved in adaptive responses to flooding in the Amazonian wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis.

    PubMed

    Okishio, Takuma; Sasayama, Daisuke; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Azuma, Tetsushi

    2015-02-01

    The Amazonian wild rice Oryza grandiglumis has two contrasting adaptation mechanisms to flooding submergence: a quiescence response to complete submergence at the seedling stage and an escape response based on internodal elongation to partial submergence at the mature stage. We investigated possible factors that trigger these responses. In stem segments excised from mature O. grandiglumis plants, complete submergence only slightly promoted internodal elongation with increased ethylene levels in the internodes, while partial submergence substantially promoted internodal elongation without increased ethylene levels in the internodes. Incubation of non-submerged stem segments under a continuous flow of humidified ethylene-free air promoted internodal elongation to the same extent as that observed for partially submerged segments. Applied ethylene had little effect on the internodal elongation of non-submerged segments irrespective of humidity conditions. These results indicate that the enhanced internodal elongation of submerged O. grandiglumis plants is not triggered by ethylene accumulated during submergence but by the moist surroundings provided by submergence. The growth of shoots in O. grandiglumis seedlings was not promoted by ethylene or complete submergence, as is the case in O. sativa cultivars possessing the submergence-tolerant gene SUB1A. However, because the genome of O. grandiglumis lacks the SUB1A gene, the quiescence response of O. grandiglumis seedlings to complete submergence may be regulated by a mechanism distinct from that involved in the response of submergence-tolerant O. sativa cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ca2+ effect on protoplasmic streaming in Nitella internodal cell

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Aoki, Tomokazu; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    1993-01-01

    Ca2+ ion effect on protoplasmic streaming in an internodal cell of Nitella has been investigated for various temperatures. We have found that the protoplasmic streaming at low temperature is remarkably affected by the Ca2+ ions in the internodal cell but larger concentrations of the Ca2+ ions are needed to suppress the streaming velocity at higher temperatures. These streaming behaviors of the protoplasm, furthermore, have been elucidated on the basis of the reaction equations which take into account ATP hydrolysis due to actin-myosin molecules and inactivity of the molecules due to the Ca2+ ions. PMID:19431870

  2. Conductivity of disordered 2d binodal Dirac electron gas: effect of internode scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinner, Andreas; Ziegler, Klaus

    2018-07-01

    We study the dc conductivity of a weakly disordered 2d Dirac electron gas with two bands and two spectral nodes, employing a field theoretical version of the Kubo-Greenwood conductivity formula. In this paper, we are concerned with the question how the internode scattering affects the conductivity. We use and compare two established techniques for treating the disorder scattering: The perturbation theory, there ladder and maximally crossed diagrams are summed up, and the functional integral approach. Both turn out to be entirely equivalent. For a large number of random potential configurations we have found only two different conductivity scenarios. Both scenarios appear independently of whether the disorder does or does not create the internode scattering. In particular, we do not confirm the conjecture that the internode scattering tends to Anderson localisation.

  3. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth.

    PubMed

    Testone, Giulio; Condello, Emiliano; Verde, Ignazio; Nicolodi, Chiara; Caboni, Emilia; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Vendramin, Elisa; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Mele, Giovanni; Giannino, Donato

    2012-09-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth.

  4. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome harbours 10 KNOX genes, which are differentially expressed in stem development, and the class 1 KNOPE1 regulates elongation and lignification during primary growth

    PubMed Central

    Giannino, Donato

    2012-01-01

    The KNOTTED-like (KNOX) genes encode homeodomain transcription factors and regulate several processes of plant organ development. The peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome was found to contain 10 KNOX members (KNOPE genes); six of them were experimentally located on the Prunus reference map and the class 1 KNOPE1 was found to link to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the internode length in the peach×Ferganensis population. All the KNOPE genes were differentially transcribed in the internodes of growing shoots; the KNOPE1 mRNA abundance decreased progressively from primary (elongation) to secondary growth (radial expansion). During primary growth, the KNOPE1 mRNA was localized in the cortex and in the procambium/metaphloem zones, whereas it was undetected in incipient phloem and xylem fibres. KNOPE1 overexpression in the Arabidopsis bp4 loss-of-function background (35S:KNOPE1/bp genotype) restored the rachis length, suggesting, together with the QTL association, a role for KNOPE1 in peach shoot elongation. Several lignin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in the bp4 internodes but repressed in the 35S:KNOPE1/bp lines similarly to the wild type. Moreover, the lignin deposition pattern of the 35S:KNOPE1/bp and the wild-type internodes were the same. The KNOPE1 protein was found to recognize in vitro one of the typical KNOX DNA-binding sites that recurred in peach and Arabidopsis lignin genes. KNOPE1 expression was inversely correlated with that of lignin genes and lignin deposition along the peach shoot stems and was down-regulated in lignifying vascular tissues. These data strongly support that KNOPE1 prevents cell lignification by repressing lignin genes during peach stem primary growth. PMID:22888130

  5. Sampling the Uppermost Surface of Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The uppermost surface of an airless body is a critical source of ground-truth information for the various remote sensing techniques that only penetrate nanometers to micrometers into the surface. Such samples will also be vital for understanding conditions at the surface and acquiring information about how the body interacts with its environment, including solar wind interaction, grain charging and levitation [1]. Sampling the uppermost surface while preserving its structure (e.g. porosity, grain-to-grain contacts) however, is a daunting task that has not been achieved on any sample return mission to date.

  6. Internode or stem unit: a problem of terminology

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the term stem unit (SU) has increasingly supplanted internode in the literature of conifer shoot growth, especially since the adoption of SU in a collection of papers titled "Tree Physiology and Yield Improvement" (Cannell and Last 1976). In standard botanical terminology, a node is the point on a stem where one or more lateral appendages (...

  7. Identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems by Image analysis using profile curvature and slope

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Morphological components of biomass stems vary in their chemical composition and they can be better utilized when processed after segregation. Within the stem, nodes and internodes have significantly different compositions. The internodes have low ash content and are a better feedstock for bioenergy...

  8. The Uppermost Surface of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.

    2009-01-01

    The Ap16 Clam shell Sampling Devices (CSSDs) were designed to sample the uppermost surface of lunar soil. The two devices used beta cloth (69003) and velvet (69004) to collect soil from the top 100 and 500 micrometers of the soil, respectively. Due to the difficulty of the sampling method, little material was collected and as a result little research has been done on these samples. Initial studies attempted to look at the material which had fallen off of the fabrics and was subsequently collected from inside the sample containers. However, this material was highly fractionated and did not provide an adequate picture of the uppermost surface. Recently, samples were obtained directly from the beta cloth using carbon tape. While still fractionated, these samples provide a unique glimpse into the undisturbed soil exposed at the lunar surface.

  9. The role of nodal and internodal responses in gravitropism and autotropism in Galium aparine L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    This time course and location of gravitropically induced curvatures in stems of goosegrass (Gallium aparine L.), a member of the Rubiaceae, have been investigated. In the early stages of the response (0-5 h), curvature develops throughout the growing region, and is followed by an autotropic straightening which affects the internodes only, leading to the production of essentially straight internodes some 15 h after the onset of gravistimulation. Curvatures developing in the nodal regions, however, continue to increase over this period, and are not subject to reversal by autotropism. The nodal curvatures are not entirely dependent on the presence of any other part of the plant, since marked curvatures can be induced in isolated nodal segments. This pattern of response leads ultimately to correction of the growth direction of the plant by means of curvature responses confined exclusively to the nodes, despite the initial participation of both nodes and internodes in the gravitropic reaction.

  10. DWARF TILLER1, a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Transcription Factor, Is Required for Tiller Growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenfei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jun; Chu, Huangwei; Lin, Wenhui; Zhang, Dabing; Wang, Zhiyong; Liang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that DWARF TILLER1 (DWT1) controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa). Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA) treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1) dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice. PMID:24625559

  11. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  12. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  13. Investigation of Inter-Node B Macro Diversity for Single-Carrier Based Radio Access in Evolved UTRA Uplink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Akihito; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

    This paper investigates the gain of inter-Node B macro diversity for a scheduled-based shared channel using single-carrier FDMA radio access in the Evolved UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) uplink based on system-level simulations. More specifically, we clarify the gain of inter-Node B soft handover (SHO) with selection combining at the radio frame length level (=10msec) compared to that for hard handover (HHO) for a scheduled-based shared data channel, considering the gains of key packet-specific techniques including channel-dependent scheduling, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) with packet combining, and slow transmission power control (TPC). Simulation results show that the inter-Node B SHO increases the user throughput at the cell edge by approximately 10% for a short cell radius such as 100-300m due to the diversity gain from a sudden change in other-cell interference, which is a feature specific to full scheduled-based packet access. However, it is also shown that the gain of inter-Node B SHO compared to that for HHO is small in a macrocell environment when the cell radius is longer than approximately 500m due to the gains from hybrid ARQ with packet combining, slow TPC, and proportional fairness based channel-dependent scheduling.

  14. Shape preferred orientation of iron grains compatible with Earth's uppermost inner core hemisphericity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Constraining the possible patterns of iron fabrics in the Earth's Uppermost Inner Core (UIC) is key to unravel the mechanisms controlling its growth and dynamics. In the framework of crystalline micro-structures composed of ellipsoidal, aligned grains, we discuss possible textural models of UIC compatible with observations of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Using recent results from multiple scattering theory in textured heterogeneous materials, we compute the P-wave phase velocity and scattering attenuation as a function of grain volume, shape, and orientation wrt to the propagation direction of seismic P-waves. Assuming no variations of the grain volume between the Eastern and Western hemisphere, we show that two families of texture are compatible with the degree-one structure of the inner core as revealed by the positive correlation between seismic velocity and attenuation. (1) Strong flattening of grains parallel to the Inner Core Boundary in the Western hemisphere and weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. (2) Strong radial elongation of grains in the Western hemisphere and again weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. Both textures can quantitatively explain the seismic data in a limited range of grain volumes. Furthermore, the velocity and attenuation anisotropy locally observed under Africa demands that the grains be locally elongated in the direction of Earth's meridians. Our study demonstrates that the hemispherical seismic structure of UIC can be entirely explained by changes in the shape and orientation of grains, thereby offering an alternative to changes in grain volumes. In the future, our theoretical toolbox could be used to systematically test the compatibility of textures predicted by geodynamical models with seismic observations.

  15. Identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems by Image analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Separating the morphological components of biomass leads to better handling, more efficient processing as well as value added product generation, as these components vary in their chemical composition and can be preferentially utilized. Nodes and internodes of biomass stems have distinct chemical co...

  16. Gibberellins regulate the stem elongation rate without affecting the mature plant height of a quick development mutant of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Xie, Yong-Dun; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Lin-Shu; Xiong, Hong-Chun; Gu, Jia-Yu; Li, Jun-Hui; Kong, Fu-Quan; Sui, Li; Zhao, Zi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Rong; Liu, Lu-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is essential for determining plant height. Alteration of GA content or GA signaling results in a dwarf or slender phenotype. Here, we characterized a novel wheat mutant, quick development (qd), in which GA regulates stem elongation but does not affect mature plant height. qd and wild-type plants did not exhibit phenotypic differences at the seedling stage. From jointing to heading stage, qd plants were taller than wild-type plants due to elongated cells. However, wild-type and qd plants were the same height at heading. Unlike wild-type plants, qd plants were sensitive to exogenous GA due to mutation of Rht-B1. With continuous GA stimulation, qd seedlings and adult plants were taller than wild-type. Thus, the GA content of qd plants might differ from that of wild-type during the growth process. Analysis of GA biosynthetic gene expression verified this hypothesis and showed that TaKAO, which is involved in catalyzing the early steps of GA biosynthesis, was differentially expressed in qd plants compared with wild-type. The bioactive GA associated gene TaGA20ox was downregulated in qd plants during the late growth stages. Measurements of endogenous GA content were consistent with the gene-expression analysis results. Consistent with the GA content variation, the first three basal internodes were longer and the last two internodes were shorter in qd than in wild-type plants. The qd mutant might be useful in dissecting the mechanism by which GA regulates stem-growing process, and it may be serve as a GA responsive semi-dwarf germplasm in breeding programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Eight good reasons why the uppermost mantle could be magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Friedman, S. A.; Martin Hernandez, F.; Till, J. L.; Ionov, D. A.; Conder, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The launch of Magsat in 1979 prompted a broad magnetic investigation of mantle xenoliths (Wasilewski et al., 1979). The study concluded that no magnetic remanence existed in the uppermost mantle and that even if present, such sources would be at temperatures too high to contribute to long wavelength magnetic anomalies (LWMA). However, new collections of unaltered mantle xenoliths from four different tectonic settings, along with updated views on the sources of LWMA and modern petrologic constraints on fO2 in the mantle indicate that the uppermost mantle could, in certain cases, contain ferromagnetic minerals. 1. The analysis of some LWMA over areas such as, for example, Bangui in the Central African Craton, the Cascadia subduction zone and serpentinized oceanic lithosphere suggest magnetic sources in the uppermost mantle. 2. The most common ferromagnetic phase in the uppermost mantle is pure magnetite, which has a pressure-corrected Curie temperature at 10 kbars of 600C instead of the generally used value of 580C. Assuming 30 km-thick continental crust, and crustal and mantle geotherms of 15C/km and 5C/km, respectively, the 600C Curie temperature implies the existence of a 30 km-thick layer of mantle rocks, whose remanent and induced magnetizations could contribute to LWMA. The thickness of this layer decreases to about 15 km for a 35 km-thick crust. 3. The uppermost mantle is cooler than 600C in some tectonic settings, including Archean and Proterozoic shields (>350C), subduction zones (>300C) and old oceanic basins (>250C). 4. Recently investigated sets of unaltered mantle xenoliths contain pure SD and PSD magnetite inclusions exsolved in olivine and pyroxene. The fact that these magnetite grains are not associated with any alteration phases, such as serpentine, and exhibit a subhedral shape, demonstrates that they formed in equilibrium with the host silicate. 5. The ascent of mantle xenoliths in volcanic conduits through cratons and subduction zones occurs in

  18. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  19. NaCl - Changes stem morphology, anatomy and phloem structure in Lucerne (Medicago sativa cv. Gabès): Comparison of upper and lower internodes.

    PubMed

    Nja, Riheb Ben; Merceron, Bruno; Faucher, Mireille; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile

    2018-02-01

    In M. sativa cv. Gabès plants treated with 150mM NaCl, the height of the stem is decreased and the internode number, length and diameter are reduced. This depressive effect on growth, but also on photosynthetic activity and water balance, is accompanied by structural changes. In the upper internodes, NaCl treatment increases cambium development, so that the vascular ring is initiated earlier than in controls. In the lower internodes, the number of lignified phloem fibers is increased by NaCl, and their wall thickness is augmented, compared to controls; in the phloem complex, the nacreous layer is enlarged, the number of internal wall ingrowths is increased, but companion cells are damaged. In the treated lower internodes, few vessels occur in the secondary xylem, which is by contrast rich in lignified fibers and in wide vessels grouped in the metaxylem area; protoxylem parenchyma and adjacent pith are also lignified. In addition, in treated lower internodes, starch grains are less abundant than in controls, and this variation might be related to the decrease of photosynthesis. When taken together, qualitative and quantitative results indicate that the saline stress has a marked morpho-anatomical impact on the M. sativa Gabès stem. In particular, variations of secondary derivative distribution, increased wall thickening, lignification of phloem and xylem fibers and damage in the phloem complex are NaCl-induced responses, and are more expressed in the lower than in the upper internodes. The reinforcement of the stem lignified vasculature is thus a positive response to stress, but it has a negative impact on the quality of the forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis on gibberellin-induced internode growth in light-grown dwarf peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Dai, Y. R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    When gibberellic acid (GA3) is sprayed on 9-day-old light-brown dwarf Progress pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings, arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.9) activity increases within 3 h and peaks at about 9 h after GA3 application. This is followed by a second lower peak at about 30 h; both peaks were higher than the corresponding peaks in the controls. In contrast, no appreciable effect of GA3 on internode length was observed until about 12 h, after which time a dramatic increase in growth rate occurred and persisted for about 12 h. Specific (DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine) and non-specific (D-arginine and L-canavanine) inhibitors of ADC strongly inhibited ADC activity and to a lesser extent internode growth. The inhibition was reversed only slightly by the addition of polyamines. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide inhibited the rise in ADC activity induced by GA3. The half-life of the enzyme was increased by GA3 treatment. The results suggest that part of the GA3-induced increase in internode growth may result from enhanced polyamine biosynthesis through the ADC pathway. Furthermore, the GA3 induced increase in ADC activity probably requires de novo synthesis of both RNA and protein.

  1. Growth dynamics and cytoskeleton organization during stem maturation and gravity-induced stem bending in Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Winter, H.; Wyatt, S. E.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Characterization of gravitropic bending in the maize stem pulvinus, a tissue that functions specifically in gravity responses, demonstrates that the pulvinus is an ideal system for studying gravitropism. Gravistimulation during the second of three developmental phases of the pulvinus induces a gradient of cell elongation across the non-growing cells of the pulvinus, with the most elongation occurring on the lower side. This cell elongation is spatially and temporally separated from normal internodal cell elongation. The three characterized growth phases in the pulvinus correspond closely to a specialized developmental sequence in which structural features typical of cells not fully matured are retained while cell maturation occurs in surrounding internodal and nodal tissue. For example, the lignification of supporting tissue and rearrangement of transverse microtubules to oblique that occur in the internode when cell elongation ceases are delayed for up to 10 d in the adjacent cells of the pulvinus, and only occurs as a pulvinus loses its capacity to respond to gravistimulation. Gravistimulation does not modify this developmental sequence. Neither wall lignification nor rearrangement of transverse microtubules occurs in the rapidly elongating lower side or non-responsive upper side of the pulvinus until the pulvinus loses the capacity to bend further. Gravistimulation does, however, lead to the formation of putative pit fields within the expanding cells of the pulvinus.

  2. Internode data communications in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2013-09-03

    Internode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that each include main memory and a messaging unit, the messaging unit including computer memory and coupling compute nodes for data communications, in which, for each compute node at compute node boot time: a messaging unit allocates, in the messaging unit's computer memory, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; receives, prior to initialization of a particular process on the compute node, a data communications message intended for the particular process; and stores the data communications message in the message buffer associated with the particular process. Upon initialization of the particular process, the process establishes a messaging buffer in main memory of the compute node and copies the data communications message from the message buffer of the messaging unit into the message buffer of main memory.

  3. Internode data communications in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Parker, Jeffrey J; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-02-11

    Internode data communications in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that each include main memory and a messaging unit, the messaging unit including computer memory and coupling compute nodes for data communications, in which, for each compute node at compute node boot time: a messaging unit allocates, in the messaging unit's computer memory, a predefined number of message buffers, each message buffer associated with a process to be initialized on the compute node; receives, prior to initialization of a particular process on the compute node, a data communications message intended for the particular process; and stores the data communications message in the message buffer associated with the particular process. Upon initialization of the particular process, the process establishes a messaging buffer in main memory of the compute node and copies the data communications message from the message buffer of the messaging unit into the message buffer of main memory.

  4. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  5. Structure and stability of internodal myelin in mouse models of hereditary neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Avila, Robin L; Inouye, Hideyo; Baek, Rena C; Yin, Xinghua; Trapp, Bruce D; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathies often result in abnormalities in the structure of internodal myelin, including changes in period and membrane packing, as observed by electron microscopy (EM). Mutations in the gene that encodes the major adhesive structural protein of internodal myelin in the peripheral nervous system of humans and mice--P0 glycoprotein--correlate with these defects. The mechanisms by which P0 mutations interfere with myelin packing and stability are not well understood and cannot be provided by EM studies that give static and qualitative information on fixed material. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of mutant P0, we used x-ray diffraction, which can detect more subtle and dynamic changes in native myelin, to investigate myelin structure in sciatic nerves from murine models of hereditary neuropathies. We used mice with disruption of one or both copies of the P0 gene (models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-like neuropathy [CMT1B] or Dejerine-Sottas-like neuropathy) and mice with a CMT1B resulting from a transgene encoding P0 with an amino terminal myc-tag. To directly test the structural role of P0, we also examined a mouse that expresses P0 instead of proteolipid protein in central nervous system myelin. To link our findings on unfixed nerves with EM results, we analyzed x-ray patterns from unembedded, aldehyde-fixed nerves and from plastic-embedded nerves. From the x-ray patterns recorded from whole nerves, we assessed the amount of myelin and its quality (i.e. relative thickness and regularity). Among sciatic nerves having different levels of P0, we found that unfixed nerves and, to a lesser extent, fixed but unembedded nerves gave diffraction patterns of sufficient quality to distinguish periods, sometimes differing by a few Angstroms. Certain packing abnormalities were preserved qualitatively by aldehyde fixation, and the relative amount and structural integrity of myelin among nerves could be distinguished. Measurements from the same nerve over time

  6. Sn-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhi; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Sun, Weijia

    2018-06-01

    We have extracted a data set of more than 5000 Sn traveltimes for source-station pairs within continental Australia, with 3-D source relocation using Pn arrivals to improve data consistency. We conduct tomographic inversion for S-wave-speed structure down to 100 km using the Fast Marching Tomography (FMTOMO) method for the whole Australian continent. We obtain a 3-D model with potential resolution of 3.0° × 3.0°. The new S-wave-speed model provides strong constraints on structure in a zone that was previously poorly characterized. The S velocities in the uppermost mantle are rather fast, with patterns of variation generally corresponding to those for Pn. We find strong heterogeneities of Swave speed in the uppermost mantle across the entire continent of Australia with a close relation to crustal geological features. For instance, the cratons in the western Australia usually have high S velocities (>4.70 km s-1), while the volcanic regions on the eastern margin of Australia are characterized by low S velocities (<4.40 km s-1). Exploiting an equivalent Pn inversion, we also determine the Vp/Vs ratios across the whole continent. We find that most of the uppermost mantle has Vp/Vs between 1.65 and 1.85, but with patches in central Australia and in the east with much higher Vp/Vs ratios. Distinctive local anomalies on the eastern margin may indicate the positions of remnants of mantle plumes.

  7. The Elongation of Ovococci

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Jules; Vernet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenesis of ovococci has been reviewed extensively. Recent results have provided new insights concerning the mechanisms of elongation in ovoid bacteria. We present here the proteins involved in the elongation (firmly established and more or less hypothetical) and discuss the relationship between elongation and division of ovococci. PMID:24773288

  8. RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Li, Tiandao; Price, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is utilized extensively to generate the pattern of mRNAs needed to specify cell types and to respond to environmental changes. After Pol II initiates, negative elongation factors cause it to pause in a promoter proximal position. These polymerases are poised to respond to the positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, and then enter productive elongation only under the appropriate set of signals to generate full length properly processed mRNAs. Recent global analyses of Pol II and elongation factors, mechanisms that regulate P-TEFb involving the 7SK snRNP, factors that control both the negative and positive elongation properties of Pol II and the mRNA processing events that are coupled with elongation are discussed. PMID:22404626

  9. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  10. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  11. 14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Holt, E; Bench, G

    2007-12-05

    Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot}more » yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.« less

  12. Uppermost Mantle Deformation and Hydration Beneath the Gorda Plate Inferred from Pn Travel-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderBeek, B. P.; Toomey, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Deformation of the uppermost oceanic mantle is thought to occur primarily in response to divergence beneath mid-ocean ridges with little subsequent deformation off-axis. A notable exception to this is the Gorda plate where sinuous magnetic anomalies and numerous intra-plate earthquakes indicate diffuse, plate-wide deformation. Thus, the Gorda region provides a natural laboratory to investigate the non-rigid behavior of tectonic plates. We invert Pn (the seismic head wave refracted below the Moho) arrival times from 770 local earthquakes for epicentral and mantle anisotropic velocity parameters to understand how the surficial pattern of deformation translates into the uppermost 10 km of the mantle. Specifically, we ask does the pattern of seismic anisotropy reflect spreading-induced fabrics or has it been re-worked by extensive deformation of the Gorda plate? If it has been re-worked, does it reflect pervasive faulting of the uppermost mantle or plate-scale ductile deformation? And, are isotropic velocities anomalously slow suggesting significant mantle hydration? Preliminary results show that the average mantle velocity beneath Gorda is 7.55 km/s. Velocities vary azimuthally by 4% and the fast-propagation direction is sub-parallel to Pacific absolute plate motion (APM). In comparison, the uppermost mantle beneath the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is characterized by 4.6% anisotropy with a mean velocity of 7.85 km/s [VanderBeek and Toomey, 2017]; the fast propagation direction trends between the paleo-spreading direction and JdF APM. The reduced Gorda velocities may indicate a greater extent of fault-controlled hydration of the shallow mantle compared to the JdF plate. In both regions, the anisotropic structure argues against the notion that shallow mantle deformation ceases away from the ridge. Instead, shearing across Gorda due to differential motion between the Pacific and JdF plates [e.g. Bodmer et al., 2015] may cause broad scale ductile deformation and the

  13. High-resolution 3D seismic model of the crustal and uppermost mantle structure in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin; Ostaficzuk, Stanisław R.

    2016-01-01

    In the area of Poland a contact between the Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe and the Carpathians has a complicated structure and a complex P-wave velocity of the sedimentary cover, crystalline crust, Moho depth and the uppermost mantle. The geometry of the uppermost several kilometers of sediments is relatively well recognized from over 100,000 boreholes. The vertical seismic profiling (VSP) from 1188 boreholes provided detailed velocity data for regional tectonic units and for stratigraphic successions from Permian to the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits. These data, however, do not provide information about the velocity and basement depth in the central part of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and in the Carpathians. So, the data set is supplemented by 2D velocity models from 32 deep seismic sounding refraction profiles which also provide information about the crust and uppermost mantle. Together with the results of other methods: vertical seismic profiling, magnetotelluric, allow for the creation of a detailed, high-resolution 3D model for the entire Earth's crust and the uppermost mantle down to a depth of 60 km. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclise is only 0.3 to 1 km thick, which increases to 7 to 8 km along the East European Craton (EEC) margin, and 9 to 12 km in the TESZ. The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1-4 km thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sedimentary layers, up to about 20 km. The crystalline crust is differentiated and has a layered structure. The crust beneath the West European Platform (WEP; Variscan domain) is characterized by P-wave velocities of 5.8-6.6 km/s. The upper and middle crusts beneath the EEC are characterized by velocities of 6.1-6.6 km/s, and are underlain by a high velocity lower crust with a velocity of about 7 km/s. A general decrease in velocity is observed from the older to the younger tectonic domains. The TESZ is associated with a steep dip

  14. Gibberellin homeostasis and plant height control by EUI and a role for gibberellin in root gravity responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhu, Yongyou; Peng, Yu; Yan, Dawei; Li, Qun; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Linyou; He, Zuhua

    2008-03-01

    The rice Eui (ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE) gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that deactivates bioactive gibberellins (GAs). In this study, we investigated controlled expression of the Eui gene and its role in plant development. We found that Eui was differentially induced by exogenous GAs and that the Eui promoter had the highest activity in the vascular bundles. The eui mutant was defective in starch granule development in root caps and Eui overexpression enhanced starch granule generation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Experiments using embryoless half-seeds revealed that RAmy1A and GAmyb were highly upregulated in eui aleurone cells in the absence of exogenous GA. In addition, the GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox2 were downregulated and GA2ox1 was upregulated in eui seedlings. These results indicate that EUI is involved in GA homeostasis, not only in the internodes at the heading stage, but also in the seedling stage, roots and seeds. Disturbing GA homeostasis affected the expression of the GA signaling genes GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1), GID2 and SLR1. Transgenic RNA interference of the Eui gene effectively increased plant height and improved heading performance. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Eui under the promoters of the rice GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2 significantly reduced plant height. These results demonstrate that a slight increase in Eui expression could dramatically change rice morphology, indicating the practical application of the Eui gene in rice molecular breeding for a high yield potential.

  15. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  16. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) gibberellin 2-oxidase genes in stem elongation and abiotic stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Underhill, Steven J R

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a traditional staple tree crop in the Oceania. Susceptibility to windstorm damage is a primary constraint on breadfruit cultivation. Significant tree loss due to intense tropical windstorm in the past decades has driven a widespread interest in developing breadfruit with dwarf stature. Gibberellin (GA) is one of the most important determinants of plant height. GA 2-oxidase is a key enzyme regulating the flux of GA through deactivating biologically active GAs in plants. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of growth regulation in the species, we isolated a cohort of four full-length GA2-oxidase cDNAs, AaGA2ox1- AaGA2ox4 from breadfruit. Sequence analysis indicated the deduced proteins encoded by these AaGA2oxs clustered together under the C19 GA2ox group. Transcripts of AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox3 were detected in all plant organs, but exhibited highest level in source leaves and stems. In contrast, transcript of AaGA2ox4 was predominantly expressed in roots and flowers, and displayed very low expression in leaves and stems. AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox3, but not AaGA2ox4 were subjected to GA feedback regulation where application of exogenous GA3 or gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol was shown to manipulate the first internode elongation of breadfruit. Treatments of drought or high salinity increased the expression of AaGA2ox1, AaGA2ox2 and AaGA2ox4. But AaGA2ox3 was down-regulated under salt stress. The function of AaGA2oxs is discussed with particular reference to their role in stem elongation and involvement in abiotic stress response in breadfruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental potential of elongating and elongated spermatids obtained after in-vitro maturation of isolated round spermatids.

    PubMed

    Cremades, N; Sousa, M; Bernabeu, R; Barros, A

    2001-09-01

    Round spermatid injections are associated with disappointing clinical outcomes, and although these cells have been shown to mature into late spermatids in vitro, the developmental potential of such gametes remains to be demonstrated. Round spermatids were isolated from 12 testicle samples of patients with obstructive azoospermia, hypoplasia, complete maturation arrest, and incomplete Sertoli cell-only syndrome. They were cultured for 7 days at 32 degrees C, 5% CO(2)in air, in microdrops of Vero cell-conditioned medium containing 10% synthetic serum substitute. From the 238 round spermatids cultured, 25.2% attained the elongating and 5.5% the elongated spermatid stage (3-4 days per step). Relatively higher maturation rates were found in cases with obstructive azoospermia, but differences were significant only for elongated spermatids (9.3%). No differences were found in maturation rates between cases with non-obstructive azoospermia (4.3% of elongated spermatids). Experimental microinjections with elongating and elongated spermatids revealed a low fertilization rate (40.9%) but a normal blastocyst formation rate (60%). Late spermatids resulting from in-vitro culture of round spermatids in conditioned medium, either in controls in cases with a spermiogenetic block, appeared able to successfully fertilize the human oocyte and elicit normal embryo development.

  18. Elongation of the body in eels.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rita S; Ward, Andrea B; Alfaro, Michael E; Wainwright, Peter C

    2010-12-01

    The shape of the body affects how organisms move, where they live, and how they feed. One body plan that has long engaged the interest of both evolutionary biologists and functional morphologists is axial elongation. There is a growing interest in the correlates and evolution of elongation within different terrestrial and aquatic vertebrate clades. At first glance, Anguilliformes may appear to exhibit a single cylindrical form but there is considerable diversity underlying this seemingly simplified body plan. Here, we explore evolution of the axial skeleton in 54 anguilliform taxa and some close relatives. We describe the diversity of axial elongation as well as investigate how characters such as head length, branchial-arch length, and shape of the pectoral fins correlate with vertebral number to possibly facilitate changes in absolute diameter of the body. Overall, we find that precaudal vertebral numbers and caudal vertebral numbers are evolving independently across elopomorph fishes. We also find that precaudal and caudal vertebral aspect ratios are evolving together across elopomorph fishes. When focusing within Anguilliformes we find striking diversity in the mechanisms of elongation of the body, including almost every trend for axial elongation known within actinopterygian fishes. The three major clades of eels we examined have slightly different mechanisms of elongation. We also find a suite of morphological characters associated with elongation in anguilliform fishes that appears to coincide with a more fossorial lifestyle such as high elongation ratios, a more posteriorly extended-branchial region, and a reduction in the size of the pectoral fins. Lastly, we point out that a diverse range of derived behaviors such as head- and tail-first burrowing, rotational feeding, and knotting around prey are only found in long cylindrical vertebrates.

  19. A review of penile elongation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Penile elongation surgery is less commonly performed in the public sector, but involves a collaborative approach between urology and plastic surgery. Congenital and acquired micropenis are the classic surgical indications for penile elongation surgery. The goal of intervention in these patients is to restore a functional penis size in order to allow normal standing micturition, enable satisfying sexual intercourse and improve patient quality of life. Many men seeking elongation actually have normal length penises, but perceive themselves to be small, a psychologic condition termed ‘penile dysmorphophobia’. This paper will review the anatomy and embryology of congenital micropenis and discuss both conservative and surgical management options for men seeking penile elongation therapy. PMID:28217452

  20. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regionally, water in the lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems flows in a northerly or northeasterly direction from the Powder River structural basin to the Williston structural basin. Groundwater flow in the Williston structural basin generally is easterly or northeasterly. Flow in the uppermost hydrogeologic units generally is more local and controlled by topography where unglaciated in the Williston structural basin than is flow in the glaciated part and in underlying aquifers. Groundwater flow in the Powder River structural basin generally is northerly with local variations greatest in the uppermost aquifers. Groundwater is confined, and flow is regional in the underlying aquifers.

  1. Aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Hiroki; Kitamoto, Kazuki

    2014-05-01

    Plant nuclei are known to differentiate into various shapes within a single plant. However, little is known about the mechanisms of nuclear morphogenesis. We found that nuclei of tobacco BY-2 cells were highly elongated on long-term treatment with 5 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear length was correlated with the cell length. During culture in the presence of aphidicolin, the nuclei were elongated in parallel with cell elongation. Nuclear elongation was inhibited by the inhibition of cell elongation with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, a cellulose synthesis inhibitor. However, cell elongation induced in the auxin-depleted medium in the absence of aphidicolin did not cause nuclear elongation, indicating that cell elongation alone is not sufficient for nuclear elongation. Treatment with either latrunculin B or propyzamide inhibited the aphidicolin-induced nuclear elongation, indicating that both actin filaments and microtubules (MTs) are required for nuclear elongation. Observations using BY-YTHCLR2 cells, in which actin filaments, MTs and nuclei were simultaneously visualized, revealed that the longitudinally arranged MT bundles associated with the nucleus play an important role in nuclear elongation, and that actin filaments affect the formation of these MT bundles. In aphidicolin-treated cells, the nuclear DNA contents of the elongated nuclei exceeded 4C, and the nuclear length was highly correlated with the nuclear DNA content. In cells treated with 50 mg l⁻¹ aphidicolin, cells were elongated and nucleus-associated longitudinal MT bundles were formed, but the nuclear DNA contents did not exceed 4C and the nuclei did not elongate. These results indicate that an increase in the nuclear DNA content above 4C is also required for nuclear elongation.

  2. Gravity perception and asymmetric growth in plants - A model derived from the grass pulvinus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanandan, P.; Franklin, C. I.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that gravitropic responses in plants involve asymmetric growth. On the basis of the geometry of growth response in grass leaf sheath pulvinus, a general model is proposed for gravitropism in multicellular plant organs. The negative gravitropic response of a pulvinus is a result of cell elongation involving all but the uppermost region of a horizontally placed organ. Whereas the uppermost region does not grow, the lowermost region elongates maximally. The regions between elongate to intermediate extents. An expression is given relating the angle of curvature of the organ to the diameter and initial and final lengths of the organ. It is shown that the response of the individual cells can be expressed as inherent sensitivity to gravitational stimulus according to a particular equation.

  3. Managing internode data communications for an uninitialized process in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R; Parker, Jeffrey J; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-05-20

    A parallel computer includes nodes, each having main memory and a messaging unit (MU). Each MU includes computer memory, which in turn includes, MU message buffers. Each MU message buffer is associated with an uninitialized process on the compute node. In the parallel computer, managing internode data communications for an uninitialized process includes: receiving, by an MU of a compute node, one or more data communications messages in an MU message buffer associated with an uninitialized process on the compute node; determining, by an application agent, that the MU message buffer associated with the uninitialized process is full prior to initialization of the uninitialized process; establishing, by the application agent, a temporary message buffer for the uninitialized process in main computer memory; and moving, by the application agent, data communications messages from the MU message buffer associated with the uninitialized process to the temporary message buffer in main computer memory.

  4. Two Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, CYP714A1 and CYP714A2, function redundantly in plant development through gibberellin deactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Baichen; Yan, Dawei; Dong, Weixin; Yang, Weibing; Li, Qun; Zeng, Longjun; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Linyou; Hicks, Leslie M; He, Zuhua

    2011-07-01

    The rice gene ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE1 (EUI1) encodes a P450 monooxygenase that epoxidizes gibberellins (GAs) in a deactivation reaction. The Arabidopsis genome contains a tandemly duplicated gene pair ELA1 (CYP714A1) and ELA2 (CYP714A2) that encode EUI homologs. In this work, we dissected the functions of the two proteins. ELA1 and ELA2 exhibited overlapping yet distinct gene expression patterns. We showed that while single mutants of ELA1 or ELA2 exhibited no obvious morphological phenotype, simultaneous elimination of ELA1 and ELA2 expression in ELA1-RNAi/ela2 resulted in increased biomass and enlarged organs. By contrast, transgenic plants constitutively expressing either ELA1 or ELA2 were dwarfed, similar to those overexpressing the rice EUI gene. We also discovered that overexpression of ELA1 resulted in a severe dwarf phenotype, while overexpression of ELA2 gave rise to a breeding-favored semi-dwarf phenotype in rice. Consistent with the phenotypes, we found that the ELA1-RNAi/ela2 plants increased amounts of biologically active GAs that were decreased in the internodes of transgenic rice with ELA1 and ELA2 overexpression. In contrast, the precursor GA(12) slightly accumulated in the transgenic rice, and GA(19) highly accumulated in the ELA2 overexpression rice. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that the two Arabidopsis EUI homologs subtly regulate plant growth most likely through catalyzing deactivation of bioactive GAs similar to rice EUI. The two P450s may also function in early stages of the GA biosynthetic pathway. Our results also suggest that ELA2 could be an excellent tool for molecular breeding for high yield potential in cereal crops. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Trend Extraction of Understanding Degree of Classes through Analyses of Questionnaires on Teaching Skills and the Uppermost Important Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Mori, Kazuya; Yamao, Toshitaka; Fujimi, Toshio

    As an activity of one working group for the Good Practice at Kumamoto Univ., we proposed a questionnaire survey on understanding degree of the uppermost important points of each class in addition to the usual class-evaluation questionnaire. Each class lists three uppermost important points which are essential to understand the class contents. The understanding degree is classified into four levels ; full, most, insufficient, and not at all understandings. By analyzing the replies to 124 classes in the 2008 school year with a regression model, the understanding degrees of the bachelor students of the faculty of engineering were clarified to be affected meaningfully by degree of difficulty, effectiveness of audiovisual aids, self-study time, and attendance to class.

  6. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  7. The structure of the stem endodermis in etiolated pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiation of the endodermis was examined in third internodes of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska seedlings. The endodermis in young internodes contains large, sedimented amyloplasts; in older internodes, a casparian strip differentiates and the endodermis becomes depleted of starch except for the proximal region of the stem, which retains sedimented amyloplasts and remains graviresponsive. Sedimentation occurs in the hook but does not occur consistently until cells reach the base of the hook, where the axis becomes vertical, rapid cell elongation starts, and amyloplast diameter increases substantially. Contact between endoplasmic reticulum and amyloplasts was observed. Endoplasmic reticulum is not distributed polarly with respect to gravity. No symplastic or apoplastic blockages exist in the endodermis at the level of the stem where lateral gradients may be established during tropic curvature.

  8. Sucrose Transporter Localization and Function in Phloem Unloading in Developing Stems.

    PubMed

    Milne, Ricky J; Perroux, Jai M; Rae, Anne L; Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2017-02-01

    How sucrose transporters (SUTs) regulate phloem unloading in monocot stems is poorly understood and particularly so for species storing high Suc concentrations. To this end, Sorghum bicolor SUTs SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 were characterized by determining their transport properties heterologously expressed in yeast or Xenopus laevis oocytes, and their in planta cellular and subcellular localization. The plasma membrane-localized SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 exhibited a strong selectivity for Suc and high Suc affinities in X. laevis oocytes at pH 5-SbSUT1, 6.3 ± 0.7 mm, and SbSUT5, 2.4 ± 0.5 mm Suc. The Suc affinity of SbSUT1 was dependent on membrane potential and pH. In contrast, SbSUT5 Suc affinity was independent of membrane potential and pH but supported high transport rates at neutral pH. Suc transport by the tonoplast localized SbSUT4 could not be detected using yeast or X. laevis oocytes. Across internode development, SUTs, other than SbSUT4, were immunolocalized to sieve elements, while for elongating and recently elongated internodes, SUTs also were detected in storage parenchyma cells. We conclude that apoplasmic Suc unloading from de-energized protophloem sieve elements in meristematic zones may be mediated by reversal of SbSUT1 and/or by uniporting SWEETs. Storage parenchyma localized SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 may accumulate Suc from the stem apoplasms of elongating and recently elongated internodes, whereas SbSUT4 may function to release Suc from vacuoles. Transiting from an apoplasmic to symplasmic unloading pathway as the stem matures, SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 increasingly function in Suc retrieval into metaphloem sieve elements to maintain a high turgor to drive symplasmic unloading by bulk flow. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The molecular mechanisms underlying lens fiber elongation

    PubMed Central

    Audette, Dylan S.; Scheiblin, David A.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Lens fiber cells are highly elongated cells with complex membrane morphologies that are critical for the transparency of the ocular lens. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying lens fiber cell elongation were first reported in the 1960s, however, our understanding of the process is still poor nearly 50 years later. This review summarizes what is currently hypothesized about the regulation of lens fiber cell elongation along with the available experimental evidence, and how this information relates to what is known about the regulation of cell shape/elongation in other cell types, particularly neurons. PMID:27015931

  10. The Aquatic Communities Inhabiting Internodes of Two Sympatric Bamboos in Argentinean Subtropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine if phytotelmata in sympatric bamboos of the genus Guadua might be colonized by different types of arthropods and contain communities of different complexities, the following objectives were formulated: (1) to analyze the structure and species richness of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, (2) to comparatively analyze co-occurrences; and (3) to identify the main predators. Field studies were conducted in a subtropical forest in Argentina, where 80 water-filled bamboo internodes of Guadua chacoensis (Rojas Acosta) Londoño and Peterson (Poales: Poaceae) and G. trinii (Nees) Nees and Rupr. were sampled. Morphological measurements indicated that G. chacoensis held more fluid than G. trinii. The communities differed between Guadua species, but many macroinvertebrate species used both bamboo species. The phytotelmata were mainly colonized by Diptera of the families Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae. PMID:24224775

  11. Managing internode data communications for an uninitialized process in a parallel computer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2014-05-20

    A parallel computer includes nodes, each having main memory and a messaging unit (MU). Each MU includes computer memory, which in turn includes, MU message buffers. Each MU message buffer is associated with an uninitialized process on the compute node. In the parallel computer, managing internode data communications for an uninitialized process includes: receiving, by an MU of a compute node, one or more data communications messages in an MU message buffer associated with an uninitialized process on the compute node; determining, by an application agent, that the MU message buffer associated with the uninitialized process is full prior tomore » initialization of the uninitialized process; establishing, by the application agent, a temporary message buffer for the uninitialized process in main computer memory; and moving, by the application agent, data communications messages from the MU message buffer associated with the uninitialized process to the temporary message buffer in main computer memory.« less

  12. Vertebral shape and body elongation in Triturus newts.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Aleksandar; Slijepčević, Maja D; Arntzen, Jan W; Ivanović, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Body elongation in vertebrates is often related to a lengthening of the vertebrae and an increase in their number. Changes in the number and shape of vertebrae are not necessarily linked. In tailed amphibians, a change in body shape is mostly associated with an increase in the number of trunk and tail vertebrae. Body elongation without a numerical change of vertebrae is rare. In Triturus aquatic salamanders body elongation is achieved by trunk elongation through an increase in the number of trunk vertebrae. We used computed microtomography and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to document the size, shape and number of trunk vertebrae in seven Triturus species. The data suggest that body elongation has occurred more frequently than body shortening, possibly related to a more aquatic versus a more terrestrial locomotor style. Our results show that body elongation is achieved through an increase in the number of trunk vertebrae, and that interspecific differences in vertebral shape are correlated with this pattern of elongation. More gracile trunk vertebrae were found in the more elongated species. The shape differences are such that single trunk vertebrae can be used for the identification of species with a possible application in the identification of subfossil and fossil material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Photosynthesis-dependent formation of convoluted plasma membrane domains in Chara internodal cells is independent of chloroplast position.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Ilse; Sommer, Aniela; Hoeftberger, Margit

    2015-07-01

    The characean green alga Chara australis forms complex plasma membrane convolutions called charasomes when exposed to light. Charasomes are involved in local acidification of the surrounding medium which facilitates carbon uptake required for photosynthesis. They have hitherto been only described in the internodal cells and in close contact with the stationary chloroplasts. Here, we show that charasomes are not only present in the internodal cells of the main axis, side branches, and branchlets but that the plasma membranes of chloroplast-containing nodal cells, protonemata, and rhizoids are also able to invaginate into complex domains. Removal of chloroplasts by local irradiation with intense light revealed that charasomes can develop at chloroplast-free "windows" and that the resulting pH banding pattern is independent of chloroplast or window position. Charasomes were not detected along cell walls containing functional plasmodesmata. However, charasomes formed next to a smooth wound wall which was deposited onto the plasmodesmata-containing wall when the neighboring cell was damaged. In contrast, charasomes were rarely found at uneven, bulged wound walls which protrude into the streaming endoplasm and which were induced by ligation or puncturing. The results of this study show that charasome formation, although dependent on photosynthesis, does not require intimate contact with chloroplasts. Our data suggest further that the presence of plasmodesmata inhibits charasome formation and/or that exposure to the outer medium is a prerequisite for charasome formation. Finally, we hypothesize that the absence of charasomes at bulged wound walls is due to the disturbance of uniform laminar mass streaming.

  14. Petit-spot geology reveals melts in upper-most asthenosphere dragged by lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Shiki; Hirano, Naoto; Sumino, Hirochika; Hirata, Takafumi; Yoneda, Shigekazu; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Petit-spot volcanism is a phenomenon ubiquitous on Earth. It originates from melt in the upper-most mantle asthenosphere, occurring where the plate flexes and fractures before subduction. Recent geochemical and petrological studies of petit-spot volcanism lava have shown that understanding this form of volcanism can contribute to the investigation of mantle dynamics and CO2 degassing of Earth. However, geological information constraining the magma source of petit-spot remains limited. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset of geochemistry (major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions) and 40Ar/39Ar ages of alkaline basaltic rocks and glasses to define the geological characteristics of petit-spot volcanoes in the northwestern Pacific. The geochemical and geochronological variations of the basalts indicate that petit-spot volcanism is characterized by a petrogenetically and temporally isolated magma system for each volcano. The basalt geochemistry further indicates that the magmas at the volcanoes were derived from the melting of a heterogeneous regional-scale source under a range of conditions. In addition, slight temporal intra-field migration of petit-spot vent fields against the plate motion was detected. These features indicate that the magma originates from isolated melt ponds at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and that the speed at which the melt ponds are dragged by the plate is only slightly slower than that of the plate motion. Our results provide detailed insight into eruption processes of asthenosphere melts induced by plate-flexure, and also suggest the complete coupling of the lithosphere to the upper-most asthenosphere in the case of large plate subduction.

  15. ATFL elongation after Brostrom procedure: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Kevin L; Campbell, John T; Guyton, Gregory P; Parks, Brent G; Schon, Lew C

    2008-11-01

    Elongation of ligaments during early mobilization after reconstruction may be associated with decreased stability. We evaluated elongation of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) before and after lateral ligament reconstruction within a physiologic range of motion with protected and unprotected, isolated dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion. Six fresh frozen cadaver legs were used with the ATFL meticulously dissected. A differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was spaced to span the course of the ATFL using consistent placement points based on previous reports. Elongation was measured in a load frame with protected motion of 30 degrees plantarflexion and 10 degrees dorsiflexion for the intact and sectioned ATFL and for the repaired specimen with and without protected motion. The proximal DVRT anchor point was detached for sectioning and repair of the ATFL and replaced at the same position. Testing was 1000 cycles at 1 Hz for the repaired protected specimen and 10 cycles at 1 Hz for all other stages. Initial elongation in the unprotected, repaired group was significantly higher than initial elongation in the intact (p < 0.01), sectioned (p = 0.02), and repaired, protected (p < 0.01) groups. Final elongation in the unprotected repaired group was also higher than final elongation in all other groups (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The use of protected range of motion of the ankle after lateral ankle ligament reconstruction was not associated with elongation of the ATFL. The ATFL elongated significantly by comparison without protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion. The study provides biomechanical support for the safety of early protected dorsiflexion/plantarflexion range of motion after Broström reconstruction.

