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Sample records for elucidating brain wiring

  1. Brain Wiring in the Fourth Dimension.

    PubMed

    Wernet, Mathias F; Desplan, Claude

    2015-07-02

    In this issue of Cell, Langen et al. use time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to show how Drosophila photoreceptor growth cones find their targets. Based on the observed dynamics, they develop a simple developmental algorithm recapitulating the highly complex connectivity pattern of these neurons, suggesting a basic framework for establishing wiring specificity.

  2. Beyond Molecular Codes: Simple Rules to Wire Complex Brains

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bassem A.; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Molecular codes, like postal zip codes, are generally considered a robust way to ensure the specificity of neuronal target selection. However, a code capable of unambiguously generating complex neural circuits is difficult to conceive. Here, we re-examine the notion of molecular codes in the light of developmental algorithms. We explore how molecules and mechanisms that have been considered part of a code may alternatively implement simple pattern formation rules sufficient to ensure wiring specificity in neural circuits. This analysis delineates a pattern-based framework for circuit construction that may contribute to our understanding of brain wiring. PMID:26451480

  3. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2017-08-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  4. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Autism: Elucidating Shared Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul; Nguyen, Linda; Motwani, Kartik; Swatek, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two serious conditions that affect youth. Recent data, both preclinical and clinical, show that pediatric TBI and ASD share not only similar symptoms but also some of the same biologic mechanisms that cause these symptoms. Prominent symptoms for both disorders include gastrointestinal problems, learning difficulties, seizures, and sensory processing disruption. In this review, we highlight some of these shared mechanisms in order to discuss potential treatment options that might be applied for each condition. We discuss potential therapeutic and pharmacologic options as well as potential novel drug targets. Furthermore, we highlight advances in understanding of brain circuitry that is being propelled by improved imaging modalities. Going forward, advanced imaging will help in diagnosis and treatment planning strategies for pediatric patients. Lessons from each field can be applied to design better and more rigorous trials that can be used to improve guidelines for pediatric patients suffering from TBI or ASD. PMID:28074078

  5. Nano-Resolution X-ray Tomography for Deciphering Wiring Diagram of Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Sagara, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Ohigashi, T.; Yashiro, W.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Momose, A.; Takagi, T.

    2011-09-01

    Neural circuits in the central nervous system are the substrate of various high-order brain functions. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying neuronal information processing in the brain. Anatomical and functional graph structures of neural networks with actual connections will provide us with perspectives to elucidate the brain complexity. Here, we aim to develop a three-dimensional mouse brain atlas of neural circuits using nano-resolution x-ray tomography by synchrotron radiation. In addition to identifying a large number of synapses, our research will also clarify the structure of neuronal networks for understanding the most complex organ in the body. In this study, we observed metal-stained biological tissues of the mouse brain using hard x-ray Zernike-type phase-contrast microscopy with 60-nm resolution at SPring-8. As a result, the nano-resolution hard x-ray phase-contrast microscope revealed nerve fibers and organelles including mitochondria and synapses in the neural tissue. In the near future, this information will be utilized to begin deciphering the wiring diagram of the brain by using nano-resolution x-ray tomography.

  6. Regulation of Drosophila Brain Wiring by Neuropil Interactions via a Slit-Robo-RPTP Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carlos; Soldano, Alessia; Mora, Natalia; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Erfurth, Maria-Luise; Sierralta, Jimena; Ramaekers, Ariane; Dascenco, Dan; Ejsmont, Radoslaw K; Schmucker, Dietmar; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia; Hassan, Bassem A

    2016-10-24

    The axonal wiring molecule Slit and its Round-About (Robo) receptors are conserved regulators of nerve cord patterning. Robo receptors also contribute to wiring brain circuits. Whether molecular mechanisms regulating these signals are modified to fit more complex brain wiring processes is unclear. We investigated the role of Slit and Robo receptors in wiring Drosophila higher-order brain circuits and identified differences in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Robo/Slit function. First, we find that signaling by Robo receptors in the brain is regulated by the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase RPTP69d. RPTP69d increases membrane availability of Robo3 without affecting its phosphorylation state. Second, we detect no midline localization of Slit during brain development. Instead, Slit is enriched in the mushroom body, a neuronal structure covering large areas of the brain. Thus, a divergent molecular mechanism regulates neuronal circuit wiring in the Drosophila brain, partly in response to signals from the mushroom body.

