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Sample records for els distillation down-select

  1. Results and Interpretation of the WFRD ELS Distillation Down-Select Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance Dean; Flynn, Michael; Carter, Layne; Long, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator was conducted in support of the Exploration Life Support Distillation Down-Select Test. The WFRD was constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The WFRD was delivered to MSFC in September 2009, and testing of solution #1 and solution #2 immediately following. Solution #1 was composed of humidity condensate and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. Solution #2 was composed of hygiene water, humidity condensate, and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. During the testing, the operational parameters of the WFRD were recorded and samples of the feed, brine, and product were collected and analyzed. The steady-state results of processing 414L of feed solution #1 and 1283L of feed solution #2 demonstrated that running the WFRD at a brine temperature of 50 C gave an average production rate of 16.7 L/hr. The specific energy consumption was 80.5W-hr/L. Data Analysis shows that the water recovery rates were 94% and 91%, respectively. The total mass of the WFRD as delivered to MSFC was 300 Kg. The volume of the tests stand rack was 1m width x 0.7m depth x 1.9m height or 1.5 cu m of which about half of the total volume is occupied by equipment. Chemical analysis of the distillate showed an average TOC of 20ppm, a pH of 3.5, and a conductivity of 98 mho/cm. The conductivity of the distillate, compared to the feed, decreased by 98.9%., the total ion concentration decreased by 99.6%, the total organics decreased 98.6%, and the metals were at or below detection limits

  2. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  3. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  4. Composite Interstage Structural Concept Down Select Process and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Thoma, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Technologies (ACT) project evaluated several composite construction options for the Ares V Interstage to support the Constellation Program's goal of reducing the mass of vehicle dry structures. In Phase 1 of the project, eight candidate construction concepts were evaluated for the Ares V Interstage design. Trade studies were performed using finite element analyses to determine weight estimates for the construction concepts. An evaluation process was then used to down select the construction concepts down to two concepts for further consideration in Phase 2 of the project. In Phase 2 of the project, additional trade studies were performed using detailed finite element analyses of the Interstage and a final down select process was used to choose the recommended Interstage construction concept. The results of the study showed that a honeycomb sandwich design was the most favorable Interstage construction concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost. Details of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 trade studies and down select process with final results are presented in the paper.

  5. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.217-71 - Phased acquisition using down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... down-selection procedures. 1852.217-71 Section 1852.217-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.217-71 Phased acquisition using down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(a), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Down-Selection...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.217-72 - Phased acquisition using progressive competition down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... progressive competition down-selection procedures. 1852.217-72 Section 1852.217-72 Federal Acquisition... competition down-selection procedures. As prescribed in 1817.7302(b), insert the following clause: Phased Acquisition Using Progressive Competition Down-Selection Procedures (MAY 2000) (a) This solicitation is...

  11. Secondary Waste Form Down Selection Data Package – Ceramicrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-08-31

    As part of high-level waste pretreatment and immobilized low activity waste processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility. Currently, four waste forms are being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. These waste forms are Cast Stone, Ceramicrete, DuraLith, and Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer. The preferred alternative will be down selected from these four waste forms. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing data packages to support the down selection process. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilization and solidification of the liquid secondary wastes. The information included will be based on information available in the open literature and from data obtained from testing currently underway. This data package is for the Ceramicrete waste form. Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering material developed at Argonne National Laboratory to treat radioactive and hazardous waste streams (e.g., Wagh 2004; Wagh et al. 1999a, 2003; Singh et al. 2000). This cement-like waste form can be used to treat solids, liquids, and sludges by chemical immobilization, microencapsulation, and/or macroencapsulation. The Ceramicrete technology is based on chemical reaction between phosphate anions and metal cations to form a strong, dense, durable, low porosity matrix that immobilizes hazardous and radioactive contaminants as insoluble phosphates and microencapsulates insoluble radioactive components and other constituents that do not form phosphates. Ceramicrete is a type of phosphate-bonded ceramic, which are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The Ceramicrete

  12. 48 CFR 1852.217-71 - Phased acquisition using down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-phased procurement using a competitive down-selection technique between phases. In this technique, two or more contractors will be selected for Phase 1. It is expected that the single contractor for Phase 2 will be chosen from among these contractors after a competitive down-selection. (b) Phase 1 is for...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.217-71 - Phased acquisition using down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-phased procurement using a competitive down-selection technique between phases. In this technique, two or more contractors will be selected for Phase 1. It is expected that the single contractor for Phase 2 will be chosen from among these contractors after a competitive down-selection. (b) Phase 1 is for...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.217-71 - Phased acquisition using down-selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NASA reserves the right to change them at any time up to and including the date upon which Phase 2... as a two-phased procurement using a competitive down-selection technique between phases. In this technique, two or more contractors will be selected for Phase 1. It is expected that the single...

  15. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  16. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  17. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  18. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  19. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  20. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  1. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  2. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  3. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  4. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  5. Sensor Acquisition for Water Utilities: Survey, Down Selection Process, and Technology List

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M; Glascoe, L; Love, A; Johnson, M; Einfeld, W

    2005-06-29

    The early detection of the biological and chemical contamination of water distribution systems is a necessary capability for securing the nation's water supply. Current and emerging early-detection technology capabilities and shortcomings need to be identified and assessed to provide government agencies and water utilities with an improved methodology for assessing the value of installing these technologies. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has tasked a multi-laboratory team to evaluate current and future needs to protect the nation's water distribution infrastructure by supporting an objective evaluation of current and new technologies. The LLNL deliverable from this Operational Technology Demonstration (OTD) was to assist the development of a technology acquisition process for a water distribution early warning system. The technology survey includes a review of previous sensor surveys and current test programs and a compiled database of relevant technologies. In the survey paper we discuss previous efforts by governmental agencies, research organizations, and private companies. We provide a survey of previous sensor studies with regard to the use of Early Warning Systems (EWS) that includes earlier surveys, testing programs, and response studies. The list of sensor technologies was ultimately developed to assist in the recommendation of candidate technologies for laboratory and field testing. A set of recommendations for future sensor selection efforts has been appended to this document, as has a down selection example for a hypothetical water utility.

  6. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  9. Analysis and Down Select of Flow Passages for Thermal Hydraulic Testing of a SNAP Derived Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, T. J.; Sadasivan, P.; Masterson, S.

    2007-01-01

    As past of the Vision for Space Exploration, man will return to the moon. To enable safe and productive time on the lunar surface will require adequate power resources. To provide the needed power and to give mission planners all landing site possibilities, including a permanently dark crater, a nuclear reactor provides the most options. Designed to be l00kWt providing approx. 25kWe this power plants would be very effective in delivering dependable, site non-specific power to crews or robotic missions on the lunar surface. An affordable reference reactor based upon the successful SNAP program of the 1960's and early 1970's has been designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory that will meet such a requirement. Considering current funding, environmental, and schedule limitations this lunar surface power reactor will be tested using non-nuclear simulators to simulate the heat from fission reactions. Currently a 25kWe surface power SNAP derivative reactor is in the early process of design and testing with collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Glenn Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Sandia National Laboratory to ensure that this new design is affordable and can be tested using non-nuclear methods as have proven so effective in the past. This paper will discuss the study and down selection of a flow passage concept for a approx. 25kWe lunar surface power reactor. Several different flow passages designs were evaluated using computational fluid dynamics to determine pressure drop and a structural assessment to consider thermal and stress of the passage walls. The reactor design basis conditions are discussed followed by passage problem setup and results for each concept. A recommendation for passage design is made with rationale for selection.

  10. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  11. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  12. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a process that has been used to help nuclear power plant (NPP) clients resolve some of their more challenging waste water processing issues. These treatment issues may become even more evident during outage conditions, due (in part) to associated decontamination activities that may cause off-normal chemical conditions, which may subsequently change both the peak levels of activities for radionuclides introduced into the collected waste water and also the chemical forms in which they may exist (e.g., formation of colloids or soluble chelates). In one NPP waste processing example, a large proportion of soluble Co-58, which is normally present as a soluble cationic species or an uncharged colloidal solid, was found to behave like an anion; formation of an anionic chelation complex was implicated, possibly due to suspect EDTA, or similar additive, in a proprietary decontamination soap formulation. Antimony 125 (Sb{sup 125}), normally present as a weakly anionic (Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}) or even neutral (Sb(OH){sub 3}{sup 0}) species, was being displaced from previously-loaded media by other, more strongly bound species, causing an unacceptable peak activity in water intended for discharge. A quick resolution of the existing waste processing limitations was required, due to limited waste water holding capacity. Samples of the authentic NPP waste water containing the recalcitrant radionuclides were sent to our licensed off-site laboratory (MCLinc), where small-scale batch-equilibrium testing was used to down-select, from a large number (36) of candidate media (both commercially available and developed internally), those that were relatively effective and economical for use in achieving the required discharge criteria. Batch equilibrium testing is very efficient for use in screening the relative effectiveness of contaminant removal by candidate media in a select waste water composition, and can also provide an estimate of the ultimate contaminant loading

  13. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  14. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  15. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  16. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  17. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  18. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  19. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  20. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  1. Sleep-Dependent Synaptic Down-Selection (I): Modeling the Benefits of Sleep on Memory Consolidation and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Nere, Andrew; Hashmi, Atif; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Sleep can favor the consolidation of both procedural and declarative memories, promote gist extraction, help the integration of new with old memories, and desaturate the ability to learn. It is often assumed that such beneficial effects are due to the reactivation of neural circuits in sleep to further strengthen the synapses modified during wake or transfer memories to different parts of the brain. A different possibility is that sleep may benefit memory not by further strengthening synapses, but rather by renormalizing synaptic strength to restore cellular homeostasis after net synaptic potentiation in wake. In this way, the sleep-dependent reactivation of neural circuits could result in the competitive down-selection of synapses that are activated infrequently and fit less well with the overall organization of memories. By using computer simulations, we show here that synaptic down-selection is in principle sufficient to explain the beneficial effects of sleep on the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, on gist extraction, and on the integration of new with old memories, thereby addressing the plasticity-stability dilemma. PMID:24137153