  16. A reference model for crust and uppermost mantle beneath Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Wiens, D.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Stephen, R. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Winberry, J. P.; Huerta, A. D.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Hansen, S. E.; Wilson, T. J.; Heeszel, D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the last decade of the 20th Century, over 300 broad-band seismic stations have been deployed across the continent of Antarctica (e.g., temporary networks such as TAMSEIS, AGAP/GAMSEIS, POLENET/ANET, TAMNNET and RIS/DRIS by US geoscientists, as well as stations deployed by other countries). In this presentation, we discuss our recent effort that builds a reference crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity (Vs) model for continental Antarctica based on those seismic arrays. The data analysis for this effort consists of four steps. First, we compute ambient noise cross-correlations between all possible station pairs and use them to construct Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity maps at a continental scale. Coherence of the new maps with maps generated from teleseismic earthquake data from an earlier study (Heeszel et al., 2016) confirms the high quality of both maps and the minor difference helps quantify the map uncertainties. Second, we compute P receiver function waveforms for each station in Antarctica. Third, we collect Rayleigh waves generated by teleseismic earthquakes and measure their horizontal to vertical (H/V) ratio at each station. Fourth and finally, by combing all seismic measurements from the first three steps together with the phase velocity maps by Heeszel et al.(2016) using a non-linear Monte Carlo (MC) inversion algorithm, we built a 3-D model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath continental Antarctica and its periphery to a depth of 150 km. This high resolution model, together with associated uncertainty estimates from the MC inversion, serve as a starting point for further improvement and geological interpretation. A variety of tectonic features, including a slower but highly heterogeneous West Antarctica and a much faster East Antarctica, are present in the 3D model. A better image of these features from the 3D model helps further investigation of the thermal and dynamic state of Antarctica's lithosphere and underlying

  17. Effect of litter, leaf cover and cover of basal internodes of the dominant species Molinia caerulea on seedling recruitment and established vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lepš, Jan

    2005-09-01

    The effects of litter removal, leaf cover of established plants and cover of basal internodes of a dominant species Molinia caerulea on seedling germination and the dynamics of established plants were studied in a field experiment in an oligotrophic wet meadow. Although the negative influence of litter on total seedling number and seedling species composition was non-significant, litter significantly affected the dynamics of the established vegetation and caused inhibition of total leaf cover development. The effects of total leaf cover of established plants on seedling establishment changed during the vegetation season. Whereas the effect of total leaf cover was positive at the start and in the middle of the vegetation season, at the end the total leaf cover negatively affected seedling establishment. Both total leaf cover and cover of basal internodes affected seedling composition. Effects of these two variables were statistically separable suggesting that they are based on different mechanisms. The response of seedling establishment to these factors was species specific and, consequently, our data support the hypothesis that that biotically generated spatial heterogeneity can promote species co-existence through the differentiation of species regeneration niches.

  18. Elongator promotes germination and early post-germination growth.

    PubMed

    Woloszynska, Magdalena; Gagliardi, Olimpia; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2018-01-02

    The Elongator complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and via histone acetylation and DNA demethylation facilitates epigenetically the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes in plants, including growth, development, and immune response. Recently, we have shown that the Elongator complex promotes hypocotyl elongation and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating the photomorphogenesis and growth-related gene network that converges on genes implicated in cell wall biogenesis and hormone signaling. Here, we report that germination in the elo mutant was delayed by 6 h in the dark when compared to the wild type in a time lapse and germination assay. A number of germination-correlated genes were down-regulated in the elo transcriptome, suggesting a transcriptional regulation by Elongator. We also show that the hypocotyl elongation defect observed in the elo mutants in darkness originates very early in the post-germination development and is independent from the germination delay.

  19. Super elongation complex contains a TFIIF-related subcomplex

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Bruce A.; Smith, Marissa L.; Walker-Kopp, Nancy; Xu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Super elongation complex (SEC) belongs to a family of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factors that has similar properties as TFIIF, a general transcription factor that increases the transcription elongation rate by reducing pausing. Although SEC has TFIIF-like functional properties, it apparently lacks sequence and structural homology. Using HHpred, we find that SEC contains an evolutionarily related TFIIF-like subcomplex. We show that the SEC subunit ELL interacts with the Pol II Rbp2 subunit, as expected for a TFIIF-like factor. These findings suggest a new model for how SEC functions as a Pol II elongation factor and how it suppresses Pol II pausing. PMID:27223670

  20. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta.

  1. Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1975-01-01

    Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198

  2. Dielectric constant estimation of the uppermost Basal Unit layer in the martian Boreales Scopuli region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Sebastian E.; Mattei, Elisabetta; Soldovieri, Francesco; Pettinelli, Elena; Orosei, Roberto; Vannaroni, Giuliano

    2012-05-01

    An electromagnetic inversion model has been applied to echoes from the subsurface sounding Shallow Radar (SHARAD) to retrieve the dielectric properties of the uppermost Basal Unit (BU) beneath the North Polar Layered Deposits of Mars. SHARAD data have been carefully selected to satisfy the assumption of the inversion model which requires a stratigraphy consisting of mostly plane parallel layers. The resulting values of the dielectric constant have been interpreted in terms of a variable percentage of dust in an ice-dust mixture through the use of a mixing model for dielectric properties. The resulting dust content exceeds 65%, reaching perhaps 95%, depending on the permittivity values assumed for the dust. Such a concentration is higher than that obtained by Selvans et al. (Selvans, M.M., Plaut, J.J., Aharonson, O. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res, 115, E09003). This discrepancy could be justified considering that our observations refer to the uppermost BU layer, whereas Selvans et al. (Selvans, M.M., Plaut, J.J., Aharonson, O. [2010]. J. Geophys. Res, 115, E09003) probed the BU full thickness. Moreover, if the BU is considered spatially inhomogeneous, with very different dust content and thickness (Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Fortezzo, C.M., Herkenhoff, K.E., Rodriguez, J.A.P., Bourke, M.C., Kolb, E.J., Okubo, C.H. [2008]. Icarus, 196, 318-358), the discrepancy could be furtherly reconciled.

  3. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  4. Seismic properties of the crust and uppermost mantle of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Keller, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles for the North American continent were compiled. The crustal models compiled data on the upper mantle seismic velocity (P sub n), the crustal thickness (H sub c) and the average seismic velocity of the crystalline crust (V sub p). Compressional wave parameters were compared with shear wave data derived from surface wave dispersion models and indicate an average value for Poisson's ratio of 0.252 for the crust and of 0.273 for the uppermost mantle. Contour maps illustrate lateral variations in crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity and average seismic velocity of the crystalline crust. The distribution of seismic parameters are compared with a smoothed free air anomaly map of North America and indicate that a complidated mechanism of isostatic compensation exists for the North American continent. Several features on the seismic contour maps also correlate with regional magnetic anomalies.

  5. Morphology and Length Correlated in Terminal Flushes of Longleaf Pine Saplings

    Treesearch

    R.M. Allen; N.M. Scarbrough

    1970-01-01

    In longleafpine (Pinuspalustris Mill.) saplings growing in southern Mississippi the length of the first or spring flush was significantly correlated with that of the second flush; the correlation of length between flushes two and three was also statistically significant. The correlations were due more to similarities in internode elongation than to node number. Flush...

  6. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  7. How Messenger RNA and Nascent Chain Sequences Regulate Translation Elongation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhong; Grosely, Rosslyn; Prabhakar, Arjun; Lapointe, Christopher P; Wang, Jinfan; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2018-06-20

    Translation elongation is a highly coordinated, multistep, multifactor process that ensures accurate and efficient addition of amino acids to a growing nascent-peptide chain encoded in the sequence of translated messenger RNA (mRNA). Although translation elongation is heavily regulated by external factors, there is clear evidence that mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences control elongation dynamics, determining both the sequence and structure of synthesized proteins. Advances in methods have driven experiments that revealed the basic mechanisms of elongation as well as the mechanisms of regulation by mRNA and nascent-peptide sequences. In this review, we highlight how mRNA and nascent-peptide elements manipulate the translation machinery to alter the dynamics and pathway of elongation.

  8. Overcoming deep roots, fast rates, and short internodes to resolve the ancient rapid radiation of eupolypod II ferns.

    PubMed

    Rothfels, Carl J; Larsson, Anders; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Korall, Petra; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2012-05-01

    Backbone relationships within the large eupolypod II clade, which includes nearly a third of extant fern species, have resisted elucidation by both molecular and morphological data. Earlier studies suggest that much of the phylogenetic intractability of this group is due to three factors: (i) a long root that reduces apparent levels of support in the ingroup; (ii) long ingroup branches subtended by a series of very short backbone internodes (the "ancient rapid radiation" model); and (iii) significantly heterogeneous lineage-specific rates of substitution. To resolve the eupolypod II phylogeny, with a particular emphasis on the backbone internodes, we assembled a data set of five plastid loci (atpA, atpB, matK, rbcL, and trnG-R) from a sample of 81 accessions selected to capture the deepest divergences in the clade. We then evaluated our phylogenetic hypothesis against potential confounding factors, including those induced by rooting, ancient rapid radiation, rate heterogeneity, and the Bayesian star-tree paradox artifact. While the strong support we inferred for the backbone relationships proved robust to these potential problems, their investigation revealed unexpected model-mediated impacts of outgroup composition, divergent effects of methods for countering the star-tree paradox artifact, and gave no support to concerns about the applicability of the unrooted model to data sets with heterogeneous lineage-specific rates of substitution. This study is among few to investigate these factors with empirical data, and the first to compare the performance of the two primary methods for overcoming the Bayesian star-tree paradox artifact. Among the significant phylogenetic results is the near-complete support along the eupolypod II backbone, the demonstrated paraphyly of Woodsiaceae as currently circumscribed, and the well-supported placement of the enigmatic genera Homalosorus, Diplaziopsis, and Woodsia.

  9. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-05-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  10. Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscum, E.; Young, J. C.; Poff, K. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light-induced regulation of cell elongation is a component of the signal response pathway for both phototropic curvature and inhibition of stem elongation in higher plants. To determine if blue light regulates cell elongation in these responses through shared or discrete pathways, phototropism and hypocotyl elongation were investigated in several blue light response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, the blu mutants that lack blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were found to exhibit a normal phototropic response. In contrast, a phototropic null mutant (JK218) and a mutant that has a 20- to 30-fold shift in the fluence dependence for first positive phototropism (JK224) showed normal inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in blue light. F1 progeny of crosses between the blu mutants and JK218 showed normal phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and approximately 1 in 16 F2 progeny were double mutants lacking both responses. Thus, blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and phototropism operate through at least some genetically distinct components.

  11. Geophysical and petrological modeling of the lower crust and uppermost mantle in the Variscan and Proterozoic surroundings of the Trans-European Suture Zone in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2017-04-01

    High-quality seismic data on the lower crust and uppermost lithospheric mantle in the Central European part of the Trans European Suture Zone, together with thermal and gravimetric data, enables the quantitative modeling of the rocks occurring in those parts of the lithosphere, including their mineral compositions and the chemical composition of individual minerals. The P3 seismic profile is located at the SW margin of the East European Craton. The lower crust is dominated by gabbronoritic intrusions (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En74Fs26), and the uppermost mantle is harzburgitic (olivine and orthopyroxene Mg# 0.91). The lower crust and upper mantle of the P1 seismic profile belong to the Trans European Suture Zone, albeit the upper crust is of Variscan affinity. The P1 lower crust has gabbronoritic composition which is layered from plagioclase-rich compositions on the top to the orthopyroxene-rich ones at the bottom (plagioclase An45Ab55, clinopyroxene Di80Hed20, orthopyroxene En85Fs15), and is lithologically different Proterozoic and Variscan surroundings. The 100 × 200 km eclogite slice (garnet Alm48Gr25Py27, clinopyroxene Di51Hed10Jd39), with a thickness of 5-10 km, occurs in the uppermost mantle sampled by the P1 profile. The Niedźwiedź Massif is located at the NE margin of the Bohemian Massif, which shows an exposed Variscan basement. The lower crust beneath the Niedźwiedź Massif consists of gabbroic rock of variable proportions of plagioclase (An45Ab55) and clinopyroxene (Di80Hed20), whereas the uppermost mantle is supposedly spinel harzburgite (olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene Mg# 0.90). Our models show that the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle of the East European Craton do not continue to the SW into the Trans European Suture Zone in its Central European section in Poland.

  12. Elongate Hemlock Scale

    Treesearch

    Mark McClure

    2002-01-01

    The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to Japan, is a pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, in the Eastern United States. It has been found in the District of Columbia and in nine states from Virginia to southern New England and west to Ohio. F. externa attacks the lower surface of the hemlock needle,...

  13. The Prefoldin Complex Regulates Chromatin Dynamics during Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Peñate, Xenia; de Miguel-Jiménez, Lola; Morillo-Huesca, Macarena; Krogan, Nevan; Chávez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional elongation requires the concerted action of several factors that allow RNA polymerase II to advance through chromatin in a highly processive manner. In order to identify novel elongation factors, we performed systematic yeast genetic screening based on the GLAM (Gene Length-dependent Accumulation of mRNA) assay, which is used to detect defects in the expression of long transcription units. Apart from well-known transcription elongation factors, we identified mutants in the prefoldin complex subunits, which were among those that caused the most dramatic phenotype. We found that prefoldin, so far involved in the cytoplasmic co-translational assembly of protein complexes, is also present in the nucleus and that a subset of its subunits are recruited to chromatin in a transcription-dependent manner. Prefoldin influences RNA polymerase II the elongation rate in vivo and plays an especially important role in the transcription elongation of long genes and those whose promoter regions contain a canonical TATA box. Finally, we found a specific functional link between prefoldin and histone dynamics after nucleosome remodeling, which is consistent with the extensive network of genetic interactions between this factor and the machinery regulating chromatin function. This study establishes the involvement of prefoldin in transcription elongation, and supports a role for this complex in cotranscriptional histone eviction. PMID:24068951

  14. The prefoldin complex regulates chromatin dynamics during transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Peñate, Xenia; de Miguel-Jiménez, Lola; Morillo-Huesca, Macarena; Krogan, Nevan; Chávez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional elongation requires the concerted action of several factors that allow RNA polymerase II to advance through chromatin in a highly processive manner. In order to identify novel elongation factors, we performed systematic yeast genetic screening based on the GLAM (Gene Length-dependent Accumulation of mRNA) assay, which is used to detect defects in the expression of long transcription units. Apart from well-known transcription elongation factors, we identified mutants in the prefoldin complex subunits, which were among those that caused the most dramatic phenotype. We found that prefoldin, so far involved in the cytoplasmic co-translational assembly of protein complexes, is also present in the nucleus and that a subset of its subunits are recruited to chromatin in a transcription-dependent manner. Prefoldin influences RNA polymerase II the elongation rate in vivo and plays an especially important role in the transcription elongation of long genes and those whose promoter regions contain a canonical TATA box. Finally, we found a specific functional link between prefoldin and histone dynamics after nucleosome remodeling, which is consistent with the extensive network of genetic interactions between this factor and the machinery regulating chromatin function. This study establishes the involvement of prefoldin in transcription elongation, and supports a role for this complex in cotranscriptional histone eviction.

  15. Elongation of Flare Ribbons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2017-03-20

    We present an analysis of the apparent elongation motion of flare ribbons along the polarity inversion line (PIL), as well as the shear of flare loops in several two-ribbon flares. Flare ribbons and loops spread along the PIL at a speed ranging from a few to a hundred km s{sup −1}. The shear measured from conjugate footpoints is consistent with the measurement from flare loops, and both show the decrease of shear toward a potential field as a flare evolves and ribbons and loops spread along the PIL. Flares exhibiting fast bidirectional elongation appear to have a strong shear, whichmore » may indicate a large magnetic guide field relative to the reconnection field in the coronal current sheet. We discuss how the analysis of ribbon motion could help infer properties in the corona where reconnection takes place.« less

  16. HIV-1 Tat protein promotes formation of more-processive elongation complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, R A; Sharp, P A

    1991-01-01

    The Tat protein of HIV-1 trans-activates transcription in vitro in a cell-free extract of HeLa nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the efficiency of elongation revealed that a majority of the elongation complexes generated by the HIV-1 promoter were not highly processive and terminated within the first 500 nucleotides. Tat trans-activation of transcription from the HIV-1 promoter resulted from an increase in processive character of the elongation complexes. More specifically, the analysis suggests that there exist two classes of elongation complexes initiating from the HIV promoter: a less-processive form and a more-processive form. Addition of purified Tat protein was found to increase the abundance of the more-processive class of elongation complex. The purine nucleoside analog, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) inhibits transcription in this reaction by decreasing the efficiency of elongation. Surprisingly, stimulation of transcription elongation by Tat was preferentially inhibited by the addition of DRB. Images PMID:1756726

  17. Shoot Growth Patterns of Young Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1970-01-01

    Most shoot elongation on Pinus taeda L. seedlings and saplings near Durham. North Carolina. was supplied by the lirst growth Ilush, which began about April 1 and ended in mid-May 1967. New growth per shoot declined with distance from the tree top. All leaders had three flushes and half had four. Variation in internode growth was dependent upon...

  18. Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.

    PubMed

    Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Initiation Factor TFE and the Elongation Factor Spt4/5 Compete for the RNAP Clamp during Transcription Initiation and Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Dina; Nagy, Julia; Chakraborty, Anirban; Klose, Daniel; Fielden, Daniel; Ebright, Richard H.; Michaelis, Jens; Werner, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Summary TFIIE and the archaeal homolog TFE enhance DNA strand separation of eukaryotic RNAPII and the archaeal RNAP during transcription initiation by an unknown mechanism. We have developed a fluorescently labeled recombinant M. jannaschii RNAP system to probe the archaeal transcription initiation complex, consisting of promoter DNA, TBP, TFB, TFE, and RNAP. We have localized the position of the TFE winged helix (WH) and Zinc ribbon (ZR) domains on the RNAP using single-molecule FRET. The interaction sites of the TFE WH domain and the transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 overlap, and both factors compete for RNAP binding. Binding of Spt4/5 to RNAP represses promoter-directed transcription in the absence of TFE, which alleviates this effect by displacing Spt4/5 from RNAP. During elongation, Spt4/5 can displace TFE from the RNAP elongation complex and stimulate processivity. Our results identify the RNAP “clamp” region as a regulatory hot spot for both transcription initiation and transcription elongation. PMID:21777815

  20. Mitotic Kinesin CENP-E Promotes Microtubule Plus-End Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Harjinder S.; Luczak, Vincent G.; Lopez, Maria M.; Lister, Bradford C.; Gilbert, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Centromere protein CENP-E is a dimeric kinesin (Kinesin-7 family) with critical roles in mitosis including establishment of microtubule (MT)-chromosome linkage and movement of monooriented chromosomes on kinetochore microtubules (kMTs) for proper alignment at metaphase [1-9]. We performed studies to test the hypothesis that CENP-E promotes MT elongation at the MT plus-ends. A human CENP-E construct was engineered, expressed, and purified which yielded the CENP-E-6His dimeric motor protein. The results show that CENP-E promotes MT plus-end directed MT gliding at 11 nm/s. The results from real-time microscopy assays indicate that 60.3% of polarity marked MTs exhibited CENP-E promoted MT plus-end elongation. The MT extension required ATP turnover, and MT plus-end elongation occurred at 1.48 μm/30 min. Immunolocalization studies revealed that 80.8% of plus-end elongated MTs showed CENP-E at the MT plus-end. The time dependence of CENP-E promoted MT elongation in solution best fit a single exponential function (kobs = 5.1 s−1), which is indicative of a mechanism in which α,β-tubulin subunit addition is tightly coupled to ATP turnover. Based on these results, we propose that CENP-E as part of its function in chromosome kinetochore-MT linkage plays a direct role in MT elongation. PMID:20797864

  1. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H., E-mail: victor.h.rolongarrido@tu-berlin.de, E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method.more » The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.« less

  2. Seismic and thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Antarctica from inversion of multiple seismic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, D.; Shen, W.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Dalziel, I.; Hansen, S. E.; Heeszel, D.; Huerta, A. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Winberry, J. P.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the last decade of the 20th century, over 200 broadband seismic stations have been deployed across Antarctica (e.g., temporary networks such as TAMSEIS, AGAP/GAMSEIS, POLENET/ANET, TAMNNET and RIS/DRIS by U.S. geoscientists as well as stations deployed by Japan, Britain, China, Norway, and other countries). In this presentation, we discuss our recent efforts to build reference crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity (Vs) and thermal models for continental Antarctica based on those seismic arrays. By combing the high resolution Rayleigh wave dispersion maps derived from both ambient noise and teleseismic earthquakes, together with P receiver function waveforms, we develop a 3-D Vs model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Central and West Antarctica to a depth of 200 km. Additionally, using this 3-D seismic model to constrain the crustal structure, we re-invert for the upper mantle thermal structure using the surface wave data within a thermodynamic framework and construct a 3-D thermal model for the Antarctic lithosphere. The final product, a high resolution thermal model together with associated uncertainty estimates from the Monte Carlo inversion, allows us to derive lithospheric thickness and surface heat flux maps for much of the continent. West Antarctica shows a much thinner lithosphere ( 50-90 km) than East Antarctica ( 130-230 km), with a sharp transition along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). A variety of geological features, including a slower/hotter but highly heterogeneous West Antarctica and a much faster/colder East Antarctic craton, are present in the 3-D seismic/thermal models. Notably, slow seismic velocities observed in the uppermost mantle beneath the southern TAM are interpreted as a signature of lithospheric foundering and replacement with hot asthenosphere. The high resolution image of these features from the 3-D models helps further investigation of the dynamic state of Antarctica's lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere

  3. Relationships of the internodal distance of biological tissue with its sound velocity and attenuation at high frequency in doublet mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai-Xuan; Wu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Liu, Jie-Hui; Gong, Xiu-Fen; Wu, Jun-Ru

    2015-04-01

    In view of the discrete characteristics of biological tissue, doublet mechanics has demonstrated its advantages in the mathematic description of tissue in terms of high frequency (> 10 MHz) ultrasound. In this paper, we take human breast biopsies as an example to study the influence of the internodal distance, a microscope parameter in biological tissue in doublet mechanics, on the sound velocity and attenuation by numerical simulation. The internodal distance causes the sound velocity and attenuation in biological tissue to change with the increase of frequency. The magnitude of such a change in pathological tissue is distinctly different from that in normal tissue, which can be used to differentiate pathological tissue from normal tissue and can depict the diseased tissue structure by obtaining the sound and attenuation distribution in the sample at high ultrasound frequency. A comparison of sensitivity between the doublet model and conventional continuum model is made, indicating that this is a new method of characterizing ultrasound tissue and diagnosing diseases. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274166), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 1113020403 and 1101020402), the State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201401), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M531313), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions and Scientific Research Foundation for Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, and the Project of Interdisciplinary Center of Nanjing University, China (Grant No. NJUDC2012004).

  4. Born to run: control of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei Xavier; Smith, Edwin R; Shilatifard, Ali

    2018-05-08

    The dynamic regulation of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is an integral part of the implementation of gene expression programmes during development. In most metazoans, the majority of transcribed genes exhibit transient pausing of Pol II at promoter-proximal regions, and the release of Pol II into gene bodies is controlled by many regulatory factors that respond to environmental and developmental cues. Misregulation of the elongation stage of transcription is implicated in cancer and other human diseases, suggesting that mechanistic understanding of transcription elongation control is therapeutically relevant. In this Review, we discuss the features, establishment and maintenance of Pol II pausing, the transition into productive elongation, the control of transcription elongation by enhancers and by factors of other cellular processes, such as topoisomerases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), and the potential of therapeutic targeting of the elongation stage of transcription by Pol II.

  5. Behavior of MORB magmas at uppermost mantle beneath a fast-spreading axis: an example from Wadi Fizh of the northern Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akizawa, Norikatsu; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2012-10-01

    Relationships of lithologies in uppermost mantle section of Oman ophiolite are highly complicated, harzburgites especially being closely associated with dunites, wehrlites, and gabbros. The petrology and geochemistry of the uppermost mantle section provide constrains on how MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt) magmas migrate from the mantle to crust. We conducted detailed sampling at the uppermost mantle section of the northern Oman ophiolite (along Wadi Fizh), and it provides us with centimeter-scale lithological and mineral chemical heterogeneity. In particular, we found peculiar plagioclase-free harzburgites that have not been recorded from the current ocean floor, which contain high-Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) atomic ratio] clinopyroxenes that are almost in equilibrium (saturated) with MORB in terms of REE concentrations. They are from the uppermost mantle section underlying the wehrlite-dunite layer (=Moho transition zone; MTZ) just beneath the layered gabbro. MORBs cannot be in equilibrium with harzburgites; however, we call the peculiar harzburgites as "MORB-saturated harzburgite" for simplicity in this paper. The MORB-saturated harzburgites exhibit slightly enriched mineralogy (e.g., spinels with higher Ti and ferric iron, and clinopyroxenes with higher Ti and Na) and contain slightly but clearly more abundant modal clinopyroxene (up to 3.5 vol.%) than ordinary Oman depleted harzburgites (less than 1 vol.% clinopyroxene), which are similar to abyssal harzburgites. Gabbro-clinopyroxenite bands, which were melt lenses beneath the ridge axis, are dominant around the MTZ. Detailed sampling around the gabbro-clinopyroxenite bands revealed that the MORB-saturated harzburgites appear around the bands. The interaction between a melt that was MORB-like and an ordinary harzburgite induced incongruent melting of orthopyroxenes in harzburgites, and the melt chromatographically intruded into the wall harzburgite and was modified to coexist with olivine and two pyroxenes at low melt

  6. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  7. Crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Japanese islands from seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi; Gao, Xing; Shi, Heng; Wang, Weiming

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the crustal and uppermost mantle shear wave velocities beneath the Japanese islands have been determined by inversion from seismic ambient noise tomography using data recorded at 75 Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan broad-band seismic stations, which are uniformly distributed across the Japanese islands. By cross-correlating 2 yr of vertical component seismic ambient noise recordings, we are able to extract Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions, which are subsequently used to measure phase velocity dispersion in the period band of 6-50 s. The dispersion data are then inverted to yield 2-D tomographic phase velocity maps and 3-D shear wave velocity models. Our results show that the velocity variations at short periods (˜10 s), or in the uppermost crust, correlate well with the major known surface geological and tectonic features. In particular, the distribution of low-velocity anomalies shows good spatial correlation with active faults, volcanoes and terrains of sediment exposure, whereas the high-velocity anomalies are mainly associated with the mountain ranges. We also observe that large upper crustal earthquakes (5.0 ≤ M ≤ 8.0, depth ≤ 25 km) mainly occurred in low-velocity anomalies or along the boundary between low- and high-velocity anomalies, suggesting that large upper crustal earthquakes do not strike randomly or uniformly; rather they are inclined to nucleate within or adjacent to low-velocity areas.

  8. Reversible stalling of transcription elongation complexes by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Erijman, L; Clegg, R M

    1998-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the stability of RNA polymerase molecules during transcription. RNA polymerase molecules participating in stalled or active ternary transcribing complexes do not dissociate from the template DNA and nascent RNA at pressures up to 180 MPa. A lower limit for the free energy of stabilization of an elongating ternary complex relative to the quaternary structure of the free RNAP molecules is estimated to be 20 kcal/mol. The rate of elongation decreases at high pressure; transcription completely halts at sufficiently high pressure. The overall rate of elongation has an apparent activation volume (DeltaVdouble dagger) of 55-65 ml . mol-1 (at 35 degrees C). The pressure-stalled transcripts are stable and resume elongation at the prepressure rate upon decompression. The efficiency of termination decreases at the rho-independent terminator tR2 after the transcription reaction has been exposed to high pressure. This suggests that high pressure modifies the ternary complex such that termination is affected in a manner different from that of elongation. The solvent and temperature dependence of the pressure-induced inhibition show evidence for major conformational changes in the core polymerase enzyme during RNA synthesis. It is proposed that the inhibition of the elongation phase of the transcription reaction at elevated pressures is related to a reduction of the partial specific volume of the RNA polymerase molecule; under high pressure, the RNA polymerase molecule does not have the necessary structural flexibility required for the protein to translocate.

  9. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  10. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-11

    dihydroxyacetone reductase involved in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis [111]. Therefore, altered glycerophospholipid metabolism, along with reduced...2007 Title of Dissertation: "Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation" APPROVAL SHEET Ernest Maynard, P .D. Department of...Fatty Acid Elongation" is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner. , /1:1 IJA"" 1< .IIVCf

  11. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically < 10 h. An intriguing observation is a paucity of chaotic secondary rotations; with an exception of (35107) 1991 VH, the secondary rotations are single-periodic with no signs of chaotic rotation and their periods are constant on timescales from weeks to years. The secondary equatorial elongations show an upper limit of a2 /b2 ∼ 1.5 . The lack of synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the

  12. Copper regulates primary root elongation through PIN1-mediated auxin redistribution.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Mei; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    The heavy metal copper (Cu) is an essential microelement required for normal plant growth and development, but it inhibits primary root growth when in excess. The mechanism underlying how excess Cu functions in this process remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that a higher concentration of CuSO4 inhibited primary root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings by affecting both the elongation and meristem zones. In the meristem zone, meristematic cell division potential was reduced by excess Cu. Further experiments showed that Cu can modulate auxin distribution, resulting in higher auxin activities in both the elongation and meristem zones of Cu-treated roots based on DR5::GUS expression patterns. This Cu-mediated auxin redistribution was shown to be responsible for Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation. Additional genetic and physiological data demonstrated that it was PINFORMED1 (PIN1), but not PIN2 or AUXIN1 (AUX1), that regulated this process. However, Cu-induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation did not contribute to Cu-induced auxin redistribution for inhibition of root elongation. When the possible role of ethylene in this process was analyzed, Cu had a similar impact on the root elongation of both the wild type and the ein2-1 mutant, implying that Cu-mediated inhibition of primary root elongation was not due to the ethylene signaling pathway.

  13. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  14. The eastern and western elongations of Venus, 1991-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R. J.; Blaxall, K.; Heath, A.

    2008-10-01

    This Report discusses ten successive morning and evening elongations. Data concerning phase anomaly, bright and dark atmospheric markings, cusp extensions and the Ashen Light are discussed. Systematic visual observations over days and weeks again provided definitive evidence for the 'four-day' retrograde 'weather' period, and measurements over a longer, eight-year epoch yielded a reliable average period of 3.99524 ±0.00027 days, closely comparable with the long-term average derived by C. Boyer and others. The phase anomaly was never very large, but 1994 E yielded a significantly higher anomaly than the other elongations. Occasional records were made of the blunting of the S cusp near dichotomy; the less commonly blunted N cusp was well observed at the 1995 W elongation. High resolution data for two elongations suggest that cusp-blunting may simply be due to the presence of high latitude dark bands at such times, or strong polar turbulence. Of the other discrete bright features (recorded mostly at the limb), there was a definite preponderance of the southern over the northern hemisphere. During 1991 to 1998 there were somewhat more records of the true Ashen Light (i.e., when it appeared brighter than the surrounding sky) compared with the equivalent period from 1999 to 2006, with the 1991, 1993 and 1996 evening elongations yielding a significant number of independently confirmed sightings.

  15. Transition zone cells reach G2 phase before initiating elongation in maize root apex

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, M. Victoria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Root elongation requires cell divisions in the meristematic zone and cell elongation in the elongation zone. The boundary between dividing and elongating cells is called the transition zone. In the meristem zone, initial cells are continuously dividing, but on the basal side of the meristem cells exit the meristem through the transition zone and enter in the elongation zone, where they stop division and rapidly elongate. Throughout this journey cells are accompanied by changes in cell cycle progression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that meristematic cells are in cycle, but exit when they enter the elongation zone. In addition, the percentage of cells in G2 phase (4C) strongly increased from the meristem to the elongation zone. However, we did not observe remarkable changes in the percentage of cells in cell cycle phases along the entire elongation zone. These results suggest that meristematic cells in maize root apex stop the cell cycle in G2 phase after leaving the meristem. PMID:28495964

  16. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  17. An Elongated Tetrakaidecahedron Model for Open-Celled Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2007-01-01

    A micro-mechanics model for non-isotropic, open-celled foams is developed using an elongated tetrakaidecahedron (Kelvin model) as the repeating unit cell. The micro-mechanics model employs an elongated Kelvin model geometry which is more general than that employed by previous authors. Assuming the cell edges possess axial and bending rigidity, the mechanics of deformation of the elongated tetrakaidecahedron lead to a set of equations for the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and strength of the foam in the principal material directions. These equations are written as a function of the cell edge lengths and cross-section properties, the inclination angle and the strength and stiffness of the solid material. The model is applied to predict the strength and stiffness of several polymeric foams. Good agreement is observed between the model results and the experimental measurements.

  18. Elongation measurement using 1-dimensional image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phongwisit, Phachara; Kamoldilok, Surachart; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this paper was to study, setup, and calibrate an elongation measurement by using 1- Dimensional Image Correlation method (1-DIC). To confirm our method and setup correctness, we need calibration with other methods. In this paper, we used a small spring as a sample to find a result in terms of spring constant. With a fundamental of Image Correlation method, images of formed and deformed samples were compared to understand the difference between deformed process. By comparing the location of reference point on both image's pixel, the spring's elongation were calculated. Then, the results have been compared with the spring constants, which were found from Hooke's law. The percentage of 5 percent error has been found. This DIC method, then, would be applied to measure the elongation of some different kinds of small fiber samples.

  19. Evolution of Body Elongation in Gymnophthalmid Lizards: Relationships with Climate

    PubMed Central

    Grizante, Mariana B.; Brandt, Renata; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of elongated body shapes in vertebrates has intrigued biologists for decades and is particularly recurrent among squamates. Several aspects might explain how the environment influences the evolution of body elongation, but climate needs to be incorporated in this scenario to evaluate how it contributes to morphological evolution. Climatic parameters include temperature and precipitation, two variables that likely influence environmental characteristics, including soil texture and substrate coverage, which may define the selective pressures acting during the evolution of morphology. Due to development of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, these variables can now be included in evolutionary biology studies and were used in the present study to test for associations between variation in body shape and climate in the tropical lizard family Gymnophthalmidae. We first investigated how the morphological traits that define body shape are correlated in these lizards and then tested for associations between a descriptor of body elongation and climate. Our analyses revealed that the evolution of body elongation in Gymnophthalmidae involved concomitant changes in different morphological traits: trunk elongation was coupled with limb shortening and a reduction in body diameter, and the gradual variation along this axis was illustrated by less-elongated morphologies exhibiting shorter trunks and longer limbs. The variation identified in Gymnophthalmidae body shape was associated with climate, with the species from more arid environments usually being more elongated. Aridity is associated with high temperatures and low precipitation, which affect additional environmental features, including the habitat structure. This feature may influence the evolution of body shape because contrasting environments likely impose distinct demands for organismal performance in several activities, such as locomotion and thermoregulation. The present study establishes a

  20. Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-06-01

    We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr < -19.5 mag at 0.02 ≤z< 0.055 by excluding barred galaxies, where the aperture of the SDSS spectroscopic fibre covers the bulges of the galaxies. We adopt the ellipticity of bulges measured by Simard et al. (2011) who performed two-dimensional bulge+disc decompositions using the SDSS images of galaxies, and identify nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.

  1. A study of crown development mechanisms using a shoot-based tree model and segmented terrestrial laser scanning data.

    PubMed

    Sievänen, Risto; Raumonen, Pasi; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero; Kaitaniemi, Pekka

    2018-05-24

    Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) allow simulation of tree crown development as the sum of modular (e.g. shoot-level) responses triggered by the local environmental conditions. The actual process of space filling by the crowns can be studied. Although the FSPM simulations are at organ scale, the data for their validation have usually been at more aggregated levels (whole-crown or whole-tree). Measurements made by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) that have been segmented into elementary units (internodes) offer a phenotyping tool to validate the FSPM predictions at levels comparable with their detail. We demonstrate the testing of different formulations of crown development of Scots pine trees in the LIGNUM model using segmented TLS data. We made TLS measurements from four sample trees growing in a forest on a relatively poor soil from sapling size to mature stage. The TLS data were segmented into internodes. The segmentation also produced information on whether needles were present in the internode. We applied different formulations of crown development (flushing of buds and length of growth of new internodes) in LIGNUM. We optimized the parameter values of each formulation using genetic algorithms to observe the best fit of LIGNUM simulations to the measured trees. The fitness function in the estimation combined both tree-level characteristics (e.g. tree height and crown length) and measures of crown shape (e.g. spatial distribution of needle area). Comparison of different formulations against the data indicates that the Extended Borchert-Honda model for shoot elongation works best within LIGNUM. Control of growth by local density in the crown was important for all shoot elongation formulations. Modifying the number of lateral buds as a function of local density in the crown was the best way to accomplish density control. It was demonstrated how segmented TLS data can be used in the context of a shoot-based model to select model components.

  2. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Samac, Deborah A; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan S; Yang, S Samuel; O'Rourke, Jamie A; Shin, Sanghyun; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-12-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a widely adapted perennial forage crop that has high biomass production potential. Enhanced cellulose content in alfalfa stems would increase the value of the crop as a bioenergy feedstock. We examined if increased expression of sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) would increase cellulose in stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with a truncated alfalfa phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (PEPC7-P4) fused to an alfalfa nodule-enhanced SUS cDNA (MsSUS1) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Strong GUS expression was detected in xylem and phloem indicating that the PEPC7-P4 promoter was active in stem vascular tissue. In contrast to expectations, MsSUS1 transcript accumulation was reduced 75-90 % in alfalfa plants containing the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene compared to controls. Enzyme assays indicated that SUS activity in stems of selected down-regulated transformants was reduced by greater than 95 % compared to the controls. Although SUS activity was detected in xylem and phloem of control plants by in situ enzyme assays, plants with the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene lacked detectable SUS activity in post-elongation stem (PES) internodes and had very low SUS activity in elongating stem (ES) internodes. Loss of SUS protein in PES internodes of down-regulated lines was confirmed by immunoblots. Down-regulation of SUS expression and activity in stem tissue resulted in no obvious phenotype or significant change in cell wall sugar composition. However, alkaline/neutral (A/N) invertase activity increased in SUS down-regulated lines and high levels of acid invertase activity were observed. In situ enzyme assays of stem tissue showed localization of neutral invertase in vascular tissues of ES and PES internodes. These results suggest that invertases play a primary role in providing glucose for cellulose biosynthesis or compensate for the loss of SUS1 activity in stem vascular tissue.

  3. Studies on Acidification of Media by Avena Stem Segments in the Presence and Absence of Gibberellic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Hebard, Frederick V.; Amatangelo, Steven J.; Dayanandan, P.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of acidification of media by Avena stem segments was studied with a titrimeter. GA3 increased this rate by an average of 17% if supplied to the segments 90 min prior to measurement. GA3 inhibited the rate by 15% if supplied 10 min prior to measurement. After 90 min incubation, stimulation of elongation had started; at 10 min, GA3 had not yet started to stimulate elongation in the segments. The acidification rates of the nodes (including the sheath-pulvinus), leaf sheath bases, and the internode bases of the stem segments were determined for plus and minus GA3-treated segments. The internode fraction contributes most to modification of the acidification rate, the node-pulvinus fraction less so, and the nongrowing sheath not at all. Acidification rates were measured for segments in different stages of elongation (lag, log, and plateau phases of growth). Segments in these growth stages were obtained from intact plants and from segments preincubated in sucrose and sucrose + GA3. Segments from all sources which are in the log phase of growth have the highest rates, those in the plateau phase the lowest. For lag and log growth phases, segments preincubated in sucrose + GA3 show the highest rates, those preincubated in sucrose the lowest rates. The opposite occurs for segments in the plateau phase of growth. Segments stimulated to grow by GA3 cause the pH of their incubation media to drop to pH 5.15 from an initial pH of 6.5. Nonstimulated segments cause a drop to pH 5.6. Long term growth of the segments is maximal in media buffered to pH 5 in the presence and absence of GA3. Our results support the idea that GA3 stimulates an active acidification process in Avena stem segments just after GA3 starts to stimulate growth in the segments, and that such an acidification process could play an important role in wall-loosening during active growth of the internode. PMID:16659741

  4. Expression of a putative dioxygenase gene adjacent to an insertion mutation is involved in the short internodes of columnar apples (Malus × domestica).

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuma; Wada, Masato; Moriya, Shigeki; Katayose, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Hiroko; Wu, Jianzhong; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Sasaki, Harumi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Terakami, Shingo; Iwanami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2016-11-01

    Determining the molecular mechanism of fruit tree architecture is important for tree management and fruit production. An apple mutant 'McIntosh Wijcik', which was discovered as a bud mutation from 'McIntosh', exhibits a columnar growth phenotype that is controlled by a single dominant gene, Co. In this study, the mutation and the Co gene were analyzed. Fine mapping narrowed the Co region to a 101 kb region. Sequence analysis of the Co region and the original wild-type co region identified an insertion mutation of an 8202 bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retroposon in the Co region. Segregation analysis using a DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism showed that the LTR retroposon was closely associated with the columnar growth phenotype. RNA-seq and RT-PCR analysis identified a promising Co candidate gene (91071-gene) within the Co region that is specifically expressed in 'McIntosh Wijcik' but not in 'McIntosh'. The 91071-gene was located approximately 16 kb downstream of the insertion mutation and is predicted to encode a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase involved in an unknown reaction. Overexpression of the 91071-gene in transgenic tobaccos and apples resulted in phenotypes with short internodes, like columnar apples. These data suggested that the 8202 bp retroposon insertion in 'McIntosh Wijcik' is associated with the short internodes of the columnar growth phenotype via upregulated expression of the adjacent 91071-gene. Furthermore, the DNA marker based on the insertion polymorphism could be useful for the marker-assisted selection of columnar apples.

  5. Quantitative trait loci × environment interactions for plant morphology vary over ontogeny in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Dechaine, Jennifer M; Brock, Marcus T; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L; Weinig, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Growth in plants occurs via the addition of repeating modules, suggesting that the genetic architecture of similar subunits may vary between earlier- and later-developing modules. These complex environment × ontogeny interactions are not well elucidated, as studies examining quantitative trait loci (QTLs) expression over ontogeny have not included multiple environments. Here, we characterized the genetic architecture of vegetative traits and onset of reproduction over ontogeny in recombinant inbred lines of Brassica rapa in the field and glasshouse. The magnitude of genetic variation in plasticity of seedling internodes was greater than in those produced later in ontogeny. We correspondingly detected that QTLs for seedling internode length were environment-specific, whereas later in ontogeny the majority of QTLs affected internode lengths in all treatments. The relationship between internode traits and onset of reproduction varied with environment and ontogenetic stage. This relationship was observed only in the glasshouse environment and was largely attributable to one environment-specific QTL. Our results provide the first evidence of a QTL × environment × ontogeny interaction, and provide QTL resolution for differences between early- and later-stage plasticity for stem elongation. These results also suggest potential constraints on morphological evolution in early vs later modules as a result of associations with reproductive timing. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Seasonal critical concentration and relationships of uppermost fully expanded leaf phosphorus and potassium status with biomass and yield traits at maturity in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of uppermost fully expanded leaves is useful to detect deficiency of mineral nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in soybean. Although, the leaf P or K status aids in fertilizer management, information on their seasonal association with the growth and yield traits at maturity ...

  7. After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    van der Lans, Milou; Benito, Cristina; Wagstaff, Laura J.

    2017-01-01

    There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After injury to peripheral nerves, the myelin and Remak Schwann cells distal to the injury site reorganize and modify their properties to form cells that support the survival of injured neurons, promote axon growth, remove myelin-associated growth inhibitors, and guide regenerating axons to their targets. We show that the

  8. After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A; Pilch, Kjara S; van der Lans, Milou; Fazal, Shaline V; Benito, Cristina; Wagstaff, Laura J; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R

    2017-09-13

    There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After injury to peripheral nerves, the myelin and Remak Schwann cells distal to the injury site reorganize and modify their properties to form cells that support the survival of injured neurons, promote axon growth, remove myelin-associated growth inhibitors, and guide regenerating axons to their targets. We show that the

  9. Reading of the non-template DNA by transcription elongation factors.

    PubMed

    Svetlov, Vladimir; Nudler, Evgeny

    2018-05-14

    Unlike transcription initiation and termination, which have easily discernable signals such as promoters and terminators, elongation is regulated through a dynamic network involving RNA/DNA pause signals and states- rather than sequence-specific protein interactions. A report by Nedialkov et al. (in press) provides experimental evidence for sequence-specific recruitment of elongation factor RfaH to transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP) and outlines the mechanism of gene expression regulation by restraint ("locking") of the DNA non-template strand. According to this model, the elongation complex pauses at the so called "operon polarity sequence" (found in some long bacterial operons coding for virulence genes), when the usually flexible non-template DNA strand adopts a distinct hairpin-loop conformation on the surface of transcribing RNAP. Sequence-specific binding of RfaH to this DNA segment facilitates conversion of RfaH from its inactive closed to its active open conformation. The interaction network formed between RfaH, non-template DNA, and RNAP locks DNA in a conformation that renders the elongation complex resistant to pausing and termination. The effects of such locking on transcript elongation can be mimicked by restraint of the non-template strand due to its shortening. This work advances our understanding of regulation of transcript elongation and has important implications for the action of general transcription factors, such as NusG, which lack apparent sequence-specificity, as well as for the mechanisms of other processes linked to transcription such as transcription-coupled DNA repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Scattering phaseshift formulas for mesons and baryons in elongated boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Frank X.; Alexandru, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    We derive Lüscher phaseshift formulas for two-particle states in boxes elongated in one of the dimensions. Such boxes offer a cost-effective way of varying the relative momentum of the particles. Boosted states in the elongated direction, which allow wider access to energies, are also considered. The formulas for the various scenarios (moving and zero-momentum states in cubic and elongated boxes) are compared and relations between them are clarified. The results are applicable to a wide set of meson-meson and meson-baryon elastic scattering processes, with the two-particle system having equal or unequal masses.

  11. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  12. Discontinuation of orthokeratology on eyeball elongation (DOEE).

    PubMed

    Cho, P; Cheung, S W

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare changes in axial elongation, over a 14-month period, in subjects who discontinued and then resumed ortho-k lens wear with those who continued to wear their lenses or spectacles following a 2-year myopia control study. This single masked, prospective study recruited subjects who had just completed a 2-year myopia control study. Ortho-k subjects were classified as Group OKc, in which subjects continued ortho-k lens wear for the duration of the study; or Group OKd in which subjects discontinued lens wear for seven months and wore single-vision spectacles (Phase I) and then resumed ortho-k lens wear for another seven months (Phase II). Spectacle-wearing control subjects from the initial myopia control study continued wearing spectacles as control subjects. Axial lengths were measured at scheduled visits using the IOLMaster. Thirteen, 16, and 15 Control, OKc, and OKd subjects, aged 8-14 years, respectively completed the study. Significant increase in axial elongation was found in OKd subjects only in Phase I but not in Phase II. On resuming lens wear, in Phase II, the rate of axial elongation was no longer significantly different from those of the Control or OKc subjects. Stopping ortho-k lens wear at or before the age of 14 years led to a more rapid increase in axial length; comparable to those wearing spectacles during the initial 2-year myopia control study, but greater than the Control and OKc group in this study. Axial elongation slowed again with resumed lens wear after six months. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photo-oxidation of LDPE: Effects on elongational viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2013-04-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, time-deformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  14. An Equatorial Contractile Mechanism Drives Cell Elongation but not Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Elsa; Bhattachan, Punit; Deng, Wei; Mathiesen, Birthe T.; Jiang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes and proliferation are two fundamental strategies for morphogenesis in animal development. During embryogenesis of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis, elongation of individual notochord cells constitutes a crucial stage of notochord growth, which contributes to the establishment of the larval body plan. The mechanism of cell elongation is elusive. Here we show that although notochord cells do not divide, they use a cytokinesis-like actomyosin mechanism to drive cell elongation. The actomyosin network forming at the equator of each notochord cell includes phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain, α-actinin, cofilin, tropomyosin, and talin. We demonstrate that cofilin and α-actinin are two crucial components for cell elongation. Cortical flow contributes to the assembly of the actomyosin ring. Similar to cytokinetic cells, membrane blebs that cause local contractions form at the basal cortex next to the equator and participate in force generation. We present a model in which the cooperation of equatorial actomyosin ring-based constriction and bleb-associated contractions at the basal cortex promotes cell elongation. Our results demonstrate that a cytokinesis-like contractile mechanism is co-opted in a completely different developmental scenario to achieve cell shape change instead of cell division. We discuss the occurrences of actomyosin rings aside from cell division, suggesting that circumferential contraction is an evolutionally conserved mechanism to drive cell or tissue elongation. PMID:24503569

  15. The excitability of plant cells: with a special emphasis on characean internodal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, R.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes the basic principles of electrophysiology using the generation of an action potential in characean internodal cells as a pedagogical tool. Electrophysiology has proven to be a powerful tool in understanding animal physiology and development, yet it has been virtually neglected in the study of plant physiology and development. This review is, in essence, a written account of my personal journey over the past five years to understand the basic principles of electrophysiology so that I can apply them to the study of plant physiology and development. My formal background is in classical botany and cell biology. I have learned electrophysiology by reading many books on physics written for the lay person and by talking informally with many patient biophysicists. I have written this review for the botanist who is unfamiliar with the basics of membrane biology but would like to know that she or he can become familiar with the latest information without much effort. I also wrote it for the neurophysiologist who is proficient in membrane biology but knows little about plant biology (but may want to teach one lecture on "plant action potentials"). And lastly, I wrote this for people interested in the history of science and how the studies of electrical and chemical communication in physiology and development progressed in the botanical and zoological disciplines.