  7. Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Won, Hyejung; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Stein, Jason L; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Huang, Jerry; Opland, Carli K; Gandal, Michael J; Sutton, Gavin J; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Lu, Daning; Lee, Changhoon; Eskin, Eleazar; Voineagu, Irina; Ernst, Jason; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2016-10-27

    Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease. Our analyses identify hundreds of genes that physically interact with enhancers gained on the human lineage, many of which are under purifying selection and associated with human cognitive function. We integrate chromatin contacts with non-coding variants identified in schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS), highlighting multiple candidate schizophrenia risk genes and pathways, including transcription factors involved in neurogenesis, and cholinergic signalling molecules, several of which are supported by independent expression quantitative trait loci and gene expression analyses. Genome editing in human neural progenitors suggests that one of these distal schizophrenia GWAS loci regulates FOXG1 expression, supporting its potential role as a schizophrenia risk gene. This work provides a framework for understanding the effect of non-coding regulatory elements on human brain development and the evolution of cognition, and highlights novel mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hyejung; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Stein, Jason L.; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Huang, Jerry; Opland, Carli K.; Gandal, Michael; Sutton, Gavin J.; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Lu, Daning; Lee, Changhoon; Eskin, Eleazar; Voineagu, Irina; Ernst, Jason; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional physical interactions within chromosomes dynamically regulate gene expression in a tissue-specific manner1–3. However, the 3D organization of chromosomes during human brain development and its role in regulating gene networks dysregulated in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia4–6, are unknown. Here we generate high-resolution 3D maps of chromatin contacts during human corticogenesis, permitting large-scale annotation of previously uncharacterized regulatory relationships relevant to the evolution of human cognition and disease. Our analyses identify hundreds of genes that physically interact with enhancers gained on the human, many of which are under purifying selection and associated with human cognitive function. We integrate chromatin contacts with non-coding variants identified in schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWAS), highlighting multiple new candidate schizophrenia risk genes and pathways, including transcription factors involved in neurogenesis, as well as cholinergic signalling, several of which are supported by independent expression quantitative trait loci and gene expression analyses. Genome editing in human neural progenitors suggests that one of these distal schizophrenia GWAS loci regulates FOXG1 expression, supporting its potential role as a novel schizophrenia risk gene. This work provides a framework for understanding the impact of non-coding regulatory elements on human brain development and the evolution of cognition, and highlights novel mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27760116

  9. Elucidating a Goal-Setting Continuum in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Anne W; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Trentham, Barry; Polatajko, Helene J; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2015-08-01

    For individuals with brain injury, active participation in goal setting is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes. However, clinicians report difficulty engaging these clients in goal setting due to perceived or real deficits (e.g., lack of awareness). We conducted a study using grounded theory methods to understand how clinicians from occupational therapy facilitate client engagement and manage challenges inherent in goal setting with this population. Through constant comparative analysis, a goal-setting continuum emerged. At one end of the continuum, therapists embrace client-determined goals and enable clients to decide their own goals. At the other, therapists accept preset organization-determined goals (e.g., "the goal is discharge") and pay little attention to client input. Although all participants aspired to embrace client-determined goal setting, most felt powerless to do so within perceived organizational constraints. Views of advocacy and empowerment help to explain our findings and inform more inclusive practice.