  2. Statistical methods for down-selection of treatment regimens based on multiple endpoints, with application to HIV vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Gilbert, Peter B; Fu, Rong; Janes, Holly

    2016-09-20

    SummaryBiomarker endpoints measuring vaccine-induced immune responses are essential to HIV vaccine development because of their potential to predict the effect of a vaccine in preventing HIV infection. A vaccine's immune response profile observed in phase I immunogenicity studies is a key factor in determining whether it is advanced for further study in phase II and III efficacy trials. The multiplicity of immune variables and scientific uncertainty in their relative importance, however, pose great challenges to the development of formal algorithms for selecting vaccines to study further. Motivated by the practical need to identify a set of promising vaccines from a pool of candidate regimens for inclusion in an upcoming HIV vaccine efficacy trial, we propose a new statistical framework for the selection of vaccine regimens based on their immune response profile. In particular, we propose superiority and non-redundancy criteria to be achieved in down-selection, and develop novel statistical algorithms that integrate hypothesis testing and ranking for selecting vaccine regimens satisfying these criteria. Performance of the proposed selection algorithms are evaluated through extensive numerical studies. We demonstrate the application of the proposed methods through the comparison of immune responses between several HIV vaccine regimens. The methods are applicable to general down-selection applications in clinical trials.

  3. Sleep-dependent synaptic down-selection (I): modeling the benefits of sleep on memory consolidation and integration.

    PubMed

    Nere, Andrew; Hashmi, Atif; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Sleep can favor the consolidation of both procedural and declarative memories, promote gist extraction, help the integration of new with old memories, and desaturate the ability to learn. It is often assumed that such beneficial effects are due to the reactivation of neural circuits in sleep to further strengthen the synapses modified during wake or transfer memories to different parts of the brain. A different possibility is that sleep may benefit memory not by further strengthening synapses, but rather by renormalizing synaptic strength to restore cellular homeostasis after net synaptic potentiation in wake. In this way, the sleep-dependent reactivation of neural circuits could result in the competitive down-selection of synapses that are activated infrequently and fit less well with the overall organization of memories. By using computer simulations, we show here that synaptic down-selection is in principle sufficient to explain the beneficial effects of sleep on the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, on gist extraction, and on the integration of new with old memories, thereby addressing the plasticity-stability dilemma.

  4. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  5. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  6. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  7. Shell's Middle Distillate Synthesis process

    SciTech Connect

    Voetter, H.; VanDerBurgt, M.J. B.V., The Hague )

    1988-01-01

    The basis of the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) process is the classic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. For the case of middle distillate production from natural gas the procedure has been developed to commercial maturity, making use of tailored line-up for synthesis gas production and of proprietary modern catalysts in synthesis. Development work over the last years has in particular lead to improvement of the economy of the process altogether via catalyst performance, reactor sizing and syngas manufacturing line-up.

  8. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  9. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  10. Sleep-Dependent Synaptic Down-Selection (II): Single-Neuron Level Benefits for Matching, Selectivity, and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Atif; Nere, Andrew; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    In a companion paper (1), we used computer simulations to show that a strategy of activity-dependent, on-line net synaptic potentiation during wake, followed by off-line synaptic depression during sleep, can provide a parsimonious account for several memory benefits of sleep at the systems level, including the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, gist extraction, and integration of new with old memories. In this paper, we consider the theoretical benefits of this two-step process at the single-neuron level and employ the theoretical notion of Matching between brain and environment to measure how this process increases the ability of the neuron to capture regularities in the environment and model them internally. We show that down-selection during sleep is beneficial for increasing or restoring Matching after learning, after integrating new with old memories, and after forgetting irrelevant material. By contrast, alternative schemes, such as additional potentiation in wake, potentiation in sleep, or synaptic renormalization in wake, decrease Matching. We also argue that, by selecting appropriate loops through the brain that tie feedforward synapses with feedback ones in the same dendritic domain, different subsets of neurons can learn to specialize for different contingencies and form sequences of nested perception-action loops. By potentiating such loops when interacting with the environment in wake, and depressing them when disconnected from the environment in sleep, neurons can learn to match the long-term statistical structure of the environment while avoiding spurious modes of functioning and catastrophic interference. Finally, such a two-step process has the additional benefit of desaturating the neuron's ability to learn and of maintaining cellular homeostasis. Thus, sleep-dependent synaptic renormalization offers a parsimonious account for both cellular and systems level effects of sleep on learning and memory.

  11. Solar fermentation and distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.M.

    1984-06-19

    A solar fermentation process and distillation system for the manufacture of ethanol product suitable for blending with motor gasoline or as a substitute fuel for gasoline. Fermentation of starches or sugars is carried out in situ in solar collector tubes. The raw beer product emanating from the solar tubes is purified into a high quality ethanol fuel product by passing the beer product through a series of distillation columns whose internal reboil vapor is generated in whole or in substantial part through direct application of solar heat energy. The use of solar energy as heating source in the fermentation and distillation steps markedly reduces the need for external utilities such as steam and fuel to run the plant thereby greatly reducing the operating costs of the plant.

  12. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  13. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  14. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  15. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  16. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  17. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  18. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  19. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  20. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  1. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  2. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  3. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  4. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  5. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  6. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  7. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  8. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  9. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  10. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  11. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  12. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  13. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown...

  15. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  16. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  17. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  18. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

  19. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  20. [His Majesty's distillers: distillation and chemical medicine in the court of Phillip II].

    PubMed

    Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E

    2001-01-01

    The present work studies the appearance and development of Paracelsian Practices in the Spanish Court through a linked series of events that took place between 1564 and 1602. These were: the creation of Philippine distillation laboratories, the ordenance of the protophysician Francisco de Valles regarding distilled waters; the concession of a patent to Diego de Santiago for the invention of a steam distillery; the publication of the last treatise by Francisco de Valles, dedicated to weights, measures, and distilled waters; the appearance of a distiller on the founding staff of the Royal Apothecary, in charge of preparing all the distilled waters and chemical medicines; and the creation of a new post within the Court health organigram, that of Distiller Major.

  1. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  2. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  3. Unifying Gate Synthesis and Magic State Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Howard, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The leading paradigm for performing a computation on quantum memories can be encapsulated as distill-then-synthesize. Initially, one performs several rounds of distillation to create high-fidelity magic states that provide one good T gate, an essential quantum logic gate. Subsequently, gate synthesis intersperses many T gates with Clifford gates to realize a desired circuit. We introduce a unified framework that implements one round of distillation and multiquibit gate synthesis in a single step. Typically, our method uses the same number of T gates as conventional synthesis but with the added benefit of quadratic error suppression. Because of this, one less round of magic state distillation needs to be performed, leading to significant resource savings.

  4. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  5. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  6. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  7. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  8. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2013-06-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3√ {3}+1) ≈ 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

  9. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  10. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  11. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  12. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... added promptly to the fermenting or distilling material. (b) Use at bonded wine cellar. Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  13. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  16. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  17. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  18. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  4. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  5. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  6. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  7. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  8. Distillate-fuel stability and cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Henry, C.P.

    1981-01-01

    A symposium was held in June 1980 to assess the state of the art and to define current and future needs for tests to predict and monitor the stability and cleanliness of distillate fuels (excluding aviation turbine fuels). Topics included appraisals of present-day distillate fuel stability and cleanliness, requirements for various applications, anticipated trends, future fuels, fuel distribution problems, microbiological contamination, test methods for stability and cleanliness, and refinery processes which improve stability. This publication contains the twelve papers that were presented at the Symposium. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  9. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  10. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  11. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  12. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  13. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  14. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  15. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  16. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  17. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  18. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  19. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  20. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  1. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  2. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  3. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  4. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Taxes § 19.669 Distilled spirits taxes. (a) Proprietors may withdraw distilled spirits free of tax...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  6. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  7. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  9. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  10. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  11. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  12. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  13. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  14. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  15. Nonlocal distillation based on multisetting Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang-Jun; Deng, Dong-Ling; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-12-01

    Inspired by the recent works of Foster [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.120401 102, 120401 (2009)] and Brunner [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.160403 102, 160403 (2009)], we present a nonlocality distillation protocol for two three-level (qutrit) systems in the framework of generalized nonsignaling theories. Our protocol is based on a three-setting Bell inequality. It works efficiently for a specific class of three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes. In the asymptotic limit, all these nonlocal boxes can be distilled to the maximally nonlocal box defined by the inequality and nonsignaling constraints. Then we introduce a contracting protocol that reduces these boxes to the so-called “correlated nonlocal boxes.” As a result, our three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes also make communication complexity trivial and appear very unlikely to exist in nature.

  16. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  17. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  18. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  19. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  20. Toxicology of petroleum naphtha distillate vapors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F W

    1976-12-01

    A unique opportunity was presented to observe the potentially toxic effects of an acute exposure to the vapors of petroleum naphtha distillate on a relatively large number of individuals. The immediate manifestation in all was dyspnea. The action on motor vehicle combustion suggested that some of this could have been due to oxygen deprivation; however, all individuals were dyspneic for several minutes after exposure. A few were cyanotic for several minutes after exposure. All were excited. Tremulousness and mild nausea followed the initial symptoms but were of brief duration. One individual manifested numerous premature ventricular contractions. Since his exposure was brief and since none of the others showed similar findings, it is unlikely that the exposure was causal. The central nervous system depression described in acute exposure cases of the intact (not distillate) petroleum naphtha fumes was not observed in any of this series. There were no delayed manifestations or complications.