  16. 3D Crust and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath Tian Shan Region from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical active intracontinental mountain range in Central Asia, Tian Shan Mt serves as the prototype in studying geodynamic processes and mechanism of intracontinental mountain building. We study 3D crust and the uppermost mantle structure beneath Tian Shan region using ambient noise and earthquake surface waves. Our dataset includes vertical component records of 62 permanent broadband seismic stations operated by the Earthquake Administration of China. Firstly, we calculate two-year stacked Cross-Correlation Functions (CCFs) of ambient noise records between the stations. The CCFs are treated as the Empirical Green's Functions (EGFs) of each station pair, from which we measured phase velocities of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave in the period of 3-40 s using a frequency-time analysis method. Secondly, we collect surface wave data from tele-seismic events with Mw > 5.5 and depth shallower than 200 km and measure phase velocities of the fundamental-mode of Rayleigh wave in the period of 30-150 s using a two-station method. Finally, we combine the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves, obtain lateral isotropic phase velocity maps at different periods based on tomography and invert a 3D Vsv model of crust and uppermost mantle down to about 150 km using a Monte Carlo Inversion method. We will discuss our inversion results in detail, as well as their implications to the tectonics in the region.

  17. Genetic separation of phototropism from blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation on Arabidopsis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liscum, E.; Young, J.C.; Hangarter, R.P.

    1991-05-01

    Phototropism and inhibition of stem elongation occur in response to blue light-induced inhibition of cell elongation. However, phototropism is a low fluence response and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation is a high irradiance response. The authors have isolated several mutant lines of Arabidopsis which lack blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation but retain normal phototropic functions. In addition, a mutant line which completely lacks the phototropic response retains normal blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. F1 progeny of crosses between these two mutant classes exhibited wild-type phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in response to blue light stimuli. In the F2more » generation, one in sixteen seedlings were double mutants lacking both phototropism and blue light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition. These studies conclusively show that blue light-induced phototropism and hypocotyl growth inhibition function through genetically distinct signal transduction or response systems.« less

  18. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. We present source-side shear wave splitting measurements for direct teleseismic S phases from earthquakes deeper than 300 km that have been corrected for the effects of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the receiver. In each region, we observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 s, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ˜600 km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as the transition zone. Beneath Japan, fast splitting directions are perpendicular or oblique to the slab strike and do not appear to depend on the propagation direction of the waves. Beneath South America and Izu-Bonin, splitting directions vary from trench-parallel to trench-perpendicular and have an azimuthal dependence, indicating lateral heterogeneity. Our results provide evidence for the presence of laterally variable anisotropy and are indicative of variable deformation and dynamics at mid-mantle depths in the vicinity of subducting slabs.

  19. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

    PubMed Central

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial–caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe. PMID:26587249

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Phonation Threshold Pressure as a Function of Vocal Fold Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chao; Regner, Michael F.; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the vocal fold elongation and the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The PTP values of seventeen excised canine larynges with 0% to 15% bilateral vocal fold elongations in 5% elongation steps were measured using an excised larynx phonation system. It was found that twelve larynges exhibited a monotonic relationship between PTP and elongation; in these larynges, the 0% elongation condition had the lowest PTP. Five larynges exhibited a PTP minimum at 5% elongation. To provide a theoretical explanation of these phenomena, a two-mass model was modified to simulate vibration of the elongated vocal folds. Two pairs of longitudinal springs were used to represent the longitudinal elastin in the vocal folds. This model showed that when the vocal folds were elongated, the increased longitudinal tension would increase the PTP value and the increased vocal fold length would decrease the PTP value. The antagonistic effects contributed by these two factors were found to be able to cause either a monotonic or a non-monotonic relationship between PTP and elongation, which were consistent with experimental observations. Because PTP describes the ease of phonation, this study suggests that there may exist a nonzero optimal vocal fold elongation for the greatest ease for phonation in some larynges. PMID:25530744

  1. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  2. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by routing through transporter nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-11-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a destination. Some packets are constrained to be routed through respective designated transporter nodes, the automated routing strategy determining a path from a respective source node to a respective transporter node, and from a respective transporter node to a respective destination node. Preferably, the source node chooses a routing policy from among multiple possible choices, and that policy is followed by all intermediate nodes. The use of transporter nodes allows greater flexibility in routing.

  3. Uppermost mantle structure beneath eastern China and its surroundings from Pn and Sn tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weijia; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Pn and Sn residuals from regional events provide strong constraints on the structure and lithological characteristics of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern China and its surroundings. With the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network in eastern China, separate Pn and Sn tomographic inversions have been exploited to obtain P and S velocities at a resolution of 2° × 2° or better. The patterns of P velocities are quite consistent with the S velocities at depth of 50 and 60 km, but the amplitude of P wave speed anomalies are a little larger than those of S wave speed. The low P wave speed, high S wave speed, and low Vp/Vs ratio beneath the northern part of Ordos Basin are related to upwelling hot material. Abrupt changes in material properties are indicated from the rapid variations in the Vp/Vs ratio.

  4. The Mediator Complex and Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan Weliky

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) coregulatory complex. Although Mediator was initially found to play a critical role in regulation of the initiation of Pol II transcription, recent studies have brought to light an expanded role for Mediator at post-initiation stages of transcription. Scope of review We provide a brief description of the structure of Mediator and its function in the regulation of Pol II transcription initiation, and we summarize recent findings implicating Mediator in the regulation of various stages of Pol II transcription elongation. Major conclusions Emerging evidence is revealing new roles for Mediator in nearly all stages of Pol II transcription, including initiation, promoter escape, elongation, pre-mRNA processing, and termination. General significance Mediator plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by impacting nearly all stages of mRNA synthesis. PMID:22983086

  5. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by employing bandwidth shells at areas of overutilization

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-04-27

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a final destination. The default routing strategy is altered responsive to detection of overutilization of a particular path of one or more links, and at least some traffic is re-routed by distributing the traffic among multiple paths (which may include the default path). An alternative path may require a greater number of link traversals to reach the destination node.

  6. Novel Metrics to Characterize Embryonic Elongation of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emmanuel; Rocheleau-Leclair, Olivier; Jenna, Sarah

    2016-03-28

    Dissecting the signaling pathways that control the alteration of morphogenic processes during embryonic development requires robust and sensitive metrics. Embryonic elongation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a late developmental stage consisting of the elongation of the embryo along its longitudinal axis. This developmental stage is controlled by intercellular communication between hypodermal cells and underlying body-wall muscles. These signaling mechanisms control the morphology of hypodermal cells by remodeling the cytoskeleton and the cell-cell junctions. Measurement of embryonic lethality and developmental arrest at larval stages as well as alteration of cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion structures in hypodermal and muscle cells are classical phenotypes that have been used for more than 25 years to dissect these signaling pathways. Recent studies required the development of novel metrics specifically targeting either early or late elongation and characterizing morphogenic defects along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo. Here, we provide detailed protocols enabling the accurate measurement of the length and the width of the elongating embryos as well as the length of synchronized larvae. These methods constitute useful tools to identify genes controlling elongation, to assess whether these genes control both early and late phases of this stage and are required evenly along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo.

  7. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 controls TNF-α translation in LPS-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    González-Terán, Bárbara; Cortés, José R.; Manieri, Elisa; Matesanz, Nuria; Verdugo, ρngeles; Rodríguez, María E.; González-Rodríguez, ρgueda; Valverde, ρngela; Martín, Pilar; Davis, Roger J.; Sabio, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial LPS (endotoxin) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver disease through its induction of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α is a key determinant of the outcome in a well-established mouse model of acute liver failure during septic shock. One possible mechanism for regulating TNF-α expression is through the control of protein elongation during translation, which would allow rapid cell adaptation to physiological changes. However, the regulation of translational elongation is poorly understood. We found that expression of p38γ/δ MAPK proteins is required for the elongation of nascent TNF-α protein in macrophages. The MKK3/6-p38γ/δ pathway mediated an inhibitory phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, which in turn promoted eEF2 activation (dephosphorylation) and subsequent TNF-α elongation. These results identify a new signaling pathway that regulates TNF-α production in LPS-induced liver damage and suggest potential cell-specific therapeutic targets for liver diseases in which TNF-α production is involved. PMID:23202732

  8. Dynein-mediated pulling forces drive rapid mitotic spindle elongation in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Gero; Schuchardt, Isabel; Colombelli, Julien; Stelzer, Ernst; Steinberg, Gero

    2006-01-01

    Spindle elongation segregates chromosomes and occurs in anaphase, an essential step in mitosis. Dynein-mediated pulling forces position the spindle, but their role in anaphase is a matter of debate. Here, we demonstrate that dynein is responsible for rapid spindle elongation in the model fungus Ustilago maydis. We show that initial slow elongation is supported by kinesin-5, which is located in the spindle mid-zone. When the spindle reaches ∼2 μm in length, the elongation rate increases four-fold. This coincides with the appearance of long and less-dynamic microtubules (MTs) at each pole that accumulate dynein at their tips. Laser-mediated nanosurgery revealed that these MTs exert pulling forces in control cells, but not in dynein mutants. In addition, dynein mutants undergo initial slow anaphase, but fail to establish less-dynamic MTs and do not perform rapid spindle elongation, suggesting that dynein drives anaphase B. This is most likely mediated by cortical sliding of astral MTs along stationary dynein, which is off-loaded from the MT plus-end to the cortex. PMID:17024185

  9. Actin, microtubules, and vimentin intermediate filaments cooperate for elongation of invadopodia

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Robert D.; Louvard, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Invasive cancer cells are believed to breach the basement membrane (BM) using specialized protrusions called invadopodia. We found that the crossing of a native BM is a three-stage process: invadopodia indeed form and perforate the BM, elongate into mature invadopodia, and then guide the cell toward the stromal compartment. We studied the remodeling of cytoskeleton networks during invadopodia formation and elongation using ultrastructural analysis, spatial distribution of molecular markers, and RNA interference silencing of protein expression. We show that formation of invadopodia requires only the actin cytoskeleton and filopodia- and lamellipodia-associated proteins. In contrast, elongation of invadopodia is mostly dependent on filopodial actin machinery. Moreover, intact microtubules and vimentin intermediate filament networks are required for further growth. We propose that invadopodia form by assembly of dendritic/diagonal and bundled actin networks and then mature by elongation of actin bundles, followed by the entry of microtubules and vimentin filaments. These findings provide a link between the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and BM transmigration. PMID:20421424

  10. Catching the waves: Following the leading edge of elongating RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Telmo; Adelman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    By precisely tracking the waves of elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) during gene activation, Danko et al. (2013) discovered a surprising diversity of elongation rates among and along human genes. PMID:23622514

  11. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-05-10

    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  12. Role of upper-most crustal composition in the evolution of the Precambrian ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, R. R.; Mukherjee, I.; Zhukova, I.; Corkrey, R.; Stepanov, A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has emphasized the potential relationships between supercontinent cycles, mountain building, nutrient flux, ocean-atmosphere chemistry and the origin of life. The composition of the Upper-Most Continental Crust (UMCC) also figures prominently in these relationships, and yet little detailed data on each component of this complex relationship has been available for assessment. Here we provide a new set of data on the trace element concentrations, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), in the matrix of 52 marine black shale formations spread globally through the Archean and Proterozoic. The data support previous studies on the temporal geochemistry of shales, but with some important differences. Results indicate a change in provenance of the black shales (upper-most crustal composition), from more mafic in the Archean prior to 2700 Ma, to more felsic from 2700 to 2200 Ma, followed by a return to mafic compositions from 2200 to 1850 Ma. Around 1850 to 1800 Ma there is a rapid change to uniform felsic compositions, which remained for a billion years to 800 Ma. The shale matrix geochemistry supports the assertion that the average upper-most continental source rocks for the shales changed from a mix of felsic, mafic and ultramafic prior to 2700 Ma to more felsic after 1850 Ma, with an extended transition period between. The return to more mafic UMCC from 2200 to 1850 Ma is supported by the frequency of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and banded iron formations, which suggest a peak in major mantle-connected plume events and associated Fe-rich hydrothermal activity over this period. Support for the change to felsic UMCC around 1850 Ma is provided by previous geological data which shows that felsic magmas, including, A-type granites and K-Th-U-rich granites intruded vast areas of the continental crust, peaking around 1850 Ma and declining to 1000 Ma. The implications of this change in UMCC are far reaching and may go some way to explain the distinct

  13. Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

  14. Break-induced replication and recombinational telomere elongation in yeast.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Michael J; Haber, James E

    2006-01-01

    When a telomere becomes unprotected or if only one end of a chromosomal double-strand break succeeds in recombining with a template sequence, DNA can be repaired by a recombination-dependent DNA replication process termed break-induced replication (BIR). In budding yeasts, there are two BIR pathways, one dependent on the Rad51 recombinase protein and one Rad51 independent; these two repair processes lead to different types of survivors in cells lacking the telomerase enzyme that is required for normal telomere maintenance. Recombination at telomeres is triggered by either excessive telomere shortening or disruptions in the function of telomere-binding proteins. Telomere elongation by BIR appears to often occur through a "roll and spread" mechanism. In this process, a telomeric circle produced by recombination at a dysfunctional telomere acts as a template for a rolling circle BIR event to form an elongated telomere. Additional BIR events can then copy the elongated sequence to all other telomeres.

  15. Scaling of elongation transition thickness during thin-film growth on weakly interacting substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, B.; Souqui, L.; Elofsson, V.; Sarakinos, K.

    2017-08-01

    The elongation transition thickness ( θElong) is a central concept in the theoretical description of thin-film growth dynamics on weakly interacting substrates via scaling relations of θElong with respect to rates of key atomistic film-forming processes. To date, these scaling laws have only been confirmed quantitatively by simulations, while experimental proof has been left ambiguous as it has not been possible to measure θElong. Here, we present a method for determining experimentally θElong for Ag films growing on amorphous SiO2: an archetypical weakly interacting film/substrate system. Our results confirm the theoretically predicted θElong scaling behavior, which then allow us to calculate the rates of adatom diffusion and island coalescence completion, in good agreement with the literature. The methodology presented herein casts the foundation for studying growth dynamics and cataloging atomistic-process rates for a wide range of weakly interacting film/substrate systems. This may provide insights into directed growth of metal films with a well-controlled morphology and interfacial structure on 2D crystals—including graphene and MoS2—for catalytic and nanoelectronic applications.

  16. FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Atsuta, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static (‘rear’) cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth. PMID:26130757

  17. Identifying Moho depths and velocity anomalies in the uppermost mantle of the Mississippi Embayment from Pn tomography and anisotropy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, U.; Powell, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Lateral depth variations of the Mohorovicic discontinuity, Pn velocities, and anisotropy features at uppermost mantle depths below the central U.S. are determined using Pn tomography. Excellent raypath coverage throughout the northern Mississippi Embayment (ME) is obtained using the NELE (Northern Embayment Lithosphere Experiment) and US TA (Transportable Array) datasets. High Pn velocities are present below the northern portion of the Reelfoot Rift and the New Madrid seismic zone. Prominent regions of low velocity are present to the east and north of the ME, in agreement with recent teleseismic tomography studies indicating the presence of low P- and S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle. A prominent region of low velocity coincides with the southwestern portion of the Illinois Basin. Higher velocities are located west of the Illinois Basin and west of the Ozark Plateau. Crustal thicknesses obtained from the Pn station delays indicate thinner crust in the southern Coastal Plain and ME and thicker crust north of the ME. Strong Pn anisotropy and rotation of the fast directions are associated with the northern ME. Fast directions differ from present absolute plate motion directions and from fast directions determined from SKS splitting, suggesting the presence of multiple anisotropic layers. Parameter errors estimated using the bootstrap method are all less than 0.1 km/s for velocity and magnitude of the anisotropy.

  18. Effects of nitrogen and vapour pressure deficit on phytomer growth and development in a C4 grass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Gong, Xiao Ying; Liu, Hai Tao; Schäufele, Rudi; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Phytomers are basic morphological units of plants. Knowledge of phytomer development is essential for understanding morphological plasticity, functional-structural modelling of plant growth and the usage of leaf characteristics to indicate growth conditions at the time of production (e.g. stable isotope signals). Yet, systematic analysis on the process of phytomer development is unavailable for wild or perennial C 4 grasses. Also, effects of environmental factors, such as nitrogen nutrition or vapour pressure deficit (VPD), on coordination events of developmental processes of C 4 grasses have not been studied. This study investigates phytomer growth and development in Cleistogenes squarrosa, a predominant C 4 grass in the Eurasian steppe, grown at low (0.63 kPa) or high (1.58 kPa) VPD with low or high nitrogen supply in controlled environments. Elongation of phytomers on marked tillers was measured daily for 13 days. Then lengths of immature and mature phytomer components (blade, sheath and internode) of all phytomers were measured following dissection. Nitrogen nutrition and VPD had no effects on coordination of growth within and between phytomers: phytomer tips emerged when phytomers reached 26 % of their final length, coincident with the acceleration phase of its elongation; blade elongation stopped when phytomers reached ∼75 % of their final length and elongation of the preceding phytomer was confined to the internode. The relationship between fraction of final phytomer length and days after tip emergence for all treatments was well described by a sigmoidal function: y = 1/{1 + exp[(1.82 - x)/1.81]}. C. squarrosa exhibited little morphological plasticity at phytomer-level in response to nitrogen supply and VPD, but a clear increase in tillering under high N supply. Also, the invariant coordination of elongation within and between phytomers was a stable developmental feature, thus the quantitative coordination rules are applicable for

  19. A Herpesviral Immediate Early Protein Promotes Transcription Elongation of Viral Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fox, Hannah L; Dembowski, Jill A; DeLuca, Neal A

    2017-06-13

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genes are transcribed by cellular RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). While four viral immediate early proteins (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and ICP22) function in some capacity in viral transcription, the mechanism by which ICP22 functions remains unclear. We observed that the FACT complex (comprised of SSRP1 and Spt16) was relocalized in infected cells as a function of ICP22. ICP22 was also required for the association of FACT and the transcription elongation factors SPT5 and SPT6 with viral genomes. We further demonstrated that the FACT complex interacts with ICP22 throughout infection. We therefore hypothesized that ICP22 recruits cellular transcription elongation factors to viral genomes for efficient transcription elongation of viral genes. We reevaluated the phenotype of an ICP22 mutant virus by determining the abundance of all viral mRNAs throughout infection by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). The accumulation of almost all viral mRNAs late in infection was reduced compared to the wild type, regardless of kinetic class. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we mapped the location of RNA Pol II on viral genes and found that RNA Pol II levels on the bodies of viral genes were reduced in the ICP22 mutant compared to wild-type virus. In contrast, the association of RNA Pol II with transcription start sites in the mutant was not reduced. Taken together, our results indicate that ICP22 plays a role in recruiting elongation factors like the FACT complex to the HSV-1 genome to allow for efficient viral transcription elongation late in viral infection and ultimately infectious virion production. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 interacts with many cellular proteins throughout productive infection. Here, we demonstrate the interaction of a viral protein, ICP22, with a subset of cellular proteins known to be involved in transcription elongation. We determined that ICP22 is required to recruit the FACT complex and other transcription

  20. Elongator complex is critical for cell cycle progression and leaf patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Deyang; Huang, Weihua; Li, Yang; Wang, Hua; Huang, Hai; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2012-03-01

    The mitotic cell cycle in higher eukaryotes is of pivotal importance for organ growth and development. Here, we report that Elongator, an evolutionarily conserved histone acetyltransferase complex, acts as an important regulator of mitotic cell cycle to promote leaf patterning in Arabidopsis. Mutations in genes encoding Elongator subunits resulted in aberrant cell cycle progression, and the altered cell division affects leaf polarity formation. The defective cell cycle progression is caused by aberrant DNA replication and increased DNA damage, which activate the DNA replication checkpoint to arrest the cell cycle. Elongator interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and is required for efficient histone 3 (H3) and H4 acetylation coupled with DNA replication. Levels of chromatin-bound H3K56Ac and H4K5Ac known to associate with replicons during DNA replication were reduced in the mutants of both Elongator and chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), another protein complex that physically interacts with PCNA for DNA replication-coupled chromatin assembly. Disruptions of CAF-1 also led to severe leaf polarity defects, which indicated that Elongator and CAF-1 act, at least partially, in the same pathway to promote cell cycle progression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Elongator is an important regulator of mitotic cell cycle, and the Elongator pathway plays critical roles in promoting leaf polarity formation. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  2. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2 Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape.

  3. High resolution image of uppermost mantle beneath NE Iran continental collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motaghi, K.; Tatar, M.; Shomali, Z. H.; Kaviani, A.; Priestley, K.

    2012-10-01

    We invert 3775 relative P wave arrival times using the ACH damped least square method of Aki et al. (1977) to study upper mantle structure beneath the NE Iran continental collision zone. The data for this study were recorded by 17 three component broad-band stations operated from August 2006 to February 2008 along a profile from the center of Iranian Plateau, near Yazd, to the northeastern part of Iran on the Turan Platform just north of the Kopeh Dagh Mountains. The results confirm the previously known low velocity upper mantle beneath Central Iran. Our tomographic model reveals a deep high velocity anomaly. The surficial expressions of this anomaly are between the Ashkabad and Doruneh Faults, where the resolution and ray coverage are good. A transition zone in uppermost mantle is recognized under the Binalud foreland that we interpreted as suture zone between Iran and Turan platform. Our results indicate that Atrak Valley which is the boundary between the Binalud and Kopeh Dagh Mountains can be considered as the northeastern suture of the Iranian Plateau where Eurasia and Turan Platform under-thrust beneath the Binalud range and Central Iran.

  4. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

  5. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  6. Identification of genes involved in the ACC-mediated control of root cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Along the root axis of Arabidopsis thaliana, cells pass through different developmental stages. In the apical meristem repeated cycles of division increase the numbers of cells. Upon leaving the meristem, these cells pass the transition zone where they are physiologically and mechanically prepared to undergo subsequent rapid elongation. During the process of elongation epidermal cells increase their length by 300% in a couple of hours. When elongation ceases, the cells acquire their final size, shape and functions (in the differentiation zone). Ethylene administered as its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is capable of inhibiting elongation in a concentration-dependent way. Using a microarray analysis, genes and/or processes involved in this elongation arrest are identified. Results Using a CATMA-microarray analysis performed on control and 3h ACC-treated roots, 240 differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis of the 10 most up and down regulated genes combined with literature search confirmed the accurateness of the analysis. This revealed that inhibition of cell elongation is, at least partly, caused by restricting the events that under normal growth conditions initiate elongation and by increasing the processes that normally stop cellular elongation at the end of the elongation/onset of differentiation zone. Conclusions ACC interferes with cell elongation in the Arabidopsis thaliana roots by inhibiting cells from entering the elongation process and by immediately stimulating the formation of cross-links in cell wall components, diminishing the remaining elongation capacity. From the analysis of the differentially expressed genes, it becomes clear that many genes identified in this response, are also involved in several other kind of stress responses. This suggests that many responses originate from individual elicitors, but that somewhere in the downstream signaling cascade, these are

  7. A Sticky Chain Model of the Elongation and Unfolding of Escherichia coli P Pili under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2006-01-01

    A model of the elongation of P pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli exposed to stress is presented. The model is based upon the sticky chain concept, which is based upon Hooke's law for elongation of the layer-to-layer and head-to-tail bonds between neighboring units in the PapA rod and a kinetic description of the opening and closing of bonds, described by rate equations and an energy landscape model. It provides an accurate description of the elongation behavior of P pili under stress and supports a hypothesis that the PapA rod shows all three basic stereotypes of elongation/unfolding: elongation of bonds in parallel, the zipper mode of unfolding, and elongation and unfolding of bonds in series. The two first elongation regions are dominated by a cooperative bond opening, in which each bond is influenced by its neighbor, whereas the third region can be described by individual bond opening, in which the bonds open and close randomly. A methodology for a swift extraction of model parameters from force-versus-elongation measurements performed under equilibrium conditions is derived. Entities such as the free energy, the stiffness, the elastic elongation, the opening length of the various bonds, and the number of PapA units in the rod are determined. PMID:16361334

  8. A sticky chain model of the elongation and unfolding of Escherichia coli P pili under stress.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Fällman, Erik; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2006-03-01

    A model of the elongation of P pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli exposed to stress is presented. The model is based upon the sticky chain concept, which is based upon Hooke's law for elongation of the layer-to-layer and head-to-tail bonds between neighboring units in the PapA rod and a kinetic description of the opening and closing of bonds, described by rate equations and an energy landscape model. It provides an accurate description of the elongation behavior of P pili under stress and supports a hypothesis that the PapA rod shows all three basic stereotypes of elongation/unfolding: elongation of bonds in parallel, the zipper mode of unfolding, and elongation and unfolding of bonds in series. The two first elongation regions are dominated by a cooperative bond opening, in which each bond is influenced by its neighbor, whereas the third region can be described by individual bond opening, in which the bonds open and close randomly. A methodology for a swift extraction of model parameters from force-versus-elongation measurements performed under equilibrium conditions is derived. Entities such as the free energy, the stiffness, the elastic elongation, the opening length of the various bonds, and the number of PapA units in the rod are determined.

  9. Micro- and Nanoscale Capacitors that Incorporate an Array of Conductive Elements Having Elongated Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement micro- and nanoscale capacitors that incorporate a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array elongated bodies. In one embodiment, a capacitor that incorporates a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies includes: a first conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; a second conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; and a dielectric material disposed in between the first conductive element and the second conductive element, and thereby physically separates them.

  10. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... NIOSH 099-C] NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles... Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of the Science..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of the...

  11. Organogenesis from internode-derived nodules of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget (Cannabinaceae): histological studies and changes in the starch content.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A M; Pais, M S

    2000-07-01

    The sequence of histological and histochemical events occurring during organogenesis from Humulus lupulus var. Nugget internode-derived nodules was studied. Sections were made and studies were carried out from the start of culture treatment until the development of shoot buds. Cell division was observed in both cambial and cortical regions during the first week of culture establishment. Cell division in cortical cells led to the formation of an incipient callus tissue. From the calluses prenodular structures of cambial origin appeared and gave rise to nodules from which shoot buds formed. Nodules kept separating into "daughter nodules" from which arose an increasing number of shoot buds. Iodide staining showed a strong starch accumulation in callus tissue and in prenodular structures. During shoot-bud primordia formation starch content decreased in nodules. Some starch was also noted in control explants (cultured on basal medium), however at a lower level than that observed in explants cultured on media with growth regulators. Shoot-bud regeneration was not observed in control explants.

  12. Uppermost synchronized generators of spike-wave activity are localized in limbic cortical areas in late-onset absence status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Piros, Palma; Puskas, Szilvia; Emri, Miklos; Opposits, Gabor; Spisak, Tamas; Fekete, Istvan; Clemens, Bela

    2014-03-01

    Absence status (AS) epilepticus with generalized spike-wave pattern is frequently found in severely ill patients in whom several disease states co-exist. The cortical generators of the ictal EEG pattern and EEG functional connectivity (EEGfC) of this condition are unknown. The present study investigated the localization of the uppermost synchronized generators of spike-wave activity in AS. Seven patients with late-onset AS were investigated by EEG spectral analysis, LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) source imaging, and LSC (LORETA Source Correlation) analysis, which estimates cortico-cortical EEGfC among 23 ROIs (regions of interest) in each hemisphere. All the patients showed generalized ictal EEG activity. Maximum Z-scored spectral power was found in the 1-6 Hz and 12-14 Hz frequency bands. LORETA showed that the uppermost synchronized generators of 1-6 Hz band activity were localized in frontal and temporal cortical areas that are parts of the limbic system. For the 12-14 Hz band, abnormally synchronized generators were found in the antero-medial frontal cortex. Unlike the rather stereotyped spectral and LORETA findings, the individual EEGfC patterns were very dissimilar. The findings are discussed in the context of nonconvulsive seizure types and the role of the underlying cortical areas in late-onset AS. The diversity of the EEGfC patterns remains an enigma. Localizing the cortical generators of the EEG patterns contributes to understanding the neurophysiology of the condition. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. More on the elongational viscosity of an oriented fiber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. Byron, Jr.; Beaussart, A. J.; Okine, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The effective elongational viscosity for an oriented fiber assembly of discontinuous fibers suspended in a viscous matrix fluid is developed for a fiber array with variable overlap length of both symmetric and asymmetric geometries. Further, the relation is developed for a power-law matrix fluid with finite yield stress. The developed relations for a Newtonian fluid reveal that the influence of overlap length upon elongational viscosity may be expressed as a polynomial of second order. The results for symmetric and asymmetric geometries are shown to be equivalent. Finally, for the power-law fluid the influence of fiber aspect ratio on elongational viscosity was shown to be of order m + 1, where m is greater than 0 and less than 1, as compared to 2 for the Newtonian fluid, while the effective yield stress was found to be proportional to the fiber aspect ratio and volume fraction.

  14. Characterization of genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase in ethylene-induced stem growth of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Dongsu

    2006-11-24

    Ethylene and submergence enhance stem elongation of deepwater rice, at least in part, by reducing in the internode the endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content and increasing the level of gibberellin A1 (GA1). We cloned and characterized the CYP707A5 and CYP707A6 genes, which encode putative ABA 8'-hydroxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ABA. Expression of CYP707A5 was upregulated significantly by ethylene treatment, whereas that of CYP707A6 was not altered. Recombinant proteins from both genes expressed in yeast cells showed activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. This finding indicates that CYP707A5 may play a role in ABA catabolism during submergence- or ethylene-induced stem elongation in deepwater rice. Taken together, these results provide links between the molecular mechanisms and physiological phenomena of submergence- and ethylene-induced stem elongation in deepwater rice.

  15. Actin Hydrophobic Loop (262-274) and Filament Nucleation and Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Shvetsov, Alexander; Galkin, Vitold E.; Orlova, Albina; Phillips, Martin; Bergeron, Sarah E.; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Egelman, Edward H.; Reisler, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Summary The importance of actin hydrophobic loop 262-274 dynamics to actin polymerization and filament stability has been shown recently using a yeast actin mutant, L180C/L269C/C374A, in which the hydrophobic loop could be locked in a “parked” conformation by a disulfide bond between C180 and C269. Such a cross-linked G-actin does not form filaments, suggesting nucleation and/or elongation inhibition. To determine the role of loop dynamics in filament nucleation and/or elongation, we studied the polymerization of the cross-linked actin in the presence of cofilin - to assist with actin nucleation - and with phalloidin, to stabilize the elongating filament segments. We demonstrate here that together, but not alone, phalloidin and cofilin co-rescue the polymerization of cross-linked actin. The polymerization was also rescued by filament seeds added together with phalloidin but not with cofilin. Thus, loop immobilization via cross-linking inhibits both filament nucleation and elongation. Nevertheless, the conformational changes needed to catalyze ATP hydrolysis by actin occur in the cross-linked actin. When actin filaments are fully decorated by cofilin the helical twist of F-actin changes by ~ 5° per subunit. Electron microscopic analysis of filaments rescued by cofilin and phalloidin revealed a dense contact between opposite strands in F-actin, and a change of twist by ~ 1° per subunit, indicating either partial or disordered attachment of cofilin to F-actin and/or a competition between cofilin and phalloidin to alter F-actin symmetry. Our findings show an importance of the hydrophobic loop conformational dynamics to both actin nucleation and elongation and reveal that the inhibition of these two steps in the cross-linked actin can be relieved by appropriate factors. PMID:18037437

  16. Uppermost oceanic crust structure and properties from multichannel seismic data at the Alaska subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becel, A.; Carton, H. D.; Shillington, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The most heterogeneous, porous and permeable layer within a subducting oceanic crust is the uppermost layer called Layer 2A. This layer, made of extrusive basalts, forms at the ridge axis and persists as a thin ( 600 m) low-velocity cap in old crust. Nearing the trench axis, when oceanic plate bends, normal faults can be formed or reactivated at the outer-rise allowing a more vigorous hydrothermal circulation to resume within this layer. Porosity and heterogeneity within this layer are important to assess because these parameters might have a profound impact on subduction zone processes. However, conventional refraction data quality is rarely good enough to look into detail into the properties of the uppermost oceanic layer. Here we use 2D marine long-offset multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore of the Alaska Peninsula during the ALEUT Program. The dataset was acquired aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth with a 636-channels, 8-km long streamer. We present initial results from three 140 km long profiles across the 52-56Myr old incoming Pacific oceanic crust formed at fast spreading rate: two perpendicular margin and one parallel margin profiles. Those profiles are located outboard of the Shumagin gaps. Outboard of this subduction zone segment, abundant bending related normal faults are imaged and concentrated within 50-60 km of the trench. Long-offset MCS data exhibit a prominent triplication that includes postcritical reflections and turning waves within the upper crust at offsets larger than 3 km. The triplication suggests the presence of a velocity discontinuity within the upper oceanic crust. We follow a systematic and uniform approach to extract upper crustal post-critical reflections and add them to them to the vertical incidence MCS images. Images reveal small-scale variations in the thickness of the Layer 2A and the strength of its base along the profiles. The second step consists of the downward continuation followed by travel

  17. Web application for automatic prediction of gene translation elongation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Zuraev, Bulat; Lashin, Sergei; Matushkin, Yury

    2015-09-03

    Expression efficiency is one of the major characteristics describing genes in various modern investigations. Expression efficiency of genes is regulated at various stages: transcription, translation, posttranslational protein modification and others. In this study, a special EloE (Elongation Efficiency) web application is described. The EloE sorts the organism's genes in a descend order on their theoretical rate of the elongation stage of translation based on the analysis of their nucleotide sequences. Obtained theoretical data have a significant correlation with available experimental data of gene expression in various organisms. In addition, the program identifies preferential codons in organism's genes and defines distribution of potential secondary structures energy in 5´ and 3´ regions of mRNA. The EloE can be useful in preliminary estimation of translation elongation efficiency for genes for which experimental data are not available yet. Some results can be used, for instance, in other programs modeling artificial genetic structures in genetically engineered experiments.

  18. The βI-galactosidase of Cicer arietinum is located in thickened cell walls such as those of collenchyma, sclerenchyma and vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Martín, I; Jiménez, T; Hernández-Nistal, J; Dopico, B; Labrador, E

    2011-09-01

    We report localisation of the chickpea βI-Gal, a member of the chickpea β-galactosidase family, which contains at least four members. After generation of specific antibodies, the distribution and cellular immunolocalisation of the protein in different organs and developmental stages of the plant was studied. βI-Gal protein is much longer than the other chickpea β-galactosidases because of the presence of a lectin-like domain in the carboxyl terminus of the protein. Western blot experiments indicated that the active βI-Gal retains this lectin-like domain for its function in the plant. The βI-Gal protein was mainly detected in cell walls of elongating organs, such as seedling epicotyls and stem internodes. An immunolocation study indicated a very good correlation between the presence of this βΙ-galactosidase and cells whose walls are thickening, not only in aged epicotyls and mature internodes in the final phase of elongation, but mostly in cells with a support function, such as collenchyma cells, xylem and phloem fibres and a layer of sclerenchyma cells surrounding the vascular cylinder (perivascular fibres). These results could suggest a function for the βI-Gal in modification of cell wall polymers, leading to thicker walls than the primary cell walls. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. P-wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath Hawaii from traveltime tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilmann, F.J.; Benz, H.M.; Priestley, K.F.; Okubo, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the P-wave velocity structure beneath the island of Hawaii using P-wave residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory seismic network. The station geometry and distribution of events makes it possible to image the velocity structure between ~ 40 and 100 km depth with a lateral resolution of ~ 15 km and a vertical resolution of ~ 30 km. For depths between 40 and 80 km, P-wave velocities are up to 5 per cent slower in a broad elongated region trending SE-NW that underlies the island between the two lines defined by the volcanic loci. No direct correlation between the magnitude of the lithospheric anomaly and the current level of volcanic activity is apparent, but the slow region is broadened at ~ 19.8??N and narrow beneath Kilauea. In the case of the occanic lithosphere beneath Hawaii, slow seismic velocities are likely to be related to magma transport from the top of the melting zone at the base of the lithosphere to the surface. Thermal modelling shows that the broad elongated low-velocity zone cannot be explained in terms of conductive heating by one primary conduit per volcano but that more complicated melt pathways must exist.

  20. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Tamaki, Takayuki; Gujas, Bojan; Jaspert, Nina; Oecking, Claudia; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  1. The characean internodal cell as a model system for studying wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Foissner, I.; Wasteneys, G.O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This work describes the characean internodal cell as a model system for the study of wound healing and compares wounds induced by certain chemicals and UV irradiation with wounds occurring in the natural environment. We review the existing literature and define three types of wound response: 1) cortical window formation characterized by disassembly of microtubules, transient inhibition of actin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming and chloroplast detachment, 2) fibrillar wound walls characterized by exocytosis of vesicles carrying wall polysaccharides and membrane-bound cellulose synthase complexes coupled with endocytosis of surplus membrane and 3) amorphous, callose- and membrane-containing wound walls characterized by exocytosis of vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae in the absence of membrane recycling. We hypothesize that these three wound responses reflect the extent of damage, probably Ca2+ influx, and that the secretion of Ca2+ - loaded ER cisternae is an emergency reaction in case of severe Ca2+ load. Microtubules are not required for wound healing but their disassembly could have a signalling function. Transient reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into a meshwork of randomly oriented filaments is required for the migration of wound wall forming organelles, just as occurs in tip-growing plant cells. New data presented in this study show that during the deposition of an amorphous wound wall numerous actin rings are present, which may indicate specific ion fluxes and/or a storage form for actin. In addition, we present new evidence for the exocytosis of FM1-43-stained organelles, putative endosomes, required for plasma membrane repair during wound healing. Finally we show that quickly growing fibrillar wound walls, even when deposited in the absence of microtubules, have a highly ordered helical structure of consistent handedness comprised of cellulose microfibrils. PMID:22118365

  2. Soil strength and macropore volume limit root elongation rates in many UK agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Tracy A; Hallett, Paul D; Binnie, Kirsty; Young, Mark W; Squire, Geoffrey R; Hawes, Cathy; Bengough, A Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Simple indicators of crop and cultivar performance across a range of soil types and management are needed for designing and testing sustainable cropping practices. This paper determined the extent to which soil chemical and physical properties, particularly soil strength and pore-size distribution influences root elongation in a wide range of agricultural top soils, using a seedling-based indicator. Intact soil cores were sampled from the topsoil of 59 agricultural fields in Scotland, representing a wide geographic spread, range of textures and management practices. Water release characteristics, dry bulk density and needle penetrometer resistance were measured on three cores from each field. Soil samples from the same locations were sieved, analysed for chemical characteristics, and packed to dry bulk density of 1.0 g cm(-3) to minimize physical constraints. Root elongation rates were determined for barley seedlings planted in both intact field and packed soil cores at a water content close to field capacity (-20 kPa matric potential). Root elongation in field soil was typically less than half of that in packed soils. Penetrometer resistance was typically between 1 and 3 MPa for field soils, indicating the soils were relatively hard, despite their moderately wet condition (compared with <0.2 MPa for packed soil). Root elongation was strongly linked to differences in physical rather than chemical properties. In field soil root elongation was related most closely to the volume of soil pores between 60 µm and 300 µm equivalent diameter, as estimated from water-release characteristics, accounting for 65.7 % of the variation in the elongation rates. Root elongation rate in the majority of field soils was slower than half of the unimpeded (packed) rate. Such major reductions in root elongation rates will decrease rooting volumes and limit crop growth in soils where nutrients and water are scarce.

  3. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  4. Ethylene-promoted elongation: an adaptation to submergence stress.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    A sizeable minority of taxa is successful in areas prone to submergence. Many such plants elongate with increased vigour when underwater. This helps to restore contact with the aerial environment by shortening the duration of inundation. Poorly adapted species are usually incapable of this underwater escape. Evidence implicating ethylene as the principal factor initiating fast underwater elongation by leaves or stems is evaluated comprehensively along with its interactions with other hormones and gases. These interactions make up a sequence of events that link the perception of submergence to a prompt acceleration of extension. The review encompasses whole plant physiology, cell biology and molecular genetics. It includes assessments of how submergence threatens plant life and of the extent to which the submergence escape demonstrably improves the likelihood of survival. Experimental testing over many years establishes ethylene-promoted underwater extension as one of the most convincing examples of hormone-mediated stress adaptation by plants. The research has utilized a wide range of species that includes numerous angiosperms, a fern and a liverwort. It has also benefited from detailed physiological and molecular studies of underwater elongation by rice (Oryza sativa) and the marsh dock (Rumex palustris). Despite complexities and interactions, the work reveals that the signal transduction pathway is initiated by the simple expediency of physical entrapment of ethylene within growing cells by a covering of water.

  5. Root Tip Shape Governs Root Elongation Rate under Increased Soil Strength1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, Norbert; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Increased soil strength due to soil compaction or soil drying is a major limitation to root growth and crop productivity. Roots need to exert higher penetration force, resulting in increased penetration stress when elongating in soils of greater strength. This study aimed to quantify how the genotypic diversity of root tip geometry and root diameter influences root elongation under different levels of soil strength and to determine the extent to which roots adjust to increased soil strength. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were grown in soil columns packed to three bulk densities representing low, moderate, and high soil strength. Under moderate and high soil strength, smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio was correlated with higher genotypic root elongation rate, whereas root diameter was not related to genotypic root elongation. Based on cavity expansion theory, it was found that smaller root tip radius-to-length ratio reduced penetration stress, thus enabling higher root elongation rates in soils with greater strength. Furthermore, it was observed that roots could only partially adjust to increased soil strength. Root thickening was bounded by a maximum diameter, and root tips did not become more acute in response to increased soil strength. The obtained results demonstrated that root tip geometry is a pivotal trait governing root penetration stress and root elongation rate in soils of greater strength. Hence, root tip shape needs to be taken into account when selecting for crop varieties that may tolerate high soil strength. PMID:28600344

  6. A ribosome-dependent GTPase from yeast distinct from elongation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Skogerson, L; Wakatama, E

    1976-01-01

    Three proteins required for poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis have been separated from yeast. Two of the factors correspond to the elongation factors 1 and 2 described for other eukaryotic systems, according to the criteria of phenylalanyl-tRNA binding and diphtheria toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. The third protein, while absolutely required for polyphenylalanine synthesis, was a more active ribosome-dependent GTPase than elongation factor 2. PMID:174100

  7. The uppermost mantle shear wave velocity structure of eastern Africa from Rayleigh wave tomography: constraints on rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Adams, A.; Nyblade, A. A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.

    2013-08-01

    An expanded model of the 3-D shear wave velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath eastern Africa has been developed using earthquakes recorded by the AfricaArray East African Seismic Experiment in conjunction with data from permanent stations and previously deployed temporary stations. The combined data set comprises 331 earthquakes recorded on a total of 95 seismic stations spanning Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi. In this study, data from 149 earthquakes were used to determine fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 to 182 s using the two-plane wave method, and then combined with the similarly processed published measurements and inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the uppermost mantle. New features in the model include (1) a low-velocity region in western Zambia, (2) a high-velocity region in eastern Zambia, (3) a low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania and (4) low-velocity regions beneath the Lake Malawi rift. When considered in conjunction with mapped seismicity, these results support a secondary western rift branch striking southwestwards from Lake Tanganyika, likely exploiting the relatively weak lithosphere of the southern Kibaran Belt between the Bangweulu Block and the Congo Craton. We estimate a lithospheric thickness of ˜150-200 km for the substantial fast shear wave anomaly imaged in eastern Zambia, which may be a southward subsurface extension of the Bangweulu Block. The low-velocity region in eastern Tanzania suggests that the eastern rift branch trends southeastwards offshore eastern Tanzania coincident with the purported location of the northern margin of the proposed Ruvuma microplate. Pronounced velocity lows along the Lake Malawi rift are found beneath the northern and southern ends of the lake, but not beneath the central portion of the lake.

  8. Wnt5a and Wnt11 regulate mammalian anterior-posterior axis elongation

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Philipp; Song, Hai; Kim, Wantae; Kispert, Andreas; Yang, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    Mesoderm formation and subsequent anterior-posterior (A-P) axis elongation are fundamental aspects of gastrulation, which is initiated by formation of the primitive streak (PS). Convergent extension (CE) movements and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are important for A-P axis elongation in vertebrate embryos. The evolutionarily conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway regulates CE, and Wnts regulate many aspects of gastrulation including CE and EMT. However, the Wnt ligands that regulate A-P axis elongation in mammalian development remain unknown. Wnt11 and Wnt5a regulate axis elongation in lower vertebrates, but only Wnt5a, not Wnt11, regulates mammalian PCP signaling and A-P axis elongation in development. Here, by generating Wnt5a; Wnt11 compound mutants, we show that Wnt11 and Wnt5a play redundant roles during mouse A-P axis elongation. Both genes regulate trunk notochord extension through PCP-controlled CE of notochord cells, establishing a role for Wnt11 in mammalian PCP. We show that Wnt5a and Wnt11 are required for proper patterning of the neural tube and somites by regulating notochord formation, and provide evidence that both genes are required for the generation and migration of axial and paraxial mesodermal precursor cells by regulating EMT. Axial and paraxial mesodermal precursors ectopically accumulate in the PS at late gastrula stages in Wnt5a−/−; Wnt11−/− embryos and these cells ectopically express epithelial cell adhesion molecules. Our data suggest that Wnt5a and Wnt11 regulate EMT by inducing p38 (Mapk14) phosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of Wnt5a and Wnt11 in mouse early development and also in cancer metastasis, during which EMT plays a crucial role. PMID:25813538

  9. An Actomyosin-Arf-GEF Negative Feedback Loop for Tissue Elongation under Stress.

    PubMed

    West, Junior J; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Maier, Janna A; Lee, Donghoon M; Bruce, Ashley E E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-08-07

    In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly. In Drosophila, protein localization, laser ablation, and genetic interaction studies indicate that the cytohesin Steppke reduces tissue tension by inhibiting actomyosin activity at adherens junctions. Without Steppke, embryogenesis fails, with epidermal distortions and tears resulting from myosin misregulation. Remarkably, actomyosin network assembly is necessary and sufficient for local Steppke accumulation, where live imaging shows Steppke recruitment within minutes. This rapid negative feedback loop provides a molecular mechanism for attenuating the main tension generator of animal tissues. Such attenuation relaxes tissues and allows orderly elongation under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What Role Does "Elongation" Play in "Tool-Specific" Activation and Connectivity in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Streams?

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Snow, Jacqueline C; Culham, Jody C; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2018-04-01

    Images of tools induce stronger activation than images of nontools in a left-lateralized network that includes ventral-stream areas implicated in tool identification and dorsal-stream areas implicated in tool manipulation. Importantly, however, graspable tools tend to be elongated rather than stubby, and so the tool-selective responses in some of these areas may, to some extent, reflect sensitivity to elongation rather than "toolness" per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the role of elongation in driving tool-specific activation in the 2 streams and their interconnections. We showed that in some "tool-selective" areas, the coding of toolness and elongation coexisted, but in others, elongation and toolness were coded independently. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that toolness, but not elongation, had a strong modulation of the connectivity between the ventral and dorsal streams. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that viewing tools (either elongated or stubby) increased the connectivity from the ventral- to the dorsal-stream tool-selective areas, but only viewing elongated tools increased the reciprocal connectivity between these areas. Overall, these data disentangle how toolness and elongation affect the activation and connectivity of the tool network and help to resolve recent controversies regarding the relative contribution of "toolness" versus elongation in driving dorsal-stream "tool-selective" areas.

  11. Overexpression of LEAFY in apple leads to a columnar phenotype with shorter internodes.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Hättasch, Conny; Höfer, Monika; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2010-01-01

    To break the juvenile stage of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) we transferred the LFY gene of Arabidopsis into the genome of the apple cv. 'Pinova'. A total of five transgenic clones constitutively overexpressing the LFY gene were obtained. Approximately, 20 shoots of each clone were rooted and transferred to the glasshouse. No flowers were obtained on transgenic plants during the first 2 years of cultivation. Evaluation of the expression of possible LFY targets revealed that no transcripts could be detected for MdAP1-1 and MdAP1-2. MdTFL1 was unaffected. Based on the absence of the LFY core-binding sequence within promoter sequences of MdAP1-1 and MdAP1-2, it was concluded that LFY was not able to induce these genes. The LFY genes of apple were unaffected in transgenic plants and sequence alignments of the C-terminal amino acid sequence showed a high conservation of these proteins. A change in binding ability to DNA can therefore be excluded. Instead of early flowering, the transgenic plants showed an altered phenotype, which is similar to the columnar phenotype of the 'McIntosh Wijcik' mutant of apple. The transgenic plants showed shortened internodes and a significantly reduced length of the regrowing shoot. A negative correlation was observed between the length of the regrowing shoot and the LFY mRNA transcript level. Furthermore, the LFY transgenic apple plants showed an increased shoot diameter at node 20, which was positively correlated with the LFY mRNA transcript level. Based on our results, we assume an alternative role of LFY in apple.