  10. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  11. [A Case of Transorbital Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Steel Wire Entirely Embedded in the Brain Parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Kin, Kyohei; Ono, Yasuhiro; Fujimori, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Goda, Yuji; Kawauchi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Penetrating brain injury(PBI)is very rare in Japan. Because there is a very wide variety of pathological condition of PBI, the guideline for the treatment of PBI has not been established yet. We report the unique case of PBI caused by a steel wire piece completely embedded in the brain parenchyma. A 75-year-old man was brought to the emergency department due to ocular injury caused by a steel wire piece. Neurological examination revealed only left visual disturbance. CT scan revealed a steel wire piece located intraparenchymally between the left frontal lobe and the ventricles, but digital subtraction angiography showed no significant vascular injury in the surrounding structures. We performed an open surgery and removed the steel wire piece. Because the steel wire piece was completely embedded in the brain, we used intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy to choose a less invasive approach for the brain. The patient suffered no additional neurological deficit and no sign of cerebral infection or seizure after surgery. He was discharged after a 4-week administration of antibiotics. In most cases of PBI caused by low velocity injury, foreign bodies are not completely embedded in the brain except for remnants after surgical removal. This is the first report of low velocity PBI caused by a foreign body completely embedded in the brain.

  12. Elucidating the early signal transduction pathways leading to fetal brain injury in preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Elovitz, Michal A; Mrinalini, Conjeevaram; Sammel, Mary D

    2006-01-01

    Adverse neurologic outcome, including cerebral palsy, is a significant contributor to long-term morbidity in preterm neonates. However, the mechanisms leading to brain injury in the setting of a preterm birth are poorly understood. In the last decade, there has been a growing body of evidence correlating infection or inflammation with preterm birth. The presence of intrauterine inflammation significantly increases the risk for adverse neurologic outcome in the neonate. These studies were performed to elucidate the early signal transduction pathways activated in the fetal brain that may result in long-term neurologic injury. Using our mouse model of localized intrauterine inflammation, the activation of TH1/TH2 pathways in the placenta, fetus corpus, fetal liver, and fetal brain was investigated. Additional studies determined whether activation of TH1/TH2 pathways could promote cell death and alter glial development. Real-time PCR studies demonstrated that a robust TH1/TH2 response occurs rapidly in the fetal brain after exposure to intrauterine inflammation. The cytokine response in the fetus and placenta was not significantly correlated with the response in the fetal brain. Along with an immune response, cell death pathways were activated early in the fetal brain in response to intrauterine LPS. Implicating TH1/TH2 and cell death pathways in permanent brain injury are our findings of an increase in GFAP mRNA and protein as well as a loss of pro-oligodendrocytes. With increased understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation promotes brain injury in the preterm neonate, identification of potential targets to limit adverse neonatal outcomes becomes possible.

  13. Tracking of EEG activity using motion estimation to understand brain wiring.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Humaira; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ullah, Rafi; Shim, Seong-O; Bawakid, Abdullah; Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Subhani, Ahmad Rauf

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.

  14. Study Suggests Brain Is Hard-Wired for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... to predict whether a subject would recover from low back pain. Red dots represent differences in white matter structure ... may predict whether a person will suffer chronic low back pain, according to researchers who used brain scans. The ...

  15. Two-step tunneling technique of deep brain stimulation extension wires-a description.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Denys; Vandersteen, Clair; Saleh, Christian; von Langsdorff, Daniel; Poissonnet, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    While a significant body of literature exists on the intracranial part of deep brain stimulation surgery, the equally important second part of the intervention related to the subcutaneous tunneling of deep brain stimulation extension wires is rarely described. The tunneling strategy can consist of a single passage of the extension wires from the frontal incision site to the subclavicular area, or of a two-step approach that adds a retro-auricular counter-incision. Each technique harbors the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. At our center, we perform a two-step tunneling procedure that we developed based on a cadaveric study. In 125 consecutive patients operated since 2002, we did not encounter any complication related to our tunneling method. Insufficient data exist to fully evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each tunneling technique. It is of critical importance that authors detail their tunneling modus operandi and report the presence or absence of complications. This gathered data pool may help to formulate a definitive conclusions on the safest method for subcutaneous tunneling of extension wires in deep brain stimulation.