  1. Photothermal Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Politano, Antonio; Argurio, Pietro; Di Profio, Gianluca; Sanna, Vanna; Cupolillo, Anna; Chakraborty, Sudip; Arafat, Hassan A; Curcio, Efrem

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature.

  2. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Hillary; Howard, Mark

    2015-07-17

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols; yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum negativity; i.e., it is maximally nonstablizer in a specific sense.

  3. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-05-15

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  4. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-07-15

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  5. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  6. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system.

  7. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Earle, Martyn J; Esperança, José M S S; Gilea, Manuela A; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís P N; Magee, Joseph W; Seddon, Kenneth R; Widegren, Jason A

    2006-02-16

    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300 degrees C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

  8. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  9. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  10. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  11. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  12. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-07-15

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

  13. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  14. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation with noiseless linear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Zhang, ShengLi; Zou, XuBo; Bi, SiWen; Lin, XuLing

    2012-12-01

    Quantum entanglement distillation is a probabilistic process which protects entanglement from environment-induced decoherence. In this paper, we investigate the distillation of a continuousvariable optic entangled state with noiseless linear amplification (NLA). NLA schemes perform better than the conventional photon-subtraction-based distillation scheme, particularly in distributing entanglement over extremely low efficiency quantum channels. Finally, a comparison between the NLA-based scheme and the local squeezing-enhanced photon subtraction scheme is also investigated.

  15. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  16. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  17. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  18. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  19. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  20. 76 FR 19908 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION... published a final rule revising its distilled spirits plant regulations in the Federal Register of February... distilled spirits plant regulations as contained in 27 CFR part 19. TTB published this final rule as...

  1. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  2. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  3. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  4. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  5. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  6. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  7. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

    Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

  8. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching…

  9. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  10. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

  11. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  12. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  13. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  14. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  15. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...In this document, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau adopts as a final rule, with some changes, a proposed revision of its distilled spirits plant regulations. The revision modernizes the requirements for operating distilled spirits plants and includes a number of organizational changes to improve the layout of the regulatory texts. These changes make the regulations easier to apply,......

  16. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  17. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  18. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  19. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  20. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  1. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  2. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  3. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  4. Improved semidefinite programming upper bound on distillable entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2016-11-01

    An additive and semidefinite programming (SDP) computable entanglement measure is introduced to upper bound the amount of distillable entanglement in bipartite quantum states by operations completely preserving the positivity of partial transpose (PPT). This quantity is always smaller than or equal to the logarithmic negativity, the previously best known SDP bound on distillable entanglement, and the inequality is strict in general. Furthermore, a succinct SDP characterization of the one-copy PPT deterministic distillable entanglement for any given state is also obtained, which provides a simple but useful lower bound on the PPT distillable entanglement. Remarkably, there is a genuinely mixed state of which both bounds coincide with the distillable entanglement, while being strictly less than the logarithmic negativity.

  5. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  6. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  7. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  8. Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar

    SciTech Connect

    Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

  9. Vacuum membrane distillation: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, S.; Saavedra, A.; Sarti, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation is a membrane-based separation process considered here to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. Microporous hydrophobic membranes are used to separate the aqueous stream from a gas phase kept under vacuum. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on one side of the membrane, and mass transfer occurs through the vapor phase inside the membrane. The role of operative conditions on the process performance is widely investigated in the case of dilute binary aqueous mixtures containing acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylacetate, methylacetate, or methylterbutyl ether. Temperature, composition, flow rate of the liquid feed, and pressure downstream the membrane are the main operative variables. Among these, the vacuum-side pressure is the major design factor since it greatly affects the separation efficiency. A mathematical model description of the process is developed, and the results are compared with the experiments. The model is finally used to predict the best operative conditions in which the process can work for the case of benzene removal from waste waters.

  10. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  11. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  12. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  13. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  14. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  15. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  16. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  17. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  18. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  19. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  20. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  1. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    Recent market and environmental forces require the rapid development of better and cheaper separation process solutions. Especially for multicomponent mixtures, there are several feasible separation process solutions differing significantly in cost and energy consumption in spite of carrying out the same overall process. Therefore a systematic method to identify and design optimal multicomponent separation sequences is needed instead of relying on the inventive activity of a few experienced engineers. Even for a commonly perceived "mature" technology such as distillation, until recently there has been an absence of systematic methods to (i) elucidate all possible separation configurations and to (ii) identify energy efficient candidates. This research aims to address these needs. In this work, we focus on the continuous distillation of non-azeotropic mixtures into n distinct composition final product streams. We develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use mathematical framework to generate all the basic distillation configurations that use exactly (n-1) distillation columns to carry out this n-component separation. We extend the framework to generate all the additional distillation configurations with thermal coupling. We observe that the search space of distillation configurations grows very rapidly as the number of product streams increases. For instance, for a mixture to be separated into 4 product streams, we can choose from 18 basic configurations and 134 additional configurations with thermal coupling; while for a mixture to be separated into 8 product streams, we can choose from 15,767,207 basic configurations and 29,006,926,681 additional configurations with thermal coupling. The next challenge for a process engineer is to be able to quickly prune the search space to a handful of attractive energy efficient candidates that can be studied in greater detail. To this effect, we develop a quick screening optimization tool that identifies configurations

  2. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  3. Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii in distilled water.

    PubMed Central

    Joly, J R; Déry, P; Gauvreau, L; Coté, L; Trépanier, C

    1986-01-01

    Five cases of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii were identified within an 11-month period in a hospital in the Quebec City area. In four cases bacterial isolates were obtained from clinical specimens, and in one case seroconversion was demonstrated. All the patients had been admitted to hospital within 10 days before diagnosis. Two of the patients were immunosuppressed children. Only 1 of the 40 hot water samples from the hospital yielded L. dumoffii; however, 6 of 11 distilled water samples contained the bacterium. All the patients had been exposed to distilled water, four through respiratory therapy equipment and one through a room humidifier. Following the use of sterile distilled water in the apparatus, no further cases were identified. This is the first reported outbreak of Legionnaires' disease caused by L. dumoffii, and it is the first time that nosocomial legionellosis has been linked to contaminated distilled water in Canada. PMID:3536052

  4. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  5. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  6. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  7. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  8. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  9. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  10. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  11. Distillation of binary mixtures with capillary porous plates

    SciTech Connect

    Abu Al-Rub, F.A.; Akili, J.; Datta, R.

    1998-07-01

    Distillation of liquid mixtures using capillary porous plates is a new process which depends upon the use of the intermolecular interactions between solids and liquids to alter the normal vapor-liquid equilibrium of a given mixture. Distillation of different binary mixtures, namely ethanol-water, ethanol-benzene, and acetone-ethanol systems, of different compositions was experimentally studied in a continuous distillation column equipped with four, five, or six porous sintered stainless steel fractionating plates of 13.5 {micro}m pore diameter as well as six normal sieve plates. The results showed that the main factors affecting the separation efficiency in a given porous plate are the polarization of the pure liquids and the polarization difference between the mixture components. For the ethanol-water system, the results showed that while no separation was achieved in a distillation column with conventional stages, the zeotropic point of this system was broken in the distillation column with porous plates. A distillate of about 94 mol% ethanol was obtained for a feed of the zeotropic composition, i.e., 89.7 mol% ethanol. For the ethanol-benzene system, the azeotropic point was shifted from 40 mol% ethanol to about 30 mol% ethanol. For the acetone-ethanol system, there was no significant difference between the results obtained with normal stages and those with the porous plates. These results are in agreement with the developed theory.

  12. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... issue. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits at rates that differ depending on the product from which the spirit is distilled. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits made from certain materials that...

  13. 27 CFR 19.315 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from bonded premises before being distilled. The proprietor may remove mash, wort, wash or other... distilled spirits plant or bonded wine cellar. Residue of beer used as distilling material may be returned to the producing brewery. Distilling material produced and wine and beer received for use...

  14. Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

  15. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic.

  16. Extractive acetonobutylic fermentation by coupling ultrafiltration and distillation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Grateloup, R; Blanc-Ferras, E; Goma, G

    1990-04-15

    An extractive acetonobutylic fermentation process is developed by integrating bioproduction, Ultrafiltration, and distillation, providing simultaneous retention of biomass, selective removal of inhibitors from the permeate, as well as separation and purification of acetone-butanol-ethanol solvents. Successive batch fermentations were performed with normal pressure distillation (98 degrees C), which permitted prolonging and enhancing (by a factor of 3) solvent production, with very few volume exchanges of medium (average dilution rate ws 0.002 h(-1)), and recovering on-line concentrated solvents. Different operating conditions were also tested in order to study the presence of extracellular autolytic enzymes as inhibition factors: It was shown that, (1) extracellular autolytic activity remains low during the larger part of fermentations, even without enzyme-inactivating thermotreatment in the distillation boiler, and (2) high-temperature distillation causes deleterious effects to the culture medium for long duration treatments. Progressive improvements of the process were achieved, first, by managing continuous runs, providing a minimum renewal of the culture medium and, mainly, by decreasing temperature and pressure of distilation. Solvent productivity then reached 2.6 g/L h for a 0.036 h(-1) average dilution rate, corresponding to a feed concentration of 156 g/L glucose actually consumed.

  17. Integrated staged conversion of methanol to gasoline and distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes an integrated fluidized bed process for the conversion of C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock to olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst in an oxygenate to light olefins conversion zone under oxygenate to light olefins conversion conditions whereby an effluent stream comprising C{sub 2}+ olefins is produced; cooling the effluent stream and passing the effluent stream to an olefins to gasoline conversion zone in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst under olefins to gasoline conversion conditions whereby C{sub 2}+ olefins are converted to gasoline comprising C{sub 5}+ olefinic hydrocarbons; introducing the C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons into an olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone at increased pressure under olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbon conversion conditions in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst whereby olefinic gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons are produced without recycling C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons to the olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone.