  12. SHORT HYPOCOTYL 1 encodes a SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor regulating elongation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the mechanisms and control of hypocotyl elongation is important for greenhouse vegetable crop production. In this study, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber which regulates low-dosage ultraviolet B (LDUVB)-dependent hypocotyl elongation by recruiting the cucumber UVR8 sign...

  13. The increase in conductance of a gold single atom chain during elastic elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavazza, F.; Barzilai, S.; Smith, D. T.; Levine, L. E.

    2013-02-01

    The conductance of monoatomic gold wires has been studied using ab initio calculations and the transmission was found to vary with the elastic strain. Counter-intuitively, the conductance was found to increase for the initial stages of the elongation, where the structure has a zigzag shape and the bond angles increase from ≈140° toward ≈160°. After a certain elongation limit, where the angles are relatively high, the bond length elongation associated with a Peierls distortion reverses this trend and the conductance decreases. These simulations are in good agreement with previously unexplained experimental results.

  14. 1,8-cineole inhibits both proliferation and elongation of BY-2 cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiroko; Sawai, Yu; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Atsushi

    2011-03-01

    Volatile monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole inhibit the growth of Brassica campestris seedlings in a dose-dependent manner, and the growth-inhibitory effects are more severe for roots than hypocotyls. The preferential inhibition of root growth may be explained if the compounds inhibit cell proliferation more severely than cell elongation because root growth requires both elongation and proliferation of the constituent cells, whereas hypocotyl growth depends exclusively on elongation of existing cells. In order to examine this possibility, BY-2 suspension-cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were treated with 1,8-cineole, and the inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and on cell elongation were assessed quantitatively. Treatment with 1,8-cineole lowered both the mitotic index and elongation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) for cell elongation was lower than that for cell proliferation. Moreover, 1,8-cineole also inhibited starch synthesis, with IC₅₀ lower than that for cell proliferation. Thus, the inhibitory effects of 1,8-cineole were not specific to cell proliferation; rather, 1,8-cineole seemed inhibitory to a variety of physiological activities when it was in direct contact with target cells. Based on these results, possible mechanisms for the mode of action of 1,8-cineole and for its preferential inhibition on root growth are discussed.

  15. Contribution of Cell Elongation to the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO2 −) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process. PMID:21267455

  16. Functional, electrophysiological recoveries of rats with sciatic nerve lesions following transplantation of elongated DRG cells.

    PubMed

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Zhang, Jun; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Tharakan, Binu; Huang, Jason H

    2016-04-01

    Functional data are essential when confirming the efficacy of elongated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells as a substitute for autografting. We present the quantitative functional motor, electrophysiological findings of engineered DRG recipients for the first time. Elongated DRG neurons and autografts were transplanted to bridge 1-cm sciatic nerve lesions of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Motor recoveries of elongated DRG recipients (n=9), autograft recipients (n=9), unrepaired rats (n=9) and intact rats (n=6) were investigated using the angle board challenge test following 16 weeks of recovery. Electrophysiology studies were conducted to assess the functional recovery at 16 weeks. In addition, elongated DRGs were subjected to histology assessments. At threshold levels (35° angle) of the angle board challenge test, the autograft recipients', DRG recipients' and unrepaired group's performances were equal to each other and were less than the intact group (p<0.05). However, during the subthreshold (30°) angle board challenge test, the elongated DRG recipients' performance was similar to both the intact group and the autograft nerve recipients, and was better (p<0.05) than the unrepaired group. The autograft recipients' performance was similar to the unrepaired group and was significantly different (p<0.05) compared with the performance of the intact group. During electrophysiological testing, the rats with transplanted engineered DRG constructs had intact signal transmission when recorded over the lesion, while the unrepaired rats did not. It was observed that elongated DRG neurons closely resembled an autograft during histological assessments. Performances of autograft and elongated DRG construct recipients were similar. Elongated DRG neurons should be further investigated as a substitute for autografting.

  17. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uppermost impact fallback layer in the Bosumtwi crater (Ghana): Mineralogy, geochemistry, and comparison with Ivory Coast tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Brandstätter, Franz; Glass, Billy P.; Hecht, Lutz; Mader, Dieter; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    In 2004, an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project at the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana (10.5 km in diameter, 1.07 Myr old), was performed to study the sediments that fill the lake as well as the underlying impactites. In one (LB-05) of 16 cores drilled into the lake sediments, the zone between the impact breccias and the post-impact sediments was penetrated, preserving the final, fine-grained impact fallback layer. This ~30 cm thick layer contains in the top 10 cm “accretionary” lapilli, microtektite-like glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains. Glass particles -- mostly of splash form less than 1 mm size -- make up the bulk of the grains (~70-78% by number) in the coarser size fraction (>125 μm) of the top of the fallback layer. About one-third of all quartz grains in the uppermost part of the layer are shocked, with planar deformation features (PDFs); almost half of these grains are highly shocked, with 3 or more sets of PDFs. K-feldspar grains also occur and some show shock deformation. The abundance of shocked quartz grains and the average shock level as indicated by the number of sets of PDFs, for both quartz and K-feldspar, decrease with depth into the layer. The well-preserved glass spherules and fragments are chemically rather homogeneous within each particle, and also show relatively small variations between the various particles. On average, the composition of the fallback spherules from core LB-5B is very similar to the composition of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites, with the exception of CaO contents, which are about 1.5 to 2 times higher in the fallback spherules. This is a rare case in which the uppermost fallback layer and the transition to the post-impact sediments has been preserved in an impact structure; its presence indicates that the impactite sequence at Bosumtwi is complete and that Bosumtwi is a very well-preserved impact crater.

  19. Comparative Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in the Slender Pea and Other Pea Phenotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Law, David M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Free indole-3-acetic acid levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three ultra-tall `slender' Pisum sativum L. lines differing in gibberellin content. Measurements were made for apices and stem elongation zones of light-grown plants and values were compared with wild-type, dwarf, and nana phenotypes in which internode length is genetically regulated, purportedly via the gibberellin level. Indole-3-acetic acid levels of growing stems paralleled growth rates in all lines, and were high in all three slender genotypes. Growth was inhibited by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, demonstrating the requirement of auxin activity for stem elongation, and also by the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. It is concluded that the slender phenotype may arise from constant activation of a gibberellin receptor or transduction chain event leading directly or indirectly to elevated levels of indole-3-acetic acid, and that increased indole-3-acetic acid levels are a significant factor in the promotion of stem elongation. PMID:16667653

  20. Physiological and ultrastructural analysis of elongating mitotic spindles reactivated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a simple procedure for isolating mitotic spindles from the diatom Stephanopyxis turris and have shown that they undergo anaphase spindle elongation in vitro upon addition of ATP. The isolated central spindle is a barrel-shaped structure with a prominent zone of microtubule overlap. After ATP addition greater than 75% of the spindle population undergoes distinct structural rearrangements: the spindles on average are longer and the two half-spindles are separated by a distinct gap traversed by only a small number of microtubules, the phase-dense material in the overlap zone is gone, and the peripheral microtubule arrays have depolymerized. At the ultrastructural level, we examined serial cross-sections of spindles after 1-, 5-, and 10-min incubations in reactivation medium. Microtubule depolymerization distal to the poles is confirmed by the increased number of incomplete, i.e., c-microtubule profiles specifically located in the region of overlap. After 10 min we see areas of reduced microtubule number which correspond to the gaps seen in the light microscope and an overall reduction in the number of half-spindle microtubules to about one-third the original number. The changes in spindle structure are highly specific for ATP, are dose-dependent, and do not occur with nonhydrolyzable nucleotide analogues. Spindle elongation and gap formation are blocked by 10 microM vanadate, equimolar mixtures of ATP and AMPPNP, and by sulfhydryl reagents. This process is not affected by nocodazole, erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]adenine, cytochalasin D, and phalloidin. In the presence of taxol, the extent of spindle elongation is increased; however, distinct gaps still form between the two half- spindles. These results show that the response of isolated spindles to ATP is a complex process consisting of several discrete steps including initiation events, spindle elongation mechanochemistry, controlled central spindle microtubule plus-end depolymerization, and loss

  1. Interplay between DNA supercoiling and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling has been shown to be an important regulator of transcription that is broadly present in the cell. Here we review experimental work which shows that RNA polymerase is a powerful torsional motor that can alter DNA topology and structure, and DNA supercoiling in turn directly affects transcription elongation.

  2. Transcription elongation. Heterogeneous tracking of RNA polymerase and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Imashimizu, Masahiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo; Oshima, Taku; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of transcription elongation via pausing of RNA polymerase has multiple physiological roles. The pausing mechanism depends on the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed, as well as on certain interactions of polymerase with specific DNA sequences. In order to describe the mechanism of regulation, we introduce the concept of heterogeneity into the previously proposed alternative models of elongation, power stroke and Brownian ratchet. We also discuss molecular origins and physiological significances of the heterogeneity.

  3. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Li, Zhi; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87-17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9) for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU) was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1) were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize.

  4. Analysis of the genetic basis of plant height-related traits in response to ethylene by QTL mapping in maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group. Sixty QTLs for the three traits were identified. Twenty-two QTLs were simultaneously detected under both ET treatment and untreated control, and five QTLs were detected at two geographic locations under ET treatment only. Individual QTL can be explained 3.87–17.71% of the phenotypic variance. One QTL (q2PH9-1, q1PH9, q1EH9/q1ILAU9-1, q2ILAU9, and q2EH9) for the measured traits (PH, EH, ILAU) was consistent across both populations. Two QTLs (q2PH2-5, q2ILAU2-2, q1PH2-2, and q1ILAU2-2; q1PH8-1, q1EH8-1, q2PH8-1) were identified for up to two traits in both locations and populations under both ET treatment and untreated control. These consistent and stable regions are important QTLs of potential hot spots for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) response to ET in maize; therefore, QTL fine-mapping and putative candidate genes validation should enable the cloning of PH, EH, and ILAU related genes to ET response. These results will be valuable for further fine-mapping and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) determination, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ET responses in maize. PMID:29466465

  5. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Emad A; Scherthan, Harry; de Rooij, Dirk G

    2015-12-16

    Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX) foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko) mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (DPQ)-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids.

  6. Codon usage regulates protein structure and function by affecting translation elongation speed in Drosophila cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fangzhou; Yu, Chien-Hung; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-21

    Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translation elongation speed in fungal systems, but its effect on translation elongation speed in animal systems is not clear. In this study, we used a Drosophila cell-free translation system to directly compare the velocity of mRNA translation elongation. Our results demonstrate that optimal synonymous codons speed up translation elongation while non-optimal codons slow down translation. In addition, codon usage regulates ribosome movement and stalling on mRNA during translation. Finally, we show that codon usage affects protein structure and function in vitro and in Drosophila cells. Together, these results suggest that the effect of codon usage on translation elongation speed is a conserved mechanism from fungi to animals that can affect protein folding in eukaryotic organisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth. PMID:17572910

  8. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-06-17

    Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.

  9. Rotation in Free Fall of Rectangular Wings of Elongated Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupleich, Paul

    1949-01-01

    The present report of Mr. Dupleich is the summary of a very extensive experimental study of the well-known mechanical phenomenon: the rotation in free fall (* air, for instance) of more or less elongated rectangles cut out of paper or pasteboard. This phenomenon, the conditions for existence of which depend chiefly on the elongated of the small plate and its weight per unit area, is essentially an aerodynamic phenomenon and as such, raises questions of a certain interest to our department.We believe that the modern concepts of the mechanics of fluids do not have the range attributed to them.

  10. Kinetic separation of phototropism from blue-light inhibition of stem elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that phototropic bending arises when a light gradient across the stem differentially inhibits cell elongation because of direct inhibition of cell elongation by light (the Blaauw hypothesis). Continuous irradiation of dark-grown cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) with unilateral blue light inhibited hypocotyl elongation within 30 s, but did not induce phototropic curvature until 4.5 h after the start of irradiation. Marking experiments showed that curvature began simultaneously at the top and bottom of the growing region. In situ measurements of the light gradient across the stem with a glass fiber optic indicated that a 5- to 6-fold difference in fluence rate was established on the two sides of the stem. The light gradient established at the start of irradiation was the same as that after 6 h of irradiation. Changes in gravitropic responsiveness during this period were also ruled out. Calculations show that the light gradient should have caused curvature which would be detectable within 30 to 60 min and which would extrapolate to the start of irradiation--if the Blaauw hypothesis were correct. The long lag for phototropism in this case indicates that rapid inhibition of cell elongation by blue light does not cause the asymmetrical growth of phototropism. Rather, phototropism is superimposed upon this separate light growth response.

  11. Overexpression of a GmGBP1 ortholog of soybean enhances the responses to flowering, stem elongation and heat tolerance in transgenic tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Wang, Zhixin; Lu, Qingyao; Wang, Pengpeng; Li, Yongguang; Lv, Qingxue; Song, Xianping; Li, Dongmei; Gu, Yuejiao; Liu, Lixue; Li, Wenbin

    2013-06-01

    Soybean is a typical short-day crop, and its photoperiodic and gibberellin (GA) responses for the control of flowering are critical to seed yield. The GmGBP1 mRNA abundance in leaves was dramatically increased in short-days (SDs) compared to that in long-days in which it was consistently low at all time points from 0 to 6 days (days after transfer to SDs). GmGBP1 was highly expressed in leaves and exhibited a circadian rhythm in SDs. Ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 in tobaccos caused photoperiod-insensitive early flowering by increasing NtCO mRNA levels. GmGBP1 mRNA abundance was also increased by GAs. Transgenic GmGBP1 overexpressing (-ox) tobacco plants exhibited increased GA signaling-related phenotypes including flowering and plant height promotion. Furthermore, the hypocotyl elongation, early-flowering and longer internode phenotypes were largely accelerated by GA3 application in the GmGBP1-ox tobacco seedlings. Being consistent, overexpression of GmGBP1 resulted in significantly enhanced GA signaling (evidenced suppressed expression of NtGA20ox) both with and without GA treatments. GmGBP1 was a positive regulator of both photoperiod and GA-mediated flowering responses. In addition, GmGBP1-ox tobaccos were hypersensitive to ABA, salt and osmotic stresses during seed germination. Heat-inducible GmGBP1 also enhanced thermotolerance in transgenic GmGBP1-ox tobaccos during seed germination and growth. GmGBP1 protein was localized in the nucleus. Analyses of a series of 5'-deletions of the GmGBP1 promoter suggested that several cis-acting elements, including P-BOX, TCA-motif and three HSE elements necessary to induce gene expression by GA, salicic acid and heat stress, were specifically localized in the GmGBP1 promoter region.

  12. Nonlinear deformations of microcapsules in elongation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Julien; de Loubens, Clément; Boedec, Gwenn; Georgelin, Marc; Leonetti, Marc; Soft Matter; Biophysics Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Soft microcapsules are drops bounded by a thin elastic shell made of cross-linked proteins. They have numerous applications for drug delivery in bioengineering, pharmaceutics and medicine, where their mechanical stability and their dynamics under flow are crucial. They can also be used as red blood cells models. Here, we investigate the mechanical behaviour of microcapsules made of albumine in strong elongational flow, up to a stretching of 180% just before breaking. The set-up allows us to visualize the deformed shape in the two perpendicular main fields of view, to manage high capillary number and to manipulate soft microcapsules. The steady-state shape of a capsule in the planar elongational flow is non-axisymmetric. In each cross section, the shape is an ellipse but with different small axis which vary in opposite sense with the stretching. Whatever the degree of cross-linking and the size of the capsules, the deformations followed the same master-curve. Comparisons between numerical predictions and experimental results permit to conclude unambiguously that the more properly strain-energy model of membrane is the generalized Hooke model.

  13. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    PubMed

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-05-13

    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  14. A Morphospace for Reef Fishes: Elongation Is the Dominant Axis of Body Shape Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Thomas; Wainwright, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reef fishes are widely regarded as being perhaps the most morphologically diverse vertebrate assemblage on earth, yet much remains to be discovered about the scope and patterns of this diversity. We created a morphospace of 2,939 species spanning 56 families of tropical Indo-Pacific reef fishes and established the primary axes of body shape variation, the phylogenetic consistency of these patterns, and whether dominant patterns of shape change can be accomplished by diverse underlying changes. Principal component analysis showed a major axis of shape variation that contrasts deep-bodied species with slender, elongate forms. Furthermore, using custom methods to compare the elongation vector (axis that maximizes elongation deformation) and the main vector of shape variation (first principal component) for each family in the morphospace, we showed that two thirds of the families diversify along an axis of body elongation. Finally, a comparative analysis using a principal coordinate analysis based on the angles among first principal component vectors of each family shape showed that families accomplish changes in elongation with a wide range of underlying modifications. Some groups such as Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae undergo decreases in body depth with proportional increases in all body regions, while other families show disproportionate changes in the length of the head (e.g., Labridae), the trunk or caudal region in all combinations (e.g., Pempheridae and Pinguipedidae). In conclusion, we found that evolutionary changes in body shape along an axis of elongation dominates diversification in reef fishes. Changes in shape on this axis are thought to have immediate implications for swimming performance, defense from gape limited predators, suction feeding performance and access to some highly specialized habitats. The morphological modifications that underlie changes in elongation are highly diverse, suggesting a role for a range of developmental processes

  15. A morphospace for reef fishes: elongation is the dominant axis of body shape evolution.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Thomas; Wainwright, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reef fishes are widely regarded as being perhaps the most morphologically diverse vertebrate assemblage on earth, yet much remains to be discovered about the scope and patterns of this diversity. We created a morphospace of 2,939 species spanning 56 families of tropical Indo-Pacific reef fishes and established the primary axes of body shape variation, the phylogenetic consistency of these patterns, and whether dominant patterns of shape change can be accomplished by diverse underlying changes. Principal component analysis showed a major axis of shape variation that contrasts deep-bodied species with slender, elongate forms. Furthermore, using custom methods to compare the elongation vector (axis that maximizes elongation deformation) and the main vector of shape variation (first principal component) for each family in the morphospace, we showed that two thirds of the families diversify along an axis of body elongation. Finally, a comparative analysis using a principal coordinate analysis based on the angles among first principal component vectors of each family shape showed that families accomplish changes in elongation with a wide range of underlying modifications. Some groups such as Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae undergo decreases in body depth with proportional increases in all body regions, while other families show disproportionate changes in the length of the head (e.g., Labridae), the trunk or caudal region in all combinations (e.g., Pempheridae and Pinguipedidae). In conclusion, we found that evolutionary changes in body shape along an axis of elongation dominates diversification in reef fishes. Changes in shape on this axis are thought to have immediate implications for swimming performance, defense from gape limited predators, suction feeding performance and access to some highly specialized habitats. The morphological modifications that underlie changes in elongation are highly diverse, suggesting a role for a range of developmental processes

  16. Elongated uvula and diagnostic utility of spirometry in upper airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Satish; Patel, Purvesh; Soni, Hiren

    2010-01-01

    Elongated uvula is relatively an uncommon condition. Upper airway obstruction is often a missed complication of such a rare condition. Clinical presentations of upper airway obstruction often mimic asthma. Hence it is very easily mis-diagnosed as asthma. Spirometry offers a very simple test to diagnose upper airway obstruction very early and easily. Once diagnosed, the management of elongated uvula, almost exclusively, is surgical excision leading to total cure. Here is a case report of such a rare condition. PMID:20539769

  17. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, P.

    1989-10-17

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations, each cell combination containing an interior electrode having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits, through its axial length, electrolyte contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface is covered by interconnection material, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material in electronic connection with the air electrode through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells. 4 figs.

  18. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L).

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C; Liu, Zongrang; Scorza, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with the apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KNOX1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a medium lacking cytokinin. Ectopic expression of KNOX genes retarded shoot growth by suppressing elongation of internodes in transgenic tobacco plants. Expression of each of the three KNOX1 genes induced malformation and extensive lobbing in tobacco leaves. In situ regeneration of adventitious shoots was observed from leaves and roots of transgenic tobacco plants expressing each of the three KNOX genes. In vitro culture of leaf explants and internode sections excised from in vitro grown MdKN1 expressing tobacco shoots regenerated adventitious shoots on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) basal medium in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Transgenic plum plants that expressed the MdKN2 or corn KNOX1 gene grew normally but MdKN1 caused a significant reduction in plant height, leaf shape and size and produced malformed curly leaves. A high frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration (96%) was observed in cultures of leaf explants excised from corn KNOX1-expressing transgenic plum shoots. In contrast to KNOX1-expressing tobacco, leaf and internode explants of corn KNOX1-expressing plum required synthetic cytokinin (thidiazuron) in the culture medium to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The induction of high-frequency regeneration of adventitious shoots in vitro from leaves and stem internodal sections of plum through the ectopic expression of a KNOX1 gene is the first such report for a woody perennial fruit trees.

  19. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  20. Crowding Induces Complex Ergodic Diffusion and Dynamic Elongation of Large DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Cole D.; Gorczyca, Stephanie; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of molecular crowding in living cells, the effects of crowding on the dynamics of genome-sized DNA are poorly understood. Here, we track single, fluorescent-labeled large DNA molecules (11, 115 kbp) diffusing in dextran solutions that mimic intracellular crowding conditions (0–40%), and determine the effects of crowding on both DNA mobility and conformation. Both DNAs exhibit ergodic Brownian motion and comparable mobility reduction in all conditions; however, crowder size (10 vs. 500 kDa) plays a critical role in the underlying diffusive mechanisms and dependence on crowder concentration. Surprisingly, in 10-kDa dextran, crowder influence saturates at ∼20% with an ∼5× drop in DNA diffusion, in stark contrast to exponentially retarded mobility, coupled to weak anomalous subdiffusion, with increasing concentration of 500-kDa dextran. Both DNAs elongate into lower-entropy states (compared to random coil conformations) when crowded, with elongation states that are gamma distributed and fluctuate in time. However, the broadness of the distribution of states and the time-dependence and length scale of elongation length fluctuations depend on both DNA and crowder size with concentration having surprisingly little impact. Results collectively show that mobility reduction and coil elongation of large crowded DNAs are due to a complex interplay between entropic effects and crowder mobility. Although elongation and initial mobility retardation are driven by depletion interactions, subdiffusive dynamics, and the drastic exponential slowing of DNA, up to ∼300×, arise from the reduced mobility of larger crowders. Our results elucidate the highly important and widely debated effects of cellular crowding on genome-sized DNA. PMID:25762333

  1. Interactions of Escherichia coli σ70 within the transcription elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Daube, Shirley S.; von Hippel, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    A functional transcription elongation complex can be formed without passing through a promoter by adding a complementary RNA primer and core Escherichia coli RNA polymerase in trans to an RNA-primed synthetic bubble-duplex DNA framework. This framework consists of a double-stranded DNA sequence with an internal noncomplementary DNA “bubble” containing a hybridized RNA primer. On addition of core polymerase and the requisite NTPs, the RNA primer is extended in a process that manifests most of the properties of in vitro transcription elongation. This synthetic elongation complex can also be assembled by using holo rather than core RNA polymerase, and in this study we examine the interactions and fate of the σ70 specificity subunit of the holopolymerase in the assembly process. We show that the addition of holopolymerase to the bubble-duplex construct triggers the dissociation of the sigma factor from some complexes, whereas in others the RNA oligomer is released into solution instead. These results are consistent with an allosteric competition between σ70 and the nascent RNA strand within the elongation complex and suggest that both cannot be bound to the core polymerase simultaneously. However, the dissociation of σ70 from the complex can also be stimulated by binding of the holopolymerase to the DNA bubble duplex in the absence of a hybridized RNA primer, suggesting that the binding of the core polymerase to the bubble-duplex construct also triggers a conformational change that additionally weakens the sigma–core interaction. PMID:10411885

  2. A pollen-specific RALF from tomato that regulates pollen tube elongation.

    PubMed

    Covey, Paul A; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C; Parsons, Ronald L; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T; Anderson, Marilyn A; Ryan, Clarence A; Bedinger, Patricia A

    2010-06-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 mum peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 mum in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window.

  3. Latrunculin B-induced plant dwarfism: Plant cell elongation is F-actin-dependent.

    PubMed

    Baluska, F; Jasik, J; Edelmann, H G; Salajová, T; Volkmann, D

    2001-03-01

    Marine macrolides latrunculins are highly specific toxins which effectively depolymerize actin filaments (generally F-actin) in all eukaryotic cells. We show that latrunculin B is effective on diverse cell types in higher plants and describe the use of this drug in probing F-actin-dependent growth and in plant development-related processes. In contrast to other eukaryotic organisms, cell divisions occurs in plant cells devoid of all actin filaments. However, the alignment of the division planes is often distorted. In addition to cell division, postembryonic development and morphogenesis also continue in the absence of F-actin. These experimental data suggest that F-actin is of little importance in the morphogenesis of higher plants, and that plants can develop more or less normally without F-actin. In contrast, F-actin turns out to be essential for cell elongation. When latrunculin B was added during germination, morphologically normal Arabidopsis and rye seedlings developed but, as a result of the absence of cell elongation, these were stunted, resembling either genetic dwarfs or environmental bonsai plants. In conclusion, F-actin is essential for the plant cell elongation, while this F-actin-dependent cell elongation is not an essential feature of plant-specific developmental programs.

  4. The Character and Formation of Elongated Depressions on the Upper Bulgarian Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cuiling; Greinert, Jens; Haeckel, Matthias; Bialas, Jörg; Dimitrov, Lyubomir; Zhao, Guangtao

    2018-06-01

    Seafloor elongated depressions are indicators of gas seepage or slope instability. Here we report a sequence of slopeparallel elongated depressions that link to headwalls of sediment slides on upper slope. The depressions of about 250 m in width and several kilometers in length are areas of focused gas discharge indicated by bubble-release into the water column and methane enriched pore waters. Sparker seismic profiles running perpendicular and parallel to the coast, show gas migration pathways and trapped gas underneath these depressions with bright spots and seismic blanking. The data indicate that upward gas migration is the initial reason for fracturing sedimentary layers. In the top sediment where two young stages of landslides can be detected, the slopeparallel sediment weakening lengthens and deepens the surficial fractures, creating the elongated depressions in the seafloor supported by sediment erosion due to slope-parallel water currents.

  5. Exceptional fossil preservation demonstrates a new mode of axial skeleton elongation in early ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Erin E; Furrer, Heinz; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Elongate body plans have evolved independently multiple times in vertebrates, and involve either an increase in the number or in the length of the vertebrae. Here, we describe a new mechanism of body elongation in saurichthyids, an extinct group of elongate early ray-finned fishes. The rare preservation of soft tissue in a specimen of Saurichthys curionii from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of Switzerland provides significant new information on the relationship between the musculature and the skeleton. This new fossil material shows that elongation in these fishes results from doubling the number of neural arch-like elements per myomeric segment. This unique way of generating an elongate body plan demonstrates the evolutionary lability of the vertebral column in non-teleostean fishes. The shape and arrangement of preserved myosepta suggest that S. curionii was not a highly flexible fish, in spite of the increase in the number of neural arch-like elements.

  6. Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase regulates the synthesis of microtubule-related proteins in neurons.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Genheden, Maja; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Wang, Xuemin; Foster, Leonard J; Proud, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of the elongation phase of protein synthesis is important for numerous physiological processes in both neurons and other cell types. Elongation is primarily regulated via eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K). However, the consequence of altering eEF2K activity on the synthesis of specific proteins is largely unknown. Using both pharmacological and genetic manipulations of eEF2K combined with two protein-labeling techniques, stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture and bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging, we identified a subset of proteins whose synthesis is sensitive to inhibition of eEF2K in murine primary cortical neurons. Gene ontology (GO) analyses indicated that processes related to microtubules are particularly sensitive to eEF2K inhibition. Our findings suggest that eEF2K likely contributes to neuronal function by regulating the synthesis of microtubule-related proteins. Modulation of the elongation phase of protein synthesis is important for numerous physiological processes in neurons. Here, using labeling of new proteins coupled with proteomic techniques in primary cortical neurons, we find that the synthesis of microtubule-related proteins is up-regulated by inhibition of elongation. This suggests that translation elongation is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in neurons. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Aortic Elongation and Stanford B Dissection: The Tübingen Aortic Pathoanatomy (TAIPAN) Project.

    PubMed

    Lescan, M; Veseli, K; Oikonomou, A; Walker, T; Lausberg, H; Blumenstock, G; Bamberg, F; Schlensak, C; Krüger, T

    2017-08-01

    Aortic elongation has not yet been considered as a potential risk factor for Stanford type B dissection (TBD). The role of both aortic elongation and dilatation in patients with TBD was evaluated. The aortic morphology of a healthy control group (n = 236) and patients with TBD (n = 96) was retrospectively examined using three dimensional computed tomography imaging. Curved multiplanar reformats were used to examine aortic diameters at defined landmarks and aortic segment lengths. Diameters at all landmarks were significantly larger in the TBD group. The greatest diameter difference (56%) was measured in dissected descending aortas (p < .001). The segment with the most considerable difference between the study groups with regard to elongation was the non-dissected aortic arch of patients with TBD (36%; p < .001). Elongation in the aortic arch was accompanied by a diameter increase of 21% (p < .001). In receiver-operating curve analysis, the area under the curve was .85 for the diameter and .86 for the length of the aortic arch. In addition to dilatation, aortic arch elongation is associated with the development of TBD. The diameter and length of the non-dissected aortic arch may be predictive for TBD and may possibly be used for risk assessment in the future. This study provides the basis for further prospective evaluation of these parameters. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of ovarian muscle contraction and oocyte growth on egg chamber elongation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Darcy; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2016-04-15

    Organs are formed from multiple cell types that make distinct contributions to their shape. The Drosophila egg chamber provides a tractable model to dissect such contributions during morphogenesis. Egg chambers consist of 16 germ cells (GCs) surrounded by a somatic epithelium. Initially spherical, these structures elongate as they mature. This morphogenesis is thought to occur through a 'molecular corset' mechanism, whereby structural elements within the epithelium become circumferentially organized perpendicular to the elongation axis and resist the expansive growth of the GCs to promote elongation. Whether this epithelial organization provides the hypothesized constraining force has been difficult to discern, however, and a role for GC growth has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for this mechanism by altering the contractile activity of the tubular muscle sheath that surrounds developing egg chambers. Muscle hypo-contraction indirectly reduces GC growth and shortens the egg, which demonstrates the necessity of GC growth for elongation. Conversely, muscle hyper-contraction enhances the elongation program. Although this is an abnormal function for this muscle, this observation suggests that a corset-like force from the egg chamber's exterior could promote its lengthening. These findings highlight how physical contributions from several cell types are integrated to shape an organ. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Influence of ovarian muscle contraction and oocyte growth on egg chamber elongation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Darcy; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Organs are formed from multiple cell types that make distinct contributions to their shape. The Drosophila egg chamber provides a tractable model to dissect such contributions during morphogenesis. Egg chambers consist of 16 germ cells (GCs) surrounded by a somatic epithelium. Initially spherical, these structures elongate as they mature. This morphogenesis is thought to occur through a ‘molecular corset’ mechanism, whereby structural elements within the epithelium become circumferentially organized perpendicular to the elongation axis and resist the expansive growth of the GCs to promote elongation. Whether this epithelial organization provides the hypothesized constraining force has been difficult to discern, however, and a role for GC growth has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for this mechanism by altering the contractile activity of the tubular muscle sheath that surrounds developing egg chambers. Muscle hypo-contraction indirectly reduces GC growth and shortens the egg, which demonstrates the necessity of GC growth for elongation. Conversely, muscle hyper-contraction enhances the elongation program. Although this is an abnormal function for this muscle, this observation suggests that a corset-like force from the egg chamber's exterior could promote its lengthening. These findings highlight how physical contributions from several cell types are integrated to shape an organ. PMID:26952985

  10. Ethylene-Inhibited Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Promotes Mesocotyl/Coleoptile Elongation of Etiolated Rice Seedlings[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qing; Ma, Biao; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Yi-Hua; He, Si-Jie; Yang, Chao; Yin, Cui-Cui; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Kang; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Elongation of the mesocotyl and coleoptile facilitates the emergence of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings from soil and is affected by various genetic and environment factors. The regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by characterizing a gaoyao1 (gy1) mutant that exhibits a longer mesocotyl and longer coleoptile than its original variety of rice. GY1 was identified through map-based cloning and encodes a PLA1-type phospholipase that localizes in chloroplasts. GY1 functions at the initial step of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis to repress mesocotyl and coleoptile elongation in etiolated rice seedlings. Ethylene inhibits the expression of GY1 and other genes in the JA biosynthesis pathway to reduce JA levels and enhance mesocotyl and coleoptile growth by promoting cell elongation. Genetically, GY1 acts downstream of the OsEIN2-mediated ethylene signaling pathway to regulate mesocotyl/coleoptile growth. Through analysis of the resequencing data from 3000 rice accessions, we identified a single natural variation of the GY1 gene, GY1376T, which contributes to mesocotyl elongation in rice varieties. Our study reveals novel insights into the regulatory mechanism of mesocotyl/coleoptile elongation and should have practical applications in rice breeding programs. PMID:28465411

  11. Long term elongation of Kevlar-49 single fiber at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersani, A.; Canonica, L.; Cariello, M.; Cereseto, R.; Di Domizio, S.; Pallavicini, M.

    2013-02-01

    We have measured the rate of elongation of a loaded Kevlar-49 fiber as a function of time at 4.2 K. The result puts a worst case upper limit of 0.028% in the elongation rate ΔL/L for a 0.5 mm diameter fiber kept under a constant tension of 2.7 kg for 8 months. A value that is probably closer to reality is actually 0.004%. This result proves that Kevlar-49 can be safely used in cryogenic applications in which high mechanical stability under stress is required.

  12. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations 1, each cell combination containing an interior electrode 2 having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits 3, through its axial length, electrolyte 5 contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode 8 contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface 7 is covered by interconnection material 6, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material 9 in electronic connection with the air electrode 2 through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material 6, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells.

  13. Characterization of pollutant dispersion near elongated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper presents a wind tunnel study of the effects of elongated rectangular buildings on the dispersion of pollutants from nearby stacks. The study examines the influence of source location, building aspect ratio, and wind direction on pollutant dispersion with the goal of developing improved algorithms within dispersion models. The paper also examines the current AERMOD/PRIME modeling capabilities compared to wind tunnel observations. Differences in the amount of plume material entrained in the wake region downwind of a building for various source locations and source heights are illustrated with vertical and lateral concentration profiles. These profiles were parameterized using the Gaussian equation and show the influence of building/source configurations on those parameters. When the building is oriented at 45° to the approach flow, for example, the effective plume height descends more rapidly than it does for a perpendicular building, enhancing the resulting surface concentrations in the wake region. Buildings at angles to the wind cause a cross-wind shift in the location of the plume resulting from a lateral mean flow established in the building wake. These and other effects that are not well represented in many dispersion models are important considerations when developing improved algorithms to estimate the location and magnitude of concentrations downwind of elongated buildings. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposur

  14. Growth promotion and inhibition of the Amazonian wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis to survive flooding.

    PubMed

    Okishio, Takuma; Sasayama, Daisuke; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Azuma, Tetsushi

    2014-09-01

    In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), distinct mechanisms to survive flooding are activated in two groups of varieties. Submergence-tolerant rice varieties possessing the SUBMERGENCE1A (SUB1A) gene display reduced growth during flash floods at the seedling stage and resume growth after the flood recedes, whereas deepwater rice varieties possessing the SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) genes display enhanced growth based on internodal elongation during prolonged submergence at the mature stage. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of these growth responses to submergence in the wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis, which is native to the Amazon floodplains. When subjected to gradual submergence, adult plants of O. grandiglumis accessions showed enhanced internodal elongation with rising water level and their growth response closely resembled that of deepwater varieties of O. sativa with high floating capacity. On the other hand, when subjected to complete submergence, seedlings of O. grandiglumis accessions displayed reduced shoot growth and resumed normal growth after desubmergence, similar to the response of submergence-tolerant varieties of O. sativa. Neither SUB1A nor the SK genes were detected in the O. grandiglumis accessions. These results indicate that the O. grandiglumis accessions are capable of adapting successfully to flooding by activating two contrasting mechanisms as the situation demands and that each mechanism of adaptation to flooding is not mediated by SUB1A or the SK genes.

  15. Repression of Lateral Organ Boundary Genes by PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH Is Essential for Meristem Maintenance and Flowering in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Madiha; Ragni, Laura; Tabb, Paul; Salasini, Brenda C.; Chatfield, Steven; Datla, Raju; Lock, John; Kuai, Xiahezi; Després, Charles; Proveniers, Marcel; Yongguo, Cao; Xiang, Daoquan; Morin, Halima; Rullière, Jean-Pierre; Citerne, Sylvie; Hepworth, Shelley R.; Pautot, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), endogenous and environmental signals acting on the shoot apical meristem cause acquisition of inflorescence meristem fate. This results in changed patterns of aerial development seen as the transition from making leaves to the production of flowers separated by elongated internodes. Two related BEL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), fulfill this transition. Loss of function of these genes impairs stem cell maintenance and blocks internode elongation and flowering. We show here that pny pnf apices misexpress lateral organ boundary genes BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA6 (KNAT6) together with ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX GENE1 (ATH1). Inactivation of genes in this module fully rescues pny pnf defects. We further show that BOP1 directly activates ATH1, whereas activation of KNAT6 is indirect. The pny pnf restoration correlates with renewed accumulation of transcripts conferring floral meristem identity, including FD, SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes, LEAFY, and APETALA1. To gain insight into how this module blocks flowering, we analyzed the transcriptome of BOP1-overexpressing plants. Our data suggest a central role for the microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE-microRNA172 module in integrating stress signals conferred in part by promotion of jasmonic acid biosynthesis. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which repression of lateral organ boundary genes by PNY-PNF is essential for flowering. PMID:26417006

  16. Gibberellin-enhanced elongation of inverted Pharbitis nil shoot prevents the release of apical dominance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene evolution resulting from the gravity stress of shoot inversion appears to induce the release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil (L.) by inhibiting elongation of the inverted shoot. It has been previously demonstrated that this shoot inversion release of apical dominance can be prevented by promoting elongation in the inverted shoot via interference with ethylene synthesis or action. In the present study it was shown that apical dominance release can also be prevented by promoting elongation of the inverted shoot via treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). A synergistic effect was observed when AgNO3, the ethylene action inhibitor, was applied with GA3. Both GA3 and AgNO3 increased ethylene production in the inverted shoot. These results are consistent with the view that it is ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and not any direct effect of ethylene per se which is responsible for the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud.

  17. Genome-Wide and Experimental Resolution of Relative Translation Elongation Speed at Individual Gene Level in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei; Cui, Yizhi; Zhong, Jiayong; Jin, Jingjie; He, Qing-Yu; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Gong

    2016-01-01

    In the process of translation, ribosomes first assemble on mRNAs (translation initiation) and then translate along the mRNA (elongation) to synthesize proteins. Elongation pausing is deemed highly relevant to co-translational folding of nascent peptides and the functionality of protein products, which positioned the evaluation of elongation speed as one of the central questions in the field of translational control. By integrating three types of RNA-seq methods, we experimentally and computationally resolved elongation speed, with our proposed elongation velocity index (EVI), a relative measure at individual gene level and under physiological condition in human cells. We successfully distinguished slow-translating genes from the background translatome. We demonstrated that low-EVI genes encoded more stable proteins. We further identified cell-specific slow-translating codons, which might serve as a causal factor of elongation deceleration. As an example for the biological relevance, we showed that the relatively slow-translating genes tended to be associated with the maintenance of malignant phenotypes per pathway analyses. In conclusion, EVI opens a new view to understand why human cells tend to avoid simultaneously speeding up translation initiation and decelerating elongation, and the possible cancer relevance of translating low-EVI genes to gain better protein quality. PMID:26926465

  18. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni.

  19. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by semi-randomly varying routing policies for different packets

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-11-23

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Nodes vary a choice of routing policy for routing data in the network in a semi-random manner, so that similarly situated packets are not always routed along the same path. Semi-random variation of the routing policy tends to avoid certain local hot spots of network activity, which might otherwise arise using more consistent routing determinations. Preferably, the originating node chooses a routing policy for a packet, and all intermediate nodes in the path route the packet according to that policy. Policies may be rotated on a round-robin basis, selected by generating a random number, or otherwise varied.

  20. A web application for automatic prediction of gene translation elongation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Vladimir S; Zuraev, Bulat S; Lashin, Sergei A; Matushkin, Yury G

    2015-03-01

    Expression efficiency is one of the major characteristics describing genes in various modern investigations. Expression efficiency of genes is regulated at various stages: transcription, translation, posttranslational protein modification and others. In this study, a special EloE (Elongation Efficiency) web application is described. The EloE sorts the organism's genes in a descend order on their theoretical rate of the elongation stage of translation based on the analysis of their nucleotide sequences. Obtained theoretical data have a significant correlation with available experimental data of gene expression in various organisms. In addition, the program identifies preferential codons in organism's genes and defines distribution of potential secondary structures energy in 5´ and 3´ regions of mRNA. The EloE can be useful in preliminary estimation of translation elongation efficiency for genes for which experimental data are not available yet. Some results can be used, for instance, in other programs modeling artificial genetic structures in genetically engineered experiments. The EloE web application is available at http://www-bionet.sscc.ru:7780/EloE.

  1. Elongated and substituted triazine-based tricarboxylic acid linkers for MOFs.

    PubMed

    Klinkebiel, Arne; Beyer, Ole; Malawko, Barbara; Lüning, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    New triazine-based tricarboxylic acid linkers were prepared as elongated relatives of triazinetribenzoic acid (TATB). Additionally, functional groups (NO 2 , NH 2 , OMe, OH) were introduced for potential post-synthetic modification (PSM) of MOFs. Functionalized tris(4-bromoaryl)triazine "cores" ( 3a , 3b ) were obtained by unsymmetric trimerization mixing one equivalent of an acid chloride (OMe or NO 2 substituted) with two equivalents of an unsubstituted nitrile. Triple Suzuki coupling of the cores 3 with suitable phenyl- and biphenylboronic acid derivatives provided elongated tricarboxylic acid linkers as carboxylic acids 17 and 20 or their esters 16 and 19 . Reduction of the nitro group and cleavage of the methoxy group gave the respective amino and hydroxy-substituted triazine linkers.

  2. The structural changes of T7 RNA polymerase from transcription initiation to elongation

    PubMed Central

    Steitz, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Summary The structures of T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) captured in the initiation and elongation phases of transcription, as well as an intermediate stage provide insights into how this RNA polymerase protein can initiate RNA synthesis and synthesize 7 to 10 nucleotides of RNA while remaining bound to the DNA promoter site. Recently, the structures of T7 RNAP bound to it promoter DNA along with either a 7 nucleotide or 8 nucleotide transcript show an elongated product site resulting from a 40° or 45° rotation of the promoter and domain that binds it. The different functional properties of the initiation and elongation phases of transcription are illuminated from structures of the initiation and elongation complexes. Structural insights into the translocation of the product transcript of RNAP, its separation of the downstream duplex DNA and its removal of the transcript from the heteroduplex are provided by the structures of several states of nucleotide incorporation. A conformational change in the “fingers” domain that results from the binding or dissociation of incoming NTP or PPi appears to be associated with the state of translocation of T7 RNAP. PMID:19811903

  3. Improving the Determination of Eastern Elongations of Planetary Satellites in the Astronomical Almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rura, Christopher; Stollberg, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The Astronomical Almanac is an annual publication of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and contains a wide variety of astronomical data used by astronomers worldwide as a general reference or for planning observations. Included in this almanac are the times of greatest eastern and northern elongations of the natural satellites of the planets, accurate to 0.1 hour UT. The production code currently used to determine elongation times generates X and Y coordinates for each satellite (16 total) in 5 second intervals. This consequentially caused very large data files, and resulted in the program devoted to determining the elongation times to be computationally intensive. To make this program more efficient, we wrote a Python program to fit a cubic spline to data generated with a 6-minute time step. This resulted in elongation times that were found to agree with those determined from the 5 second data currently used in a large number of cases and was tested for 16 satellites between 2017 and 2019. The accuracy of this program is being tested for the years past 2019 and, if no problems are found, the code will be considered for production of this section of The Astronomical Almanac.