  16. A Mathematical Model to Elucidate Brain Tumor Abrogation by Immunotherapy with T11 Target Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2015-01-01

    T11 Target structure (T11TS), a membrane glycoprotein isolated from sheep erythrocytes, reverses the immune suppressed state of brain tumor induced animals by boosting the functional status of the immune cells. This study aims at aiding in the design of more efficacious brain tumor therapies with T11 target structure. We propose a mathematical model for brain tumor (glioma) and the immune system interactions, which aims in designing efficacious brain tumor therapy. The model encompasses considerations of the interactive dynamics of glioma cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells), TGF-β, IFN-γ and the T11TS. The system undergoes sensitivity analysis, that determines which state variables are sensitive to the given parameters and the parameters are estimated from the published data. Computer simulations were used for model verification and validation, which highlight the importance of T11 target structure in brain tumor therapy. PMID:25955428

  17. Relationships between Gene Expression and Brain Wiring in the Adult Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We studied the global relationship between gene expression and neuroanatomical connectivity in the adult rodent brain. We utilized a large data set of the rat brain “connectome” from the Brain Architecture Management System (942 brain regions and over 5000 connections) and used statistical approaches to relate the data to the gene expression signatures of 17,530 genes in 142 anatomical regions from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our analysis shows that adult gene expression signatures have a statistically significant relationship to connectivity. In particular, brain regions that have similar expression profiles tend to have similar connectivity profiles, and this effect is not entirely attributable to spatial correlations. In addition, brain regions which are connected have more similar expression patterns. Using a simple optimization approach, we identified a set of genes most correlated with neuroanatomical connectivity, and find that this set is enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and axon guidance. A number of the genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder. Our results have the potential to shed light on the role of gene expression patterns in influencing neuronal activity and connectivity, with potential applications to our understanding of brain disorders. Supplementary data are available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/ABAMS. PMID:21253556

  18. Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain.

    PubMed

    French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2011-01-06

    We studied the global relationship between gene expression and neuroanatomical connectivity in the adult rodent brain. We utilized a large data set of the rat brain "connectome" from the Brain Architecture Management System (942 brain regions and over 5000 connections) and used statistical approaches to relate the data to the gene expression signatures of 17,530 genes in 142 anatomical regions from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our analysis shows that adult gene expression signatures have a statistically significant relationship to connectivity. In particular, brain regions that have similar expression profiles tend to have similar connectivity profiles, and this effect is not entirely attributable to spatial correlations. In addition, brain regions which are connected have more similar expression patterns. Using a simple optimization approach, we identified a set of genes most correlated with neuroanatomical connectivity, and find that this set is enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and axon guidance. A number of the genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder. Our results have the potential to shed light on the role of gene expression patterns in influencing neuronal activity and connectivity, with potential applications to our understanding of brain disorders. Supplementary data are available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/ABAMS.

  19. Brain – Endocast Relationship in the Australian Lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, Elucidated from Tomographic Data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi)

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (μCT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa. PMID:26492190

  20. Brain - Endocast Relationship in the Australian Lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, Elucidated from Tomographic Data (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin; Ahlberg, Per E

    2015-01-01

    Although the brains of the three extant lungfish genera have been previously described, the spatial relationship between the brain and the neurocranium has never before been fully described nor quantified. Through the application of virtual microtomography (μCT) and 3D rendering software, we describe aspects of the gross anatomy of the brain and labyrinth region in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri and compare this to previous accounts. Unexpected characters in this specimen include short olfactory peduncles connecting the olfactory bulbs to the telencephalon, and an oblong telencephalon. Furthermore, we illustrate the endocast (the mould of the internal space of the neurocranial cavity) of Neoceratodus, also describing and quantifying the brain-endocast relationship in a lungfish for the first time. Overall, the brain of the Australian lungfish closely matches the size and shape of the endocast cavity housing it, filling more than four fifths of the total volume. The forebrain and labyrinth regions of the brain correspond very well to the endocast morphology, while the midbrain and hindbrain do not fit so closely. Our results cast light on the gross neural and endocast anatomy in lungfishes, and are likely to have particular significance for palaeoneurologists studying fossil taxa.