  18. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  19. Production and composition of cider spirits distilled in "alquitara".

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Valles, Belén Suarez; Hevia, Ana García; Fernandez, Ovidio García; Tascón, Norman Fernandez; Alonso, Juan José Mangas

    2006-12-27

    The capacity of alquitara (a traditional distillation system) to produce cider brandies is evaluated. To do so, the chemical composition of 12 fractions obtained during the distillation process and the cider brandies obtained from five ciders were analyzed (alcohol strength, methanol, volatile substances, furfural, and metals), taking into account European and Spanish legislation. During the course of distillation, an important increase in methanol, furfural, 2-phenylethanol, and metals in the last fractions was observed, while fusel oils were more abundant in the first fractions collected. Only acetaldehyde behaved differently, showing a minimum concentration in the middle fractions that might be explained by its formation on the surface of alquitara. On the other hand, the final distillates obtained by means of this method complied with the considered regulations. Worth highlighting in this regard are the low levels of a potential toxin such as methanol, as well as the detection of a constant ratio for methanol, ethanol, and fusel oil for the pairs of cider/spirits analyzed, which could be interpreted as an indication of good uniformity in the distillation system and method, thus guaranteeing product quality.

  20. Thermodynamic Losses in Multi-effect Distillation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) is one of desalination technologies. It is also applied in chemical engineering and other industries for evaporation, distillation, crystallization, etc. In a large multi-effect distillation plant, some tiny thermodynamic losses might have a great influence to the performance and design parameters. For the detailed analysis and design of a MED desalination plant, a series of experiments were carried out. The thermodynamic losses in a MED desalination plant is analyzed as an example to show its effect on the performance and structure parameters. The thermodynamics losses have a cumulative effect. With the increase of effect number and the concentration ratio, the thermodynamic losses shall be a dominant factor for the operation performance of a MED plant.

  1. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  2. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    PubMed

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  3. Teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojoon; Joo, Jaewoo; Kim, Jaewan

    2007-07-15

    In this paper, we consider teleportation capability, distillability, and nonlocality on three-qubit states. In order to investigate some relations among them, we first find the explicit formulas of the quantities about the maximal teleportation fidelity on three-qubit states. We show that if any three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation then the three-qubit state is distillable into a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and that if any three-qubit state violates a specific form of Mermin inequality then the three-qubit state is useful for three-qubit teleportation.

  4. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  5. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  6. Instrumentation for potentiostatic corrosion studies with distilled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loess, R. E.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Corrosion is studied potentiostatically in the corroding environment of distilled water with an instrument that measures the potential of the corroding specimen immediately after interruption of the polarizing current. No current is flowing. The process permits compensation for IR drops when potentiostatic control is used in high resistance systems.

  7. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2012-02-07

    A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes.

  10. Using Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A Distillation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasteiro, Maria G.; Bernardo, Fernando P.; Saraiva, Pedro M.

    2005-01-01

    The question addressed here is how to integrate computational tools, namely interactive general-purpose platforms, in the teaching of process units. Mathematica has been selected as a complementary tool to teach distillation processes, with the main objective of leading students to achieve a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved…

  11. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Ali

    2010-07-15

    Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

  12. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  13. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  14. Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

  15. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  16. Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.

  17. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  18. 27 CFR 17.151 - Use of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cleaning a system, are not considered to have been used in the manufacture of a product. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 17.151 Section 17.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  19. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  20. Distilling angular momentum nonclassical states in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Militello, B.; Messina, A.

    2004-09-01

    In the spirit of quantum nondemolition measurements, we show that by exploiting suitable vibronic couplings and repeatedly measuring the atomic population of a confined ion, it is possible to distill center-of-mass vibrational states with a well-defined square of angular momentum or, alternatively, angular momentum projection Schroedinger cat states.

  1. Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozzi, Jay C.

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column

  2. Process for efficient fermentation and distillation for alcohol. Final report, 12 August 1981-15 June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    DeLair, C.M.

    1981-06-01

    The feasibility of a vapor-compression distillation column in conjunction with continuous fermentation is studied. The distillation process was studied and a small scale distillation model was constructed and tested. (MHR)

  3. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  4. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  5. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  6. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  7. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment...

  8. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  9. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  10. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  11. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  12. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits,...

  13. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  14. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade..., Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In Notice... proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits to include ``Cacha a'' as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  16. Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman

    2007-11-15

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section 721.10670 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... distillation residue (generic). 721.10530 Section 721.10530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation... substance is identified generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87)...

  2. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  3. 27 CFR 29.55 - Registry of stills and distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.55 Section 29.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Registry of stills and distilling apparatus. (a) General. Every person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up shall, immediately on its being set up, register...

  4. 27 CFR 29.55 - Registry of stills and distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.55 Section 29.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Registry of stills and distilling apparatus. (a) General. Every person having possession, custody, or control of any still or distilling apparatus set up shall, immediately on its being set up, register...

  5. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  6. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  7. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  8. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  9. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  10. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  11. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  12. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  13. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  14. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  15. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  16. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  17. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  18. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  19. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  20. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  1. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  2. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  3. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  4. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  5. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  6. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  7. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  8. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  9. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  10. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  11. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill...

  12. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim,...

  13. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  14. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  15. Output-feedback control of reactive batch distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy-Loperena, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2000-02-01

    In this work, an output-feedback, control for the regulation of distillate purity via manipulations of the reflux ratio in reactive batch distillation is designed. The approach is based on an approximate model of the composition dynamics and makes use of a reduced-order observer to estimate the modeling error. An input/output linearizing feedback is proposed where the estimated modeling error is included to achieve robust tracking of a composition reference. It is shown that the resulting controller has the structure of a proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller with antireset windup. The controller performance is tested using a simulation example including strong uncertainties in the reaction model. An interesting finding is that the required reflux ratio policy to reach asymptotically a constant reference resembles the reflux ratio policy obtained from posing an optimization technique.

  16. Reducing the quantum-computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Poulin, David

    2015-04-01

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes, accurate transformations are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here we present a scheme that merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  17. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-16

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks.

  18. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  19. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    PubMed

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  20. Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2010-10-15

    We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

  1. Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.

    2013-10-01

    Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.

  2. Process for producing cracked distillate and hydrogen from heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, S.; Fujimori, K.; Satomi, Y.; Suzuka, T.

    1980-09-23

    A process is disclosed for producing a cracked distillate and hydrogen from a heavy oil which comprises cracking the heavy oil in the presence of laterite or a laterite-containing catalyst while simultaneously depositing coke on said laterite or laterite-containing catalysts, reducing the laterite or laterote-containing catalyst on which the coke is deposited, and forming a hydrogen-rich gas by contacting the reduced laterite or laterite-containing catalyst with steam.

  3. Slow variations of the electroconductivity of distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, I. M.; Rybin, Yu. M.; Shishkin, G. G.

    2016-11-01

    The conductivity of distilled water with a slow change in temperature has been measured experimentally and studied. Periodic variations in the electrical conductivity of water have been found, which are observed at the rate of temperature change dT/ dt < 0.1 K/h. The periods were longer than 24 h; the amplitudes of the variation ranged from +2.7% to-2.3%. The possible causes of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 Cetane Number 40-50 40-50 40-50 ASTM D613-05. Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238 204-238 50 pct. point 243-282 243-282 243... bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Number — 40−50 40−50 40−50 ASTM D613. Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238 204-238 ASTM D86. 50 pct. point 243-282 243-282 243-282... bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 Cetane Number 40-50 40-50 40-50 ASTM D613-05. Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238 204-238 50 pct. point 243-282 243-282 243... bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 Cetane Number 40-50 40-50 40-50 ASTM D613-05. Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238 204-238 50 pct. point 243-282 243-282 243... bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 Cetane Number 40-50 40-50 40-50 ASTM D613-05. Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238 204-238 50 pct. point 243-282 243-282 243... bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of...

  9. Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

    2011-04-07

    Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests.

  10. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  11. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kammel, P.; Kravtsov, P.; Petitjean, C.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  12. Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

  13. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  14. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  15. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Arkhipov, Ev.; Bondarenko, S.; Fedorchenko, O.; Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kravtsov, P. Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vasyanina, T.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Kammel, P.; Petitjean, C.

    2015-12-15

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  16. Cryogenic distillation facility for isotopic purification of protium and deuterium.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, I; Arkhipov, Ev; Bondarenko, S; Fedorchenko, O; Ganzha, V; Ivshin, K; Kammel, P; Kravtsov, P; Petitjean, C; Trofimov, V; Vasilyev, A; Vasyanina, T; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, M

    2015-12-01

    Isotopic purification of the protium and deuterium is an important requirement of many physics experiments. A cryogenic facility for high-efficiency separation of hydrogen isotopes with a cryogenic distillation column as the main element is described. The instrument is portable, so that it can be used at the experimental site. It was designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Fundamental operating parameters have been measured including a liquid holdup in the column packing, the pressure drops across the column and the purity of the product at different operating modes. A mathematical model describes expected profiles of hydrogen isotope concentration along the distillation column. An analysis of ortho-parahydrogen isomeric composition by gas chromatography was used for evaluation of the column performance during the tuning operations. The protium content during deuterium purification (≤100 ppb) was measured using gas chromatography with accumulation of the protium in the distillation column. A high precision isotopic measurement at the Institute of Particle Physics, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, provided an upper bound of the deuterium content in protium (≤6 ppb), which exceeds all commercially available products.