  4. An ethylene and ROS-dependent pathway is involved in low ammonium-induced root hair elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changhua; Yang, Na; Guo, Zhengfei; Qian, Meng; Gan, Lijun

    2016-08-01

    Root hairs are plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development under low ammonium (NH4(+)) conditions. This study showed that reducing NH4(+) for 3 days in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in drastic elongation of root hairs. To investigate the possible mediation of ethylene and auxin in this process, seedlings were treated with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA, auxin transport inhibitor), 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA, auxin transport inhibitor), p-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid (PCIB, auxin action inhibitor), aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, chemical inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis), or silver ions (Ag(+), ethylene perception antagonist) under low NH4(+) conditions. Our results showed that TIBA, NPA and PCIB did not inhibit root hair elongation under low NH4(+) conditions, while AVG and Ag(+) completely inhibited low NH4(+)-induced root hair elongation. This suggested that low NH4(+)-induced root hair elongation was dependent on the ethylene pathway, but not the auxin pathway. Further genetic studies revealed that root hair elongation in auxin-insensitive mutants was sensitive to low NH4(+) treatment, but elongation was less sensitive in ethylene-insensitive mutants than wild-type plants. In addition, low NH4(+)-induced root hair elongation was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU, ROS scavenger) inhibited low NH4(+)-induced root hair elongation, suggesting that ROS were involved in this process. Moreover, ethylene acted together with ROS to modulate root hair elongation under low NH4(+) conditions. These results demonstrate that a signaling pathway involving ethylene and ROS participates in regulation of root hair elongation when Arabidopsis seedlings are subjected to low NH4(+) conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 Encodes a SMARCA3-Like Chromatin Remodeling Factor Regulating Elongation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Kailiang; Behera, Tusar K.; Pandey, Sudhakar; Wen, Changlong; Wang, Yuhui; Simon, Philipp W.; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the UVR8-mediated signaling pathway is employed to attain UVB protection and acclimation to deal with low-dosage UVB (LDUVB)-induced stresses. Here, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), which regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation by modulating the UVR8 signaling pathway. We showed that hypocotyl elongation in cucumbers carrying the recessive sh1 allele was LDUVB insensitive and that Sh1 encoded a human SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor. The allele frequency and distribution pattern at this locus among natural populations supported the wild cucumber origin of sh1 for local adaptation, which was under selection during domestication. The cultivated cucumber carries predominantly the Sh1 allele; the sh1 allele is nearly fixed in the semiwild Xishuangbanna cucumber, and the wild cucumber population is largely at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two alleles. The SH1 protein sequence was highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms, but its regulation of hypocotyl elongation in cucumber seems to be a novel function. While Sh1 expression was inhibited by LDUVB, its transcript abundance was highly correlated with hypocotyl elongation rate and the expression level of cell-elongation-related genes. Expression profiling of key regulators in the UVR8 signaling pathway revealed significant differential expression of CsHY5 between two near isogenic lines of Sh1. Sh1 and CsHY5 acted antagonistically at transcriptional level. A working model was proposed in which Sh1 regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation in cucumber through changing the chromatin states and thus the accessibility of CsHY5 in the UVR8 signaling pathway to promoters of LDUVB-responsive genes for hypocotyl elongation. PMID:27559036

  6. Hamstring Elongation Quantified Using Ultrasonography During the Straight Leg Raise Test in Individuals With Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Ellinoudis, Athanasios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Although the straight leg raise (SLR) test frequently is used to assess hamstring extensibility in individuals with low back pain (LBP), evidence relating LBP, SLR, and hamstring extensibility remains unclear. The SLR measures the angle between the lifted leg and the horizontal, however, and, as such, it is not a direct measure of the elongation capacity of the hamstrings. To examine the differences in hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography) and SLR score between individuals with LBP and asymptomatic controls and to determine the relationship between hamstring elongation, SLR, and functional disability scores. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Forty men and women with chronic LBP (mean ± SD, age 43.51 ± 3.71 years and 40 control subjects (age 45.11 ± 4.01 years) participated in this study. Passive SLR, elongation assessed via ultrasonography, and functional disability. SLR score, elongation of tendinous tissue within the semitendinosus muscle, and Oswestry Disability Index. Two-way analysis of variance tests indicated a significantly lower SLR score and a greater Oswestry score in LBP group compared with control subjects (P < .05). In contrast, there were no significant group differences in hamstring elongation (P > .05). Gender did not have an effect on all dependent measures (P > .05). Hamstring elongation showed a low correlation with SLR score and a minimal correlation with Oswestry score. These results indicate that the SLR score is not determined by hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of transcription elongation by GreA determines rate of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yuzenkova, Yulia; Gamba, Pamela; Herber, Martijn; Attaiech, Laetitia; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P; Klumpp, Stefan; Zenkin, Nikolay; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase may be interrupted by pauses caused by backtracking or misincorporation that can be resolved by the conserved bacterial Gre-factors. However, the consequences of such pausing in the living cell remain obscure. Here, we developed molecular biology and transcriptome sequencing tools in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and provide evidence that transcription elongation is rate-limiting on highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that transcription elongation may be a highly regulated step of gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Regulation is accomplished via long-living elongation pauses and their resolution by elongation factor GreA. Interestingly, mathematical modeling indicates that long-living pauses cause queuing of RNA polymerases, which results in 'transcription traffic jams' on the gene and thus blocks its expression. Together, our results suggest that long-living pauses and RNA polymerase queues caused by them are a major problem on highly expressed genes and are detrimental for cell viability. The major and possibly sole function of GreA in S. pneumoniae is to prevent formation of backtracked elongation complexes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Identifying Developmental Zones in Maize Lateral Root Cell Length Profiles using Multiple Change-Point Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Ortega, Beatriz; Fort, Guillaume; Muller, Bertrand; Guédon, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the limits between the cell division, elongation and mature zones in the root apex is still a matter of controversy when methods based on cellular features, molecular markers or kinematics are compared while methods based on cell length profiles have been comparatively underexplored. Segmentation models were developed to identify developmental zones within a root apex on the basis of epidermal cell length profiles. Heteroscedastic piecewise linear models were estimated for maize lateral roots of various lengths of both wild type and two mutants affected in auxin signaling (rtcs and rum-1). The outputs of these individual root analyses combined with morphological features (first root hair position and root diameter) were then globally analyzed using principal component analysis. Three zones corresponding to the division zone, the elongation zone and the mature zone were identified in most lateral roots while division zone and sometimes elongation zone were missing in arrested roots. Our results are consistent with an auxin-dependent coordination between cell flux, cell elongation and cell differentiation. The proposed segmentation models could extend our knowledge of developmental regulations in longitudinally organized plant organs such as roots, monocot leaves or internodes. PMID:29123533

  9. Effects of rare earth oxide nanoparticles on root elongation of plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Kuang, Linglin; He, Xiao; Bai, Wei; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2010-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of four rare earth oxide nanoparticles, nano-CeO(2), nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) on seven higher plant species (radish, rape, tomato, lettuce, wheat, cabbage, and cucumber) were investigated in the present study by means of root elongation experiments. Their effects on root growth varied greatly between different nanoparticles and plant species. A suspension of 2000 mg L(-1) nano-CeO(2) had no effect on the root elongation of six plants, except lettuce. On the contrary, 2000 mg L(-1) suspensions of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) severely inhibited the root elongation of all the seven species. Inhibitory effects of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3), and nano-Yb(2)O(3) also differed in the different growth process of plants. For wheat, the inhibition mainly took place during the seed incubation process, while lettuce and rape were inhibited on both seed soaking and incubation process. The fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for rape were about 40 mg L(-1) of nano-La(2)O(3), 20mg L(-1) of nano-Gd(2)O(3), and 70 mg L(-1) of nano-Yb(2)O(3), respectively. In the concentration ranges used in this study, the RE(3+) ion released from the nanoparticles had negligible effects on the root elongation. These results are helpful in understanding phytotoxicity of rare earth oxide nanoparticles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chain elongation and cyclization in type III PKS DpgA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Chen; Li, Yi-San; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lyu, Syue-Yi; Wu, Chang-Jer; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2012-04-16

    Chain elongation and cyclization of precursors of dihydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA (DPA-CoA) catalyzed by the bacterial type III polyketide synthase DpgA were studied. Two labile intermediates, di- and tri-ketidyl-CoA (DK- and TK-CoA), were proposed and chemically synthesized. In the presence of DpgABD, each of these with [(13)C(3)]malonyl-CoA (MA-CoA) was able to form partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA. By NMR and MS analysis, the distribution of (13)C atoms in the partially (13)C-enriched DPA-CoA shed light on how the polyketide chain elongates and cyclizes in the DpgA-catalyzed reaction. Polyketone intermediates elongate in a manner different from that which had been believed: two molecules of DK-CoA, or one DK-CoA plus one acetoacetyl-CoA (AA-CoA), but not two molecules of AA-CoA can form one molecule of DPA-CoA. As a result, polyketidyl-CoA serves as both the starter and extender, whereas polyketone-CoA without the terminal carboxyl group can only act as an extender. The terminal carboxyl group is crucial for the cyclization that likely takes place on CoA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. ß-Cyanoalanine Synthase Action in Root Hair Elongation is Exerted at Early Steps of the Root Hair Elongation Pathway and is Independent of Direct Cyanide Inactivation of NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Alfonseca, Lucía; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C; García, Irene

    2018-05-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. In roots, CAS-C1 activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1 locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation, as shown by observing the fluorescence in plants transformed with the translational construct ProC1:CASC1-GFP, containing the complete CAS-C1 gene fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Mutants in the SUPERCENTIPEDE (SCN1) gene, that regulate the NADPH oxidase gene ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 (RHD2)/AtrbohC, are affected at the very early steps of the development of root hair that do not elongate and do not show a preferential localization of the GFP accumulation in the tips of the root hair primordia. Root hairs of mutants in CAS-C1 or RHD2/AtrbohC, whose protein product catalyzes the generation of ROS and the Ca2+ gradient, start to grow out correctly, but they do not elongate. Genetic crosses between the cas-c1 mutant and scn1 or rhd2 mutants were performed, and the detailed phenotypic and molecular characterization of the double mutants demonstrates that scn1 mutation is epistatic to cas-c1 and cas-c1 is epistatic to rhd2 mutation, indicating that CAS-C1 acts in early steps of the root hair development process. Moreover, our results show that the role of CAS-C1 in root hair elongation is independent of H2O2 production and of a direct NADPH oxidase inhibition by cyanide.

  12. Abscisic Acid Regulates Auxin Homeostasis in Rice Root Tips to Promote Root Hair Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Li, Chengxiang; Wu, Zhihua; Jia, Yancui; Wang, Hong; Sun, Shiyong; Mao, Chuanzao; Wang, Xuelu

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in root hair elongation in plants, but the regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA can promote rice root hair elongation. Transgenic rice overexpressing SAPK10 (Stress/ABA-activated protein kinase 10) had longer root hairs; rice plants overexpressing OsABIL2 (OsABI-Like 2) had attenuated ABA signaling and shorter root hairs, suggesting that the effect of ABA on root hair elongation depends on the conserved PYR/PP2C/SnRK2 ABA signaling module. Treatment of the DR5-GUS and OsPIN-GUS lines with ABA and an auxin efflux inhibitor showed that ABA-induced root hair elongation depends on polar auxin transport. To examine the transcriptional response to ABA, we divided rice root tips into three regions: short root hair, long root hair and root tip zones; and conducted RNA-seq analysis with or without ABA treatment. Examination of genes involved in auxin transport, biosynthesis and metabolism indicated that ABA promotes auxin biosynthesis and polar auxin transport in the root tip, which may lead to auxin accumulation in the long root hair zone. Our findings shed light on how ABA regulates root hair elongation through crosstalk with auxin biosynthesis and transport to orchestrate plant development. PMID:28702040

  13. Differential expression of α-L-arabinofuranosidases during maize (Zea mays L.) root elongation.

    PubMed

    Kozlova, Liudmila V; Gorshkov, Oleg V; Mokshina, Natalia E; Gorshkova, Tatyana A

    2015-05-01

    Specific α- l -arabinofuranosidases are involved in the realisation of elongation growth process in cells with type II cell walls. Elongation growth in a plant cell is largely based on modification of the cell wall. In type II cell walls, the Ara/Xyl ratio is known to decrease during elongation due to the partial removal of Ara residues from glucuronoarabinoxylan. We searched within the maize genome for the genes of all predicted α-L-arabinofuranosidases that may be responsible for such a process and related their expression to the activity of the enzyme and the amount of free arabinose measured in six zones of a growing maize root. Eight genes of the GH51 family (ZmaABFs) and one gene of the GH3 family (ZmaARA-I) were identified. The abundance of ZmaABF1 and 3-6 transcripts was highly correlated with the measured enzymatic activity and free arabinose content that significantly increased during elongation. The transcript abundances also coincided with the pattern of changes in the Ara/Xyl ratio of the xylanase-extractable glucuronoarabinoxylan described in previous studies. The expression of ZmaABF3, 5 and 6 was especially up-regulated during elongation although corresponding proteins are devoid of the catalytic glutamate at the proper position. ZmaABF2 transcripts were specifically enriched in the root cap and meristem. A single ZmaARA-I gene was not expressed as a whole gene but instead as splice variants that encode the C-terminal end of the protein. Changes in the ZmaARA-I transcript level were rather moderate and had no significant correlation with free arabinose content. Thus, elongation growth of cells with type II cell walls is accompanied by the up-regulation of specific and predicted α-L-arabinofuranosidase genes, and the corresponding activity is indeed pronounced and is important for the modification of glucuronoarabinoxylan, which plays a key role in the modification of the cell wall supramolecular organisation.

  14. Nature of the uppermost mantle below the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland: new insights from seismic refraction and gravity data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, M.; Watremez, L.; Chen, C.; O'Reilly, B.; Minshull, T. A.; Reston, T. J.; Wagner, G.; Gaw, V.; Klaeschen, D.; Shannon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a tongue-shaped basin SW of Ireland formed during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Its history of sedimentation reveals several rifting and subsidence phases during the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, with a particular major rift phase occurring in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Previous work, focused on seismic and gravity data, suggest the presence of major crustal faulting and uppermost mantle serpentinization in the basin. Serpentinization is a key factor in lithospheric extension since it reduces the strength of mantle rocks, and hence, influences the tectonics of the lithosphere. Besides reducing the seismic velocity of the rock, serpentinization decreases mantle rock density favoring isostatic rebound and basin uplift, thus affecting the tectonic and thermal evolution of the basin. Here we characterize the deep structure of the Porcupine Basin from wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity data, with especial emphasis on the nature of the underlying mantle. The WAS data used were acquired along a 300 km long transect across the northern region of the basin. We used a travel time inversion method to model the data and obtain a P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the crust and uppermost mantle, together with the geometry of the main geological interfaces. The crustal structure along the model reveals a maximum stretching factor of ~5-6. These values are well within the range of crustal extension at which the crust becomes entirely brittle allowing the formation of major crustal faulting and serpentinization of the mantle. To further constrain the seismic structure and hence the nature of the mantle we assess the Vp uncertainty of the model by means of a Monte Carlo analysis and perform gravity modeling to test different interpretations regarding mantle rock nature. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Petroleum Studies Group (ISPSG) of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme Group 4.

  15. Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure i...

  16. Methods and computer executable instructions for marking a downhole elongate line and detecting same

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.

    2003-05-13

    Methods and computer executable instructions are provided for making an elongate line (22) with a plurality of marks (30) and detecting those marks (30) to determine a distance of the elongate line (22) in a downhole or a physical integrity thereof. In a preferred embodiment, each mark comprises a plurality of particles (44) having a substantially permanent magnetizing capability adhered to an exterior surface of the elongate line (22) at preselected intervals with an epoxy paint. The particles (44) are arranged at each interval as a plurality of bands (40). Thereafter, the particles are oriented into a magnetic signature for that interval by magnetizing the particles to create a magnetic field substantially normal to the exterior surface. This facilitates detection by a Hall effect probe. The magnetic signatures are stored in a computing configuration and, once a mark is detected, a correlation is made to a unique position on the elongate line by comparison with the stored magnetic signatures. Preferred particles include samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boride.

  17. Phosphorylation of Elp1 by Hrr25 Is Required for Elongator-Dependent tRNA Modification in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Fattah, Wael; Jablonowski, Daniel; Di Santo, Rachael; Thüring, Kathrin L.; Scheidt, Viktor; Hammermeister, Alexander; ten Have, Sara; Helm, Mark; Schaffrath, Raffael; Stark, Michael J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Elongator is a conserved protein complex comprising six different polypeptides that has been ascribed a wide range of functions, but which is now known to be required for modification of uridine residues in the wobble position of a subset of tRNAs in yeast, plants, worms and mammals. In previous work, we showed that Elongator's largest subunit (Elp1; also known as Iki3) was phosphorylated and implicated the yeast casein kinase I Hrr25 in Elongator function. Here we report identification of nine in vivo phosphorylation sites within Elp1 and show that four of these, clustered close to the Elp1 C-terminus and adjacent to a region that binds tRNA, are important for Elongator's tRNA modification function. Hrr25 protein kinase directly modifies Elp1 on two sites (Ser-1198 and Ser-1202) and through analyzing non-phosphorylatable (alanine) and acidic, phosphomimic substitutions at Ser-1198, Ser-1202 and Ser-1209, we provide evidence that phosphorylation plays a positive role in the tRNA modification function of Elongator and may regulate the interaction of Elongator both with its accessory protein Kti12 and with Hrr25 kinase. PMID:25569479

  18. Elongated and substituted triazine-based tricarboxylic acid linkers for MOFs

    PubMed Central

    Klinkebiel, Arne; Beyer, Ole; Malawko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    New triazine-based tricarboxylic acid linkers were prepared as elongated relatives of triazinetribenzoic acid (TATB). Additionally, functional groups (NO2, NH2, OMe, OH) were introduced for potential post-synthetic modification (PSM) of MOFs. Functionalized tris(4-bromoaryl)triazine “cores” (3a,3b) were obtained by unsymmetric trimerization mixing one equivalent of an acid chloride (OMe or NO2 substituted) with two equivalents of an unsubstituted nitrile. Triple Suzuki coupling of the cores 3 with suitable phenyl- and biphenylboronic acid derivatives provided elongated tricarboxylic acid linkers as carboxylic acids 17 and 20 or their esters 16 and 19. Reduction of the nitro group and cleavage of the methoxy group gave the respective amino and hydroxy-substituted triazine linkers. PMID:28144293

  19. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  20. Elongation as a factor in artefacts of humans and other animals: an Acheulean example in comparative context.

    PubMed

    Gowlett, J A J

    2013-11-19

    Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic. It is now recognized that elongation extends to earlier Palaeolithic artefacts, being found in the repertoire of both Neanderthals and more archaic humans. Artefacts used by non-human animals, including chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys and New Caledonian crows show selection for diameter and length, and consistent interventions of modification. Both chimpanzees and capuchins trim side branches from stems, and appropriate lengths of stave are selected or cut. In human artefacts, occasional organic finds show elongation back to about 0.5 million years. A record of elongation achieved in stone tools survives to at least 1.75 Ma (million years ago) in the Acheulean tradition. Throughout this tradition, some Acheulean handaxes are highly elongated, usually found with others that are less elongated. Finds from the million-year-old site of Kilombe and Kenya are given as an example. These findings argue that the elongation need not be integral to a design, but that artefacts may be the outcome of adjustments to individual variables. Such individual adjustments are seen in animal artefacts. In the case of a handaxe, the maker must balance the adjustments to achieve a satisfactory outcome in the artefact as a whole. It is argued that the need to make decisions about individual variables within multivariate objects provides an essential continuity across artefacts made by

  1. SunRiSE - measuring translation elongation at single-cell resolution by means of flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Argüello, Rafael J; Reverendo, Marisa; Mendes, Andreia; Camosseto, Voahirana; Torres, Adrian G; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluis; van de Pavert, Serge A; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe

    2018-05-31

    The rate at which ribosomes translate mRNAs regulates protein expression by controlling co-translational protein folding and mRNA stability. Many factors regulate translation elongation, including tRNA levels, codon usage and phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Current methods to measure translation elongation lack single-cell resolution, require expression of multiple transgenes and have never been successfully applied ex vivo Here, we show, by using a combination of puromycilation detection and flow cytometry (a method we call 'SunRiSE'), that translation elongation can be measured accurately in primary cells in pure or heterogenous populations isolated from blood or tissues. This method allows for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple parameters, such as mTOR or S6K1/2 signaling activity, the cell cycle stage and phosphorylation of translation factors in single cells, without elaborated, costly and lengthy purification procedures. We took advantage of SunRiSE to demonstrate that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, eEF2 phosphorylation by eEF2 kinase (eEF2K) mostly affects translation engagement, but has a surprisingly small effect on elongation, except after proteotoxic stress induction.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  3. The super elongation complex (SEC) and MLL in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edwin; Lin, Chengqi; Shilatifard, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation at the level of elongation is vital for the control of gene expression and metazoan development. The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and its Drosophila homolog, Trithorax, which exist within COMPASS (complex of proteins associated with Set1)-like complexes, are master regulators of development. They are required for proper homeotic gene expression, in part through methylation of histone H3 on Lys 4. In humans, the MLL gene is involved in a large number of chromosomal translocations that create chimeric proteins, fusing the N terminus of MLL to several proteins that share little sequence similarity. Several frequent translocation partners of MLL were found recently to coexist in a super elongation complex (SEC) that includes known transcription elongation factors such as eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia (ELL) and P-TEFb. Importantly, the SEC is required for HOX gene expression in leukemic cells, suggesting that chromosomal translocations involving MLL could lead to the overexpression of HOX and other genes through the involvement of the SEC. Here, we review the normal developmental roles of MLL and the SEC, and how MLL fusion proteins can mediate leukemogenesis. PMID:21460034

  4. TEFM is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial transcription elongation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Posse, Viktor; Shahzad, Saba; Falkenberg, Maria; Hällberg, B. Martin; Gustafsson, Claes M.

    2015-01-01

    A single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, transcribes the mitochondrial genome in human cells. Recently, a factor termed as the mitochondrial transcription elongation factor, TEFM, was shown to stimulate transcription elongation in vivo, but its effect in vitro was relatively modest. In the current work, we have isolated active TEFM in recombinant form and used a reconstituted in vitro transcription system to characterize its activities. We show that TEFM strongly promotes POLRMT processivity as it dramatically stimulates the formation of longer transcripts. TEFM also abolishes premature transcription termination at conserved sequence block II, an event that has been linked to primer formation during initiation of mtDNA synthesis. We show that POLRMT pauses at a wide range of sites in a given DNA sequence. In the absence of TEFM, this leads to termination; however, the presence of TEFM abolishes this effect and aids POLRMT in continuation of transcription. Further, we show that TEFM substantially increases the POLRMT affinity to an elongation-like DNA:RNA template. In combination with previously published in vivo observations, our data establish TEFM as an essential component of the mitochondrial transcription machinery. PMID:25690892

  5. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have been commercially available for more than 20 years and have been enthusiastically embraced by users of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) because of the anticipated reduction in installation and operating costs, smaller footprint and fewer environmental concerns. In Japan, communication networks are demanding reduced costs and longer life from their batteries. Among the factors limiting the life of VRLA batteries, the corrosion of positive grid material has been proven to cause elongation of the plates, loss of electrical contact and shorter lifetime. The content of Sn is also a key factor and addition of Sn in the grid alloy results in better performance in creep resistance, tensile strength and corrosion resistance [R. David Prenagaman, The Battery Man, vol. 39, September 1997, p. 16. I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. A key point is what the ratio of Sn to Ca should be, since too much Sn may lead to even worse elongation of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We have determined that microstructure control with a composition of lead-calcium-tin (Pb-Ca-Sn) alloy is optimal for better performance of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We developed a "simulation of current collector corrosion elongation" which is a technique of estimating corrosion elongation from the current collector design [I. Mukaitani, K. Hayashi, I. Shimoura, H. Takabayashi, M. Terada, A. Takemasa, I. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, Proceedings of the 44th Battery Symposium in Japan, 2003, p. 652]. Corrosion elongation occurs as the corrosion material layer grows out of the current collector metal. We resolved this problem using generally CAD

  6. Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibrils in Walls of Elongating Parenchyma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Setterfield, G.; Bayley, S. T.

    1958-01-01

    The arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in walls of elongating parenchyma cells of Avena coleoptiles, onion roots, and celery petioles was studied in polarizing and electron microscopes by examining whole cell walls and sections. Walls of these cells consist firstly of regions containing the primary pit fields and composed of microfibrils oriented predominantly transversely. The transverse microfibrils show a progressive disorientation from the inside to the outside of the wall which is consistent with the multinet model of wall growth. Between the pit-field regions and running the length of the cells are ribs composed of longitudinally oriented microfibrils. Two types of rib have been found at all stages of cell elongation. In some regions, the wall appears to consist entirely of longitudinal microfibrils so that the rib forms an integral part of the wall. At the edges of such ribs the microfibrils can be seen to change direction from longitudinal in the rib to transverse in the pit-field region. Often, however, the rib appears to consist of an extra separate layer of longitudinal microfibrils outside a continuous wall of transverse microfibrils. These ribs are quite distinct from secondary wall, which consists of longitudinal microfibrils deposited within the primary wall after elongation has ceased. It is evident that the arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in a primary wall can be complex and is probably an expression of specific cellular differentiation. PMID:13563544

  7. Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Elongation Factor Ts Directly Facilitates the Formation and Disassembly of the Escherichia coli Elongation Factor Tu·GTP·Aminoacyl-tRNA Ternary Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Benjamin J.; Altman, Roger B.; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L.; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis. PMID:23539628

  9. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong H.; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3’ end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  10. Research of centroiding algorithms for extended and elongated spot of sodium laser guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yayun; Zhang, Yudong; Wei, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Laser guide stars (LGSs) increase the sky coverage of astronomical adaptive optics systems. But spot array obtained by Shack-Hartmann wave front sensors (WFSs) turns extended and elongated, due to the thickness and size limitation of sodium LGS, which affects the accuracy of the wave front reconstruction algorithm. In this paper, we compared three different centroiding algorithms , the Center-of-Gravity (CoG), weighted CoG (WCoG) and Intensity Weighted Centroid (IWC), as well as those accuracies for various extended and elongated spots. In addition, we compared the reconstructed image data from those three algorithms with theoretical results, and proved that WCoG and IWC are the best wave front reconstruction algorithms for extended and elongated spot among all the algorithms.

  11. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    PubMed

    Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Bowman, Kim D; McCollum, Greg T; Mirkov, T Erik; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P

    2012-01-01

    Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  12. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C; Donaldson, Colin H

    2013-10-08

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system.

  13. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  14. Transient state kinetics of transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Anand, Vasanti Subramanian; Patel, Smita S

    2006-11-24

    The single subunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) from bacteriophage T7 catalyzes both promoter-dependent transcription initiation and promoter-independent elongation. Using a promoter-free substrate, we have dissected the kinetic pathway of single nucleotide incorporation during elongation. We show that T7 RNAP undergoes a slow conformational change (0.01-0.03 s(-1)) to form an elongation competent complex with the promoter-free substrate (dissociation constant (Kd) of 96 nM). The complex binds to a correct NTP (Kd of 80 microM) and incorporates the nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) into RNA primer very efficiently (220 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). An overall free energy change (-5.5 kcal/mol) and internal free energy change (-3.7 kcal/mol) of single NMP incorporation was calculated from the measured equilibrium constants. In the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), the elongation complex catalyzes the reverse pyrophosphorolysis reaction at a maximum rate of 0.8 s(-1) with PPi Kd of 1.2 mM. Several experiments were designed to investigate the rate-limiting step in the pathway of single nucleotide addition. Acid-quench and pulse-chase kinetics indicated that an isomerization step before chemistry is rate-limiting. The very similar rate constants of sequential incorporation of two nucleotides indicated that the steps after chemistry are fast. Based on available data, we propose that the preinsertion to insertion isomerization of NTP observed in the crystallographic studies of T7 RNAP is a likely candidate for the rate-limiting step. The studies here provide a kinetic framework to investigate structure-function and fidelity of RNA synthesis and to further explore the role of the conformational change in nucleotide selection during RNA synthesis.

  15. Giddings Edwards (Cretaceous) field, south Texas: carbonate channel or elongate buildup

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lomando, A.J.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Giddings Edwards field, located in Fayette County, Texas, is situated on the broad Cretaceous (Albian) shallow shelf, approximately 20 mi north of the main Edwards shelf-margin reef trend. The Giddings field produces gas from an elongate stratigraphic trap approximately 9.5 mi long and 1.8 mi wide, encased in argillaceous lime mudstones and shales; the field is oriented normal to the contiguous Edwards reef trend. Available cores and cuttings samples from the central portion of the field indicate that the field reservoir is composed of biopackstones and grainstones interpreted to have been deposited in a high-energy shelf environment. The facies systemmore » is characterized by stacked reservoirs having a maximum gross pay thickness of over 100 ft, containing primary interparticle and secondary biomoldic porosity, both of which have been modified slightly by chemical compaction and partial occlusion by sparry calcite and saddle dolomite cements. Despite reasonable subsurface sample and mechanical log control within and surrounding the field, its depositional origin remains equivocal. Such uncertainty has important bearing on predictive models for the exploration for additional Edwards shelfal hydrocarbon reservoirs. The elongate, biconvex geometry of the productive carbonate sands, their northward thinning, and apparent updip bifurcation suggest deposition in a shallow-shelf channel system. By contrast, an alternative correlation and interpretation based on geometry and facies is that of an elongate in-situ carbonate buildup. A number of modern analogs of elongate buildups normal to major reef systems are available from which to compare and model the depositional system of Giddings Edwards field. The evaluation of this field serves as an example of using a multiple working hypothesis to develop an accurate exploration model.« less

  16. Ultrastrong Graphene-Based Fibers with Increased Elongation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mochen; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiang; Ru, Yue; Qiao, Jinliang

    2016-10-12

    A new method to prepare graphene-based fibers with ultrahigh tensile strength, conductivity, and increased elongation is reported. It includes wet-spinning the mixture of GO aqueous dispersion with phenolic resin solution in a newly developed coagulation bath, followed by annealing. The introduced phenolic carbon increased densification of graphene fibers through reducing defects and increased interfacial interaction among graphene sheets by forming new C-C bonds, thus resulting in the increasing of stiffness, toughness, and conductivity simultaneously.

  17. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miyoshi, Ko, E-mail: miyoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed withmore » Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.« less

  18. Effects of elongation on the phase behavior of the Gay-Berne fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Julian T.; Allen, Michael P.; Martín del Río, Elvira; Miguel, Enrique De

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation κ. We study a range of length-to-width parameters 3<=κ<=4, using a variety of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques, obtaining a guide to the phase behavior for each shape studied. We observe vapor (V), isotropic liquid (I), nematic (N), smectic-A (SA) and smectic-B (SB) liquid crystal phases. Within the small range of elongation studied, the phase diagram shows significant changes. On increasing κ, the liquid-vapor critical point moves to lower temperature until it falls below the I-SB coexistence line, around κ=3.4, where liquid-vapor coexistence proves hard to establish. The liquid-vapor critical point seems to be completely absent at κ=4.0. Another dramatic effect is the growth of a stable SA ``island'' in the phase diagram at elongations slightly above κ=3.0. The SA range extends to both higher and lower temperatures as κ is increased. Also as κ is increased, the I-N transition is seen to move to lower density (and pressure) at given temperature. The lowest temperature at which the nematic phase is stable does not vary dramatically with κ. On cooling, no SB-crystal transition can be identified in the equation of state for any of these elongations; we suggest that, on the basis of simulation evidence, SB and crystal are really the same phase for these models.

  19. Kirromycin, an Inhibitor of Protein Biosynthesis that Acts on Elongation Factor Tu

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Heinz; Chinali, Gianni; Parmeggiani, Andrea

    1974-01-01

    Kirromycin, a new inhibitor of protein synthesis, is shown to interfere with the peptide transfer reaction by acting on elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). All the reactions associated with this elongation factor are affected. Formation of the EF-Tu·GTP complex is strongly stimulated. Peptide bond formation is prevented only when Phe-tRNAPhe is bound enzymatically to ribosomes, presumably because GTP hydrolysis associated with enzymatic binding of Phe-tRNAPhe is not followed by release of EF-Tu·GDP from the ribosome. This antibiotic also enables EF-Tu to catalyze the binding of Phe-tRNAPhe to the poly(U)·ribosome complex even in the absence of GTP. EF-Tu activity in the GTPase reaction is dramatically affected by kirromycin: GTP hydrolysis, which normally requires ribosomes and aminoacyl-tRNA, takes place with the elongation factor alone. This GTPase shows the same Km for GTP as the one dependent on Phe-tRNAPhe and ribosomes in the absence of the antibiotic. Ribosomes and Phe-tRNAPhe, but not tRNAPhe or Ac-Phe-tRNAPhe, stimulate the kirromycin-induced EF-Tu GTPase. These results indicate that the catalytic center of EF-Tu GTPase that is dependent upon aminoacyl-tRNA and ribosomes is primarily located on the elongation factor. In conclusion, kirromycin can substitute for GTP, aminoacyl-tRNA, or ribosomes in various reactions involving EF-Tu, apparently by affecting the allosteric controls between the sites on the EF-Tu molecule interacting with these components. PMID:4373734

  20. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  1. Oriental nose elongation using an L-shaped polyethylene sheet implant for combined septal spreading and extension.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Huang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Danning; Li, Haizhou; Herrler, Tanja; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-04-01

    The currently recommended strategies for short nose elongation were designed primarily for the Caucasian nasal framework. For Oriental patients, more elongation often is required because a hypoplastic septal cartilage requires more elongation, resulting in a higher risk of complications. This report proposes a modified technique for Oriental nose elongation, which adjusts the pressure points after nasal elongation using an L-shaped implant. Between January 2007 and December 2009, 58 patients underwent Oriental nose elongation using an L-shaped, porous, high-density polyethylene sheet implant. Augmentation rhinoplasty and conchal cartilage shield grafts were performed depending on the nasal shape. Pre- and postoperative nasal length, height, and projection as well as columella-labial angle, columella-lobular angle, and nasal tip angle were measured and compared. A patient satisfaction survey was performed postoperatively. All occurring complications were recorded. The postoperative nasal length was significantly elongated from 47.0±10.4 mm to 49.3±10.1 mm (p=0.003), and the nasal height increased significantly from 48.5±9.1 mm to 50.4±8.5 mm (p=0.011). The initially obtuse columella-labial angle improved significantly from 100.8°±12.1° to 92.5°±15.5° (p=0.014). No significant changes were found regarding nasal projection, nasal tip angle, or columella-lobular angle. The majority of the patients (91.3%) were highly satisfied or satisfied with the aesthetic results. A major complication in terms of implant exposure was observed in one case. The minor complications included stiffness of the nasal tip (3 patients) and tip redness (1 patient). In Oriental nose elongation, the use of an L-shaped graft is a feasible and safe treatment option that allows for an excellent aesthetic outcome and reduces the incidence of complications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are

  2. Elongated phase separation domains in spin-cast polymer blend thin films characterized using a panoramic image.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Okamura, Yosuke

    2018-02-14

    Polymer thin films with micro/nano-structures can be prepared by a solvent evaporation induced phase separation process via spin-casting a polymer blend, where the elongated phase separation domains are always inevitable. The striation defect, as a thickness nonunifomity in spin-cast films, is generally coexistent with the elongated domains. Herein, the morphologies of polymer blend thin films are recorded from the spin-cast center to the edge in a panoramic view. The elongated domains are inclined to appear at the ridge regions of striations with increasing radial distance and align radially, exhibiting a coupling between the phase separation morphology and the striation defect that may exist. We demonstrate that the formation of elongated domains is not attributed to shape deformation, but is accomplished in situ. A possible model to describe the initiation and evolution of the polymer blend phase separation morphology during spin-casting is proposed.

  3. Super elongation complex promotes early HIV transcription and its function is modulated by P-TEFb.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Alona; Krasnopolsky, Simona; Taube, Ran

    2017-05-27

    Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear. Here we revisit the contribution of SEC in early steps of HIV gene transcription. In the absence of Tat, the AF4/FMR2 Family member 4 (AFF4) of SEC efficiently activates HIV transcription, while gene activation by its homolog AFF1 is substantially lower. Differential recruitment to the HIV promoter and association with Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) play key role in this functional distinction between AFF4 and AFF1. Moreover, while depletion of cyclin T1 expression has subtle effects on HIV gene transcription in the absence of Tat, knockout (KO) of AFF1, AFF4, or both proteins slightly repress this early step of viral transcription. Upon Tat expression, HIV transcription reaches optimal levels despite KO of AFF1 or AFF4 expression. However, double AFF1/AFF4 KO completely diminishes Tat trans-activation. Significantly, our results show that P-TEFb phosphorylates AFF4 and modulates SEC assembly, AFF1/4 dimerization and recruitment to the viral promoter. We conclude that SEC promotes both early steps of HIV transcription in the absence of Tat, as well as elongation of transcription, when Tat is expressed. Significantly, SEC functions are modulated by P-TEFb.

  4. Super elongation complex promotes early HIV transcription and its function is modulated by P-TEFb

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Alona; Krasnopolsky, Simona; Taube, Ran

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear. Here we revisit the contribution of SEC in early steps of HIV gene transcription. In the absence of Tat, the AF4/FMR2 Family member 4 (AFF4) of SEC efficiently activates HIV transcription, while gene activation by its homolog AFF1 is substantially lower. Differential recruitment to the HIV promoter and association with Human Polymerase-Associated Factor complex (PAFc) play key role in this functional distinction between AFF4 and AFF1. Moreover, while depletion of cyclin T1 expression has subtle effects on HIV gene transcription in the absence of Tat, knockout (KO) of AFF1, AFF4, or both proteins slightly repress this early step of viral transcription. Upon Tat expression, HIV transcription reaches optimal levels despite KO of AFF1 or AFF4 expression. However, double AFF1/AFF4 KO completely diminishes Tat trans-activation. Significantly, our results show that P-TEFb phosphorylates AFF4 and modulates SEC assembly, AFF1/4 dimerization and recruitment to the viral promoter. We conclude that SEC promotes both early steps of HIV transcription in the absence of Tat, as well as elongation of transcription, when Tat is expressed. Significantly, SEC functions are modulated by P-TEFb. PMID:28340332

  5. Abscisic Acid Accumulation Maintains Maize Primary Root Elongation at Low Water Potentials by Restricting Ethylene Production1

    PubMed Central

    Spollen, William G.; LeNoble, Mary E.; Samuels, Timmy D.; Bernstein, Nirit; Sharp, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous work showed that primary root elongation in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings at low water potentials (ψw) requires the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) (R.E. Sharp, Y. Wu, G.S. Voetberg, I.N. Saab, M.E. LeNoble [1994] J Exp Bot 45: 1743–1751). The objective of the present study was to determine whether the inhibition of elongation in ABA-deficient roots is attributable to ethylene. At a ψw of −1.6 MPa, inhibition of root elongation in dark-grown seedlings treated with fluridone to impose ABA deficiency was largely prevented with two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (aminooxyacetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and one inhibitor of ethylene action (silver thiosulfate). The fluridone treatment caused an increase in the rate of ethylene evolution from intact seedlings. This effect was completely prevented with aminooxyacetic acid and also when ABA was supplied at a concentration that restored the ABA content of the root elongation zone and the root elongation rate. Consistent results were obtained when ABA deficiency was imposed using the vp5 mutant. Both fluridone-treated and vp5 roots exhibited additional morphological symptoms of excess ethylene. The results demonstrate that an important role of ABA accumulation in the maintenance of root elongation at low ψw is to restrict ethylene production. PMID:10712561

  6. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber

    PubMed Central

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C.; Donaldson, Colin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  7. Alternative lengthening of telomeres can be maintained by preferential elongation of lagging strands

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jaewon; Wright, Woodring E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomerase independent telomere maintenance mechanism that occurs in ∼15% of cancers. The potential mechanism of ALT is homology-directed telomere synthesis, but molecular mechanisms of how ALT maintains telomere length in human cancer is poorly understood. Here, we generated TERC (telomerase RNA) gene knockouts in telomerase positive cell lines that resulted in long-term surviving clones acquiring the ALT pathway but at a very low frequency. By comparing these ALT cells with parental telomerase positive cells, we observed that ALT cells possess excessively long telomeric overhangs derived from telomere elongation processes that mostly occur during S phase. ALT cells exhibited preferential elongation of the telomeric lagging strands, whereas telomerase positive cells exhibited similar elongation between leading and lagging strands. We propose that the ALT pathway preferentially occurs at telomeric lagging strands leading to heterogeneous telomere lengths observed in most ALT cancers. PMID:28082393

  8. Root elongation against a constant force: experiment with a computerized feedback-controlled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzeja, P. S.; Lintilhac, P. M.; Wei, C.

    2001-01-01

    Axial force was applied to the root tip of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) seedlings using a computerized, feedback-controlled mechanical device. The system's feedback capability allowed continuous control of a constant tip load, and the attached displacement transducer provided the time course of root elongation. Loads up to 7.5 g decreased the root elongation rate by 0.13 mm h-1 g-1, but loads 7.5 to 17.5 g decreased the growth rate by only 0.04 mm h-1 g-1. Loads higher than 18 g stopped root elongation completely. Measurement of the cross-sectional areas of the root tips indicated that the 18 g load had applied about 0.98 MPa of axial pressure to the root, thereby exceeding the root's ability to respond with increased turgor pressure. Recorded time-lapse images of loaded roots showed that radial thickening (swelling) occurred behind the root cap, whose cross-sectional area increased with tip load.

  9. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath the Western United States from USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Janine Sylvia

    The aim of this dissertation is to improve our understanding of the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the western United States, profiting from the wealth of regional phase data recorded at USArray stations. USArray, a transportable seismic array of ˜400 seismometers, has greatly increased seismic data coverage across the United States in the past few years, and allows imaging of the lithosphere of the North American continent with better resolution and new methods. The regional phases are often challenging to analyze, especially in a tectonically-active region like the western United States, because of their sensitivities to the heterogeneities of the crust and uppermost mantle. However, knowledge of the seismic structure of the lithosphere is not only essential in order to accurately image the velocity structure at greater depths, but also for constraining geodynamic models that reconstruct the tectonic evolution of the continent, and hence the information that is carried by the regional phases is very valuable. The data set used in this study consists mostly of the regional seismic phases Pn and Sn, which propagate horizontally along the Moho in the mantle lid and constrain the seismic velocity structure at a confined depth. We applied traditional tomographic methods that profit from the improved ray coverage through USArray, but also employed array-based techniques that take advantage of the regular station spacing of the transportable array and don't depend on regularization. In addition, we used stacking methods to image the propagation efficiency of the Sn phase, which is often highly attenuated in tectonically active regions, on a regional scale. The results complement other seismic studies that average over greater depth intervals, such as surface- and body-wave tomographies and anisotropy analysis from shear-wave splitting, to provide information on temperature, composition, and tectonic processes at depth. Comparisons between Pn azimuthal

  10. A note on elongations of summable QTAG-modules.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Alveera; Sikander, Fahad; Naji, Sabah A R K

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a ( ω +k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module.

  11. A Note on Elongations of Summable QTAG-Modules

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Alveera; Naji, Sabah A. R. K.

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a (ω+k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module. PMID:24459429

  12. Collapse of elongated voids in porous energetic materials: Effects of void orientation and aspect ratio on initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Schmidt, Martin J.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    The sensitivity of porous energetic materials depends on mesostructural heterogeneities such as voids, defects, cracks, and grain boundaries. The mesostructure of pressed explosives contains voids of arbitrary shapes including elongated voids of various orientations and aspect ratios. Mesoscale simulations to date have analyzed the effect of void morphology on the sensitivity of energetic materials for idealized shapes such as cylindrical, conical, and elliptical. This work analyzes the sensitivity behavior of elongated voids in an HMX matrix subject to shock loading. Simulations show that sensitivity of elongated voids depends strongly on orientation as well as aspect ratio. Ranges of orientations and aspects ratios are identified that enhance or inhibit initiation. Insights obtained from single elongated void analyses are used to identify sensitive locations in an imaged mesostructure of a pressed explosive sample.

  13. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  14. Mechanisms of Regulating Tissue Elongation in Drosophila Wing: Impact of Oriented Cell Divisions, Oriented Mechanical Forces, and Reduced Cell Size

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingzi; Naveed, Hammad; Kachalo, Sema; Xu, Lisa X.; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth and cell division plays fundamental roles in tissue morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation through cell growth and cell division are still not well understood. The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila provides a model system that has been widely used to study tissue morphogenesis. Here we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. We simulate the effects of directional cues on tissue elongation. We also computationally analyze the role of reduced cell size. Our simulation results indicate that oriented cell divisions, oriented mechanical forces, and reduced cell size can all mediate tissue elongation, but they function differently. We show that oriented cell divisions and oriented mechanical forces act as directional cues during tissue elongation. Between these two directional cues, oriented mechanical forces have a stronger influence than oriented cell divisions. In addition, we raise the novel hypothesis that reduced cell size may significantly promote tissue elongation. We find that reduced cell size alone cannot drive tissue elongation. However, when combined with directional cues, such as oriented cell divisions or oriented mechanical forces, reduced cell size can significantly enhance tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. Furthermore, our simulation results suggest that reduced cell size has a short-term effect on cell topology by decreasing the frequency of hexagonal cells, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our simulation results suggest that cell divisions without cell growth play essential roles in tissue elongation. PMID:24504016

  15. It's fun to transcribe with Fun30: A model for nucleosome dynamics during RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junwoo; Choi, Eun Shik; Lee, Daeyoup

    2018-01-01

    The ability of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) to regulate the nucleosome barrier is poorly understood because we do not know enough about the involved factors and we lack a conceptual framework to model this process. Our group recently identified the conserved Fun30/SMARCAD1 family chromatin-remodeling factor, Fun30 Fft3 , as being critical for relieving the nucleosome barrier during RNAPII-mediated elongation, and proposed a model illustrating how Fun30 Fft3 may contribute to nucleosome disassembly during RNAPII-mediated elongation. Here, we present a model that describes nucleosome dynamics during RNAPII-mediated elongation in mathematical terms and addresses the involvement of Fun30 Fft3 in this process.

  16. Method and apparatus for forming high-critical-temperature superconducting layers on flat and/or elongated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1994-01-01

    An elongated, flexible superconductive wire or strip is fabricated by pulling it through and out of a melt of metal oxide material at a rate conducive to forming a crystalline coating of superconductive metal oxide material on an elongated, flexible substrate wire or strip. A coating of crystalline superconductive material, such as Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.8, is annealed to effect conductive contact between adjacent crystalline structures in the coating material, which is then cooled to room temperature. The container for the melt can accommodate continuous passage of the substrate through the melt. Also, a second pass-through container can be used to simultaneously anneal and overcoat the superconductive coating with a hot metallic material, such as silver or silver alloy. A hollow, elongated tube casting method of forming an elongated, flexible superconductive wire includes drawing the melt by differential pressure into a heated tubular substrate.

  17. Method and apparatus for forming high-critical-temperature superconducting layers on flat and/or elongated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1994-04-19

    An elongated, flexible superconductive wire or strip is fabricated by pulling it through and out of a melt of metal oxide material at a rate conducive to forming a crystalline coating of superconductive metal oxide material on an elongated, flexible substrate wire or strip. A coating of crystalline superconductive material, such as Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8], is annealed to effect conductive contact between adjacent crystalline structures in the coating material, which is then cooled to room temperature. The container for the melt can accommodate continuous passage of the substrate through the melt. Also, a second pass-through container can be used to simultaneously anneal and overcoat the superconductive coating with a hot metallic material, such as silver or silver alloy. A hollow, elongated tube casting method of forming an elongated, flexible superconductive wire includes drawing the melt by differential pressure into a heated tubular substrate. 8 figures.

  18. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice.

    PubMed

    Magome, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takahito; Hanada, Atsushi; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Shinma, Yuko; Katsumata, Takumi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2013-01-29

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of growth and development in plants. GA(1) has been the most frequently found bioactive GA in various tissues of flowering plants, but the enzymes responsible for GA(1) biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated due to the enzymes catalyzing the 13-hydroxylation step not being identified. Because of the lack of mutants defective in this enzyme, biological significance of GA 13-hydroxylation has been unknown. Here, we report that two cytochrome P450 genes, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2, encode GA 13-oxidase in rice. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress CYP714B1 or CYP714B2 show semidwarfism. There was a trend that the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were increased in these transgenic plants. Functional analysis using yeast or insect cells shows that recombinant CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 proteins can convert GA(12) into GA(53) (13-OH GA(12)) in vitro. Moreover, the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were decreased, whereas those of 13-H GAs including GA(4) (which is more active than GA(1)) were increased, in the rice cyp714b1 cyp714b2 double mutant. These results indicate that CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 play a predominant role in GA 13-hydroxylation in rice. The double mutant plants appear phenotypically normal until heading, but show elongated uppermost internode at the heading stage. Moreover, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 expression was up-regulated by exogenous application of bioactive GAs. Our results suggest that GA 13-oxidases play a role in fine-tuning plant growth by decreasing GA bioactivity in rice and that they also participate in GA homeostasis.

  19. Tyrosine phosphorylation of histone H2A by CK2 regulates transcriptional elongation

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Harihar; Bessie Su, Xue; Tan, Yuliang; Meisenhelder, Jill; Merkurjev, Daria; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Hunter, Tony; Pillus, Lorraine; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational histone modifications play critical roles in regulating transcription, the cell cycle, DNA replication and DNA damage repair1. The identification of new histone modifications critical for transcriptional regulation at initiation, elongation, or termination is of particular interest. Here, we report a new layer of regulation in transcriptional elongation that is conserved from yeast to mammals, based on a phosphorylation of a highly-conserved tyrosine residue, Y57, in histone H2A that is mediated by an unsuspected tyrosine kinase activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Mutation of H2A-Y57 in yeast or inhibition of CK2 activity impairs transcriptional elongation in yeast as well as in mammalian cells. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals that CK2α, the catalytic subunit of CK2, binds across RNA polymerase II-transcribed coding genes and active enhancers. Mutation of Y57 causes a loss of H2B mono-ubiquitylation as well as H3K4me3 and H3K79me3, histone marks associated with active transcription. Mechanistically, both CK2 inhibition and H2A-Y57F mutation enhance the H2B deubiquitylation activity of the SAGA complex, suggesting a critical role of this phosphorylation in coordinating the activity of the SAGA during transcription. Together, these results identify a new component of regulation in transcriptional elongation based on CK2-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the globular domain of H2A. PMID:25252977

  20. Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by the antitumor natural product Mycalamide B.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yongjun; Schneider-Poetsch, Tilman; Eyler, Daniel E; Jewett, John C; Bhat, Shridhar; Rawal, Viresh H; Green, Rachel; Liu, Jun O

    2011-08-01

    Mycalamide B (MycB) is a marine sponge-derived natural product with potent antitumor activity. Although it has been shown to inhibit protein synthesis, the molecular mechanism of action by MycB remains incompletely understood. We verified the inhibition of translation elongation by in vitro HCV IRES dual luciferase assays, ribosome assembly, and in vivo [(35)S]methinione labeling experiments. Similar to cycloheximide (CHX), MycB inhibits translation elongation through blockade of eEF2-mediated translocation without affecting the eEF1A-mediated loading of tRNA onto the ribosome, AUG recognition, or dipeptide synthesis. Using chemical footprinting, we identified the MycB binding site proximal to the C3993 28S rRNA residue on the large ribosomal subunit. However, there are also subtle, but significant differences in the detailed mechanisms of action of MycB and CHX. First, MycB arrests the ribosome on the mRNA one codon ahead of CHX. Second, MycB specifically blocked tRNA binding to the E-site of the large ribosomal subunit. Moreover, they display different polysome profiles in vivo. Together, these observations shed new light on the mechanism of inhibition of translation elongation by MycB.

  1. Automated cell tracking identifies mechanically oriented cell divisions during Drosophila axis elongation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael F Z; Hunter, Miranda V; Wang, Gang; McFaul, Christopher; Yip, Christopher M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in a conserved process known as axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern-recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations. Mesectoderm cells did not intercalate and sustained increased AP strain before cell division. After division, mesectoderm cell density increased along the AP axis, thus relieving strain. We used laser ablation to isolate mesectoderm cells from the influence of other tissues. Uncoupling the mesectoderm from intercalating cells did not affect cell division orientation. Conversely, separating the mesectoderm from the anterior and posterior poles of the embryo resulted in uniformly oriented divisions. Our data suggest that mesectoderm cells align their division angle to reduce strain caused by mechanical forces along the AP axis of the embryo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Tbx1 is necessary for palatal elongation and elevation.