  1. Elucidation of Semantic Organization in the Brain Using Functional Neuroimaging: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cato, M. Allison; Moore, Anna Bacon; Crosson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews competing theories of semantic organization in the brain, including modular models, unitary models, and the matrix theory, and provides supporting and refuting evidence for each, incorporating examples from the imaging literature. The literature does provide some support for distinct neural substrates that process specific…

  2. Elucidation of mechanism of blood-brain barrier damage for prevention and treatment of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masaki

    2017-03-28

    It is well-known that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays significant roles in transporting intravascular substances into the brain. The BBB in cerebral capillaries essentially impedes the influx of intravascular compounds from the blood to the brain, while nutritive substances, such as glucose, can be selectively transported through several types of influx transporters in endothelial cells. In the choroid plexus, intravascular substances can invade the parenchyma as fenestrations exist in endothelial cells of capillaries. However, the substances cannot invade the ventricles easily as there are tight junctions between epithelial cells in the choroid plexus. This restricted movement of the substances across the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells constitutes a blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In the brain, there are circumventricular organs, in which the barrier function is imperfect in capillaries. Accordingly, it is reasonable to consider that intravascular substances can move in and around the parenchyma of the organs. Actually, it was reported in mice that intravascular substances moved in the corpus callosum, medial portions of the hippocampus, and periventricular areas via the subfornical organs or the choroid plexus. Regarding pathways of intracerebral interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids to the outside of the brain, two representative drainage pathways, or perivascular drainage and glymphatic pathways, are being established. The first is the pathway in a retrograde direction to the blood flow through the basement membrane in walls of cerebral capillaries, the tunica media of arteries, and the vessels walls of the internal carotid artery. The second is in an anterograde direction to blood flow through the para-arterial routes, aquaporin 4-dependent transport through the astroglial cytoplasm, and para-venous routes, and then the fluids drain into the subarachnoid CSF. These fluids are finally considered to drain into the cervical lymph nodes or veins

  3. Spectroscopic identification of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) impurities and elucidation of their roles in cadmium selenide quantum-wire growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Tang, Rui; Kao, Jeff L-F; Dingman, Sean D; Buhro, William E

    2009-04-08

    Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is the most commonly used solvent for the synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals. Here we show that the use of different batches of commercially obtained TOPO solvent introduces significant variability into the outcomes of CdSe quantum-wire syntheses. This irreproducibility is attributed to varying amounts of phosphorus-containing impurities in the different TOPO batches. We employ (31)P NMR to identify 10 of the common TOPO impurities. Their beneficial, harmful, or negligible effects on quantum-wire growth are determined. The impurity di-n-octylphosphinic acid (DOPA) is found to be the important beneficial TOPO impurity for the reproducible growth of high-quality CdSe quantum wires. DOPA is shown to beneficially modify precursor reactivity through ligand substitution. The other significant TOPO impurities are ranked according to their abilities to similarly influence precursor reactivity. The results are likely of general relevance to most nanocrystal syntheses conducted in TOPO.

  4. Elucidating the aberrant brain regions in bipolar disorder using T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance ratio images.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takuya; Donishi, Tomohiro; Iwatani, Jun; Yamada, Shinichi; Takahashi, Shun; Ukai, Satoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro; Terada, Masaki; Kaneoke, Yoshiki

    2017-03-25

    Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have revealed brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) subjects, DTI methods might not detect disease-related abnormalities in the white matter (WM) where nerve fibers are crossing. We investigated BD myelin-related abnormal brain regions in both gray matter and WM for 29 BD and 33 healthy control (HC) participants using T1-weighted (T1w)/T2-weighted (T2w) ratio images that increase myelin-related contrast irrespective of nerve fiber orientation. To check effect of the brain volume, the results were compared with those of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found significantly lower T1w/T2w signal intensity in broad WM regions in BD subjects, including the corpus callosum, corona radiata, internal capsule, middle cerebellar peduncle and cerebellum. Regional volume reduction was found in the WM bilateral posterior thalami and retrolenticular part of the internal capsules of BD subjects. We also performed tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in 25 BD and 24 HC participants and compared those for the T1w/T2w ratio images. Both methods detected the BD corpus callosum abnormality. Further, the ratio images detected the corona radiata and the cerebellar abnormality in BD. These results suggest that T1w/T2w ratio image analysis could take a complementary role with the DTI method in elucidating myelin-related abnormalities in BD.