  17. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  18. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage products. 1.62 Section 1.62... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.62 Use of distilled spirits or wine...

  19. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage products. 1.62 Section 1.62... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.62 Use of distilled spirits or wine...

  20. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage products. 1.62 Section 1.62... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.62 Use of distilled spirits or wine...

  1. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage products. 1.62 Section 1.62... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.62 Use of distilled spirits or wine...

  2. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage products. 1.62 Section 1.62... OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial § 1.62 Use of distilled spirits or wine...

  3. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds.

  4. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  5. Solar-driven membrane distillation demonstration in Leupp, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, Vishnu Arvind; Seaman, Robert; Mirchandani, Sera; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The Navajo Nation is the largest and one of the driest Native American reservations in the US. The population in the Navajo Nation is sporadically distributed over a very large area making it extremely ineffective to connect homes to a centralized water supply system. Owing to this population distribution and the multi decadal drought prevailing in the region, over 40% of the 300,000 people living on Navajo Tribal Lands lack access to running potable water. For many people the only alternative is hauling water from filling stations, resulting in economic hardship and limited supply. A solution to this problem is a de-centralized off-grid water source. The University of Arizona and US Bureau of Reclamation's Solar Membrane Distillation (SMD), stand-alone, pilot desalination system on the Navajo Reservation will provide an off-grid source of potable water; the pilot will serve as a proximal water source, ease the financial hardships caused by the drought, and provide a model for low-cost water treatment systems in arid tribal lands. Bench-scale experiments and an earlier field prototype plant showed viable operation of a solar heated, membrane distillation (MD) system, but further optimization is required. The objectives of the Navajo pilot study are to i) demonstrate integration of solar collectors and membrane distillation, ii) optimize operational parameters, iii) demonstrate and monitor technology performance during extended duration operation, and iv) facilitate independent system operation by the Navajo Water Resources Department, including hand-over of a comprehensive operations manual for implementation of subsequent SMD systems. The Navajo SMD system is designed as a perennial installation that includes remote communication of research data and full automation for remote, unmanned operation.

  6. Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Buiarelli, Francesca; Cartoni, Giampaolo; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata; Mazzarino, Monica

    2002-04-01

    This work examines the distilled essential oils of limette and bergamot in order to assess the presence of low volatile substances such as coumarins (bergapten) which, being toxic, must be eliminated before using these oils in the food industry. The quantitative determination of coumarins was carried out by spectrofluorimetric detection. The substances present in the chromatograms, obtained by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm, were then identified. Moreover, a new coumarin that is present in small quantities was identified using HPLC-MS.

  7. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  8. Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

    2012-11-01

    A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD.

  9. Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

  10. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  11. Removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Mi, Xigeng; Huang, He

    2013-09-01

    In this study, vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was used to remove two prototypical fermentation inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural) from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. The effect of operating parameters, such as feed temperature and feed velocity, on the removal efficiencies of inhibitors was investigated. Under optimal conditions, more than 98% of furfural could be removed by VMD. However, the removal efficiency of acetic acid was considerably lower. After furfural and acetic acid were selectively removed from hydrolyzates by VMD, ethanol production efficiency increased by 17.8% compared to original hydrolyzates.

  12. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  13. Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem

    2011-09-15

    We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

  14. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    PubMed

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  15. Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

    2006-09-16

    In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

  16. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  17. Energy conservation: a route to improved distillation profitability. Executive briefing report, technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The savings potential of energy-conservation measures applied to distillation is examined. The document catalogs all of the various energy-conservation options applicable to distillation; categorizes the options by investment required; and describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically. A technology applications manual designed to assist distillation process engineers who will perform technical and economic analyses to determine the conservation measures most suitable for their particular plant is also available (DOE/CS/4431-T2).

  18. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers.

  19. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  20. Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2008-07-15

    Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

  1. Distillation system for motor fuel grade anhydrous alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Kumana, J. D.; Moon, G. D.

    1980-08-12

    An improved distillation method is provided for obtaining motor fuel grade anhydrous ethanol from fermentation or synthetic feedstocks. A three tower system is used comprising a stripperrectifier tower in which the dilute feedstock is converted to a concentrated ethanol stream, a dehydrating tower in which water is removed from the concentrated ethanol stream by azeotropic distillation, and a stripper tower for recovering the azeotropic agent. The invention effects substantial energy savings by utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower to supply the heat required for the dehydrating and stripper towers and by preheating the feedstock in stages utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the dehydrating and stripper towers, the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower and the heat content of the bottoms from the stripper-rectifier tower. Provision is also made for separately removing lower boiling and higher boiling impurities from the stripper-rectifier tower which may be blended into the anhydrous ethanol product from the dehydrating tower.

  2. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

  3. Secure entanglement distillation for double-server blind quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2013-07-12

    Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client's input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

  4. Characterisation of chamomile volatiles by simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction in comparison to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Hans

    2010-05-01

    A new method for complete separation of steam-volatile organic compounds is described using the example of chamomile flowers. This method is based on the direct combination of hydrodistillation and solid-phase extraction in a circulation apparatus. In contrast to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), an RP-18 solid phase as adsorptive material is used rather than a water-insoluble solvent. Therefore, a prompt and complete fixation of all volatiles takes place, and the circulation of water-soluble bisabololoxides as well as water-soluble and thermolabile en-yne-spiroethers is inhibited. This so-called simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction (SD-SPE) provides extracts that better characterise the real composition of the vapour phase, as well as the composition of inhalation vapours, than do SDE extracts or essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The data indicate that during inhalation therapy with chamomile, the bisabololoxides and spiroethers are more strongly involved in the inhaling activity than so far assumed.

  5. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    PubMed

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  6. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data.

  7. Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientific workflows management systems are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformatics experiments. Their programming model appeals to bioinformaticians, who can use them to easily specify complex data processing pipelines. Such a model is underpinned by a graph structure, where nodes represent bioinformatics tasks and links represent the dataflow. The complexity of such graph structures is increasing over time, with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow design, with a focus on the Taverna model. We argue that one of the contributing factors for the difficulties in reuse is the presence of "anti-patterns", a term broadly used in program design, to indicate the use of idiomatic forms that lead to over-complicated design. The main contribution of this work is a method for automatically detecting such anti-patterns, and replacing them with different patterns which result in a reduction in the workflow's overall structural complexity. Rewriting workflows in this way will be beneficial both in terms of user experience (easier design and maintenance), and in terms of operational efficiency (easier to manage, and sometimes to exploit the latent parallelism amongst the tasks). Results We have conducted a thorough study of the workflows structures available in Taverna, with the aim of finding out workflow fragments whose structure could be made simpler without altering the workflow semantics. We provide four contributions. Firstly, we identify a set of anti-patterns that contribute to the structural workflow complexity. Secondly, we design a series of refactoring transformations to replace each anti-pattern by a new semantically-equivalent pattern with less redundancy and simplified structure. Thirdly, we introduce a distilling algorithm that takes in a workflow and produces a distilled semantically-equivalent workflow. Lastly, we provide an implementation of our refactoring approach

  8. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  9. 75 FR 11147 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC AGENCY... intent to grant to Distilled Solutions, LLC a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive license to practice...

  10. 76 FR 75836 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 19 RIN 1513-AB89 Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant... Bureau (TTB) proposes to replace the current four report forms used by distilled spirits plants to report... spirits plant (DSP). However, section 5214(a) of the IRC (26 U.S.C. 5214(a)), authorizes the withdrawal...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621 Section 721.10621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621 Section 721.10621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  13. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices—containing hundreds of compounds—is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects—especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis. PMID:28337400

  14. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  15. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  16. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  17. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  18. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon which...

  19. Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Kevin Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

  20. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices-containing hundreds of compounds-is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects-especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis.

  1. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  2. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  3. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  4. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  5. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  6. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  7. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as...

  8. 27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.59 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. (a)...

  9. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as...

  10. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  11. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as...

  12. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  13. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  14. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  15. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as...

  16. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  17. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as...

  18. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  19. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  20. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  1. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  2. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation...

  3. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes § 27.48...

  4. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  5. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  6. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  7. 27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. Untaxpaid spirits...

  8. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  9. Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-25

    Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.

  10. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time.

  11. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  12. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  13. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  14. Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-10-15

    Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment.

  15. Irreversibility analysis in the process of solar distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, S.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; López, R.; Lara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work an irreversibility analysis for the thermal process of solar distillation of three different substances is presented, for which it employs a solar still of a slope where three experimental tests with 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2 were performed. Temperature data principally in the glass cover, absorber plate, fluid, environment and the incident solar radiation on the device were obtained. With measurements of temperature, solar radiation and exergetic balance, irreversibilities are found on the device. The results show that the highest values of irreversibilities are concentrated in the absorber plate with an average of 321 W, 342 W and 276 W, followed by the cover glass with an average of 75.8 W, 80.4 W and 86.7 W and finally the fluid with 15.3 W, 15.9 W and 16 W, for 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2.

  16. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible." To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) opted a development approach that explicitely incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 prelimnary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigative strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  17. Synthesis of nonlinear adaptive controller for a batch distillation.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amiya K

    2007-02-01

    A nonlinear adaptive control strategy is proposed for a binary batch distillation column. The hybrid control algorithm comprises a generic model controller (GMC) and a nonlinear adaptive state estimator (ASE). The adaptive observation scheme mainly estimates the imprecisely known parameters based on the available tray temperature measurements. The sensitivity of the proposed estimator is investigated with respect to the effect of initialization error, unmeasured disturbance and uncertainty. Then, a comparative study is carried out between the derived nonlinear GMC-ASE controller and a traditional proportional integral law in terms of set point tracking and disturbance rejection performance. The study also includes the effect of measurement noise and parametric uncertainty on the closed-loop performance. The proposed adaptive control algorithm is shown to be quite promising due to the exponential error convergence capability of the ASE estimator in addition to the high-quality control action provided by the GMC controller.