    PubMed

    Goudy, Steven; Law, Amy; Sanchez, Gabriela; Baldwin, H Scott; Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is a key mediator of developmental abnormalities associated with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Studies in mice have demonstrated that decreased dosage of Tbx1 results in defects in pharyngeal arch, cardiovascular, and craniofacial development. The role of Tbx1 in cardiac development has been intensely studied; however, its role in palatal development is poorly understood. By studying the Tbx1-/- mice we found defects during the critical points of palate elongation and elevation. The intrinsic palate defects in the Tbx1-/- mice were determined by measuring changes in palate shelf length, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of relevant growth factors, and in palate fusion assays. Tbx1-/- embryos exhibit cleft palate with failed palate elevation in 100% and abnormal palatal-oral fusions in 50%. In the Tbx1-/- mice the palate shelf length was reduced and tongue height was greater, demonstrating a physical impediment to palate elevation and apposition. In vitro palate fusion assays demonstrate that Tbx1-/- palate shelves are capable of fusion but a roller culture assay showed that the null palatal shelves were unable to elongate. Diminished hyaluronic acid production in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves may explain failed palate shelf elevation. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis were perturbed in Tbx1-/- palates. A sharp decrease of Fgf8 expression was detected in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves, suggesting that Fgf8 is dependent on Tbx1 in the palate. Fgf10 is also up-regulated in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves and tongue. These data demonstrate that Tbx1 is a critical transcription factor that guides palatal elongation and elevation and that Fgf8 expression in the palate is Tbx1-dependent.

  3. Tbx1 is Necessary for Palatal Elongation and Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Steven; Law, Amy; Sanchez, Gabriela; Baldwin, H. Scott; Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is a key mediator of developmental abnormalities associated with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Studies in mice have demonstrated that decreased dosage of Tbx1 results in defects in pharyngeal arch, cardiovascular, and craniofacial development. The role of Tbx1 in cardiac development has been intensely studied; however, its role in palatal development is poorly understood. By studying the Tbx1-/- mice we found defects during the critical points of palate elongation and elevation. The intrinsic palate defects in the Tbx1-/- mice were determined by measuring changes in palate shelf length, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of relevant growth factors, and in palate fusion assays. Tbx1-/- embryos exhibit cleft palate with failed palate elevation in 100% and abnormal palatal-oral fusions in 50%. In the Tbx1-/- mice the palate shelf length was reduced and tongue height was greater, demonstrating a physical impediment to palate elevation and apposition. In vitro palate fusion assays demonstrate that Tbx1-/- palate shelves are capable of fusion but a roller culture assay showed that the null palatal shelves were unable to elongate. Diminished hyaluronic acid production in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves may explain failed palate shelf elevation. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis were perturbed in Tbx1-/- palates. A sharp decrease of Fgf8 expression was detected in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves, suggesting that Fgf8 is dependent on Tbx1 in the palate. Fgf10 is also up-regulated in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves and tongue. These data demonstrate that Tbx1 is a critical transcription factor that guides palatal elongation and elevation and that Fgf8 expression in the palate is Tbx1-dependent. PMID:20214979

  4. Exertional headache as unusual presentation of the syndrome of an elongated styloid process.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Ferdinando; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario; Mampreso, Edoardo; Mainardi, Federico; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old man with a 2-year history of pain related to efforts in heavy lifting, beginning in the right ear and radiating to the neck and to the vertex. He underwent multiple negative neuroimaging examinations, until a 3-dimensional computerized tomography scan of the pharyngeal region evidenced an elongated styloid process. A diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome was made. The excision of the elongated styloid process was performed, resulting in complete and lasting pain relief. We focus on Eagle's syndrome and in particular on this atypical presentation.

  5. Post-transcriptional regulation of myotube elongation and myogenesis by Hoi Polloi

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron N.; Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Valera, Juliana M.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Olson, Eric N.

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscle development requires the coordinated expression of genes involved in sarcomere formation and contractility, as well as genes that determine muscle morphology. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control the early stages of muscle morphogenesis. To explore this facet of myogenesis, we performed a genetic screen for regulators of somatic muscle morphology in Drosophila, and identified the putative RNA-binding protein (RBP) Hoi Polloi (Hoip). Hoip is expressed in striated muscle precursors within the muscle lineage and controls two genetically separable events: myotube elongation and sarcomeric protein expression. Myotubes fail to elongate in hoip mutant embryos, even though the known regulators of somatic muscle elongation, target recognition and muscle attachment are expressed normally. In addition, a majority of sarcomeric proteins, including Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) and Tropomyosin, require Hoip for their expression. A transgenic MHC construct that contains the endogenous MHC promoter and a spliced open reading frame rescues MHC protein expression in hoip embryos, demonstrating the involvement of Hoip in pre-mRNA splicing, but not in transcription, of muscle structural genes. In addition, the human Hoip ortholog NHP2L1 rescues muscle defects in hoip embryos, and knockdown of endogenous nhp2l1 in zebrafish disrupts skeletal muscle development. We conclude that Hoip is a conserved, post-transcriptional regulator of muscle morphogenesis and structural gene expression. PMID:23942517

  6. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, Rossemary V.; Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Johnson, F. Thomas; Matusz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch.

  7. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    DOEpatents

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-04-26

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of elongated noble metal nanoparticles, such as nanowires and nanorods, on high-surface area carbon supports

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Blyznakov, Stoyan; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-08-04

    Elongated noble-metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. The method involves the formation of a plurality of elongated noble-metal nanoparticles by electrochemical deposition of the noble metal on a high surface area carbon support, such as carbon nanoparticles. Prior to electrochemical deposition, the carbon support may be functionalized by oxidation, thus making the manufacturing process simple and cost-effective. The generated elongated nanoparticles are covalently bound to the carbon support and can be used directly in electrocatalysis. The process provides elongated noble-metal nanoparticles with high catalytic activities and improved durability in combination with high catalyst utilization since the nanoparticles are deposited and covalently bound to the carbon support in their final position and will not change in forming an electrode assembly.

  9. Transcription elongation factors represent in vivo cancer dependencies in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tyler E.; Liau, Brian B.; Wallace, Lisa C.; Morton, Andrew R.; Xie, Qi; Dixit, Deobrat; Factor, Daniel C.; Kim, Leo J. Y.; Morrow, James J.; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Hubert, Christopher G.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Flavahan, William A.; Hoffmann, Thomas; Thummalapalli, Rohit; Hemann, Michael T.; Paddison, Patrick J.; Horbinski, Craig M.; Zuber, Johannes; Scacheri, Peter C.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Tesar, Paul J.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer with a median survival of approximately 15 months1. Despite substantial efforts to define druggable targets, there are no therapeutic options that meaningfully extend glioblastoma patient lifespan. While previous work has largely focused on in vitro cellular models, here we demonstrate a more physiologically relevant approach to target discovery in glioblastoma. We adapted pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screening technology2–4 for use in orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, creating a high-throughput negative selection screening platform in a functional in vivo tumour microenvironment. Using this approach, we performed parallel in vivo and in vitro screens and discovered that the chromatin and transcriptional regulators necessary for cell survival in vivo are non-overlapping with those required in vitro. We identified transcription pause-release and elongation factors as one set of in vivo-specific cancer dependencies and determined that these factors are necessary for enhancer-mediated transcriptional adaptations that enable cells to survive the tumour microenvironment. Our lead hit, JMJD6, mediates the upregulation of in vivo stress and stimulus response pathways through enhancer-mediated transcriptional pause-release, promoting cell survival specifically in vivo. Targeting JMJD6 or other identified elongation factors extends survival in orthotopic xenograft mouse models, supporting targeting the transcription elongation machinery as a therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. More broadly, this study demonstrates the power of in vivo phenotypic screening to identify new classes of ‘cancer dependencies’ not identified by previous in vitro approaches, which could supply untapped opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28678782

  10. Auxin-Dependent Cell Division and Cell Elongation. 1-Naphthaleneacetic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Activate Different Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Campanoni, Prisca; Nick, Peter

    2005-01-01

    During exponential phase, the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell line cv Virginia Bright Italia-0 divides axially to produce linear cell files of distinct polarity. This axial division is controlled by exogenous auxin. We used exponential tobacco cv Virginia Bright Italia-0 cells to dissect early auxin signaling, with cell division and cell elongation as physiological markers. Experiments with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) demonstrated that these 2 auxin species affect cell division and cell elongation differentially; NAA stimulates cell elongation at concentrations that are much lower than those required to stimulate cell division. In contrast, 2,4-D promotes cell division but not cell elongation. Pertussis toxin, a blocker of heterotrimeric G-proteins, inhibits the stimulation of cell division by 2,4-D but does not affect cell elongation. Aluminum tetrafluoride, an activator of the G-proteins, can induce cell division at NAA concentrations that are not permissive for division and even in the absence of any exogenous auxin. The data are discussed in a model where the two different auxins activate two different pathways for the control of cell division and cell elongation. PMID:15734918

  11. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  12. Sensitivity of spore germination and germ tube elongation of Saccharina japonica to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Han, Taejun; Kong, Jeong-Ae; Kang, Hee-Gyu; Kim, Seon-Jin; Jin, Gyo-Sun; Choi, Hoon; Brown, Murray T

    2011-11-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica to six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and two waste-water samples were investigated and a new toxicity bioassay developed. The two endpoints used were spore germination and germ tube elongation with an exposure time of 24 h. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, pH, salinity and temperature were darkness, pH 8, 35‰ and 15°C, respectively. The toxicity ranking of five metals was: Hg (EC(50) of 41 and 42 μg l(-1)) > Cu (120 and 81 μg l(-1)) > Ni (2,009 and 1,360 μg l(-1)) > Zn (3,024 and 3,897 μg l(-1)) > Pb (4,760 and 4,429 μg l(-1)) > Cd (15,052 and 7,541 μg l(-1)) for germination and germ tube elongation, respectively. The sensitivities to Cd, Cu and Ni were greater in germ tube elongation than in germination process. When tested against two different waste-water samples (processed animal and printed circuit board waste-water) values of EC(50) were between 21.29 and 32.02% for germination and between 5.33 and 8.98% for germ tube elongation. Despite differences in their chemical composition, the toxic effects of waste-water samples, as indicated by EC(50) values, did not differ significantly for the same endpoints. The CV range for both germination and germ tube elongation was between 4.61 and 37.69%, indicating high levels of precision of the tests. The results compare favourably with those from more established test procedures employing micro- and macroalgae. The advantages and potential limitations of the bioassay for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on coastal ecosystems and commercial cultivation areas in near-shore environments are discussed.

  13. Reactive oxygen species in the elongation zone of maize leaves are necessary for leaf extension.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés A; Grunberg, Karina A; Taleisnik, Edith L

    2002-08-01

    The production and role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the expanding zone of maize (Zea mays) leaf blades were investigated. ROS release along the leaf blade was evaluated by embedding intact seedlings in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-containing agar and examining the distribution of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence along leaf 4, which was exposed by removing the outer leaves before embedding the seedling. Fluorescence was high in the expanding region, becoming practically non-detectable beyond 65 mm from the ligule, indicating high ROS production in the expansion zone. Segments obtained from the elongation zone of leaf 4 were used to assess the role of ROS in leaf elongation. The distribution of cerium perhydroxide deposits in electron micrographs indicated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) presence in the apoplast. 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and apoplastic H(2)O(2) accumulation were inhibited with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), which also inhibited O*(2)(-) generation, suggesting a flavin-containing enzyme activity such as NADPH oxidase was involved in ROS production. Segments from the elongation zone incubated in water grew 8% in 2 h. KI treatments, which scavenged H(2)O(2) but did not inhibit O*(2)(-) production, did not modify growth. DPI significantly inhibited segment elongation, and the addition of H(2)O(2) (50 or 500 microM) to the incubation medium partially reverted the inhibition caused by DPI. These results indicate that a certain concentration of H(2)O(2) is necessary for leaf elongation, but it could not be distinguished whether H(2)O(2), or other ROS, are the actual active agents.

  14. Fast and robust curve skeletonization for real-world elongated objects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We consider the problem of extracting curve skeletons of three-dimensional, elongated objects given a noisy surface, which has applications in agricultural contexts such as extracting the branching structure of plants. We describe an efficient and robust method based on breadth-first search that ca...

  15. Inhibition of root elongation in microgravity by an applied electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Aizawa, S.; Yoshizaki, I.; Kamigaichi, S.; Mukai, C.; Shimazu, T.; Fukui, K.; Evans, M. L.; Ishikawa, H.

    1999-01-01

    Roots grown in an applied electric field demonstrate a bidirectional curvature. To further understand the nature of this response and its implications for the regulation of differential growth, we applied an electric field to roots growing in microgravity. We found that growth rates of roots in microgravity were higher than growth rates of ground controls. Immediately upon application of the electric field, root elongation was inhibited. We interpret this result as an indication that, in the absence of a gravity stimulus, the sensitivity of the root to an applied electric stimulus is increased. Further space experiments are required to determine the extent to which this sensitivity is shifted. The implications of this result are discussed in relation to gravitropic signaling and the regulation of differential cell elongation in the root.

  16. Contraction and elongation: Mechanics underlying cell boundary deformations in epithelial tissue.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II. Moreover, how the junctional tensions exist on cell boundaries in different boundary dynamics and morphologies are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on how recent knowledge about single cell boundary-level mechanics will contribute to our understanding of epithelial tissue morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Tropomodulin 1 Constrains Fiber Cell Geometry during Elongation and Maturation in the Lens Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Roberta B.

    2012-01-01

    Lens fiber cells exhibit a high degree of hexagonal packing geometry, determined partly by tropomodulin 1 (Tmod1), which stabilizes the spectrin-actin network on lens fiber cell membranes. To ascertain whether Tmod1 is required during epithelial cell differentiation to fiber cells or during fiber cell elongation and maturation, the authors quantified the extent of fiber cell disorder in the Tmod1-null lens and determined locations of disorder by confocal microscopy and computational image analysis. First, nearest neighbor analysis of fiber cell geometry in Tmod1-null lenses showed that disorder is confined to focal patches. Second, differentiating epithelial cells at the equator aligned into ordered meridional rows in Tmod1-null lenses, with disordered patches first observed in elongating fiber cells. Third, as fiber cells were displaced inward in Tmod1-null lenses, total disordered area increased due to increased sizes (but not numbers) of individual disordered patches. The authors conclude that Tmod1 is required first to coordinate fiber cell shapes and interactions during tip migration and elongation and second to stabilize ordered fiber cell geometry during maturation in the lens cortex. An unstable spectrin-actin network without Tmod1 may result in imbalanced forces along membranes, leading to fiber cell rearrangements during elongation, followed by propagation of disorder as fiber cells mature. PMID:22473940

  18. Polymer film strain gauges for measuring large elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratov, A. P.; Zueva, A. M.; Varakin, R. S.; Taranec, I. P.; Savenkova, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper shows the possibility to print polymer strain gages, microstrip lines, coplanar waveguides, and other prints for avionics using printing technology and equipment. The methods of screen and inkjet printing have been complemented by three new operations of preparing print films for application of an electrically conductive ink layer. Such additional operations make it possible to enhance the conductive ink layer adhesion to the film and to manufacture strain gages for measuring large elongations.

  19. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  20. The interplay of stiffness and force anisotropies drives embryo elongation

    PubMed Central

    Vuong-Brender, Thanh Thi Kim; Ben Amar, Martine; Pontabry, Julien; Labouesse, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The morphogenesis of tissues, like the deformation of an object, results from the interplay between their material properties and the mechanical forces exerted on them. The importance of mechanical forces in influencing cell behaviour is widely recognized, whereas the importance of tissue material properties, in particular stiffness, has received much less attention. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we examine how both aspects contribute to embryonic elongation. Measuring the opening shape of the epidermal actin cortex after laser nano-ablation, we assess the spatiotemporal changes of actomyosin-dependent force and stiffness along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axis. Experimental data and analytical modelling show that myosin-II-dependent force anisotropy within the lateral epidermis, and stiffness anisotropy within the fiber-reinforced dorso-ventral epidermis are critical in driving embryonic elongation. Together, our results establish a quantitative link between cortical tension, material properties and morphogenesis of an entire embryo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23866.001 PMID:28181905

  1. Probing energetics of Abeta fibril elongation by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takako; Klimov, Dmitri K

    2009-06-03

    Using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and an all-atom implicit solvent model, we probed the energetics of Abeta(10-40) fibril growth. The analysis of the interactions between incoming Abeta peptides and the fibril led us to two conclusions. First, considerable variations in fibril binding propensities are observed along the Abeta sequence. The peptides in the fibril and those binding to its edge interact primarily through their N-termini. Therefore, the mutations affecting the Abeta positions 10-23 are expected to have the largest impact on fibril elongation compared with those occurring in the C-terminus and turn. Second, we performed weak perturbations of the binding free energy landscape by scanning partial deletions of side-chain interactions at various Abeta sequence positions. The results imply that strong side-chain interactions--in particular, hydrophobic contacts--impede fibril growth by favoring disordered docking of incoming peptides. Therefore, fibril elongation may be promoted by moderate reduction of Abeta hydrophobicity. The comparison with available experimental data is presented.

  2. Rapid wall relaxation in elongating tissues.

    PubMed

    Matyssek, R; Maruyama, S; Boyer, J S

    1988-04-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, we investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. We found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. Previous reports of wall relaxation in pea included slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold should be constant during so short a time, thus reflecting the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species. The presence of slowly growing or mature tissue delays wall relaxation and should be avoided during such measurements. However, this delay can be used to advantage when turgor of intact growing tissues is being measured using excised tissues because turgor does not change for a considerable time after excision.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of elongating metallic nanowires in the presence of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, M. Cecilia; Reinaudi, Luis; Leiva, Ezequiel P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nanowires of different metals undergoing elongation were studied by means of canonical Monte Carlo simulations and the embedded atom method representing the interatomic potentials. The presence of a surfactant medium was emulated by the introduction of an additional stabilization energy, represented by a parameter Q. Several values of the parameter Q and temperatures were analyzed. In general, it was observed for all studied metals that, as Q increases, there is a greater elongation before the nanowire breaks. In the case of silver, linear monatomic chains several atoms long formed at intermediate values of Q and low temperatures. Similar observations were made for the case of silver-gold alloys when the medium interacted selectively with Ag.

  4. Studies on callose and cutin during the expression of competence and determination for organogenic nodule formation from internodes of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Ana M; Testillano, Pilar S; Del Carmen Risueño, Maria; Pais, Maria S

    2002-09-01

    Callose and cutin deposition were followed by staining with Aniline Blue and Nile Red and by immunolocalization using antibodies raised against callose. Along with morphogenesis induction from internodes of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget, a temporal and spatial differential deposition of callose and cutin was observed. A cutin layer showing bright yellow autofluorescence appears, surrounding cells or groups of cells committed to express morphogenic competence. This cutin layer that evolves to a randomly organized network appeared underneath a callose layer and may create a specific cellular environment with altered permeability and altered receptors providing conditions for entering the cell cycle. The incipient callose accumulation in control explants cultured on basal medium suggests the involvement of callose in the initiation of the morphogenic programme leading to nodule formation. A scanning electron microscopic study during the organogenic process showed that before shoot bud regeneration, the cutin layer increases in thickness and acquires a smooth texture. This cutin layer is specific to nodular organogenic regions and disappeared with plantlet regeneration. This layer may control permeability to water and solute transfer throughout plantlet regeneration.

  5. A Dark Incubation Period Is Important for Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Mature Internode Explants of Sweet Orange, Grapefruit, Citron, and a Citrange Rootstock

    PubMed Central

    Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Bowman, Kim D.; McCollum, Greg T.; Mirkov, T. Erik; Evens, Terence J.; Niedz, Randall P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2–20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. Methodology/Principal Findings Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. Significance The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid. PMID:23082165

  6. Nannocystin A: an Elongation Factor 1 Inhibitor from Myxobacteria with Differential Anti-Cancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Krastel, Philipp; Roggo, Silvio; Schirle, Markus; Ross, Nathan T; Perruccio, Francesca; Aspesi, Peter; Aust, Thomas; Buntin, Kathrin; Estoppey, David; Liechty, Brigitta; Mapa, Felipa; Memmert, Klaus; Miller, Howard; Pan, Xuewen; Riedl, Ralph; Thibaut, Christian; Thomas, Jason; Wagner, Trixie; Weber, Eric; Xie, Xiaobing; Schmitt, Esther K; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-08-24

    Cultivation of myxobacteria of the Nannocystis genus led to the isolation and structure elucidation of a class of novel cyclic lactone inhibitors of elongation factor 1. Whole genome sequence analysis and annotation enabled identification of the putative biosynthetic cluster and synthesis process. In biological assays the compounds displayed anti-fungal and cytotoxic activity. Combined genetic and proteomic approaches identified the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as the primary target for this compound class. Nannocystin A (1) displayed differential activity across various cancer cell lines and EEF1A1 expression levels appear to be the main differentiating factor. Biochemical and genetic evidence support an overlapping binding site of 1 with the anti-cancer compound didemnin B on EF-1α. This myxobacterial chemotype thus offers an interesting starting point for further investigations of the potential of therapeutics targeting elongation factor 1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. BRD4 assists elongation of both coding and enhancer RNAs guided by histone acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Tomohiko; Kanno, Yuka; LeRoy, Gary; Campos, Eric; Sun, Hong-Wei; Brooks, Stephen R; Vahedi, Golnaz; Heightman, Tom D; Garcia, Benjamin A; Reinberg, Danny; Siebenlist, Ulrich; O’Shea, John J; Ozato, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule BET inhibitors interfere with the epigenetic interactions between acetylated histones and the bromodomains of the BET family proteins, including BRD4, and they potently inhibit growth of malignant cells by targeting cancer-promoting genes. BRD4 interacts with the pause-release factor P-TEFb, and has been proposed to release Pol II from promoter-proximal pausing. We show that BRD4 occupied widespread genomic regions in mouse cells, and directly stimulated elongation of both protein-coding transcripts and non-coding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), dependent on the function of bromodomains. BRD4 interacted physically with elongating Pol II complexes, and assisted Pol II progression through hyper-acetylated nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated histones via bromodomains. On active enhancers, the BET inhibitor JQ1 antagonized BRD4-associated eRNA synthesis. Thus, BRD4 is involved in multiple steps of the transcription hierarchy, primarily by assisting transcript elongation both at enhancers and on gene bodies. PMID:25383670

  8. Acetylcholine promotes the emergence and elongation of lateral roots of Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Kou-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was grown on four layers of paper towel moistened with distilled water with and without acetylcholine (ACh) for five days in the dark after sowing. ACh at 1 nM promoted the growth (emergence and elongation) of lateral roots of radish plants, but had no effect on the stems and main roots. Moreover, ACh enhanced the dry weight of roots [main (primary) + lateral roots]. Neostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) also promoted the emergence and elongation of lateral roots, and atropine, a competitive inhibitor of ACh receptor, suppressed the emergence and elongation. ACh promoted the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosephate dehydrogenase (G-3-PD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome-c oxidase (Cyt-c OD) in seedlings. Moreover, ACh suppressed the activity of AChE and increased the amount of proteins and pyridine nucleotides (NAD and NADH) in the roots of the seedlings. It also increased the activities of NAD-forming enzymes [NAD synthetase and ATP-nicotinamide mononucleotide (ATP-NMN) adenyltransferase], and enhanced the amount of DNA in the roots of the seedlings. The relationship between ACh and the emergence and growth of lateral roots was discussed from a biochemical viewpoint. PMID:21900743

  9. Nanoscale segregation of actin nucleation and elongation factors determines dendritic spine protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Chazeau, Anaël; Mehidi, Amine; Nair, Deepak; Gautier, Jérémie J; Leduc, Cécile; Chamma, Ingrid; Kage, Frieda; Kechkar, Adel; Thoumine, Olivier; Rottner, Klemens; Choquet, Daniel; Gautreau, Alexis; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Giannone, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    Actin dynamics drive morphological remodeling of neuronal dendritic spines and changes in synaptic transmission. Yet, the spatiotemporal coordination of actin regulators in spines is unknown. Using single protein tracking and super-resolution imaging, we revealed the nanoscale organization and dynamics of branched F-actin regulators in spines. Branched F-actin nucleation occurs at the PSD vicinity, while elongation occurs at the tip of finger-like protrusions. This spatial segregation differs from lamellipodia where both branched F-actin nucleation and elongation occur at protrusion tips. The PSD is a persistent confinement zone for IRSp53 and the WAVE complex, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, filament elongators like VASP and formin-like protein-2 move outwards from the PSD with protrusion tips. Accordingly, Arp2/3 complexes associated with F-actin are immobile and surround the PSD. Arp2/3 and Rac1 GTPase converge to the PSD, respectively, by cytosolic and free-diffusion on the membrane. Enhanced Rac1 activation and Shank3 over-expression, both associated with spine enlargement, induce delocalization of the WAVE complex from the PSD. Thus, the specific localization of branched F-actin regulators in spines might be reorganized during spine morphological remodeling often associated with synaptic plasticity. PMID:25293574

  10. Elongator subunit 3 positively regulates plant immunity through its histone acetyltransferase and radical S-adenosylmethionine domains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogen infection triggers a large-scale transcriptional reprogramming in plants, and the speed of this reprogramming affects the outcome of the infection. Our understanding of this process has significantly benefited from mutants that display either delayed or accelerated defense gene induction. In our previous work we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Elongator complex subunit 2 (AtELP2) plays an important role in both basal immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and more recently showed that AtELP2 is involved in dynamic changes in histone acetylation and DNA methylation at several defense genes. However, the function of other Elongator subunits in plant immunity has not been characterized. Results In the same genetic screen used to identify Atelp2, we found another Elongator mutant, Atelp3-10, which mimics Atelp2 in that it exhibits a delay in defense gene induction following salicylic acid treatment or pathogen infection. Similarly to AtELP2, AtELP3 is required for basal immunity and ETI, but not for systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the histone acetyltransferase and radical S-adenosylmethionine domains of AtELP3 are essential for its function in plant immunity. Conclusion Our results indicate that the entire Elongator complex is involved in basal immunity and ETI, but not in SAR, and support that Elongator may play a role in facilitating the transcriptional induction of defense genes through alterations to their chromatin. PMID:23856002

  11. Elongator subunit 3 positively regulates plant immunity through its histone acetyltransferase and radical S-adenosylmethionine domains.

    PubMed

    Defraia, Christopher T; Wang, Yongsheng; Yao, Jiqiang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2013-07-16

    Pathogen infection triggers a large-scale transcriptional reprogramming in plants, and the speed of this reprogramming affects the outcome of the infection. Our understanding of this process has significantly benefited from mutants that display either delayed or accelerated defense gene induction. In our previous work we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Elongator complex subunit 2 (AtELP2) plays an important role in both basal immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and more recently showed that AtELP2 is involved in dynamic changes in histone acetylation and DNA methylation at several defense genes. However, the function of other Elongator subunits in plant immunity has not been characterized. In the same genetic screen used to identify Atelp2, we found another Elongator mutant, Atelp3-10, which mimics Atelp2 in that it exhibits a delay in defense gene induction following salicylic acid treatment or pathogen infection. Similarly to AtELP2, AtELP3 is required for basal immunity and ETI, but not for systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Furthermore, we demonstrate that both the histone acetyltransferase and radical S-adenosylmethionine domains of AtELP3 are essential for its function in plant immunity. Our results indicate that the entire Elongator complex is involved in basal immunity and ETI, but not in SAR, and support that Elongator may play a role in facilitating the transcriptional induction of defense genes through alterations to their chromatin.

  12. Amino acids Thr56 and Thr58 are not essential for elongation factor 2 function in yeast.

    PubMed

    Bartish, Galyna; Moradi, Hossein; Nygård, Odd

    2007-10-01

    Yeast elongation factor 2 is an essential protein that contains two highly conserved threonine residues, T56 and T58, that could potentially be phosphorylated by the Rck2 kinase in response to environmental stress. The importance of residues T56 and T58 for elongation factor 2 function in yeast was studied using site directed mutagenesis and functional complementation. Mutations T56D, T56G, T56K, T56N and T56V resulted in nonfunctional elongation factor 2 whereas mutated factor carrying point mutations T56M, T56C, T56S, T58S and T58V was functional. Expression of mutants T56C, T56S and T58S was associated with reduced growth rate. The double mutants T56M/T58W and T56M/T58V were also functional but the latter mutant caused increased cell death and considerably reduced growth rate. The results suggest that the physiological role of T56 and T58 as phosphorylation targets is of little importance in yeast under standard growth conditions. Yeast cells expressing mutants T56C and T56S were less able to cope with environmental stress induced by increased growth temperatures. Similarly, cells expressing mutants T56M and T56M/T58W were less capable of adapting to increased osmolarity whereas cells expressing mutant T58V behaved normally. All mutants tested were retained their ability to bind to ribosomes in vivo. However, mutants T56D, T56G and T56K were under-represented on the ribosome, suggesting that these nonfunctional forms of elongation factor 2 were less capable of competing with wild-type elongation factor 2 in ribosome binding. The presence of nonfunctional but ribosome binding forms of elongation factor 2 did not affect the growth rate of yeast cells also expressing wild-type elongation factor 2.

  13. Telomere length elongation after weight loss intervention in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Carulli, L; Anzivino, C; Baldelli, E; Zenobii, M F; Rocchi, M B L; Bertolotti, M

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres may be considered markers of biological aging, shorter telomere length is associated with some age-related diseases; in several studies short telomere length has also been associated to obesity in adults and adolescents. However the relationship between telomere complex functions and obesity is still not clear. Aim of the study was to assess telomere length (TL) in adults' obese subjects before and after weight loss obtained by placement of bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB) for 6months. We enrolled 42 obese subjects before and after BIB placement as weight loss intervention. Blood samples were collected in order to obtain DNA from leukocyte to measure TL by quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed only in 37 subjects with complete data; all presented important body weight loss (124.06±26.7 vs 105.40±23.14, p<0.001) and more interesting they presented a significant increase in TL (3.58±0.83 vs 5.61±3.29, p<0.001). Moreover we observed a significant positive correlation between TL elongation and weight loss (r=0.44, p=0.007) as well as an inverse correlation between TL at baseline and TL elongation (r=-0.35, p=0.03).The predictors of TL elongation were once again weight loss and short TL at baseline (respectively p=0.007 and p=0.003). Our study shows that weight loss is associated to telomere lengthening in a positive correlation: the greater weight loss the greater telomere lengthening; moreover telomere lengthening is more significant in those subjects with shortest telomeres at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of cell elongation in the determination of the final shape in galls of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Suzuki, Aline Yasko Marinho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Cell redifferentiation, division, and elongation are recurrent processes, which occur during gall development, and are dependent on the cellulose microfibrils reorientation. We hypothesized that changes in the microfibrils orientation from non-galled tissues to galled ones occur and determine the final gall shape. This determination is caused by a new tissue zonation, its hyperplasia, and relative cell hypertrophy. The impact of the insect's activity on these patterns of cell development was herein tested in Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae-Baccharis dracunculifolia system. In this system, the microfibrils are oriented perpendicularly to the longest cell axis in elongated cells and randomly in isodiametric ones, either in non-galled or in galled tissues. The isodiametric cells of the abaxial epidermis in non-galled tissues divided and elongated periclinally, forming the outer gall epidermis. The anticlinally elongated cells of the abaxial palisade layer and the isodiametric cells of the spongy parenchyma originated the gall outer cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells. The anticlinally elongated cells of the adaxial palisade layer originated the inner cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells in young and mature galls and isodiametric cells in senescent galls. The isodiametric cells of the adaxial epidermis elongated periclinally in the inner gall epidermis. The current investigation demonstrates the role of cellulose microfibril reorientation for gall development. Once many factors other than this reorientation act on gall development, it should be interesting to check the possible relationship of the new cell elongation patterns with the pectic composition of the cell walls.

  15. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  16. Sustained diurnal photosynthetic depression in uppermost-canopy leaves of four dipterocarp species in the rainy and dry seasons: does photorespiration play a role in photoprotection?

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-L; Meng, L-Z; Cao, K-F

    2009-02-01

    Diurnal and seasonal changes in gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of the uppermost-canopy leaves of four evergreen dipterocarp species were measured on clear days. The trees, that were growing in a plantation stand in southern Yunnan, China, had canopy heights ranging from 17 to 22 m. In the rainy season, Dipterocarpus retusus Bl. had higher photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) than Hopea hainanensis Merr. et Chun, Parashorea chinensis Wang Hsie and Vatica xishuangbannaensis G.D. Tao et J.H. Zhang (17.7 versus 13.9, 11.8 and 7.7 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). In the dry season, A(max) in all species decreased by 52-64%, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate decreased in three species, and light saturation point decreased in two species. During the diurnal courses, all species exhibited sustained photosynthetic depression from midmorning onward in both seasons. The trees were able to regulate light energy allocation dynamically between photochemistry and heat dissipation during the day, with reduced actual photochemistry and increased heat dissipation in the dry season. Photorespiration played an important role in photoprotection in all species in both seasons, as indicated by a continuous increase in photorespiration rate in the morning toward midday and a high proportion of electron flow (about 30-65% of total electron flow) allocated to oxygenation for most of the day. None of the species suffered irreversible photoinhibition, even in the dry season. The sustained photosynthetic depression in the uppermost-canopy leaves of these species could be a protective response to prevent excessive water loss and consequent catastrophic leaf hydraulic dysfunction.

  17. A Synthetic Recursive “+1” Pathway for Carbon Chain Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Li, Han; Zhang, Kechun; Noey, Elizabeth L.; Kim, Seonah; Chaubey, Asha; Houk, K. N.; Liao, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Nature uses four methods of carbon chain elongation for the production of 2-ketoacids, fatty acids, polyketides, and isoprenoids. Using a combination of quantum mechanical (QM) modeling, protein–substrate modeling, and protein and metabolic engineering, we have engineered the enzymes involved in leucine biosynthesis for use as a synthetic “+1” recursive metabolic pathway to extend the carbon chain of 2-ketoacids. This modified pathway preferentially selects longer-chain substrates for catalysis, as compared to the non-recursive natural pathway, and can recursively catalyze five elongation cycles to synthesize bulk chemicals, such as 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, and phenylpropanol directly from glucose. The “+1” chemistry is a valuable metabolic tool in addition to the “+5” chemistry and “+2” chemistry for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, fatty acids, or polyketides. PMID:22242720

  18. Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. J.; Adkins, S.; Gavel, D.; Fusco, T.; Michau, V.

    2008-06-01

    Over the past decade, adaptive optics (AO) has become an established method for overcoming the effects of atmospheric turbulence on both astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations. These systems are now beginning to make extensive use of laser guide star (LGS) techniques to improve performance and provide increased sky coverage. Sodium LGS AO employs one or more lasers at 589-nm wavelength to produce an artificial guide star through excitation of sodium atoms in the mesosphere (90 km altitude). Because of its dependence on the abundance and distribution of sodium atoms in the mesosphere, this approach has its own unique set of difficulties not seen with natural stars. The sodium layer exhibits time-dependent variations in density and altitude, and since it is at a finite range, the LGS images become elongated due to the thickness of the layer and the offset between the laser projection point and the subapertures of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). Elongation causes the LGS image to be spread out resulting in a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio which, in turn, leads to an increase in SHWFS measurement error and therefore an increased error in wavefront phase reconstruction. To address the problem of elongation, and also to provide a higher level of readout performance and reduced readout noise, a new type of charge-coupled device (CCD) is now under development for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing called the polar coordinate CCD. In this device, discrete imaging arrays are provided in each SHWFS subaperture and the size, shape and orientation of each discrete imaging array are adjusted to optimally sample the LGS image. The device is referred to as the polar coordinate CCD because the location of each imager is defined by a polar coordinate system centred on the laser guide star projection point. This concept is especially suited to Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) where the effect of perspective elongation is a significant factor. In this

  19. Uropod elongation is a common final step in leukocyte extravasation through inflamed vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Young-Min; Sumagin, Ronen; Sarangi, Pranita P.; Lomakina, Elena; Overstreet, Michael G.; Baker, Christina M.; Fowell, Deborah J.; Waugh, Richard E.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient trafficking of immune cells into peripheral nonlymphoid tissues is key to enact their protective functions. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs, real-time leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues is not well characterized. The conventional multistep paradigm of leukocyte extravasation depends on CD18 integrin–mediated events such as rapid arrest and crawling on the surface of the endothelium and transmigration through the endothelial layer. Using enhanced three-dimensional detection of fluorescent CD18 fusion proteins in a newly developed knockin mouse, we report that extravasating leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells) show delayed uropod detachment and become extremely elongated before complete transmigration across the endothelium. Additionally, these cells deposit CD18+ microparticles at the subendothelial layer before retracting the stretched uropod. Experiments with knockout mice and blocking antibodies reveal that the uropod elongation and microparticle formation are the result of LFA-1–mediated adhesion and VLA-3–mediated cell migration through the vascular basement membrane. These findings suggest that uropod elongation is a final step in the leukocyte extravasation cascade, which may be important for precise regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues. PMID:22711877

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of elongating metallic nanowires in the presence of surfactants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gimenez, M. Cecilia; Reinaudi, Luis, E-mail: luis.reinaudi@unc.edu.ar; Leiva, Ezequiel P. M.

    2015-12-28

    Nanowires of different metals undergoing elongation were studied by means of canonical Monte Carlo simulations and the embedded atom method representing the interatomic potentials. The presence of a surfactant medium was emulated by the introduction of an additional stabilization energy, represented by a parameter Q. Several values of the parameter Q and temperatures were analyzed. In general, it was observed for all studied metals that, as Q increases, there is a greater elongation before the nanowire breaks. In the case of silver, linear monatomic chains several atoms long formed at intermediate values of Q and low temperatures. Similar observations weremore » made for the case of silver-gold alloys when the medium interacted selectively with Ag.« less

  1. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  2. Apparatus and systems for measuring elongation of objects, methods of measuring, and reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rempe, Joy L [Idaho Falls, ID; Knudson, Darrell L [Firth, ID; Daw, Joshua E [Idaho Falls, ID; Condie, Keith G [Idaho Falls, ID; Stoots, Carl M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-29

    Elongation measurement apparatuses and systems comprise at least two Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) with a push rod coupled to each of the at least two LVDTs at one longitudinal end thereof. At least one push rod extends to a base and is coupled thereto at an opposing longitudinal end, and at least one other push rod extends to a location spaced apart from the base and is configured to receive a sample between an opposing longitudinal end of the at least one other push rod and the base. Nuclear reactors comprising such apparatuses and systems and methods of measuring elongation of a material are also disclosed.

  3. Quadratic elongation: A quantitative measure of distortion in coordination polyhedra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Gibbs, G.V.; Ribbe, P.H.

    1971-01-01

    Quadratic elongation and the variance of bond angles are linearly correlated for distorted octahedral and tetrahedral coordination complexes, both of which show variations in bond length and bond angle. The quadratic elonga tion is dimensionless, giving a quantitative measure of polyhedral distortion which is independent of the effective size of the polyhedron.

  4. Crustal and uppermost mantle structures of the South China from joint analysis of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi; Gao, Xing; Li, Tong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We use P-wave receiver function H-k stacking and joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersions to investigate crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the South China. The obtained results reveal prominent crustal structure variations in the study area, Moho depth increases from ∼30 km in the Cathaysia Block to more than ∼60 km in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A Moho undulation and Vp/Vs ratio variations can be observed from the Cathaysia Block to Yangtze Craton. These observations consistent with the crustal structures predict by the flat slab subduction model. We interpret these lateral crustal structure variations reflect the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton and Cathaysia Block prior the Mesozoic and the post-orogenic magmatism due to the breaking up of the subducted flat slab and subsequent slab rollback in the South China. The observed variations of the crustal structures not only reveal the lateral crustal inhomogeneity, but also provide constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the South China.

  5. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  6. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  7. The calcium sensor GhCaM7 promotes cotton fiber elongation by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Tu, Lili; Yang, Xiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Hao, Juan; Guo, Kai; Lindsey, Keith; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-04-01

    Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  9. Susceptibility of seagrass to oil spills: A case study with eelgrass, Zostera marina in San Francisco Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Mark; Piniak, Gregory A; Cosentino-Manning, Natalie

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature illustrates inconsistent responses of seagrasses to oil exposure, both in the field and in the laboratory. Here, we add a new study that combined morphometric, demographic and photophysiology assessments to determine the potential oiling impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) from the 2007 Cosco Busan event in San Francisco Bay. Shoot densities, reproductive status, and rhizome elongation of Z. marina were examined at sites with pre-spill data, and eelgrass photosynthetic efficiency was measured post-spill. Shoot densities and percent elongation of rhizome internodes formed after the oil spill varied but with no consistent relationship to adjacent shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) oiling categories. Similarly, differences in seagrass photosynthetic efficiency were not consistent with SCAT oiling categories. While thresholds for negative impacts on seagrass in general remain to be defined, conclusive oiling indicators for degree and duration of exposure would be important considerations and need examination under controlled study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    PubMed Central

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  11. MreB-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Elongation during the Escape from Competence in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mirouze, Nicolas; Ferret, Cécile; Yao, Zhizhong; Chastanet, Arnaud; Carballido-López, Rut

    2015-01-01

    During bacterial exponential growth, the morphogenetic actin-like MreB proteins form membrane-associated assemblies that move processively following trajectories perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. Such MreB structures are thought to scaffold and restrict the movement of peptidoglycan synthesizing machineries, thereby coordinating sidewall elongation. In Bacillus subtilis, this function is performed by the redundant action of three MreB isoforms, namely MreB, Mbl and MreBH. mreB and mbl are highly transcribed from vegetative promoters. We have found that their expression is maximal at the end of exponential phase, and rapidly decreases to a low basal level upon entering stationary phase. However, in cells developing genetic competence, a stationary phase physiological adaptation, expression of mreB was specifically reactivated by the central competence regulator ComK. In competent cells, MreB was found in complex with several competence proteins by in vitro pull-down assays. In addition, it co-localized with the polar clusters formed by the late competence peripheral protein ComGA, in a ComGA-dependent manner. ComGA has been shown to be essential for the inhibition of cell elongation characteristic of cells escaping the competence state. We show here that the pathway controlling this elongation inhibition also involves MreB. Our findings suggest that ComGA sequesters MreB to prevent cell elongation and therefore the escape from competence. PMID:26091431

  12. MreB-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Elongation during the Escape from Competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mirouze, Nicolas; Ferret, Cécile; Yao, Zhizhong; Chastanet, Arnaud; Carballido-López, Rut

    2015-06-01

    During bacterial exponential growth, the morphogenetic actin-like MreB proteins form membrane-associated assemblies that move processively following trajectories perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. Such MreB structures are thought to scaffold and restrict the movement of peptidoglycan synthesizing machineries, thereby coordinating sidewall elongation. In Bacillus subtilis, this function is performed by the redundant action of three MreB isoforms, namely MreB, Mbl and MreBH. mreB and mbl are highly transcribed from vegetative promoters. We have found that their expression is maximal at the end of exponential phase, and rapidly decreases to a low basal level upon entering stationary phase. However, in cells developing genetic competence, a stationary phase physiological adaptation, expression of mreB was specifically reactivated by the central competence regulator ComK. In competent cells, MreB was found in complex with several competence proteins by in vitro pull-down assays. In addition, it co-localized with the polar clusters formed by the late competence peripheral protein ComGA, in a ComGA-dependent manner. ComGA has been shown to be essential for the inhibition of cell elongation characteristic of cells escaping the competence state. We show here that the pathway controlling this elongation inhibition also involves MreB. Our findings suggest that ComGA sequesters MreB to prevent cell elongation and therefore the escape from competence.

  13. Centrobin–tubulin interaction is required for centriole elongation and stability

    PubMed Central

    Gudi, Radhika; Zou, Chaozhong; Li, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Centrobin is a daughter centriole protein that is essential for centrosome duplication. However, the molecular mechanism by which centrobin functions during centriole duplication remains undefined. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with tubulin directly, and centrobin–tubulin interaction is pivotal for the function of centrobin during centriole duplication. We found that centrobin is recruited to the centriole biogenesis site via its interaction with tubulins during the early stage of centriole biogenesis, and its recruitment is dependent on hSAS-6 but not centrosomal P4.1–associated protein (CPAP) and CP110. The function of centrobin is also required for the elongation of centrioles, which is likely mediated by its interaction with tubulin. Furthermore, disruption of centrobin–tubulin interaction led to destabilization of existing centrioles and the preformed procentriole-like structures induced by CPAP expression, indicating that centrobin–tubulin interaction is critical for the stability of centrioles. Together, our study demonstrates that centrobin facilitates the elongation and stability of centrioles via its interaction with tubulins. PMID:21576394

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Peter W; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A; Khabarova, Olga V; Gallep, Cristiano M

    2013-05-01

    Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a 'free-running' state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ≥4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate.

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A.; Khabarova, Olga V.; Gallep, Cristiano M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Methods Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a ‘free-running’ state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. Key Results and Conclusions The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ≥4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate. PMID:23532042

  16. Upper crustal emplacement and deformation of granitoids inside the Uppermost Unit of the Cretan nappe stack: constraints from U-Pb zircon dating, microfabrics and paleostress analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneuker, Tilo; Dörr, Wolfgang; Petschick, Rainer; Zulauf, Gernold

    2015-03-01

    The present study is dealing with the emplacement and deformation of diorite and quartz diorite exposed along new road cuts between Agios Nikolaos and Sitia (Uppermost Unit, eastern Crete). Mingling of both melt types is indicated by enclaves of diorite inside quartz diorite and vice versa. The diorite and quartz diorite intruded into coarse-grained white marble, which is in lateral contact to, but also forms the roof of, the intrusive body. Evidence for contact metamorphism is indicated by increasing grain size of calcite in the marble with decreasing distance from the diorite. U-Pb (TIMS) dating of zircons, separated from quartz diorite, yielded a concordant age at 74.0 ± 0.25 Ma, which is interpreted as emplacement age. As this age is close to published K-Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite, the melt should have intruded and cooled down rapidly at upper structural levels, which is not common for granitoids of the Uppermost Unit of Crete. Upper crustal melt emplacement is also documented by stoped blocks and by the lack of any ductile (viscous) deformation. The diorite and quartz diorite, however, are affected by strong post-Oligocene brittle faulting. Paleostress analysis, based on these faults, revealed a change in stress field from N-S and NNW-SSE shortening by thrusting (convergence between African and European plates) to NNE-SSW and NE-SW shortening accommodated by strike-slip (SW-ward extrusion of the Anatolian microplate). Calcite-twin density indicates high differential stress (260 ± 20 MPa) related to these phases of crustal shortening.

  17. Epithelial rotation promotes the global alignment of contractile actin bundles during Drosophila egg chamber elongation

    PubMed Central

    Cetera, Maureen; Ramirez-San Juan, Guillermina R.; Oakes, Patrick W.; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Fairchild, Michael J.; Tanentzapf, Guy; Gardel, Margaret L.; Horne-Badovinac, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Tissues use numerous mechanisms to change shape during development. The Drosophila egg chamber is an organ-like structure that elongates to form an elliptical egg. During elongation the follicular epithelial cells undergo a collective migration that causes the egg chamber to rotate within its surrounding basement membrane. Rotation coincides with the formation of a “molecular corset”, in which actin bundles in the epithelium and fibrils in the basement membrane are all aligned perpendicular to the elongation axis. Here we show that rotation plays a critical role in building the actin-based component of the corset. Rotation begins shortly after egg chamber formation and requires lamellipodial protrusions at each follicle cell’s leading edge. During early stages, rotation is necessary for tissue-level actin bundle alignment, but it becomes dispensable after the basement membrane is polarized. This work highlights how collective cell migration can be used to build a polarized tissue organization for organ morphogenesis. PMID:25413675

  18. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    PubMed Central

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  19. TIF-IC, a factor involved in both transcription initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Schnapp, G; Schnapp, A; Rosenbauer, H; Grummt, I

    1994-09-01

    We have characterized a transcription factor from Ehrlich ascites cells that is required for ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). This factor, termed TIF-IC, has a native molecular mass of 65 kDa, associates with Pol I, and is required both for the assembly of Sarkosyl-resistant initiation complexes and for the formation of the first internucleotide bonds. In addition to its function in transcription initiation, TIF-IC also plays a role in elongation of nascent RNA chains. At suboptimal levels of TIF-IC, transcripts with heterogeneous 3' ends are formed which are chased into full-length transcripts by the addition of more TIF-IC. Moreover, on a tailed template, which allows initiation in the absence of auxiliary factors, TIF-IC was found to stimulate the overall rate of transcription elongation and suppress pausing of Pol I. Thus TIF-IC appears to serve a function similar to the Pol II-specific factor TFIIF which is required for Pol II transcription initiation and elongation.