  18. Treatment of dye solutions by vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, A; Zhong, J; Figoli, A; Carnevale, M C; Huang, R; Drioli, E

    2008-12-01

    In this work, the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process has been applied to treat water containing different types of dyes. The influence of operating parameters, as feed temperature, feed flow rate, feed concentration, on the permeate flux and on rejection has been investigated. In all experimental tests, a complete rejection has been achieved and pure water has been recovered at the permeate side. Furthermore, experiments with water as feed have been carried out before and after the tests with dyes, in order to analyze the effect of fouling on the performance of the VMD. The water vapor fluxes immediately after the tests with dyes were higher than the values registered before the tests, probably due to an interaction with the polymeric membrane material which promotes a swelling of the membrane when in contact with the dye solutions. However, initial fluxes are recovered after prolonged cleaning with only water.

  19. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A.

    1998-06-01

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  20. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  1. Don't Forget Product Recovery in Catalysis Research-Check the Distillation Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-10

    When investigating a new catalytic reaction, scientists may wonder if the crude reaction product can be easily separated and purified. We present here a new concept-distillation resistance-to assess the potential of distillation as a purification technique and to guide catalyst formulation or operation at the very early stage of the research. Distillation resistance, which has been developed from the analysis of 15 industrial distillation trains, can be quickly calculated with knowledge of only the product composition and atmospheric boiling points of the components. It can be directly converted into a preliminary distillation cost that considers investment and energy cost. Its application and its potential guidance in catalysis research are illustrated through a few cases studies derived from biorefinery processes.

  2. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage.

  3. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

    2010-09-08

    Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate.

  4. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  5. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public..., and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes, except do not report distilled spirits, wine, and beer not fit for human consumption or...

  6. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public... UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for...

  7. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  8. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public... UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for...

  9. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205 Section 102-41.205 Public... UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Requiring Special Handling Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for...

  10. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  11. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  12. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10178 Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as distillates (Fischer-Tropsch),...

  14. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water.

  15. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment.

  16. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. Βench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80˚C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt

  17. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  18. The reduction and distillation of isotopically enriched zinc oxides under high vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, C.; Zevenbergen, L. A.

    1999-12-01

    Historically, enriched zinc (Zn) metal was produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) by either electrodeposition, followed by melting to produce a metal ingot, or purified by hydrogen reduction and distillation at atmospheric pressure in a tube furnace as a prelude to electroplating. Electroplated material was generally poor in quality, and losses were high during subsequent melting. Adapting the distillation purifying technique as an ultimate means of recovery of Zn metal proved to be difficult and inefficient. To resolve these problems, the well-established vacuum reduction/distillation process was adapted for the conversion of Zn oxide to metal.

  19. Standard test method for acidity of distillation residues or hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the qualitative determination of the acidity of the distillation residue from a gasoline. The sample of distillation residue or hydrocarbon liquid is shaken with water and the aqueous layer tested for acidity to methyl orange. Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid as part of the refining procedure. Obviously, any residual mineral acid in a petroleum product is undesirable. The absence of a positive indication in the test for acidity of the distillation residue or aqueous extract of a hydrocarbon liquid is an assurance of the care used in refining the fuel or solvent.

  20. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  1. Insight from a careful dissection of the Rayleigh Distillation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, R. W.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Generally, precipitation isotopes (δ18O and δD) become progressively depleted with colder temperatures of condensation. However the complexity and interactions between environmental factors provides considerable uncertainty in predicting the spatial and temporal isotopic patterns of precipitation. Models that include isotope components are often used for interpretations or reproductions of spatial and temporal isotope trends. In fact, the most basic yet widely used model, Rayleigh Distillation Model, takes into account a few fundamental climatological factors to describe global isotope patterns. This paper provides a fresh examination of the Rayleigh Model, which has a long history of applications to precipitation isotope analysis. Additionally, we quantify how changes in environmental parameters affect the way that precipitation isotopes relate to temperatures of equilibrium - a relationship that is often thought to faithfully reflect temperatures of condensation (particularly at the high latitudes). Temperature of condensation remains the most important variable to consider when using the Rayleigh Model to unravel seasonal isotopic trends. However, the degree that (i) the amplitude of seasonally oscillating moisture source temperatures, (ii) average annual temperature difference between source and terrestrial sink, and (iii) agreement of source phasing and terrestrial sink temperatures can significantly impact precipitation isotope concentration throughout a given year, thus the way that precipitation isotopes relate to temperatures of condensation.

  2. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  3. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  4. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems.

  5. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  6. Tuning the Model Predictive Control of a Crude Distillation Unit.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, André Shigueo; Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Odloak, Darci

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the parameters of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) of an industrial Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) is considered here. A realistic scenario is depicted where the inputs of the CDU system have optimizing targets, which are provided by the Real Time Optimization layer of the control structure. It is considered the nominal case, in which both the CDU model and the MPC model are the same. The process outputs are controlled inside zones instead of at fixed set points. Then, the tuning procedure has to define the weights that penalize the output error with respect to the control zone, the weights that penalize the deviation of the inputs from their targets, as well as the weights that penalize the input moves. A tuning approach based on multi-objective optimization is proposed and applied to the MPC of the CDU system. The performance of the controller tuned with the proposed approach is compared through simulation with the results of an existing approach also based on multi-objective optimization. The simulation results are similar, but the proposed approach has a computational load significantly lower than the existing method. The tuning effort is also much lower than in the conventional practical approaches that are usually based on ad-hoc procedures.

  7. Human ACE gene polymorphism and distilled water induced cough

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Turley, A. J.; Linton, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cause a non-productive cough. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE was used as a genetic marker to investigate the relationship between ACE genotype and cough sensitivity. METHODS: A double blind cough challenge was performed in 66 normotensive subjects (34 men) of mean age 34.8 years (range 18-80) using aerosols of distilled water. The number of coughs during the one minute exposure to water was recorded. DNA samples from venous blood were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and resolved on a 1% agarose gel. They were analysed for the presence of a polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene consisting of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of an Alu repetitive sequence 287 base pairs long. RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes was 20 II, 26 ID, and 20 DD. The cough response was significantly (p < 0.01) related to the ACE genotype, the mean number of coughs being 15.8, 11.3, and 9.6, respectively, in subjects with the II, ID, and DD genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that cough challenge is dependent on ACE genotype in normal subjects is evidence of a link between ACE activity and the cough reflex. 


 PMID:9059468

  8. Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2016-04-15

    This project Hazard and Risk Analysis Report contains the results of several hazard analyses and risk assessments. An initial assessment was conducted in 2012, which included a multi-step approach ranging from design reviews to a formal What-If hazard analysis. A second What-If hazard analysis was completed during February 2013 to evaluate the operation of the hydrotreater/distillation column processes to be installed in a process enclosure within the Process Development Laboratory West (PDL-West) facility located on the PNNL campus. The qualitative analysis included participation of project and operations personnel and applicable subject matter experts. The analysis identified potential hazardous scenarios, each based on an initiating event coupled with a postulated upset condition. The unmitigated consequences of each hazardous scenario were generally characterized as a process upset; the exposure of personnel to steam, vapors or hazardous material; a spray or spill of hazardous material; the creation of a flammable atmosphere; or an energetic release from a pressure boundary.

  9. Investigation of sources, properties and preparation of distillate test fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, J. N.; Erwin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Distillate test fuel blends were generated for prescribed variations in composition and physical properties. Fuels covering a wide range in properties and composition which would provide a matrix of fuels for possible use in future combustion research programs were identified. Except for tetralin the blending components were all from typical refinery streams. Property variation blends span a boiling range within 150 C to 335 C, freezing point -23 C to -43 C, aromatic content 20 to 50 volume percent, hydrogen content 11.8 to 14.2 mass percent, viscosity 4 and 11 cSt (-20 C), and naphthalenes 8 and 16 volume percent. Composition variation blends were made with two base stocks, one paraffinic and the other napthenic. To each base stock was added each of three aromatic type fuels (alkyl benzenes, tetralin, and naphthalenes) for assigned initial boiling point, final boiling point, and hydrogen content. The hydrogen content was 13.5 mass percent for the paraffinic base stock blends and 12.5 mass percent and 11.5 mass percent for the naphthenic base stock blends. Sample 5-gallon quantities of all blends were prepared and analyzed.

  10. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  11. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  12. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  13. A Low Temperature Distillation System for Separating Mixtures of Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Embury, Michael, C.; Watkins, Reed A.; Hinckley, Richard; Post, Jr., Arthur H.

    1985-04-30

    A low temperature (24 K) distillation system for separating mixtures of hydrogen isotopes has been designed, fabricated, and delivered for use as the main component of the Hydrogen Isotope Separation System (HISS) at Mound. The HISS will handle feed mixtures of all six isotopic species of hydrogen (H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, T2) and will enrich the tritium while producing a stackable raffinate. Arther D. Little, Inc. (ADL) was the prime contractor for the distillation system. The design and fabrication techniques used for the HISS distillation system are similar to those used for previous stills which were also designed and built by ADL. The distillation system was tested with mixtures of protium and deuterium at the ADL shop. This system, as well as the feed, product, and raffinate handling systems are presently being installed at Mound where integrated testing is scheduled next calendar year.

  14. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step...

  15. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  16. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main goal is to develop methods and software tools for the identification and analysis of optimal multi-component distillation configurations for reduced energy consumption in industrial processes.

  17. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  18. Validating the Equilibrium Stage Model for an Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, B. P. M.; Coelho Pinheiro, M. N.; Silva, D. C. M.; Moura, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The experiment described is an excellent opportunity to apply theoretical concepts of distillation, thermodynamics of mixtures and process simulation at laboratory scale, and simultaneously enhance the ability of students to operate, control and monitor complex units.

  19. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  20. Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates.

    PubMed

    Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2002-03-13

    Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures.

  1. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vinous character of the wine(2) None of the stripping solution may migrate into the wine. Reverse osmosis....2910. 1 This process must be done on distilled spirits plant premises. However, reverse osmosis,...

  2. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vinous character of the wine(2) None of the stripping solution may migrate into the wine. Reverse osmosis....2910. 1 This process must be done on distilled spirits plant premises. However, reverse osmosis,...

  3. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... osmosis 1 To reduce the ethyl alcohol content of wine and to remove off flavors in wine Permeable....2910. 1 This process must be done on distilled spirits plant premises. However, reverse osmosis,...

  4. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vinous character of the wine(2) None of the stripping solution may migrate into the wine. Reverse osmosis....2910. 1 This process must be done on distilled spirits plant premises. However, reverse osmosis,...

  5. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... osmosis 1 To reduce the ethyl alcohol content of wine and to remove off flavors in wine Permeable....2910. 1 This process must be done on distilled spirits plant premises. However, reverse osmosis,...

  6. 23. Public Works Department Drawing 461M10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled Water-Piping and Fittings' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  8. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  9. Do-it-yourself guideline for constructing a solar alcohol distillation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.

    1982-07-27

    The development and testing of a solar powered distillation system are described. The system consists of a parabolic dish collector, a two axis sun tracking stand, sun tracking solar cell system, condenser, fermentation tanks, and continuous distillation still. The assembly instructions for the parabolic dish are included as well as the basic steps to follow in mashing and fermenting of corn meal. 15 figures. (DMC)

  10. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  11. Biogeochemical characterisation of a coal tar distillate plume.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Pickup, R W; Thornton, S F; Lerner, D N; Mallinson, H E; Moore, Y; White, C

    2001-12-15

    The distillation of acidified coal tars for up to 50 years has given rise to a phenol plume approximately 500 m long, 50 m deep and containing up to 15 g l(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Triassic Sandstones aquifer. A conceptual biogeochemical model based on chemical and microbiological analysis of groundwater samples has been developed as a preliminary to more detailed studies of the controls on natural attenuation. While the development of redox zones and the production of methane and carbon dioxide provide evidence of natural attenuation, it appears that degradation is slow. The existence of sulphate in the plume indicates that this electron acceptor has not been depleted and that consequently methanogenesis is probably limited. Based on a simple estimate of sulphate input concentration, a half-life of about 15 years has been estimated for sulphate reduction. Geochemical modelling predicts that increased alkalinity within the plume has not led to carbonate precipitation, and thus within the limits of accuracy of the measurement, alkalinity may reflect the degree of biodegradation. This implies a loss of around 18% of the DOC over a 30-year period. Despite limited degradation, microbial studies show that there are diverse microbial communities in the aquifer with the potential for both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Microbial activity was found to be greatest at the leading edge of the plume where DOC concentrations are 60 mg l(-1) or less, but activity could still be observed in more contaminated samples even though cells could not be cultured. The study suggests that degradation may be limited by the high phenol concentrations within the core of the plume, but that once diluted by dispersion, natural attenuation may proceed. More detailed studies to confirm these initial findings are identified and form the basis of associated papers.

  12. Modeling of Steam Distillation Mechanism during Steam Injection Process Using Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods. PMID:24883365

  13. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  14. Modeling of steam distillation mechanism during steam injection process using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Daryasafar, Amin; Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods.

  15. The Coupling Study for Solar Heating System and Membrane Distillation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Suying; Zhang, Tao; Professor, Rui Tian; WeiZhang, Wei

    In this paper, it was simplified that the heating system of thermal mass in solar membrane distillation and it was established that the physical model of heat transfer installed the guide plate in the all-glass thermal solar membrane distillation system. The model included the all-glass solar heat collector system and the hot chamber of membrane distillation system. In this paper, it was constructed that the coupling integration points between the two parts and reached setting methods for coupled boundary conditions and unsteady-state flow. It was established that an unsteady three-dimensional CFD model for solar membrane distillation system and drawn solution and ideas and reached the variation law of fluid temperature and flow rate in outlet of fluid connection changes in solar collector system. It was calculated that the coupling model of hot chamber in membrane distillation and obtained the variation law between non-steady-state flux and solar radiation intensity and laid the foundation for coupling utilization of solar energy with membrane distillation.

  16. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  17. Basis for NGNP Reactor Design Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the extent of technology development, design and licensing maturity anticipated to be required to credibly identify differences that could make a technical choice practical between the prismatic and pebble bed reactor designs. This paper does not address a business decision based on the economics, business model and resulting business case since these will vary based on the reactor application. The selection of the type of reactor, the module ratings, the number of modules, the configuration of the balance of plant and other design selections will be made on the basis of optimizing the Business Case for the application. These are not decisions that can be made on a generic basis.

  18. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  19. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  20. Early changes produced in mouse skin by the application of three middle distillates.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P; Sharratt, M; Ingram, A J

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported by the American Petroleum Institute (API) that dermal applications of certain middle distillates of mineral oils can result in high incidences of skin tumours in mice. This was unexpected as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in these were below detection limits. To examine the possible role of tissue injury in the induction of tumours, the skin reactions produced by thrice weekly applications of three middle distillates similar to those tested by the API were examined grossly and histopathologically at intervals up to 6 weeks. Various reference materials and oils were used as controls. Preliminary histological examination showed that severe skin damage was present from week 1 onwards in mice treated with the three middle distillates, two of them producing epidermal loss and ulceration. Marked epidermal hyperplasia was produced by all three middle distillates. These findings support the view that regenerative epidermal hyperplasia due to repeated severe skin damage may have exerted a powerful promotional effect in the production of the skin tumours by middle distillates in the API study.

  1. Reduction criterion of separability and limits for a class of distillation protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    1999-06-01

    We analyze the problem of distillation of entanglement of mixed states in higher-dimensional compound systems. Employing the positive maps method [M. Horodecki et al., Phys. Lett. A 223, 1 (1996)] we introduce and analyze a criterion of separability that relates the structures of the total density matrix and its reductions. We show that any state violating the criterion can be distilled by suitable generalization of the two-qubit protocol that distills any inseparable two-qubit state. In particular, this means that any state ϱ of two N-level systems with <ψ+\\|ϱ\\|ψ+>>1/N can be distilled (ψ+ is the singlet state generalized to higher dimension). The criterion also singles out all the states that can be distilled by a class of protocols. The proof involves construction of the family of states that are invariant under transformation ϱ-->U⊗U*ϱU†⊗U*†, where U is a unitary transformation and the asterisk denotes complex conjugation. The states are related to the depolarizing channel generalized to the nonbinary case.

  2. Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Üney, Kamil; Baş, Ahmet Levent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:23905023

  3. GOBF-ARMA based model predictive control for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Seban, Lalu; Kirubakaran, V; Roy, B K; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the control of an ideal reactive distillation column (RDC) using model predictive control (MPC) based on a combination of deterministic generalized orthonormal basis filter (GOBF) and stochastic autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Reactive distillation (RD) integrates reaction and distillation in a single process resulting in process and energy integration promoting green chemistry principles. Improved selectivity of products, increased conversion, better utilization and control of reaction heat, scope for difficult separations and the avoidance of azeotropes are some of the advantages that reactive distillation offers over conventional technique of distillation column after reactor. The introduction of an in situ separation in the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor-liquid equilibrium, mass transfer rates, diffusion and chemical kinetics. RD with its high order and nonlinear dynamics, and multiple steady states is a good candidate for testing and verification of new control schemes. Here a combination of GOBF-ARMA models is used to catch and represent the dynamics of the RDC. This GOBF-ARMA model is then used to design an MPC scheme for the control of product purity of RDC under different operating constraints and conditions. The performance of proposed modeling and control using GOBF-ARMA based MPC is simulated and analyzed. The proposed controller is found to perform satisfactorily for reference tracking and disturbance rejection in RDC.

  4. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  5. Experimental investigation on hydrogen cryogenic distillation equipped with package made by ICIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.

    2015-03-15

    ICIT (Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies) has used its experience in cryogenic water distillation process to propose a similar process for hydrogen distillation that can be used in detritiation technologies. This process relies on the same packages but a stainless filling is tested instead of the phosphorous bronze filling used for water distillation. This paper presents two types of packages developed for hydrogen distillation, both have a stainless filling but it differs in terms of density, exchange surface and specific volume. Performance data have been obtained on laboratory scale. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions. Samples extracted at the top and bottom of cryogenic distillation column allowed mathematical processing to determine the separation performance. The experiments show a better efficiency for the package whose exchange surface was higher and there were no relevant differences between both packages as the operating pressure of the cryogenic column was increasing. For a complete characterization of the packages, future experiments will be considered to determine performance at various velocities in the column and their correlation with the pressure in the column. We plan further experiments to separate tritium from the mixture of isotopes DT, having in view that our goal is to apply this results to a detritiation plant.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  7. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

  8. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  9. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  10. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates.

  11. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold-pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Belsito, Emilia L; Carbone, Concetta; Di Gioia, Maria L; Leggio, Antonella; Liguori, Angelo; Perri, Francesca; Siciliano, Carlo; Viscomi, Maria C

    2007-09-19

    The vacuum distillation of bergamot peels furnishes a high-quality essential oil that is totally bergapten-free. This oil was compared with that produced by distillation of cold-pressed oils and those commercially available. The oil obtained by vacuum distillation of the bergamot vegetable matrix shows a composition quite similar to that of the cold-pressed oil. It also displays qualitative characteristics that are superior with respect to those normally observed for essential oils isolated by distillation of cold-pressed oils. Oils isolated by the method presented here can constitute ideal candidates in producing foods, for example, Earl Grey tea, and cosmetic preparations.