  20. Transcription coactivator Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 modulates anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation through transrepression of Constitutive Photomorphogenic1.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lai-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3), a transcription coactivator, is implicated in modulating cell proliferation. In this study, I found that AN3 is a novel regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis and light-induced root elongation. Seedlings and seeds lacking AN3 activity presented significantly reduced anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation, whereas those of transgenic plants harbouring the 35S:AN3 construct exhibited increased anthocyanin accumulation. AN3 is required for the proper expression of other genes that affect anthocyanin accumulation and light-induced root elongation, Constitutive Photomorphogenic1 (COP1), encoding a RING motif - containing E3 ubiquitin ligase. AN3 was associated with COP1 promoter in vivo. Thus, AN3 may act with other proteins that bind to COP1 promoter to promote anthocyanin accumulation and inhibit light-induced root elongation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Potassium, not lepidimoide, is the principal 'allelochemical' of cress-seed exudate that promotes amaranth hypocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Fry, Stephen C

    2017-10-17

    Imbibed cress ( Lepidium sativum L.) seeds exude 'allelochemicals' that promote excessive hypocotyl elongation and inhibit root growth in neighbouring competitors, e.g. amaranth ( Amaranthus caudatus L.) seedlings. The major hypocotyl promoter has recently been shown not to be the previously suggested acidic disaccharide, lepidimoic acid (LMA), a fragment of the pectic polysaccharide domain rhamnogalacturonan-I. The nature of the hypocotyl promoter has now been re-assessed. Low-molecular weight cress-seed exudate (LCSE) was fractionated by high-voltage electrophoresis, and components with different charge:mass ratios were tested for effects on dark-grown amaranth seedlings. Further samples of LCSE were size-fractionated by gel permeation chromatography, and active fractions were analysed electrophoretically. The LCSE strongly promoted amaranth hypocotyl elongation. The active principle was hydrophilic and, unlike LMA, stable to hot acid. After electrophoresis at pH 6·5, the only fractions that strongly promoted hypocotyl elongation were those with a very high positive charge:mass ratio, migrating towards the cathode 3-4 times faster than glucosamine. Among numerous naturally occurring cations tested, the only one with such a high mobility was potassium. K + was present in LCSE at approx. 4 m m , and pure KCl (1-10 m m ) strongly promoted amaranth hypocotyl elongation. No other cation tested (including Na + , spermidine and putrescine) had this effect. The peak of bioactivity from a gel permeation chromatography column exactly coincided with the peak of K + . The major 'allelopathic' substance present in cress-seed exudate that stimulates hypocotyl elongation in neighbouring seedlings is the inorganic cation, K + , not the oligosaccharin LMA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. A context-dependent combination of Wnt receptors controls axis elongation and leg development in a short germ insect

    PubMed Central

    Beermann, Anke; Prühs, Romy; Lutz, Rebekka; Schröder, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Short germ embryos elongate their primary body axis by consecutively adding segments from a posteriorly located growth zone. Wnt signalling is required for axis elongation in short germ arthropods, including Tribolium castaneum, but the precise functions of the different Wnt receptors involved in this process are unclear. We analysed the individual and combinatorial functions of the three Wnt receptors, Frizzled-1 (Tc-Fz1), Frizzled-2 (Tc-Fz2) and Frizzled-4 (Tc-Fz4), and their co-receptor Arrow (Tc-Arr) in the beetle Tribolium. Knockdown of gene function and expression analyses revealed that Frizzled-dependent Wnt signalling occurs anteriorly in the growth zone in the presegmental region (PSR). We show that simultaneous functional knockdown of the Wnt receptors Tc-fz1 and Tc-fz2 via RNAi resulted in collapse of the growth zone and impairment of embryonic axis elongation. Although posterior cells of the growth zone were not completely abolished, Wnt signalling within the PSR controls axial elongation at the level of pair-rule patterning, Wnt5 signalling and FGF signalling. These results identify the PSR in Tribolium as an integral tissue required for the axial elongation process, reminiscent of the presomitic mesoderm in vertebrates. Knockdown of Tc-fz1 alone interfered with the formation of the proximo-distal and the dorso-ventral axes during leg development, whereas no effect was observed with single Tc-fz2 or Tc-fz4 RNAi knockdowns. We identify Tc-Arr as an obligatory Wnt co-receptor for axis elongation, leg distalisation and segmentation. We discuss how Wnt signalling is regulated at the receptor and co-receptor levels in a dose-dependent fashion. PMID:21652652

  3. Swimming of a Sea Butterfly with an Elongated Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Ferhat; Maas, Amy E.; Murphy, David W.

    2017-11-01

    Sea butterflies (pteropods) are small, zooplanktonic marine snails which swim by flapping highly flexible parapodia. Previous studies show that the swimming hydrodynamics of Limacina helicina, a polar pteropod with a spiraled shell, is similar to tiny insect flight aerodynamics and that forward-backward pitching is key for lift generation. However, swimming by diverse pteropod species with different shell shapes has not been examined. We present measurements of the swimming of Cuvierina columnella, a warm water species with an elongated non-spiraled shell collected off the coast of Bermuda. With a body length of 9 mm, wing beat frequency of 4-6 Hz and swimming speed of 35 mm/s, these organisms swim at a Reynolds number of approximately 300, larger than that of L. helicina. High speed 3D kinematics acquired via two orthogonal cameras reveals that the elongated shell correlates with reduced body pitching and that the wings bend approximately 180 degrees in each direction, overlapping at the end of each half-stroke. Time resolved 2D flow measurements collected with a micro-PIV system reveal leading edge vortices present in both power and recovery strokes. Interactions between the overlapping wings and the shell also likely play a role in lift generation.

  4. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  5. Ascending aortic elongation and the risk of dissection.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Tobias; Forkavets, Oksana; Veseli, Kujtim; Lausberg, Henning; Vöhringer, Luise; Schneider, Wilke; Bamberg, Fabian; Schlensak, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Unlike aneurysm formation, the role of ascending aortic elongation in the pathogenesis of Type A aortic dissection (TAD) is largely unclear. We investigated the morphology of healthy, dissected and predissection aortas with a focus on ascending aortic length. We retrospectively compared clinical and computer tomography angiography (CTA) data from TAD patients (n = 130), patients who developed a TAD in the further clinical course (preTAD, n = 16) and healthy control patients who received a CTA for non-aortic emergencies (n = 165). The length of the ascending aorta was defined as the distance between the sinotubular junction (STJ) and the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) at the central line, the outer and inner curvature as well as the direct distance in the frontal and sagittal planes. Additionally, the aortic diameters were analysed. In the healthy controls, we found a positive correlation of age with the aortic diameter (r = 0.57) and aortic length (r = 0.42). The correlation of the respective parameters with the body size was negligible (r < 0.2). The median ascending aortic diameter at the height of the pulmonary artery in TAD (50 mm) was significantly (P < 0.001) larger compared with the respective diameter of the healthy aortas (34 mm). The diameter of the preTAD aortas (40 mm) was also significantly larger compared with the healthy controls. These proportions were similar in all the aortic diameters. The midline length of the healthy ascending aortas was 71 mm. In the preTAD and TAD aortas, the same values were 81 mm and 92 mm, respectively (both P < 0.001). We evaluated the linear distance between the STJ and the BCT in the frontal plane as an easy-to-measure parameter of aortic length. In the TAD aortas (108 mm) and preTAD aortas (97 mm), this distance was significantly longer compared with the healthy aortas (84 mm). Aortic diameter might not be an optimal parameter to predict dissection. Most aortas dissect at diameters below 55 mm. Both the TAD and pre

  6. BolA inhibits cell elongation and regulates MreB expression levels.

    PubMed

    Freire, Patrick; Moreira, Ricardo Neves; Arraiano, Cecília Maria

    2009-02-06

    The morphogene bolA is a general stress response gene in Escherichia coli that induces a round morphology when overexpressed. Results presented in this report show that increased BolA levels can inhibit cell elongation mechanisms. MreB polymerization is crucial for the bacterial cell cytoskeleton, and this protein is essential for the maintenance of a cellular rod shape. In this report, we demonstrate that bolA overexpression affects the architecture of MreB filaments. An increase in BolA leads to a significant reduction in MreB protein levels and mreB transcripts. BolA affects the mreBCD operon in vivo at the level of transcription. Furthermore, our results show that BolA is a new transcriptional repressor of MreB. The alterations in cell morphology induced by bolA seem to be mediated by a complex pathway that integrates PBP5, PBP6, MreB, and probably other regulators of cell morphology/elongation.

  7. Ubiquitin acetylation inhibits polyubiquitin chain elongation

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Fumiaki; Saeki, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Ohta, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Kanno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is a versatile post-translational modification (PTM). The diversity of ubiquitylation topologies, which encompasses different chain lengths and linkages, underlies its widespread cellular roles. Here, we show that endogenous ubiquitin is acetylated at lysine (K)-6 (AcK6) or K48. Acetylated ubiquitin does not affect substrate monoubiquitylation, but inhibits K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chain elongation by several E2 enzymes in vitro. In cells, AcK6-mimetic ubiquitin stabilizes the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B—which we identify as an endogenous substrate of acetylated ubiquitin—and of artificial ubiquitin fusion degradation substrates. These results characterize a mechanism whereby ubiquitin, itself a PTM, is subject to another PTM to modulate mono- and polyubiquitylation, thus adding a new regulatory layer to ubiquitin biology. PMID:25527407

  8. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  9. Uppermost mantle velocity from Pn tomography in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, Jordane; Rolandone, Frédérique; Leroy, Sylvie; Al-Lazki, Ali; Keir, Derek; Stuart, Graham; Stork, Anna

    2013-04-01

    We present an analysis of Pn traveltimes to determine lateral variations of velocity in the uppermost mantle and crustal thickness beneath the Gulf of Aden and its margins. No detailed tomographic image of the entire Gulf of Aden was available. Previous tomographic studies covered the eastern Gulf of Aden and were thus incomplete or at a large scale with a too low resolution to see the lithospheric structures. From 1990 to 2010, 49206 Pn arrivals were selected from the International Seismological Center catalogue. We also used temporary networks : YOCMAL (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory) networks with broadband stations located in Oman, Yemen and Socotra from 2003 to 2011, and Djibouti network from 2009 to 2011. From these networks we picked Pn arrivals and selected 4110 rays. Using a least-squares tomographic code (Hearn, 1996), these data were analyzed to solve for velocity variations in the mantle lithosphere. We perform different inversions for shorter and longer ray path data sets in order to separate the shallow and deep structure within the mantle lid. In the upper lid, zones of low velocity (7.7 km/s) around Sanaa, Aden, Afar, and along the Gulf of Aden are related to active volcanism. Off-axis volcanism and a regional melting anomaly in the Gulf of Aden area may be connected to the Afar plume, and explained by the model of channeling material away from the Afar plume along ridge-axis. Our study validates the channeling model and shows that the influence of the Afar hotspot may extend much farther eastwards along the Aden and Sheba ridges into the Gulf of Aden than previously believed. Still in the upper lid, high Pn velocities (>8,2 km/s) are observed in Yemen and may be related to the presence of a magmatic underplating under the volcanic margin of Aden and under the Red Sea margins. In the lower lid, zones of low velocities are spatially located differently than in the upper lid. On the Oman margin, a low velocity zone (7.6 km/s) suggests deep partial

  10. Interplanetary scintillation at large elongation angles: Response to solar wind density structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Erskine, F.T.; Cronyn, W.M.; Shawhan, S.D.

    1978-09-01

    Synoptic interplanetary scintillation (IPS) index measurements were taken at 34.3 MHz during May-December 1974 using the University of Iowa Coca Cross radiotelescope on a 'grid' of 150 selected radio sources covering solar elongation angles up to 180/sup 0/. Over 80 of these sources displayed definite IPS. The solar elongation dependence of the 34.3-MHz IPS index is consistent with the elongation angle dependence measured at higher frequencies. Large enhancements (factors of> or approx. =2) of the IPS index are found to coincide with the solar wind (proton density increases greater than 10 cm/sup -3/ as measured by Imp 7 and 8more » for nearly all observed IPS sources throughout the sky. These 'all-sky' IPS enhancements appear to be caused by incresed contributions to the scintillation power by turbulent plasma in regions close to the earth (< or approx. =0.3AU) in all directions. Correlation analysis confirms the IPS response to solar wind density and indicates that the events are due primarily to the corotating solar wind turbulent plasma structures which dominated the interplanetary medium during 1974. The expected IPS space-time signature for a simple model of an approaching corotating turbulent structure is not apparent in our observations. In some cases, the enhancement variatons can be attributed to structural differences in the solar wind density turbulence in and out of the ecliptic.« less

  11. Tendon Contraction After Cyclic Elongation Is an Age-Dependent Phenomenon: In Vitro and In Vivo Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Michael; Bedi, Asheesh; Walsh, Christopher P; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth R; Sheibani-Rad, Shahin; Arnoczky, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    Tendons are viscoelastic tissues that deform (elongate) in response to cyclic loading. However, the ability of a tendon to recover this elongation is unknown. Tendon length significantly increases after in vivo or in vitro cyclic loading, and the ability to return to its original length through a cell-mediated contraction mechanism is an age-dependent phenomenon. Controlled laboratory study. In vitro, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) from Sprague-Dawley rats of 3 age groups (1, 3, and 12 months) underwent 2% cyclic strain at 0.17 Hz for 2 hours, and the percentages of elongation were determined. After loading, the RTTfs were suspended for 3 days under tissue culture conditions and photographed daily to determine the amount of length contraction. In vivo, healthy male participants (n = 29; age, 19-49 years) had lateral, single-legged weightbearing radiographs taken of the knee at 60° of flexion immediately before, immediately after, and 24 hours after completing eccentric quadriceps loading exercises on the dominant leg to fatigue. Measurements of patellar tendon length were taken from the radiographs, and the percentages of tendon elongation and subsequent contraction were calculated. In vitro, cyclic loading increased the length of all RTTfs, with specimens from younger (1 and 3 months) rats demonstrating significantly greater elongation than those from older (12 months) rats (P = .009). The RTTfs contracted to their original length significantly faster (P < .001) and in an age-dependent fashion, with younger animals contracting faster. In vivo, repetitive eccentric loading exercises significantly increased patellar tendon length (P < .001). Patellar tendon length decreased 24 hours after exercises (P < .001) but did not recover completely (P < .001). There was a weak but significant (R (2) = 0.203, P = .014) linear correlation between the amount of tendon contraction and age, with younger participants (<30 years) demonstrating significantly more contraction (P

  12. Eukaryotic polypeptide elongation system and its sensitivity to the inhibitory substances of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gałasiński, W

    1996-05-01

    The structural and functional characteristics of the elongation system (ribosomes and elongation factors) are presented. The immunochemical and diagnostic meaning of the ribosome investigations is considered. Evidence of the participation of ribosomes in the first step of protein glycosylation is presented. The heterogeneous elongation factor eEF-1, isolated from Guerin epithelioma, can be separated into three fractions: one of them functionally corresponds to EF-1 alpha, the second on to EF-1 beta gamma, and the third is an unidentified, active aggregate named EF-1B, which contains the subunit forms EF-1 alpha and EF-1 beta gamma, and other polypeptides showing protein kinase activity. The aggregate EF-1B can be autophosphorylated, while the subunit forms EF-1 alpha and EF-1 beta gamma can neither become autophosphorylated nor phosphorylate other polypeptides. The subunit form EF-beta gamma consists from two polypeptides of 32 and 51 kDa, corresponding to other eukaryotic beta and gamma polypeptides, respectively. EF-1 beta gamma is thermostable and protects against thermal inactivation of EF-1 alpha in the EF-1 alpha-EF-1 beta gamma complex. Pure eEF-2 preparations isolated from normal and neoplastic tissues show different structural features. The existence of eEF-2 in multiple forms, differing in molecular mass, have been found. The eEF-2 with molecular weight of about 100 kDa can be phosphorylated, while eEF-2 of about 65 kDa was not phosphorylated by protein kinase eEF-2. The phosphorylated eEF-2 lost its activity, and this effect was reversed by dephosphorylation. The eEF-2 (65 kDa) was isolated from the active polyribosomes, and it may directly participate in the translocation step of the peptide elongation. It was noted that the components of elongation system can be inhibited, in separate steps, by the substances isolated from various sources of plant origin. Alkaloids emetine and cepheline, cardiac remedy digoxin, saponin glycoside, and its aglycon

  13. 2D pair distribution function analysis of anisotropic small-angle scattering patterns from elongated nano-composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-05-03

    Small angle scattering (SAS) on polymer nanocomposites under elongation or shear flow is an important experimental method to investigate the reinforcement effects of the mechanical properties by fillers. However, the anisotropic scattering patterns that appear in SAS are very complicated and difficult to interpret. A representative example is a four-spot scattering pattern observed in the case of polymer materials containing silica nanoparticles, the origin of which is still in debate because of the lack of quantitative analysis. The difficulties in the interpretation of anisotropic scattering patterns mainly arise from the abstract nature of the reciprocal space. Here, we focus on the 2D pair distribution function (PDF) directly evaluated from anisotropic scattering patterns. We applied this method to elongated poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) gels containing silica nanoparticles (PDAM-NP gel), which show a four-spot scattering pattern under elongation. From 2D PDFs, we obtained detailed and concrete structural information about the elongated PDAM-NP gel, such as affine and non-affine displacements of directly attached and homogeneously dispersed silica nanoparticles, respectively. We proposed that nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the perpendicular direction are not displaced due to the collision of the adsorbed polymer layer during elongation, while those in the parallel direction are displaced in an affine way. We assumed that this suppression of the lateral compression is the origin of the four-spot pattern in this study. These results strongly indicate that our 2D PDF analysis will provide deep insight into the internal structure of polymer nanocomposites hidden in the anisotropic scattering patterns.

  14. Molecular evidence that the eukaryotic THO/TREX complex is required for efficient transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Rondón, Ana G; Jimeno, Sonia; García-Rubio, María; Aguilera, Andrés

    2003-10-03

    THO/TREX is a conserved eukaryotic complex formed by the core THO complex plus proteins involved in mRNA metabolism and export such as Sub2 and Yra1. Mutations in any of the THO/TREX structural genes cause pleiotropic phenotypes such as transcription impairment, increased transcription-associated recombination, and mRNA export defects. To assay the relevance of THO/TREX complex in transcription, we performed in vitro transcription elongation assays in mutant cell extracts using supercoiled DNA templates containing two G-less cassettes. With these assays, we demonstrate that hpr1delta, tho2delta, and mft1delta mutants of the THO complex and sub2 mutants show significant reductions in the efficiency of transcription elongation. The mRNA expression defect of hpr1delta mutants was not due to an increase in mRNA decay, as determined by mRNA half-life measurements and mRNA time course accumulation experiments in the absence of Rrp6p exoribonuclease. This work demonstrates that THO and Sub2 are required for efficient transcription elongation, providing further evidence for the coupling between transcription and mRNA metabolism and export.

  15. Rad51 recombinase prevents Mre11 nuclease-dependent degradation and excessive PrimPol-mediated elongation of nascent DNA after UV irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vallerga, María Belén; Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Federico, María Belén; Bertolin, Agustina P.; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    After UV irradiation, DNA polymerases specialized in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) aid DNA replication. However, it is unclear whether other mechanisms also facilitate the elongation of UV-damaged DNA. We wondered if Rad51 recombinase (Rad51), a factor that escorts replication forks, aids replication across UV lesions. We found that depletion of Rad51 impairs S-phase progression and increases cell death after UV irradiation. Interestingly, Rad51 and the TLS polymerase polη modulate the elongation of nascent DNA in different ways, suggesting that DNA elongation after UV irradiation does not exclusively rely on TLS events. In particular, Rad51 protects the DNA synthesized immediately before UV irradiation from degradation and avoids excessive elongation of nascent DNA after UV irradiation. In Rad51-depleted samples, the degradation of DNA was limited to the first minutes after UV irradiation and required the exonuclease activity of the double strand break repair nuclease (Mre11). The persistent dysregulation of nascent DNA elongation after Rad51 knockdown required Mre11, but not its exonuclease activity, and PrimPol, a DNA polymerase with primase activity. By showing a crucial contribution of Rad51 to the synthesis of nascent DNA, our results reveal an unanticipated complexity in the regulation of DNA elongation across UV-damaged templates. PMID:26627254

  16. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag(+)) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co(2+)) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag(+)/Co(2+)-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Study of phosphorylation of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Smailov, S K; Lee, A V; Iskakov, B K

    1993-04-26

    Phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) by specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase is considered as a possible mechanism of regulation of protein biosynthesis in animal cells at the level of polypeptide chain elongation. In this report we show that wheat germ EF-2 can be intensively phosphorylated by the rabbit reticulocyte EF-2 kinase. Phosphorylation results in inhibition of the activity of plant EF-2 in poly(U)-dependent cell-free translation system. Thus, the activity of EF-2 in plant cells can be potentially regulated by phosphorylation. However, we could not detect endogenous EF-2 kinase activity in wheat germ either in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, EF-2 kinase activity is not displayed in different organs of wheat and other higher plants.

  18. Rapid Wall Relaxation in Elongating Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Matyssek, Rainer; Maruyama, Sachio; Boyer, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, we investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. We found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. Previous reports of wall relaxation in pea included slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold should be constant during so short a time, thus reflecting the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species. The presence of slowly growing or mature tissue delays wall relaxation and should be avoided during such measurements. However, this delay can be used to advantage when turgor of intact growing tissues is being measured using excised tissues because turgor does not change for a considerable time after excision. PMID:16666048

  19. Composition of uppermost mantle beneath the Northern Fennoscandia - numerical modeling and petrological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virshylo, Ivan; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Prodaivoda, George; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    Studying of the uppermost mantle beneath the northern Fennoscandia is based on the data of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic array. Firstly, arrivals of P-waves of teleseismic events were inverted into P-wave velocity model using non-linear tomography (Silvennoinen et al., in preparation). The second stage was numerical petrological interpretation of referred above velocity model. This study presents estimation of mineralogical composition of the uppermost mantle as a result of numerical modeling. There are many studies concerning calculation of seismic velocities for polymineral media under high pressure and temperature conditions (Afonso, Fernàndez, Ranalli, Griffin, & Connolly, 2008; Fullea et al., 2009; Hacker, 2004; Xu, Lithgow-Bertelloni, Stixrude, & Ritsema, 2008). The elastic properties under high pressure and temperature (PT) conditions were modelled using the expanded Hook's law - Duhamel-Neumann equation, which allows computation of thermoelastic strains. Furthermore, we used a matrix model with multi-component inclusions that has no any restrictions on shape, orientation or concentration of inclusions. Stochastic method of conditional moment with computation scheme of Mori-Tanaka (Prodaivoda, Khoroshun, Nazarenko, & Vyzhva, 2000) is applied instead of traditional Voigt-Reuss-Hill and Hashin-Shtrikman equations. We developed software for both forward and inverse problem calculation. Inverse algorithm uses methods of global non-linear optimization. We prefer a "model-based" approach for ill-posed problem, which means that the problem is solved using geological and geophysical constraints for each parameter of a priori and final models. Additionally, we are checking at least several different hypothesis explaining how it is possible to get the solution with good fit to the observed data. If the a priori model is close to the real medium, the nearest solution would be found by the inversion. Otherwise, the global optimization is searching inside the

  20. [Penile augmentation and elongation using autologous dermal-fat strip grafting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Li, Yang-qun; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuan-de; Zhao, Mu-xin; Hu, Chun-mei

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of autologous dermal-fat strip grafting in penile augmentation and elongation. From May 2004 to December 2010, 24 patients underwent penile enhancement with free dermal-fat strip grafting. Through suprapubic incision, the superior suspensory ligament and part deep suspensory ligament are cutted off to lengthen the penis. The resulted dead space is filled with the autologous dermal-fat strip (6.0-9.5 cm in length, 1.2-1.5 cm in width and 0.6-0.8 cm in depth) to enhance the penis. Primary healing was achieved in 23 cases. Incisional fat liquefaction happened in one case which healed after dressing change. The penile appearance was satisfactory both at rest or erection. The penile length and circumference increased by 2.5-4.8 cm (average, 3.2 cm) and 1.8-3.0 cm (average, 2.4 cm), respectively. 18 patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. All the patients were satisfactory on the cosmetic and functional results. No complication happened. It is safe and effective for penile augmention and elongation with autologous dermal-fat strip grafting and disconnection of penile suspensory ligament.

  1. Photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue and red light: effects on hydraulic and cell wall properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kigel, J.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of photoinhibition of stem elongation by blue (BL) and red light (RL) was studied in etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska). Brief BL irradiations resulted in fast transient inhibition of elongation, while a delayed (lag approximately 60 minutes) but prolonged inhibition was observed after brief RL. Possible changes in the hydraulic and wall properties of the growing cells during photoinhibition were examined. Cell sap osmotic pressure was unaffected by BL and RL, but both irradiations increased turgor pressure by approximately 0.05 megapascal (pressure-probe technique). Cell wall yielding was analyzed by in vivo stress relaxation (pressure-block technique). BL and RL reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 38 and 54%, while the final amount of relaxation was decreased by 48 and 10%, respectively. These results indicate that RL inhibits elongation mainly by lowering the wall yield coefficient, while most of the inhibitory effect of BL was due to an increase of the yield threshold. Mechanical extensibility of cell walls (Instron technique) was decreased by BL and RL, mainly due to a reduction in the plastic component of extensibility. Thus, photoinhibitions of elongation by both BL and RL are achieved through changes in cell wall properties, and are not due to effects on the hydraulic properties of the cell.

  2. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  3. TIF-IC, a factor involved in both transcription initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Schnapp, G; Schnapp, A; Rosenbauer, H; Grummt, I

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized a transcription factor from Ehrlich ascites cells that is required for ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). This factor, termed TIF-IC, has a native molecular mass of 65 kDa, associates with Pol I, and is required both for the assembly of Sarkosyl-resistant initiation complexes and for the formation of the first internucleotide bonds. In addition to its function in transcription initiation, TIF-IC also plays a role in elongation of nascent RNA chains. At suboptimal levels of TIF-IC, transcripts with heterogeneous 3' ends are formed which are chased into full-length transcripts by the addition of more TIF-IC. Moreover, on a tailed template, which allows initiation in the absence of auxiliary factors, TIF-IC was found to stimulate the overall rate of transcription elongation and suppress pausing of Pol I. Thus TIF-IC appears to serve a function similar to the Pol II-specific factor TFIIF which is required for Pol II transcription initiation and elongation. Images PMID:8076598

  4. Brassinosteroid Regulates Cell Elongation by Modulating Gibberellin Metabolism in Rice[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25371548

  5. The formation mechanism of 4179 Toutatis' elongated bilobed structure in a close Earth encounter scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Yun

    2018-07-01

    The optical images of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis acquired by Chang'e-2 spacecraft show that Toutatis has an elongated contact binary configuration, with the contact point located along the long axis. We speculate that such configuration may have resulted from a low-speed impact between two components. In this work, we performed a series of numerical simulations and compared the results with the optical images, to examine the mechanism and better understand the formation of Toutatis. Herein, we propose a scenario that an assumed separated binary precursor could undergo a close encounter with Earth, leading to an impact between the primary and secondary, and the elongation is caused by Earth's tide. The precursor is assumed to be a doubly synchronous binary with a semimajor axis of 4Rp (radius of primary) and the two components are represented as spherical cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregates. The mutual orbits are simulated in a Monte Carlo routine to provide appropriate parameters for our N-body simulations of impact and tidal distortion. We employ the PKDGRAV package with a soft-sphere discrete element method to explore the entire scenarios. The results show that contact binary configurations are natural outcomes under this scenario, whereas the shape of the primary is almost not affected by the impact of the secondary. However, our simulations further provide an elongated contact binary configuration best matching to the shape of Toutatis at an approaching distance rp = 1.4-1.5 Re (Earth radius), indicative of a likely formation scenario for configurations of Toutatis-like elongated contact binaries.

  6. Vertical stiffness is not related to anterior cruciate ligament elongation in professional rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury. We aimed to determine whether vertical stiffness is related to measures known to load, or which represent loading of, the ACL. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 11 professional Australian rugby players. Knee kinematics and ACL elongation were measured from a 4-dimensional model of a hopping task which simulated the change of direction manoeuvre typically observed when non-contact ACL injury occurs. The model was generated from a CT scan of the participant's knee registered frame by frame to fluoroscopy images of the hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated from force plate data. There was no association found between vertical stiffness and anterior tibial translation (ATT) or ACL elongation (r=-0.05; p=0.89, and r=-0.07; p=0.83, respectively). ATT was related to ACL elongation (r=0.93; p=0.0001). Vertical stiffness was not associated with ACL loading in this cohort of elite rugby players but a novel method for measuring ACL elongation in vivo was found to have good construct validity.

  7. Potassium, not lepidimoide, is the principal ‘allelochemical’ of cress-seed exudate that promotes amaranth hypocotyl elongation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Imbibed cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seeds exude ‘allelochemicals’ that promote excessive hypocotyl elongation and inhibit root growth in neighbouring competitors, e.g. amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) seedlings. The major hypocotyl promoter has recently been shown not to be the previously suggested acidic disaccharide, lepidimoic acid (LMA), a fragment of the pectic polysaccharide domain rhamnogalacturonan-I. The nature of the hypocotyl promoter has now been re-assessed. Methods Low-molecular weight cress-seed exudate (LCSE) was fractionated by high-voltage electrophoresis, and components with different charge:mass ratios were tested for effects on dark-grown amaranth seedlings. Further samples of LCSE were size-fractionated by gel permeation chromatography, and active fractions were analysed electrophoretically. Key Results The LCSE strongly promoted amaranth hypocotyl elongation. The active principle was hydrophilic and, unlike LMA, stable to hot acid. After electrophoresis at pH 6·5, the only fractions that strongly promoted hypocotyl elongation were those with a very high positive charge:mass ratio, migrating towards the cathode 3–4 times faster than glucosamine. Among numerous naturally occurring cations tested, the only one with such a high mobility was potassium. K+ was present in LCSE at approx. 4 mm, and pure KCl (1–10 mm) strongly promoted amaranth hypocotyl elongation. No other cation tested (including Na+, spermidine and putrescine) had this effect. The peak of bioactivity from a gel permeation chromatography column exactly coincided with the peak of K+. Conclusions The major ‘allelopathic’ substance present in cress-seed exudate that stimulates hypocotyl elongation in neighbouring seedlings is the inorganic cation, K+, not the oligosaccharin LMA. PMID:28981578

  8. Increased endothelial cell adhesion and elongation on micron-patterned nano-rough poly(dimethylsiloxane) films.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Ashwini; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-07-29

    The success of synthetic vascular grafts is largely determined by their ability to promote vital endothelial cell functions such as adhesion, alignment, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Developing such biomaterials requires the design and fabrication of materials that mimic select properties of native extracellular matrices. Furthermore, cells of the native endothelium have elongated and aligned morphology in the direction of blood flow, yet few materials promote this type of morphology initially, but rather rely on blood flow to orient endothelial cells. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to design a biomaterial that mimics the conditions of the micro- and nano-environment of vascular intima tissue suitable for endothelial cell adhesion and elongation to improve the efficacy of small synthetic vascular grafts. Towards this end, patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films consisting of periodic arrays of nano-grooves (500 nm), with spacings ranging from 22 to 80 microm, and alternating nano- and micron roughness were fabricated using a novel electron beam physical vapor deposition method followed by polymer casting. By varying pattern spacing, the area of micron- and nano-rough surface was controlled. In vitro rat aortic endothelial cell adhesion and elongation studies indicated that endothelial cell function was enhanced on patterned PDMS surfaces with the widest spacing and greatest surface area of nano-roughness, as compared to more narrow pattern spacings and non-patterned PDMS surfaces. Specifically, endothelial cells adherent on PDMS patterned films of the widest spacing (greatest nano-rough area) displayed almost twice as much elongation as cells on non-patterned surfaces. For these reasons, the present study highlighted design criteria (the use of micron patterns of nano-features on PDMS) that may contribute to the intelligent design of new-generation vascular grafts.

  9. Methylation of yeast ribosomal protein Rpl3 promotes translational elongation fidelity.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; Roy, Kevin; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Clarke, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Rpl3, a highly conserved ribosomal protein, is methylated at histidine 243 by the Hpm1 methyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Histidine 243 lies close to the peptidyl transferase center in a functionally important region of Rpl3 designated as the basic thumb that coordinates the decoding, peptidyl transfer, and translocation steps of translation elongation. Hpm1 was recently implicated in ribosome biogenesis and translation. However, the biological role of methylation of its Rpl3 substrate has not been identified. Here we interrogate the role of Rpl3 methylation at H243 by investigating the functional impact of mutating this histidine residue to alanine (rpl3-H243A). Akin to Hpm1-deficient cells, rpl3-H243A cells accumulate 35S and 23S pre-rRNA precursors to a similar extent, confirming an important role for histidine methylation in pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, Hpm1-deficient cells but not rpl3-H243A mutants show perturbed levels of ribosomal subunits. We show that Hpm1 has multiple substrates in different subcellular fractions, suggesting that methylation of proteins other than Rpl3 may be important for controlling ribosomal subunit levels. Finally, translational fidelity assays demonstrate that like Hpm1-deficient cells, rpl3-H243A mutants have defects in translation elongation resulting in decreased translational accuracy. These data suggest that Rpl3 methylation at H243 is playing a significant role in translation elongation, likely via the basic thumb, but has little impact on ribosomal subunit levels. Hpm1 is therefore a multifunctional methyltransferase with independent roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. © 2016 Al-Hadid et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. The point of no return: The poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Michael; Ferrer-Vicens, Ivan; Murphy, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases play critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and processing of the transcripts. For example, CDK9 regulates transcription of protein-coding genes, splicing, and 3' end formation of the transcripts. Accordingly, CDK9 inhibitors have a drastic effect on the production of mRNA in human cells. Recent analyses indicate that CDK9 regulates transcription at the early-elongation checkpoint of the vast majority of pol II-transcribed genes. Our recent discovery of an additional CDK9-regulated elongation checkpoint close to poly(A) sites adds a new layer to the control of transcription by this critical cellular kinase. This novel poly(A)-associated checkpoint has the potential to powerfully regulate gene expression just before a functional polyadenylated mRNA is produced: the point of no return. However, many questions remain to be answered before the role of this checkpoint becomes clear. Here we speculate on the possible biological significance of this novel mechanism of gene regulation and the players that may be involved.

  11. The point of no return: The poly(A)-associated elongation checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Michael; Ferrer-Vicens, Ivan; Murphy, Shona

    2016-01-01

    abstract Cyclin-dependent kinases play critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and processing of the transcripts. For example, CDK9 regulates transcription of protein-coding genes, splicing, and 3′ end formation of the transcripts. Accordingly, CDK9 inhibitors have a drastic effect on the production of mRNA in human cells. Recent analyses indicate that CDK9 regulates transcription at the early-elongation checkpoint of the vast majority of pol II-transcribed genes. Our recent discovery of an additional CDK9-regulated elongation checkpoint close to poly(A) sites adds a new layer to the control of transcription by this critical cellular kinase. This novel poly(A)-associated checkpoint has the potential to powerfully regulate gene expression just before a functional polyadenylated mRNA is produced: the point of no return. However, many questions remain to be answered before the role of this checkpoint becomes clear. Here we speculate on the possible biological significance of this novel mechanism of gene regulation and the players that may be involved. PMID:26853452

  12. The miR-590/Acvr2a/Terf1 Axis Regulates Telomere Elongation and Pluripotency of Mouse iPSCs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qidong; Wang, Guiying; Lyu, Yao; Bai, Mingliang; Jiapaer, Zeyidan; Jia, Wenwen; Han, Tong; Weng, Rong; Yang, Yiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Kang, Jiuhong

    2018-06-06

    During reprogramming, telomere re-elongation is important for pluripotency acquisition and ensures the high quality of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. Our study showed that fully reprogrammed mature iPSCs or mouse embryonic stem cells expressed higher levels of miR-590-3p and miR-590-5p than pre-iPSCs. Ectopic expression of either miR-590-3p or miR-590-5p in pre-iPSCs improved telomere elongation and pluripotency. Activin receptor II A (Acvr2a) is the downstream target and mediates the function of miR-590. Downregulation of Acvr2a promoted telomere elongation and pluripotency. Overexpression of miR-590 or inhibition of ACTIVIN signaling increased telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (Terf1) expression. The p-SMAD2 showed increased binding to the Terf1 promoter in pre-iPSCs compared with mature iPSCs. Downregulation of Terf1 blocked miR-590- or shAcvr2a-mediated promotion of telomere elongation and pluripotency in pre-iPSCs. This study elucidated the role of the miR-590/Acvr2a/Terf1 signaling pathway in modulating telomere elongation and pluripotency in pre-iPSCs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of pollutant dispersion near elongated buildings based on wind tunnel simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a wind tunnel study of the effects of elongated rectangular buildings on the dispersion of pollutants from nearby stacks. The study examines the influence of source location, building aspect ratio, and wind direction on pollutant dispersion with the goal of de...

  14. New Chironomidae (Diptera) with elongate proboscises from the Late Jurassic of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Elena D.; Przhiboro, Andrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Chironomidae with well-developed elongate proboscises are described from a Late Jurassic site Shar Teg in SW Mongolia. These are named Cretaenne rasnicyni sp. n., Podonomius blepharis sp. n., Podonomius macromastix sp. n., ?Podonomius robustus sp. n. PMID:22259285

  15. β-Sheet Containment by Flanking Prolines: Molecular Dynamic Simulations of the Inhibition of β-Sheet Elongation by Proline Residues in Human Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shamsir, Mohd S.; Dalby, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Previous molecular dynamic simulations have reported elongation of the existing β-sheet in prion proteins. Detailed examination has shown that these elongations do not extend beyond the proline residues flanking these β-sheets. In addition, proline has also been suggested to possess a possible structural role in preserving protein interaction sites by preventing invasion of neighboring secondary structures. In this work, we have studied the possible structural role of the flanking proline residues by simulating mutant structures with alternate substitution of the proline residues with valine. Simulations showed a directional inhibition of elongation, with the elongation progressing in the direction of valine including evident inhibition of elongation by existing proline residues. This suggests that the flanking proline residues in prion proteins may have a containment role and would confine the β-sheet within a specific length. PMID:17172295

  16. SCAR Mediates Light-Induced Root Elongation in Arabidopsis through Photoreceptors and Proteasomes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dyachok, Julia; Zhu, Ling; Liao, Fuqi; He, Ji; Huq, Enamul; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2011-01-01

    The ARP2/3 complex, a highly conserved nucleator of F-actin, and its activator, the SCAR complex, are essential for growth in plants and animals. In this article, we present a pathway through which roots of Arabidopsis thaliana directly perceive light to promote their elongation. The ARP2/3-SCAR complex and the maintenance of longitudinally aligned F-actin arrays are crucial components of this pathway. The involvement of the ARP2/3-SCAR complex in light-regulated root growth is supported by our finding that mutants of the SCAR complex subunit BRK1/HSPC300, or other individual subunits of the ARP2/3-SCAR complex, showed a dramatic inhibition of root elongation in the light, which mirrored reduced growth of wild-type roots in the dark. SCAR1 degradation in dark-grown wild-type roots by constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) E3 ligase and 26S proteasome accompanied the loss of longitudinal F-actin and reduced root growth. Light perceived by the root photoreceptors, cryptochrome and phytochrome, suppressed COP1-mediated SCAR1 degradation. Taken together, our data provide a biochemical explanation for light-induced promotion of root elongation by the ARP2/3-SCAR complex. PMID:21972261

  17. Seed germination and root elongation as indicators of exposure of wetland seedlings to metals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sutton, H.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hook, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Wetland ecosystems have often been impacted by the addition of hazardous waste materials. Methods are needed to evaluate the effect of these substances on wetland ecosystems and the organisms within them. This study evaluates the response of various wetland plant species to representative contaminants (cadmium, nickel, atrazine, anthracene, and tetrachloroethylene). Species tested include Caphalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush), Saururus cernuus (lizard`s tail), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Sparganium americanum (bur-reed), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash). To the authors` knowledge these species have rarely if ever been used in toxicological assays. The endpoints used are germination and root elongation. Preliminary studies using a petri dishmore » system have shown decreased germination at the highest metal concentration (50mg/L) and decreased root elongation in the higher metal concentrations (10, 25, and 50mg/L). Interference from the carrier was observed in the organic tests. Root elongation studies using the metals are being continued using tubes with various sand and vermiculite mixes into which freshly germinated seeds are placed. Species with the best responses will be tested in the field at the Savannah River Site, SC, and also with fuel oil. Lettuce (Lactuca saliva) and radish (Raphanus sativus) are being tested alongside the wetland species as reference organisms for which tests are well established.« less

  18. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  19. Nonlinear oscillations and collapse of elongated bubbles subject to weak viscous effects: Effect of internal overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiglifis, Kostas; Pelekasis, Nikos A.

    2007-07-01

    The details of nonlinear oscillations and collapse of elongated bubbles, subject to large internal overpressure, are studied by a boundary integral method. Weak viscous effects on the liquid side are accounted for by integrating the equations of motion across the boundary layer that is formed adjacent to the interface. For relatively large bubbles with initial radius R0 on the order of millimeters, PSt=PSt'/(2σ/R0)˜300 and Oh =μ/(σR0ρ)1/2˜200, and an almost spherical initial shape, S˜1, Rayleigh-Taylor instability prevails and the bubble breaks up as a result of growth of higher modes and the development of regions of very small radius of curvature; σ, ρ, μ, and PSt' denote the surface tension, density, viscosity, and dimensional static pressure in the host liquid while S is the ratio between the length of the minor semiaxis of the bubble, taken as an axisymmetric ellipsoid, and its equivalent radius R0. For finite initial elongations, 0.5⩽S <1, the bubble collapses either via two jets that counterpropagate along the axis of symmetry and eventually coalesce at the equatorial plane, or in the form of a sink flow approaching the center of the bubble along the equatorial plane. This pattern persists for the above range of initial elongations examined and large internal overpressure amplitudes, ɛB⩾1, irrespective of Oh. It is largely due to the phase in the growth of the second Legendre mode during the after-bounce of the oscillating bubble, during which it acquires large enough positive accelerations for collapse to take place. For smaller bubbles with initial radius on the order of micrometers, PSt˜4 and Oh ˜20, and small initial elongations, 0.75elongations, 0.5⩽S⩽0.75, and large

  20. Stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy of the uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian from the North American Midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boardman, Darwin R.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Nestell, Merlynd K.

    2009-01-01

    Part A The uppermost Wabaunsee, Admire, Council Grove, and lower Chase Groups of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska are placed into three third-order depositional sequences: a Gzhelian late-highstand sequence set, a Council Grove transgressive and highstand sequence set, and a Chase transgressive sequence set. Sequences are defined by bounding maximum-exposure surfaces and are placed within the zone of exposure surfaces (typically, stacked paleosols). Conodonts are abundant in open-marine deposits and most marine units have a differing and characteristic faunal make-up. Eleven species are described as new: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Part B Maximum-marine flooding levels and marine-condensed sections from uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian fourth-order (0.1-1 m.y.) depositional sequences of the North American midcontinent reveal a rich stratigraphic succession of species of Streptognathodus and Sweetognathus conodonts that permits high-precision correlation of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary as well as the Asselian-Sakmarian and Sakmarian-Artinskian boundaries. Eleven new species of Streptognathodus are described: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Seventeen species are redescribed and clarified and include Streptognathodus alius, S. barskovi, S. bellus, S. brownvillensis, S. conjunctus, S. constrictus, S. elongatus, S. farmeri, S. flexuosus, S. fuchengensis, S. fusus, S. invaginatus, S. isolatus, S. longissimus, S. minacutus, S. nodulinearis, and S. wabaunsensis. The correlated level of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary is recognized in the lower part of the Red Eagle Depositional Sequence based on the introduction of Streptognathodus isolatus Chernykh

  1. The Medicago sativa gene index 1.2: a web-accessible gene expression atlas for investigating expression differences between Medicago sativa subspecies.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Jamie A; Fu, Fengli; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Yang, S Sam; Samac, Deborah A; Lamb, JoAnn F S; Monteros, Maria J; Graham, Michelle A; Gronwald, John W; Krom, Nick; Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-07-07

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the primary forage legume crop species in the United States and plays essential economic and ecological roles in agricultural systems across the country. Modern alfalfa is the result of hybridization between tetraploid M. sativa ssp. sativa and M. sativa ssp. falcata. Due to its large and complex genome, there are few genomic resources available for alfalfa improvement. A de novo transcriptome assembly from two alfalfa subspecies, M. sativa ssp. sativa (B47) and M. sativa ssp. falcata (F56) was developed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. Transcripts from roots, nitrogen-fixing root nodules, leaves, flowers, elongating stem internodes, and post-elongation stem internodes were assembled into the Medicago sativa Gene Index 1.2 (MSGI 1.2) representing 112,626 unique transcript sequences. Nodule-specific and transcripts involved in cell wall biosynthesis were identified. Statistical analyses identified 20,447 transcripts differentially expressed between the two subspecies. Pair-wise comparisons of each tissue combination identified 58,932 sequences differentially expressed in B47 and 69,143 sequences differentially expressed in F56. Comparing transcript abundance in floral tissues of B47 and F56 identified expression differences in sequences involved in anthocyanin and carotenoid synthesis, which determine flower pigmentation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unique to each M. sativa subspecies (110,241) were identified. The Medicago sativa Gene Index 1.2 increases the expressed sequence data available for alfalfa by ninefold and can be expanded as additional experiments are performed. The MSGI 1.2 transcriptome sequences, annotations, expression profiles, and SNPs were assembled into the Alfalfa Gene Index and Expression Database (AGED) at http://plantgrn.noble.org/AGED/ , a publicly available genomic resource for alfalfa improvement and legume research.

  2. Expression of alpha-expansin and expansin-like genes in deepwater rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi; Kende, Hans

    2002-11-01

    Previously, we have studied the expression and regulation of four alpha- and 14 beta-expansin genes in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa). We now report on the structure, expression, and regulation of 22 additional alpha-expansin (Os-EXP) genes, four expansin-like (Os-EXPL) genes, and one expansin-related (Os-EXPR) gene, which have recently been identified in the expressed sequence tag and genomic databases of rice. Alpha-expansins are characterized by a series of conserved Cys residues in the N-terminal half of the protein, a histidine-phenylalanine-aspartate (HFD) motif in the central region, and a series of tryptophan residues near the carboxyl terminus. Of the 22 additional alpha-expansin genes, five are expressed in internodes and leaves, three in coleoptiles, and nine in roots, with high transcript levels in the growing regions of these organs. Transcripts of five alpha-expansin genes were found in roots only. Expression of five alpha-expansin genes was induced in the internode by treatment with gibberellin (GA) and by wounding. The wound response resulted from excising stem sections or from piercing pinholes into the stem of intact plants. EXPL proteins lack the HFD motif and have two additional Cys residues in their C- and N-terminal regions. The positions of conserved tryptophan residues at the C-terminal region are different from those of alpha- and beta-expansins. Expression of the Os-EXPL3 gene is correlated with elongation and slightly induced by applied GA. However, the expression of the Os-EXPL1 and Os-EXPL2 genes showed limited correlation with cell elongation and was not induced by GA. We found no expression of the Os-EXPR1 gene in the organs examined.

  3. Postponing the production of ant domatia as a strategy promoting an escape from flooding in an Amazonian myrmecophyte.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Thiago J; Fernandez Piedade, Maria Teresa; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-06-07

    Even when adapted to flooding environments, the spatial distribution, growing strategies and anti-herbivore defences of plants face stressful conditions. Here we describe the effects of flooding on carbon allocation on growth, domatia and leaf production, and the herbivory on the myrmecophyte domatia-bearing Tococa coronata Benth. (Melastomataceae) growing along river banks in the Amazon region. In an area of 80 000 m2 of riparian forest along the Juruena River we actively searched for individuals of T. coronata. In each plant we evaluated the size of the plant when producing the first domatium and determined its best predictor: (1) plant total height; (2) size of plants above flood level; or (3) length of time each plant spent underwater. We also compared the herbivory, internode elongation, foliar asymmetry and specific leaf weight between T. coronata individuals growing above and below the maximum flooding level. The distance to the river and the height of the first domatium produced were compared between T. coronata and its sympatric congener, T. bulifera. We found that T. coronata invests in rapid growth in the early ontogenetic stages through an elongation of internodes rather than in constitutive anti-herbivore defences to leaves or domatia to exceed the maximum flooding level. Consequently, its leaf herbivory was higher when compared with those produced above the flooding level. Individuals with leaves above flood levels produce coriaceous leaves and ant-domatias. Thus, flooding seems to trigger changes in growth strategies of the species. Furthermore, T. coronata occurs within the flood level, whereas its congener T. bullifera invariably occurs at sites unreachable by floods. Even in conditions of high stress, T. coronata presents both physiological and adaptive strategies that allow for colonization and establishment within flooded regions. These mechanisms involve an extreme trade-off of postponing adult plant characteristics to rapid growth to escape

  4. ATM kinase is required for telomere elongation in mouse and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stella Suyong; Bohrson, Craig; Pike, Alexandra Mims; Wheelan, Sarah Jo; Greider, Carol Widney

    2015-01-01

    Summary Short telomeres induce a DNA damage response, senescence and apoptosis; thus, maintaining telomere length equilibrium is essential for cell viability. Telomerase addition of telomere repeats is tightly regulated in cells. To probe pathways that regulate telomere addition, we developed the ADDIT assay to measure new telomere addition at a single telomere in vivo. Sequence analysis showed telomerase specific addition of repeats onto a new telomere occurred in just 48 hr. Using the ADDIT assay, we found that ATM is required for addition of new repeats onto telomeres in mouse cells. Evaluation of bulk telomeres, in both human and mouse cells, showed that blocking ATM inhibited telomere elongation. Finally, the activation of ATM through the inhibition of PARP1 resulted in increased telomere elongation, supporting the central role of the ATM pathway in regulating telomere addition. Understanding this role of ATM may yield new areas for possible therapeutic intervention in telomere-mediated disease. PMID:26586427

  5. Optimal reconstruction for closed-loop ground-layer adaptive optics with elongated spots.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Clémentine; Tallon, Michel; Tallon-Bosc, Isabelle; Thiébaut, Éric; Le Louarn, Miska; Clare, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The design of the laser-guide-star-based adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Extremely Large Telescopes requires careful study of the issue of elongated spots produced on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. The importance of a correct modeling of the nonuniformity and correlations of the noise induced by this elongation has already been demonstrated for wavefront reconstruction. We report here on the first (to our knowledge) end-to-end simulations of closed-loop ground-layer AO with laser guide stars with such an improved noise model. The results are compared with the level of performance predicted by a classical noise model for the reconstruction. The performance is studied in terms of ensquared energy and confirms that, thanks to the improved noise model, central or side launching of the lasers does not affect the performance with respect to the laser guide stars' flux. These two launching schemes also perform similarly whatever the atmospheric turbulence strength.