  12. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms.

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of microwave-dried wheat distillers grain with solubles.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda, Maria Rosario P; Tabil, Lope G; Meda, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-prepared samples of wheat distillers grain with solubles with varying condensed distillers solubles (CDS) content were dried under varying microwave power, and microwave convection settings using a domestic microwave oven to examine their effect on the chemical, structural, color, flow, compression, thermal, and frictional properties of the product, which is dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). As CDS level increased, protein and ash content increased, while fat and fiber content decreased in wheat-based DDGS. Fat content was also markedly effected by the microwave oven drying conditions. While CDS level, microwave power or microwave convection setting, and/or their interactions significantly effected a number of physical properties; results indicated that CDS level had a stronger influence compared to the other factors. DDGS samples with high CDS levels were significantly denser, finer but more differentiated in size, less flowable, and less dispersible. These also produced denser and stronger pellets.

  14. Prediction and preliminary standardization of fire debris constituents with the advanced distillation curve method.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thomas J; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2011-01-01

    The recent National Academy of Sciences report on forensic sciences states that the study of fire patterns and debris in arson fires is in need of additional work and eventual standardization. We discuss a recently introduced method that can provide predicted evaporation patterns for ignitable liquids as a function of temperature. The method is a complex fluid analysis protocol, the advanced distillation curve approach, featuring a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for qualitative, quantitative, and trace analysis), low uncertainty temperature measurements that are thermodynamic state points that can be modeled with an equation of state, consistency with a century of historical data, and an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction. We discuss the application of the method to kerosenes and gasolines and outline how expansion of the scope of fluids to other ignitable liquids can benefit the criminalist in the analysis of fire debris for arson.

  15. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  16. Deterministic entanglement distillation for secure double-server blind quantum computation

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Blind quantum computation (BQC) provides an efficient method for the client who does not have enough sophisticated technology and knowledge to perform universal quantum computation. The single-server BQC protocol requires the client to have some minimum quantum ability, while the double-server BQC protocol makes the client's device completely classical, resorting to the pure and clean Bell state shared by two servers. Here, we provide a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol in a practical noisy environment for the double-server BQC protocol. This protocol can get the pure maximally entangled Bell state. The success probability can reach 100% in principle. The distilled maximally entangled states can be remaind to perform the BQC protocol subsequently. The parties who perform the distillation protocol do not need to exchange the classical information and they learn nothing from the client. It makes this protocol unconditionally secure and suitable for the future BQC protocol. PMID:25588565

  17. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  18. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592

  19. Global optimization of multicomponent distillation configurations: 2. Enumeration based global minimization algorithm

    DOE PAGES

    Nallasivam, Ulaganathan; Shah, Vishesh H.; Shenvi, Anirudh A.; ...

    2016-02-10

    We present a general Global Minimization Algorithm (GMA) to identify basic or thermally coupled distillation configurations that require the least vapor duty under minimum reflux conditions for separating any ideal or near-ideal multicomponent mixture into a desired number of product streams. In this algorithm, global optimality is guaranteed by modeling the system using Underwood equations and reformulating the resulting constraints to bilinear inequalities. The speed of convergence to the globally optimal solution is increased by using appropriate feasibility and optimality based variable-range reduction techniques and by developing valid inequalities. As a result, the GMA can be coupled with already developedmore » techniques that enumerate basic and thermally coupled distillation configurations, to provide for the first time, a global optimization based rank-list of distillation configurations.« less

  20. Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2010-12-15

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

  1. Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, G.R.; Yang, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  2. Global optimization of multicomponent distillation configurations: 2. Enumeration based global minimization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Nallasivam, Ulaganathan; Shah, Vishesh H.; Shenvi, Anirudh A.; Huff, Joshua; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2016-02-10

    We present a general Global Minimization Algorithm (GMA) to identify basic or thermally coupled distillation configurations that require the least vapor duty under minimum reflux conditions for separating any ideal or near-ideal multicomponent mixture into a desired number of product streams. In this algorithm, global optimality is guaranteed by modeling the system using Underwood equations and reformulating the resulting constraints to bilinear inequalities. The speed of convergence to the globally optimal solution is increased by using appropriate feasibility and optimality based variable-range reduction techniques and by developing valid inequalities. As a result, the GMA can be coupled with already developed techniques that enumerate basic and thermally coupled distillation configurations, to provide for the first time, a global optimization based rank-list of distillation configurations.

  3. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC).

  4. Use of an Electronic Tongue to Detect Geosmin in Distilled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2011-11-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system consisting of conducting polymer sensors was employed to detect geosmin (GSM) in distilled water. GSM is a tainting compound and known to cause undesirable tastes and odors in water and aquaculture farming. Diluted solutions of GSM were prepared in distilled water at different concentrations. The electrical response (capacitance) of the sensors was analyzed using principal analysis component (PCA). The data obtained were separated into different clusters indicating a good sensibility of the ET system to this compound in distilled water. The ET showed signal saturation for concentrations higher than 300 ng.L-1. So far, the detection limit of our system is 25 ng.L-1. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible.

  5. Influence of type of distillation apparatus on chemical profiles of brazilian cachaças.

    PubMed

    Reche, Roni Vicente; Neto, Alexandre Ferreira Leite; Silva, Alexandre Ataide Da; Galinaro, Carlos Alexandre; Osti, Renata Zachi De; Franco, Douglas Wagner

    2007-08-08

    Brazilian cachaças (115 samples; 73 samples derived from distillation in copper pot stills, 42 samples derived from distillation in stainless steel columns), collected directly at the producers, were analyzed for the contents of 34 constituents by chromatography, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The PCA treatment led to discrimination of the two groups of cachaças, explaining 65.0% of the database variance. Using LDA and ethanal, ethyl carbamate, dimethyl sulfide, isobutyl alcohol, n-propanal, copper, ethyl acetate, and phenylmethanal as chemical descriptors, a model was developed that presented 95.1% accuracy in predicting the type of distillation apparatus.

  6. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  7. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  8. A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

    2013-08-01

    A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for δ18O and 0.7‰ for δD. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for δD and δ18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the δD and δ18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid “salt effects”.

  9. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  10. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  11. Study of the steam distillation of phenolic compounds using ultraviolet spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Norwitz, G.; Nataro, N.; Keliher, P.N.

    1986-03-01

    The steam distillation of 42 phenolic compounds was studied by use of a semimicro steam distillation apparatus and ultraviolet spectrometry. In the distillation, the following gave recoveries greater than 95%: phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-bromophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,3- and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2-, 3-, and 4-methylphenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4-, and 3,5-dimethylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-amylpheno,, thymol, and carvacrol. The percent recovery for the other phenolic compounds was as follows: 3-nitrophenol, 3.7%; 4-nitrophenol, 1.8; 3-methoxyphenol, 31.1; 4-methoxyphenol, 23.2; 3-bromophenol, 79.6; 4-bromophenol, 67.8; 3-chlorophenol, 93.5; 4-chlorophenol, 91.6; 3,4-dichlorophenol, 64.1; 2,4-dinitrophenol, 21.2; 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 0.0; 2-aminophenol, 0.1; 3-aminophenol, 0.2; 4-aminophenol, 0.1; pyrocatechol, 1.6; resorcinol, 04.; hydroquinone, 0.0; pyrogallol, 0.7; and phloroglucinol, 0.1. By the examination of the spectra of the undistilled, distilled, and residual solutions, it is concluded that the aminophenols undergo some decomposition and the hydroquinone is almost completely destroyed during the distillation. The important role that hydrogen bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular) plays in the recovery in the steam distillation is examined. 9 references, 2 tables.

  12. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    PubMed Central

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. PMID:28134091

  13. Extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, M.Z.; Uysal, B.Z.

    1995-10-01

    Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chlorform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield and on the quantity of solvent recovered. Extraction was carried out using a Soxhlet extractor. For complete recovery of solvent the extract phase was subjected to two stages of distillation, simple distillation followed by fractional distillation, where different cuts of oil were obtained. It was found that an optimum shale size of 1.0 mm offered better solvent recovery. One hour was the optimum time needed for complete extraction. The yield of oil was determined from the material balance gained from fractional distillation after testing for the existence of any traces of solvent trapped in the different cuts by using a gas chromotography technique. When chloroform was used, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.037 g/g of shale, which corresponds to 98% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming the bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 84.1% of solvent recovered. When toluene was used, it was found that the average amount of oil extracted was 0.0293 g/g/ of shale, which corresponds to 78% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 89.9% of solvent for extraction with toluene.

  14. Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J

    1996-09-01

    Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p < 0.0001 in all cases). The average monthly leakage of Si for quartz-filled composites was 0.22 +/- 0.20 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in

  15. Bacteriological evaluation of an ultra-pure water-distilling system.

    PubMed

    Kayser, W V; Hickman, K C; Bond, W W; Favero, M S; Carson, L A

    1975-10-01

    A prototype distillation and storage system with recycle for producing ultrapure water was monitored for bacteriological contamination during a period of 24 months. Naturally occurring Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. cepacia were found to grow rapidly to levels of about 10(5)/ml in water taken from the storage reservoir and also in commercially prepared distilled water. The system was found to eliminate bacterial contaminants introduced into the still with the feed water, but the reservoir, once contaminated, remained contaminated during prolonged recycle, After a single treatment with free chlorine, the entire system remained uncontaminated until accidental or purposeful shutdown.

  16. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  17. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOEpatents

    Stickney, Michael J.; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  18. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  19. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  20. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...