  6. Ethylene Inhibits Root Elongation during Alkaline Stress through AUXIN1 and Associated Changes in Auxin Accumulation1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Xu, Heng-Hao; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Soil alkalinity causes major reductions in yield and quality of crops worldwide. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil alkalinity, which results in shorter primary roots. However, the mechanism underlying alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that alkaline conditions inhibit primary root elongation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings by reducing cell division potential in the meristem zones and that ethylene signaling affects this process. The ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag+) alleviated the inhibition of root elongation by alkaline stress. Moreover, the ethylene signaling mutants ethylene response1-3 (etr1-3), ethylene insensitive2 (ein2), and ein3-1 showed less reduction in root length under alkaline conditions, indicating a reduced sensitivity to alkalinity. Ethylene biosynthesis also was found to play a role in alkaline stress-mediated root inhibition; the ethylene overproducer1-1 mutant, which overproduces ethylene because of increased stability of 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID SYNTHASE5, was hypersensitive to alkaline stress. In addition, the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor cobalt (Co2+) suppressed alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. We further found that alkaline stress caused an increase in auxin levels by promoting expression of auxin biosynthesis-related genes, but the increase in auxin levels was reduced in the roots of the etr1-3 and ein3-1 mutants and in Ag+/Co2+-treated wild-type plants. Additional genetic and physiological data showed that AUXIN1 (AUX1) was involved in alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Taken together, our results reveal that ethylene modulates alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of root growth by increasing auxin accumulation by stimulating the expression of AUX1 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes. PMID:26109425

  7. Vertical stiffness is not related to anterior cruciate ligament elongation in professional rugby union players

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury. We aimed to determine whether vertical stiffness is related to measures known to load, or which represent loading of, the ACL. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study of 11 professional Australian rugby players. Knee kinematics and ACL elongation were measured from a 4-dimensional model of a hopping task which simulated the change of direction manoeuvre typically observed when non-contact ACL injury occurs. The model was generated from a CT scan of the participant's knee registered frame by frame to fluoroscopy images of the hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated from force plate data. Results There was no association found between vertical stiffness and anterior tibial translation (ATT) or ACL elongation (r=−0.05; p=0.89, and r=−0.07; p=0.83, respectively). ATT was related to ACL elongation (r=0.93; p=0.0001). Conclusions Vertical stiffness was not associated with ACL loading in this cohort of elite rugby players but a novel method for measuring ACL elongation in vivo was found to have good construct validity. PMID:27900192

  8. Gibberellin-Stimulation of Rhizome Elongation and Differential GA-Responsive Proteomic Changes in Two Grass Species

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiqing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and extensive rhizome development is a desirable trait for perennial grass growth and adaptation to environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to determine proteomic changes and associated metabolic pathways of gibberellin (GA) -regulation of rhizome elongation in two perennial grass species differing in rhizome development. Plants of a short-rhizome bunch-type tall fescue (TF; Festuca arundinacea; ‘BR’) and an extensive rhizomatous Kentucky bluegrass (KB; Poa pratensis; ‘Baron’) were treated with 10 μM GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. The average rhizome length in KB was significantly longer than that in TF regardless of GA3 treatment, and increased significantly with GA3 treatment, to a greater extent than that in TF. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was performed to further investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome elongation by GA. A total of 37 and 38 differentially expressed proteins in response to GA3 treatment were identified in TF and KB plants, respectively, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, energy and amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, defense and cell development processes. Accelerated rhizome elongation in KB by GA could be mainly associated with the increased abundance of proteins involved in energy metabolism (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and ATP synthase), amino acid metabolism (S-adenosylmethionine and adenosylhomocysteinase), protein synthesis (HSP90, elongation factor Tu and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A), cell-wall development (cell dividion cycle protein, alpha tubulin-2A and actin), and signal transduction (calreticulin). These proteins could be used as candidate proteins for further analysis of molecular mechanisms controlling rhizome growth. PMID:27446135

  9. GSK-3 Phosphorylation of the Alzheimer Epitope within Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins Regulates Axon Elongation in Primary Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam R.; Knebel, Axel; Morrice, Nick A.; Robertson, Laura A.; Irving, Andrew J.; Connolly, Chris N.; Sutherland, Calum

    2007-01-01

    Elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity is associated with Alzheimer disease. We have found that collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMP) 2 and 4 are physiological substrates of GSK-3. The amino acids targeted by GSK-3 comprise a hyperphosphorylated epitope first identified in plaques isolated from Alzheimer brain. Expression of wild type CRMP2 in primary hippocampal neurons or SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells promotes axon elongation. However, a GSK-3-insensitive CRMP2 mutant has dramatically reduced ability to promote axon elongation, a similar effect to pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3. Hence, we propose that phosphorylation of CRMP proteins by GSK-3 regulates axon elongation. This work provides a direct connection between hyperphosphorylation of these residues and elevated GSK-3 activity, both of which are observed in Alzheimer brain. PMID:15466863

  10. Comparison of the effect of the rotation palatoplasty and V-Y pushback palatoplasty techniques on palate elongation with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Isik, D; Bora, A; Yuce, S; Davran, R; Kocak, O F; Canbaz, Y; Avcu, S; Atik, B

    2015-06-01

    Most surgical techniques used in cleft palate repair require the extension of the palate to the pharynx. However, no adequate information exists regarding the extent to which this elongation obtained during operation continues in late postoperative period. In this study, we compared and measured palate elongation in patients with a cleft palate who underwent a V-Y pushback or rotation palatoplasty, by means of magnetic resonance images obtained before and 1 year after surgery. The hard palate, soft palate, and total palate lengths were measured for all of the patients, and the velopharyngeal opening area width was calculated. In patients who underwent the V-Y pushback technique (n=13), the total palate and soft palate lengths were shortened by an average of 0.10 and 0.14cm after surgery, respectively. However, the hard palate length was elongated by an average of 0.13cm. In the rotation palatoplasty group (n=13), the total palate, hard palate, and soft palate lengths were elongated by 0.57, 0.10, and 0.49cm, respectively. The velopharyngeal opening was narrowed by 0.06cm(2) using the V-Y pushback technique and by 0.29cm(2) using the rotational palatoplasty. This study demonstrated that the palate does not elongate during the V-Y pushback technique, as expected. However, rotational palatoplasty elongates the soft palate. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Wild, Michael; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Eisler, Herfried; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Regulation of plant height, one of the most important agronomic traits, is the focus of intensive research for improving crop performance. Stem elongation takes place as a result of repeated cell divisions and subsequent elongation of cells produced by apical and intercalary meristems. The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have long been known to control stem and internodal elongation by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the mechanism allowing GA-responsive growth is only slowly emerging. Here, we show that DELLAs directly regulate the activity of the plant-specific class I TCP transcription factor family, key regulators of cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that class I TCP factors directly bind the promoters of core cell-cycle genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence shoot apices while DELLAs block TCP function by binding to their DNA-recognition domain. GAs antagonize such repression by promoting DELLA destruction and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of TCP factors on promoters of cell-cycle genes. Consistent with this model, the quadruple mutant tcp8 tcp14 tcp15 tcp22 exhibits severe dwarfism and reduced responsiveness to GA action. Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylglyoxal synthase regulates cell elongation via alterations of cellular methylglyoxal and spermidine content in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Min; Song, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kwak, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2017-10-01

    Methylglyoxal regulates cell division and differentiation through its interaction with polyamines. Loss of their biosynthesizing enzyme causes physiological impairment and cell elongation in eukaryotes. However, the reciprocal effects of methylglyoxal and polyamine production and its regulatory metabolic switches on morphological changes in prokaryotes have not been addressed. Here, Bacillus subtilis methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA) and polyamine biosynthesizing genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (SpeA), agmatinase (SpeB), and spermidine synthase (SpeE), were disrupted or overexpressed. Treatment of 0.2mM methylglyoxal and 1mM spermidine led to the elongation and shortening of B. subtilis wild-type cells to 12.38±3.21μm (P<0.05) and 3.24±0.73μm (P<0.01), respectively, compared to untreated cells (5.72±0.68μm). mgsA-deficient (mgsA - ) and -overexpressing (mgsA OE ) mutants also demonstrated cell shortening and elongation, similar to speB- and speE-deficient (speB - and speE - ) and -overexpressing (speB OE and speE OE ) mutants. Importantly, both mgsA-depleted speB OE and speE OE mutants (speB OE /mgsA - and speE OE /mgsA - ) were drastically shortened to 24.5% and 23.8% of parental speB OE and speE OE mutants, respectively. These phenotypes were associated with reciprocal alterations of mgsA and polyamine transcripts governed by the contents of methylglyoxal and spermidine, which are involved in enzymatic or genetic metabolite-control mechanisms. Additionally, biophysically detected methylglyoxal-spermidine Schiff bases did not affect morphogenesis. Taken together, the findings indicate that methylglyoxal triggers cell elongation. Furthermore, cells with methylglyoxal accumulation commonly exhibit an elongated rod-shaped morphology through upregulation of mgsA, polyamine genes, and the global regulator spx, as well as repression of the cell division and shape regulator, FtsZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Helical Structural Nucleus Is the Primary Elongating Unit of Insulin Amyloid Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Roessle, Manfred; Kastrup, Jette S; van de Weert, Marco; Flink, James M; Frokjaer, Sven; Gajhede, Michael; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2007-01-01

    Although amyloid fibrillation is generally believed to be a nucleation-dependent process, the nuclei are largely structurally uncharacterized. This is in part due to the inherent experimental challenge associated with structural descriptions of individual components in a dynamic multi-component equilibrium. There are indications that oligomeric aggregated precursors of fibrillation, and not mature fibrils, are the main cause of cytotoxicity in amyloid disease. This further emphasizes the importance of characterizing early fibrillation events. Here we present a kinetic x-ray solution scattering study of insulin fibrillation, revealing three major components: insulin monomers, mature fibrils, and an oligomeric species. Low-resolution three-dimensional structures are determined for the fibril repeating unit and for the oligomer, the latter being a helical unit composed of five to six insulin monomers. This helical oligomer is likely to be a structural nucleus, which accumulates above the supercritical concentration used in our experiments. The growth rate of the fibrils is proportional to the amount of the helical oligomer present in solution, suggesting that these oligomers elongate the fibrils. Hence, the structural nucleus and elongating unit in insulin amyloid fibrillation may be the same structural component above supercritical concentrations. A novel elongation pathway of insulin amyloid fibrils is proposed, based on the shape and size of the fibrillation precursor. The distinct helical oligomer described in this study defines a conceptually new basis of structure-based drug design against amyloid diseases. PMID:17472440

  14. Organelle sedimentation in gravitropic roots of Limnobium is restricted to the elongation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Kim, D.; Stein, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, no sedimentation of any organelle, including amyloplasts, was found. In contrast, both amyloplasts and nuclei sediment consistently and completely in cells of the elongation zone. Sedimentation occurs in one cell layer of the cortex just outside the endodermis. Sedimentation of both amyloplasts and nuclei begins in cells that are in their initial stages of elongation and persists at least to the level of the root where root hairs emerge. This is the first modern report of the presence of sedimentation away from, but not in, the rootcap. It shows that sedimentation in the rootcap is not necessary for gravitropic sensing in at least one angiosperm. If amyloplast sedimentation is responsible for gravitropic sensing, then the site of sensing in Limnobium roots is the elongation zone and not the rootcap. These data do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that sensing occurs in the cap in other roots, since Limnobium roots are exceptional in rootcap origin and structure, as well as in the distribution of organelle sedimentation. Similarly, if nuclear sedimentation is involved in gravitropic sensing, then nuclear mass would function in addition to, not instead of, that of amyloplasts.

  15. Rab5 and Rab4 Regulate Axon Elongation in the Xenopus Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Konopacki, Filip A.; Zivraj, Krishna H.; Holt, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The elongation rate of axons is tightly regulated during development. Recycling of the plasma membrane is known to regulate axon extension; however, the specific molecules involved in recycling within the growth cone have not been fully characterized. Here, we investigated whether the small GTPases Rab4 and Rab5 involved in short-loop recycling regulate the extension of Xenopus retinal axons. We report that, in growth cones, Rab5 and Rab4 proteins localize to endosomes, which accumulate markers that are constitutively recycled. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching experiments showed that Rab5 and Rab4 are recruited to endosomes in the growth cone, suggesting that they control recycling locally. Dynamic image analysis revealed that Rab4-positive carriers can bud off from Rab5 endosomes and move to the periphery of the growth cone, suggesting that both Rab5 and Rab4 contribute to recycling within the growth cone. Inhibition of Rab4 function with dominant-negative Rab4 or Rab4 morpholino and constitutive activation of Rab5 decreases the elongation of retinal axons in vitro and in vivo, but, unexpectedly, does not disrupt axon pathfinding. Thus, Rab5- and Rab4-mediated control of endosome trafficking appears to be crucial for axon growth. Collectively, our results suggest that recycling from Rab5-positive endosomes via Rab4 occurs within the growth cone and thereby supports axon elongation. PMID:24403139

  16. Elongator Plays a Positive Role in Exogenous NAD-Induced Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    An, Chuanfu; Ding, Yezhang; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Chenggang; Mou, Zhonglin

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular NAD is emerging as an important signal molecule in animal cells, but its role in plants has not been well-established. Although it has been shown that exogenous NAD(+) activates defense responses in Arabidopsis, components in the exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense pathway remain to be fully discovered. In a genetic screen for mutants insensitive to exogenous NAD(+) (ien), we isolated a mutant named ien2. Map-based cloning revealed that IEN2 encodes ELONGATA3 (ELO3)/AtELP3, a subunit of the Arabidopsis Elongator complex, which functions in multiple biological processes, including histone modification, DNA (de)methylation, and transfer RNA modification. Mutations in the ELO3/AtELP3 gene compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326, and transgenic expression of the coding region of ELO3/AtELP3 in elo3/Atelp3 restores NAD(+) responsiveness to the mutant plants, demonstrating that ELO3/AtELP3 is required for exogenous NAD(+)-induced defense responses. Furthermore, mutations in genes encoding the other five Arabidopsis Elongator subunits (ELO2/AtELP1, AtELP2, ELO1/AtELP4, AtELP5, and AtELP6) also compromise exogenous NAD(+)-induced PR gene expression and resistance to P. syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. These results indicate that the Elongator complex functions as a whole in exogenous NAD(+)-activated defense signaling in Arabidopsis.

  17. Gold nano-decorated aligned polyurethane nanofibers for enhancement of neurite outgrowth and elongation.

    PubMed

    Demir, Ulku Selcen; Shahbazi, Reza; Calamak, Semih; Ozturk, Sukru; Gultekinoglu, Merve; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2018-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and elongation of neural cells is the most important subject that is considered in nerve tissue engineering. In this regard, aligned nanofibers have taken much attention in terms of providing guidance for newly outgrown neurites. The main objective of this study was to fabricate aligned polyurethane nanofibers by electrospinning process and decorate them with gold nanoparticles to further investigate the synergistic effects of nanotopography, biological nerve growth factor (NGF) and electrical stimulations on neurite outgrowth and elongation of pheochromocytoma (PC-12) model cells. In this regard, smooth and uniform aligned polyurethane nanofibers with the average diameter of 519 ± 56 nm were fabricated and decorated with the gold nanoparticles with the average diameter of ∼50 nm. PC-12 cells were cultured on the various nanofiber surfaces inside the bio-mimetic bioreactor system and exposed either to NGF alone or combination of NGF and electrical stimulation. It was found that 50 ng/mL NGF concentration is an optimal value for the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. After 4 days of culture under 100 mV, 10 ms electrical stimulation in 1 h/day period it was found that the gold nanoparticle decorated aligned polyurethane nanofibers increased the neurite outgrowth and elongation more with the combinational NGF and electrical stimulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1604-1613, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Elongated unique DNA strand deposition on microstructured substrate by receding meniscus assembly and capillary force

    PubMed Central

    Charlot, B.; Bardin, F.; Sanchez, N.; Roux, P.; Teixeira, S.; Schwob, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ordered deposition of elongated DNA molecules was achieved by the forced dewetting of a DNA solution droplet over a microstructured substrate. This technique allows trapping, uncoiling, and deposition of DNA fragments without the need of a physicochemical anchoring of the molecule and results in the combing of double stranded DNA from the edge of microwells on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The technique involves scanning a droplet of DNA solution caught between a movable blade and a PDMS substrate containing an array of microwells. The deposition and elongation appears when the receding meniscus dewets microwells, the latter acting here as a perturbation in the dewetting line forcing the water film to break locally. Thus, DNA molecules can be deposited in an ordered manner and elongated conformation based solely on a physical phenomenon, allowing uncoiled DNA molecules to be observed in all their length. However, the exact mechanism that governs the deposition of DNA strands is not well understood. This paper is an analysis of the physical phenomenon occurring in the deposition process and is based on observations made with the use of high frame/second rate video microscopy. PMID:24753724

  19. Architecture of the crust and uppermost mantle in the northern Canadian Cordillera from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarayoun, Alizia; Audet, Pascal; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Ashoori, Azadeh

    2017-07-01

    The northern Canadian Cordillera (NCC) is an active orogenic belt in northwestern Canada characterized by deformed autochtonous and allochtonous structures that were emplaced in successive episodes of convergence since the Late Cretaceous. Seismicity and crustal deformation are concentrated along corridors located far (>200 to 800 km) from the convergent plate margin. Proposed geodynamic models require information on crust and mantle structure and strain history, which are poorly constrained. We calculate receiver functions using 66 broadband seismic stations within and around the NCC and process them to estimate Moho depth and P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) of the Cordilleran crust. We also perform a harmonic decomposition to determine the anisotropy of the subsurface layers. From these results, we construct simple seismic velocity models at selected stations and simulate receiver function data to constrain crust and uppermost mantle structure and anisotropy. Our results indicate a relatively flat and sharp Moho at 32 ± 2 km depth and crustal Vp/Vs of 1.75 ± 0.05. Seismic anisotropy is pervasive in the upper crust and within a thin ( 10-15 km thick) sub-Moho layer. The modeled plunging slow axis of hexagonal symmetry of the upper crustal anisotropic layer may reflect the presence of fractures or mica-rich mylonites. The subhorizontal fast axis of hexagonal anisotropy within the sub-Moho layer is generally consistent with the SE-NW orientation of large-scale tectonic structures. These results allow us to revise the geodynamic models proposed to explain active deformation within the NCC.

  20. Determination of baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shift from finite volume spectra in elongated boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie; Liu, Zhan-Wei

    2018-01-01

    The relations between the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts and the two-particle energy spectrum in the elongated box are established. We studied the cases with both the periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition in the center of mass frame. The framework is also extended to the system of nonzero total momentum with periodic boundary condition in the moving frame. Moreover, we discussed the sensitivity functions σ (q ) that represent the sensitivity of higher scattering phases. Our analytical results will be helpful to extract the baryon-baryon elastic scattering phase shifts in the continuum from lattice QCD data by using elongated boxes.

  1. The 7SK snRNP associates with the little elongation complex to promote snRNA gene expression.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Sylvain; Vitali, Patrice; Tellier, Michael; Raffel, Raoul; Murphy, Shona; Kiss, Tamás

    2017-04-03

    The 7SK small nuclear RNP (snRNP), composed of the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA), MePCE, and Larp7, regulates the mRNA elongation capacity of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) through controlling the nuclear activity of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). Here, we demonstrate that the human 7SK snRNP also functions as a canonical transcription factor that, in collaboration with the little elongation complex (LEC) comprising ELL, Ice1, Ice2, and ZC3H8, promotes transcription of RNAPII-specific spliceosomal snRNA and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes. The 7SK snRNA specifically associates with a fraction of RNAPII hyperphosphorylated at Ser5 and Ser7, which is a hallmark of RNAPII engaged in snRNA synthesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) experiments revealed enrichments for all components of the 7SK snRNP on RNAPII-specific sn/snoRNA genes. Depletion of 7SK snRNA or Larp7 disrupts LEC integrity, inhibits RNAPII recruitment to RNAPII-specific sn/snoRNA genes, and reduces nascent snRNA and snoRNA synthesis. Thus, through controlling both mRNA elongation and sn/snoRNA synthesis, the 7SK snRNP is a key regulator of nuclear RNA production by RNAPII. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Parameters of tensile strength, elongation, and tenacity of 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin A.

    1989-01-01

    The 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film was tested to determine its tensile strength, elongation, and breaking strength, using an Instron (strength and compression) 4201 Test Instrument. These data provide information leading to the upper and lower limits of the above parameters for 70mm IIaO spectroscopic film. This film will be developed by a commercial developing machine after the Ultraviolet Telescope Space Shuttle Mission returns to the Earth in the early 1990's; thus, it is necessary to understand these force parameters. Several test strips of approximately 200mm in length were used. The results indicate that when a stress load of 100 kg was applied, the film elongated approximately 1.06mm and the break strength was 19.45 kilograms.

  3. Isolation and characterization of elongation factor EF-2 from Guerin tumour.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska, K; Kopacz-Jodczyk, T; Niedźwiecka, J; Gałasiński, W

    1983-01-01

    A homogeneous preparation of EF-2 from Guerin tumour cells was obtained. Its Mr (68 000), pI (6.5), optimum pH (7.0) and amino acid composition are very close to those of rat liver elongation factor. EF-2 from Guerin tumour cells is active in the heterologous liver - tumour system, although half as effective as in the homologous system.

  4. An estimate of the error caused by the elongation of the wavelength in a focused beam in free-space electromagnetic parameters measurement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, En, E-mail: lien@uestc.edu.cn; Guo, Gaofeng

    2014-09-15

    A pair of spot-focusing horn lens antenna is the key component in a free-space measurement system. The electromagnetic constitutive parameters of a planar sample are determined using transmitted and reflected electromagnetic beams. These parameters are obtained from the measured scattering parameters by the microwave network analyzer, thickness of the sample, and wavelength of a focused beam on the sample. Free-space techniques introduced by most papers consider the focused wavelength as the free-space wavelength. But in fact, the incident wave projected by a lens into the sample approximates a Gaussian beam, thus, there has an elongation of the wavelength in themore » focused beam and this elongation should be taken into consideration in dielectric and magnetic measurement. In this paper, elongation of the wavelength has been analyzed and measured. Measurement results show that the focused wavelength in the vicinity of the focus has an elongation of 1%–5% relative to the free-space wavelength. Elongation's influence on the measurement result of the permittivity and permeability has been investigated. Numerical analyses show that the elongation of the focused wavelength can cause the increase of the measured value of the permeability relative to traditionally measured value, but for the permittivity, it is affected by several parameters and may increase or decrease relative to traditionally measured value.« less

  5. The petunia homologue of tomato gast1: transcript accumulation coincides with gibberellin-induced corolla cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nissan, G; Weiss, D

    1996-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate petunia corolla pigmentation and elongation. To study this hormone's effect at the molecular level, we used the tomato gast1 gene as a probe to isolate a gibberellin-induced gene (gip) from petunia corollas. The deduced sequence of gip exhibited 82% identity with GAST1 protein and contained a short, highly hydrophobic N-terminal region. High levels of gip expression were detected in elongating corollas and young stem intemodes. When detached corollas were grown in vitro in sucrose medium, gip expression was strongly induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). GA3-induced gip expression in corollas was inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). The expression of the gene was also induced by GA3 in detached young stem segments. Sucrose was not essential for GA-induced gip expression in corollas but enhanced its effect. In stems, on the other hand, sucrose inhibited the effect of the hormone. The results of the present work support the possible role of gip in GA-induced corolla and stem elongation.

  6. Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: 1. To collect spinal elongation induced seated height data for subjects exposed to microgravity environments. 2. To provide information relating to the seated height rate of change over time for astronauts subjected to microgravity. We will collect: Seated Height measurement (ground & flight) and digital still photograph (ground and flight).

  7. Plasticity in nodal root elongation through the hardpan triggered by rewatering during soil moisture fluctuation stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Suralta, Roel Rodriguez; Niones, Jonathan Manito; Kano-Nakata, Mana; Thi Tran, Thiem; Mitsuya, Shiro; Yamauchi, Akira

    2018-03-12

    Rainfed lowland (RFL) rice fields have hardpans and experience soil moisture fluctuations (SMF) stress, which influence root system development. Here, we clarify the expression and timing of the plasticity in nodal root elongation through the hardpan under SMF and its contribution to shoot growth using a shallow-rooting IR64 and its deep-rooting introgression line, YTH304. Under SMF, soil moisture content had negative relationship with soil penetration resistance, regardless of hardpan bulk densities. YTH304 had greater root system below the hardpan than IR64 in hardpan with 1.50 but not in 1.70 g cm -3 bulk density (BD). YTH304 had greater plasticity in nodal root elongation through the hardpan than IR64 under SMF, which was clearly expressed during rewatering. YTH304 also had greater soil water uptake below the hardpan during drought and greater shoot growth than IR64. The results imply that deep root system development during SMF was due to the plasticity in nodal root elongation through the hardpan expressed during rewatering rather than during drought periods. This is against the long standing belief that active root elongation through the hardpan happens during drought. This also implies a need to revisit current root screening methods to identify rice lines with good hardpan penetration ability.

  8. Dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 perturbs cytoskeletal organization and impairs endothelial cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Tamura, Kiyomi; Ogawa, Minetaro

    2018-02-26

    Elongation of endothelial cells is an important process in vascular formation and is expected to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 impaired endothelial cell elongation, although the mechanism has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the mTORC1-specific inhibitor everolimus and the mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitor KU0063794 on the cytoskeletal organization and morphology of endothelial cell lines. While both inhibitors equally inhibited cell proliferation, KU0063794 specifically caused abnormal accumulation of F-actin and disordered distribution of microtubules, thereby markedly impairing endothelial cell elongation and tube formation. The effects of KU0063794 were phenocopied by paclitaxel treatment, suggesting that KU0063794 might impair endothelial cell morphology through over-stabilization of microtubules. Although mTORC1 is a key signaling molecule in cell proliferation and has been considered a target for preventing angiogenesis, mTORC1 inhibitors have not been sufficient to suppress angiogenesis. Our results suggest that mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibition is more effective for anti-angiogenic therapy, as it impairs not only endothelial cell proliferation, but also endothelial cell elongation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vivo Cell Wall Loosening by Hydroxyl Radicals during Cress Seed Germination and Elongation Growth1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kerstin; Linkies, Ada; Vreeburg, Robert A.M.; Fry, Stephen C.; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical (·OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to show that ·OH is generated in the cell wall during radicle elongation and weakening of the endosperm of cress (Lepidium sativum; Brassicaceae) seeds. Endosperm weakening precedes radicle emergence, as demonstrated by direct biomechanical measurements. By 3H fingerprinting, we showed that wall polysaccharides are oxidized in vivo by the developmentally regulated action of apoplastic ·OH in radicles and endosperm caps: the production and action of ·OH increased during endosperm weakening and radicle elongation and were inhibited by the germination-inhibiting hormone abscisic acid. Both effects were reversed by gibberellin. Distinct and tissue-specific target sites of ·OH attack on polysaccharides were evident. In vivo ·OH attack on cell wall polysaccharides were evident not only in germinating seeds but also in elongating maize (Zea mays; Poaceae) seedling coleoptiles. We conclude that plant cell wall loosening by ·OH is a controlled action of this type of reactive oxygen species. PMID:19493972

  10. The formation mechanism of 4179 Toutatis' elongated bi-lobed structure in a close Earth encounter scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    The optical images of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis acquired by Chang'e-2 spacecraft show that Toutatis has an elongated contact binary configuration, with the contact point located along the long axis. We speculate that such configuration may have resulted from a low-speed impact between two components. In this work, we performed a series of numerical simulations and compared the results with the optical images, to examine the mechanism and better understand the formation of Toutatis. Herein we propose an scenario that an assumed separated binary precursor could undergo a close encounter with Earth, leading to an impact between the primary and secondary, and the elongation is caused by Earth's tide. The precursor is assumed to be a doubly synchronous binary with a semi-major axis of 4 Rp (radius of primary) and the two components are represented as spherical cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregates. The mutual orbits are simulated in a Monte Carlo routine to provide appropriate parameters for our N-body simulations of impact and tidal distortion. We employ the pkdgrav package with a soft-sphere discrete element method (SSDEM) to explore the entire scenarios. The results show that contact binary configurations are natural outcomes under this scenario, whereas the shape of the primary is almost not affected by the impact of the secondary. However, our simulations further provide an elongated contact binary configuration best-matching to the shape of Toutatis at an approaching distance rp = 1.4 ˜ 1.5 Re (Earth radius), indicative of a likely formation scenario for configurations of Toutatis-like elongated contact binaries.

  11. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  12. Sigma-1 Receptor Enhances Neurite Elongation of Cerebellar Granule Neurons via TrkB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuriko; Fujita, Yuki; Shibata, Kumi; Mori, Megumi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2013-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an integral membrane protein predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sig-1R demonstrates a high affinity to various synthetic compounds including well-known psychotherapeutic drugs in the central nervous system (CNS). For that, it is considered as an alternative target for psychotherapeutic drugs. On the cellular level, when Sig-1R is activated, it is known to play a role in neuroprotection and neurite elongation. These effects are suggested to be mediated by its ligand-operated molecular chaperone activity, and/or upregulation of various Ca2+ signaling. In addition, recent studies show that Sig-1R activation induces neurite outgrowth via neurotrophin signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite elongation through activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk), a family of neurotrophin receptors. We found that 2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (PRE-084), a selective Sig-1R agonist, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth, and K252a, a Trk inhibitor, attenuated Sig-1R-mediated neurite elongation in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Moreover, we revealed that Sig-1R interacts with TrkB, and PRE-084 treatment enhances phosphorylation of Y515, but not Y706. Thus, our results indicate that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite outgrowth in CGNs through Y515 phosphorylation of TrkB. PMID:24116072

  13. Sigma-1 receptor enhances neurite elongation of cerebellar granule neurons via TrkB signaling.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuriko; Fujita, Yuki; Shibata, Kumi; Mori, Megumi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2013-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an integral membrane protein predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sig-1R demonstrates a high affinity to various synthetic compounds including well-known psychotherapeutic drugs in the central nervous system (CNS). For that, it is considered as an alternative target for psychotherapeutic drugs. On the cellular level, when Sig-1R is activated, it is known to play a role in neuroprotection and neurite elongation. These effects are suggested to be mediated by its ligand-operated molecular chaperone activity, and/or upregulation of various Ca(2+) signaling. In addition, recent studies show that Sig-1R activation induces neurite outgrowth via neurotrophin signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite elongation through activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk), a family of neurotrophin receptors. We found that 2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (PRE-084), a selective Sig-1R agonist, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth, and K252a, a Trk inhibitor, attenuated Sig-1R-mediated neurite elongation in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Moreover, we revealed that Sig-1R interacts with TrkB, and PRE-084 treatment enhances phosphorylation of Y515, but not Y706. Thus, our results indicate that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite outgrowth in CGNs through Y515 phosphorylation of TrkB.

  14. New Pn and Sn tomographic images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Díaz, J.; Gallart, J.

    2012-04-01

    We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath the Mediterranean region, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases. The method of Hearn (1996) has been applied to Pn and Sn lectures from the catalogs of the International Seismological Center and the Spanish Instituto Geografico Nacional. A total of 1,172,293 Pn arrivals coming from 16,527 earthquakes recorded at 1,657 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1400 km have been retained (331,567 arrivals from 15,487events at 961 stations for Sn). Our results, grossly consistent with available 3D tomography images, show significant features well correlated with surface geology. The Pn velocities are high (>8.2 km/s) beneath major sedimentary basins (western Alboran Sea, Valencia Trough, Adriatic Sea, Aquitaine, Guadalquivir, Rharb, Aquitaine and Po basins), and low (<7.8 km/s) in orogenic areas (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Dinarides, Helenides and Calabrian Arc), confirming the existence of marked variations in crustal thicknesses already documented in some active seismic experiments. The lowest velocity values are found under the Betics and the eastern and western Alps. Another low velocity anomaly is located below the south of Balearic Islands, probably related to a thermal anomaly associated to the westward displacement of the Alboran block along the Emile Baudot escarpment 16 Ma ago. The Pn anisotropic image shows consistent orientations sub-parallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The station delays beneath Betic and Rif ranges are strongly negative, suggesting the presence of crustal thickening all along the Gibraltar Arc. However, only the Betics have a very strong low-velocity anomaly and a pronounced anisotropy pattern. The Sn tomographic image correlates well with the Pn image, even if some relevant differences can be observed beneath particular regions.

  15. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stabilization and control of Majorana bound states with elongated skyrmions

    DOE PAGES

    Güngördü, Utkan; Sandhoefner, Shane; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-03-16

    We show that elongated magnetic skyrmions can host Majorana bound states in a proximity-coupled two-dimensional electron gas sandwiched between a chiral magnet and an s-wave superconductor. Our proposal requires stable skyrmions with unit topological charge, which can be realized in a wide range of multilayer magnets, and it allows quantum information transfer by using standard methods in spintronics via skyrmion motion. Finally, we also show how braiding operations can be realized in our proposal.

  17. Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Bondarev, I E; Butyugov, A A

    2003-06-01

    Addition of Epithalon peptide in telomerase-negative human fetal fibroblast culture induced expression of the catalytical subunit, enzymatic activity of telomerase, and telomere elongation, which can be due to reactivation of telomerase gene in somatic cells and indicates the possibility of prolonging life span of a cell population and of the whole organism.

  18. Methylglyoxal inhibits seed germination and root elongation and up-regulates transcription of stress-responsive genes in ABA-dependent pathway in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hoque, T S; Uraji, M; Tuya, A; Nakamura, Y; Murata, Y

    2012-09-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive metabolite derived from glycolysis. In this study, we examined the effect of MG on seed germination, root elongation, chlorosis and stress-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis using an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant, aba2-2. In the wild type, 0.1 mm MG did not affect germination but delayed root elongation, whereas 1.0 mm MG inhibited germination and root elongation and induced chlorosis. MG increased transcription levels of RD29B and RAB18 in a dose-dependent manner but did not affect RD29A transcription level. In contrast, in the aba2-2 mutant, MG inhibition of seed germination at 1.0 mm and 10.0 mm and a delay of root elongation at 0.1 mm MG were mitigated, although there was no significant difference in chlorosis between the wild type and mutant. Moreover, the aba2-2 mutation impaired MG-induced RD29B and RAB18 gene expression. These observations suggest that MG not only directly inhibits germination and root elongation but also indirectly modulates these processes via endogenous ABA in Arabidopsis. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. A class of Fourier integrals based on the electric potential of an elongated dipole.

    PubMed

    Skianis, Georgios Aim

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the closed expressions of a class of non tabulated Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals are associated with a group of functions at space domain, which represent the electric potential of a distribution of elongated dipoles which are perpendicular to a flat surface. It is shown that the Fourier integrals are produced by the Fourier transform of the Green's function of the potential of the dipole distribution, times a definite integral in which the distribution of the polarization is involved. Therefore the form of this distribution controls the expression of the Fourier integral. Introducing various dipole distributions, the respective Fourier integrals are derived. These integrals may be useful in the quantitative interpretation of electric potential anomalies produced by elongated dipole distributions, at spatial frequency domain.

  20. Relationship between changes in crystalline lens shape and axial elongation in young children.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-01-28

    To evaluate the relationship between changes in crystalline lens shape and axial elongation during growth in young children. Twenty-five patients (age: 1 month to 6 years) who underwent head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in the analysis. Refractive error was measured with an autorefractor in 22 patients. Crystalline lens dimensions and axial length (AL) were obtained from the MR images. The radius of curvature and asphericity of the crystalline lens were measured using reconstructed MR images. Crystalline lens shape and eyeball shape were numerically expressed by elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs) on the basis of MR images. The contours of the crystalline lens and eyeball were evaluated by principal component analysis of the EFDs. The average anterior and posterior radii of curvature were 6.21 mm (range across ages from 3.89-7.26 mm) and -4.81 mm (range across ages from -2.93 to -5.67 mm). These were closely correlated with age by logarithmic analysis. The first principal component (PC1) of the crystalline lens explained 89.15% of the total variance in lens shape, and it was also significantly correlated with age (Pearson's r = 0.648, P < 0.001) and AL (r = 0.847, P < 0.001). In the multiple linear regression analysis in which AL was a dependent variable, only the PC1 of the crystalline lens was associated with AL. Axial elongation is related to the entire contour of the crystalline lens. This result shows that axial elongation progresses in parallel to change in the crystalline lens shape.

  1. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Sun, Tian-Hu; Wang, Ning; Ling, Hong-Qing; Lu, Shan; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Orange (Or) gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring β-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis for the effects of the Or gene mutation in on plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2), a member of the eRF1 family, by yeast two-hybrid analysis and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Concomitantly, the Or mutant showed reduced expression of the BoeRF1 family genes. Transgenic cauliflower plants with suppressed expression of BoeRF1-2 and BoeRF1-3 were generated by RNA interference. Like the Or mutant, the BoeRF1 RNAi lines showed increased elongation of the leaf petiole. This long-petiole phenotype was largely caused by enhanced cell elongation, which resulted from increased cell length and elevated expression of genes involved in cell-wall loosening. These findings demonstrate that the cauliflower Or gene controls petiole elongation by suppressing the expression of eRF1 genes, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf petiole regulation. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  3. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most-extensively oil space shuttle external tank are BX-265 and NCFL4-124. Because of the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a nonisotropic mechanical behavior. A detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. Key features of the foam cells are described and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are summarized. Experimental studies are also conducted to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise). The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile strength, and Poisson's ratios are reported. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are summarized. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson's ratios are predicted for both foams and are compared with the experimental data. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratio for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson's ratios and the measured values is not as favorable.

  4. DisAp-dependent striated fiber elongation is required to organize ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Bonney, Stephanie; Kronenberg, Zev; Clarissa, Christina; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C.; Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Giddings, Thomas H.; Frankel, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Cilia-organizing basal bodies (BBs) are microtubule scaffolds that are visibly asymmetrical because they have attached auxiliary structures, such as striated fibers. In multiciliated cells, BB orientation aligns to ensure coherent ciliary beating, but the mechanisms that maintain BB orientation are unclear. For the first time in Tetrahymena thermophila, we use comparative whole-genome sequencing to identify the mutation in the BB disorientation mutant disA-1. disA-1 abolishes the localization of the novel protein DisAp to T. thermophila striated fibers (kinetodesmal fibers; KFs), which is consistent with DisAp’s similarity to the striated fiber protein SF-assemblin. We demonstrate that DisAp is required for KFs to elongate and to resist BB disorientation in response to ciliary forces. Newly formed BBs move along KFs as they approach their cortical attachment sites. However, because they contain short KFs that are rotated, BBs in disA-1 cells display aberrant spacing and disorientation. Therefore, DisAp is a novel KF component that is essential for force-dependent KF elongation and BB orientation in multiciliary arrays. PMID:25533842

  5. The Evolution of the Surface of Symmetry of the Interplanetary Dust from 24° to 5° Elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, Guillermo; Howard, Russell A.

    2017-10-01

    The white-light STEREO/SECCHI images include light scattered by dust in orbit about the Sun (the F-corona). We analyzed the evolution of the symmetry axis of the F-corona between 2007 and 2012 in the elongation range covered by the STEREO-A/HI-1 instrument (4°-24° elongation) to characterize the plane of symmetry of the zodiacal dust cloud. The symmetry axes both above and below the ecliptic plane were derived separately without assuming any particular functional form. No noticeable time dependence was observed. However, we did find an evolution with elongation of both the inclination I and the ascending node {{{Ω }}}A of the inferred plane of symmetry. Both parameters appeared fairly constant in the outer half of the elongation range studied (I=˜ 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7,{{{Ω }}}A=˜ 83^\\circ ; values close to those of Venus’s orbit). Then, they start to evolve, becoming I=˜ 6^\\circ (I.e., a trend toward the solar equatorial plane) and {{{Ω }}}A=˜ 57^\\circ at about 5° elongation. This variation indicates that the zodiacal dust cloud exhibits a warped plane of symmetry, with an estimated center of symmetry at about 0.5 {R}⊙ from the Sun’s center on the side of the heliosphere containing Jupiter. We found a marginal difference between the inclination of the axes below and above the ecliptic. This is suggestive of an increased dust density distribution at certain fixed longitudes, which could be explained by the dust deposition of Kreutz Sun-grazing comets. We conjecture that the circumsolar dust is mainly affected by gravitational forces, other forces becoming dominant only where the more rapid changes occur.

  6. A transport and retention mechanism for the sustained distal localization of Spn-F-IKKε during Drosophila bristle elongation.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tetsuhisa; Oshima, Kenzi; Kimpara, Akiyo; Takeda, Michiko; Abdu, Uri; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Stable localization of the signaling complex is essential for the robust morphogenesis of polarized cells. Cell elongation involves molecular signaling centers that coordinately regulate intracellular transport and cytoskeletal structures. In Drosophila bristle elongation, the protein kinase IKKε is activated at the distal tip of the growing bristle and regulates the shuttling movement of recycling endosomes and cytoskeletal organization. However, how the distal tip localization of IKKε is established and maintained during bristle elongation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that IKKε distal tip localization is regulated by Spindle-F (Spn-F), which is stably retained at the distal tip and functions as an adaptor linking IKKε to cytoplasmic dynein. We found that Javelin-like (Jvl) is a key regulator of Spn-F retention. In jvl mutant bristles, IKKε and Spn-F initially localize to the distal tip but fail to be retained there. In S2 cells, particles that stain positively for Jvl or Spn-F move in a microtubule-dependent manner, whereas Jvl and Spn-F double-positive particles are immobile, indicating that Jvl and Spn-F are transported separately and, upon forming a complex, immobilize each other. These results suggest that polarized transport and selective retention regulate the distal tip localization of the Spn-F-IKKε complex during bristle cell elongation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Comparison of CO2 laser and sharp dissection techniques for excision of elongated soft palates in brachycephalic dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Ellen B.; Davis, Michael S.; Campbell, Gregory A.; Williamson, Katherine K.; Payton, Mark E.; Healey, Tiffany A.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

    2001-05-01

    Elongated soft palate is the most common respiratory disease in brachycephalics. During inspiration, an elongated palate obstructs the glottal opening, causing respiratory distress. Left untreated, elongated soft palate may be life threatening. We conducted a randomized, prospective experimental trial in 20 brachycephalic dogs with redundant or elongated soft palates to compare palate resection using sharp dissection and a CO2 laser. Dogs were assigned standardized clinical scores at 0, 2, 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively. Tracheostomy performed at surgery significantly increased clinical scores at 3 of the 5 time measurements, but scores became equal to those without tracheostomies after tracheostomy tube removal. Clinical scores between groups were comparable at 0 and 8 hours. Biopsies of the soft palate were obtained at days 0, 3, 7, and 14. The CO2 laser initially incited greater epithelial separation, carbonization, and necrosis, but by day 3, histologic scores were similar. Inflammation peaked at day 3 in all groups; by day 14 these lesions had resolved. Mean surgical time for the laser was significantly shorter. Both techniques resulted in minimal intraoperative hemorrhage and rapid resolution of inflammation. However, many brachycephalic patients have clinical signs and secondary airway changes that predispose them to postoperative complications; the CO2 laser technique does not obviate the need for intensive care management for 24-28 hours postoperatively. Tracheostomy is not warranted in soft palate resection.

  8. 7SK snRNP/P-TEFb couples transcription elongation with alternative splicing and is essential for vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Barboric, Matjaz; Lenasi, Tina; Chen, Hui; Johansen, Eric B.; Guo, Su; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is commonly controlled at the level of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing subsequent to transcription initiation. Transcription elongation is stimulated by the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase, which is suppressed within the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SK snRNP). However, the biogenesis and functional significance of 7SK snRNP remain poorly understood. Here, we report that LARP7, BCDIN3, and the noncoding 7SK small nuclear RNA (7SK) are vital for the formation and stability of a cell stress-resistant core 7SK snRNP. Our functional studies demonstrate that 7SK snRNP is not only critical for controlling transcription elongation, but also for regulating alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Using a transient expression splicing assay, we find that 7SK snRNP disintegration promotes inclusion of an alternative exon via the increased occupancy of P-TEFb, Ser2-phosphorylated (Ser2-P) RNAPII, and the splicing factor SF2/ASF at the minigene. Importantly, knockdown of larp7 or bcdin3 orthologues in zebrafish embryos destabilizes 7SK and causes severe developmental defects and aberrant splicing of analyzed transcripts. These findings reveal a key role for P-TEFb in coupling transcription elongation with alternative splicing, and suggest that maintaining core 7SK snRNP is essential for vertebrate development. PMID:19416841

  9. Elongated Asteroid Will Safely Pass Earth on Christmas Eve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-23

    The elongated asteroid in this radar image, named 2003 SD220, will safely fly past Earth on Thursday, Dec. 24, 2015, at a distance of 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers). The image was taken on Dec. 22 by scientists using NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, California, when the asteroid was approaching its flyby distance. This asteroid is at least 3,600 feet (1,100 meters) long. In 2018, it will safely pass Earth at a distance of 1.8 million miles (2.8 million kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20280

  10. Evaluation of antifungal volatile compounds on the basis of the elongation rate of a single hypha.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, H; Ii, Y; Takekawa, Y; Teraoka, T

    1990-01-01

    A novel method is proposed for the evaluation of the activity of an antifungal agent administered as a gas. This system is composed of a batch-flow type reaction vessel, a gas flow system, and a microscopic observation system. The agar plate was prepared on the ceiling of the reaction vessel, and the mycelium of a fungus (Aspergillus niger or Rhizoctonia solani) was inoculated onto it. After preincubation at 25 degrees C for 24 h, the reaction vessel was connected to the gas flow system. An appropriate hypha was selected, and its elongation rate was measured. Then a sample holder containing an antifungal compound was inserted into the reaction vessel from the side hole to saturate the atmosphere inside with its vapor. The retardation or inhibition of the hypha elongation was observed on a television monitor and recorded on a video tape recorder. The antifungal compound was then removed, and the reaction vessel was flushed with air. If the hypha lived, it began to elongate again. By this method, antifungal activity of seven odor compounds could be evaluated quantitatively within several hours. Images PMID:2082824

  11. Adaptation during northern range expansion in the elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa

    Treesearch

    Evan Preisser; Alexandra Lodge; David Orwig; Joseph Elkinton

    2007-01-01

    The elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa, (EHS) an invasive pest from Japan, was first found in the eastern United States in 1908. It feeds on a variety of plants, most notably the eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis, and has been spreading slowly into southern New England. In order to examine the northern spread of EHS and the...

  12. A Homolog of Blade-On-Petiole 1 and 2 (BOP1/2) Controls Internode Length and Homeotic Changes of the Barley Inflorescence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Taketa, Shin; Mascher, Martin; Yuo, Takahisa; Beier, Sebastian; Taudien, Stefan; Morgante, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture in small-grain cereals has a direct effect on yield and is an important selection target in breeding for yield improvement. We analyzed the recessive mutation laxatum-a (lax-a) in barley (Hordeum vulgare), which causes pleiotropic changes in spike development, resulting in (1) extended rachis internodes conferring a more relaxed inflorescence, (2) broadened base of the lemma awns, (3) thinner grains that are largely exposed due to reduced marginal growth of the palea and lemma, and (4) and homeotic conversion of lodicules into two stamenoid structures. Map-based cloning enforced by mapping-by-sequencing of the mutant lax-a locus enabled the identification of a homolog of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2 as the causal gene. Interestingly, the recently identified barley uniculme4 gene also is a BOP1/2 homolog and has been shown to regulate tillering and leaf sheath development. While the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BOP1 and BOP2 genes act redundantly, the barley genes contribute independent effects in specifying the developmental growth of vegetative and reproductive organs, respectively. Analysis of natural genetic diversity revealed strikingly different haplotype diversity for the two paralogous barley genes, likely affected by the respective genomic environments, s