  5. Elucidating the Severity of Preclinical Traumatic Brain Injury Models: A Role for Functional Assessment?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ryan C.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Naser, Zachary J.; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Bailes, Julian E.; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Concussion remains a symptom-based diagnosis clinically, yet preclinical studies investigating traumatic brain injury, of which concussion is believed to represent a ‘mild’ form, emphasize histological endpoints with functional assessments often minimized or ignored all together. Recently, clinical studies have identified the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, in addition to somatic complaints, following concussion. How these findings may translate to preclinical studies is unclear at present. Objective To address the contrasting endpoints utilized clinically compared to those in preclinical studies and the potential role of functional assessments in a commonly used model of diffuse axonal injury (DAI).. Methods Animals were subjected to DAI using the impact-acceleration model. Functional and behavioral assessments were conducted over 1 week following DAI prior to completion of histological assessment at 1-week post-DAI. Results We show, despite the suggestion that this model represents concussive injury, no functional impairments as determined using common measures of motor, sensorimotor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric function following injury over the course of 1 week. The lack of functional deficits is in sharp contrast to neuropathologic findings indicating neural degeneration, astrocyte reactivity, and microglial activation. Conclusion Future studies are needed to identify functional assessments, neurophysiologic techniques, and imaging assessments more apt to distinguish differences following so-called ‘mild’ traumatic brain injury (TBI) in preclinical models and determine whether these models are truly studying concussive or subconcussive injury. These studies are needed to not only understand mechanism of injury and production of subsequent deficits, but also for rigorous evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24448183

  6. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  7. Nanoengineered drug-releasing Ti wires as an alternative for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the brain.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) blocks the passage of active molecules from the blood which makes drug delivery to the brain a challenging problem. Oral drug delivery using chemically modified drugs to enhance their transport properties or remove the blocking of drug transport across the BBB is explored as a common approach to address these problems, but with limited success. Local delivery of drugs directly to the brain interstitium using implants such as polymeric wafers, gels, and catheters has been recognized as a promising alternative particularly for the treatment of brain cancer (glioma) and neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to introduce a new solution by engineering a drug-releasing implant for local drug delivery in the brain, based on titanium (Ti) wires with titania nanotube (TNT) arrays on their surfaces. Drug loading and drug release characteristics of this system were explored using two drugs commonly used in oral brain therapy: dopamine (DOPA), a neurotransmitter agent; and doxorubicin (DOXO), an anticancer drug. Results showed that TNT/Ti wires could provide a considerable amount of drugs (>170 μg to 1000 μg) with desirable release kinetics and controllable release time (1 to several weeks) and proved their feasibility for use as drug-releasing implants for local drug delivery in the brain. In this report, a new drug-releasing platform in the form of nanoengineered Ti wires with TNT arrays is proposed as an alternative for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the brain to bypass the BBB. To prove this concept, drug loading and release characteristics of two drugs important for brain therapy (the neurotransmitter DOPA and the anticancer drug DOXO) were explored. Titania nanotube arrays on the surface of Ti wires (TNT/Ti) were fabricated using a simple anodization process, followed by separate loading of two drugs (DOPA and DOXO) inside the nanotube structures. The loading and in vitro release characteristics of prepared TNT

  8. Bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on glioblastoma cell behavior using PEG-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christine; Tong, Xinming; Yang, Fan

    2014-07-07

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor with a median survival of 12-15 months, and the mechanisms underlying GBM tumor progression remain largely elusive. Given the importance of tumor niche signaling in driving GBM progression, there is a strong need to develop in vitro models to facilitate analysis of brain tumor cell-niche interactions in a physiologically relevant and controllable manner. Here we report the development of a bioengineered 3D brain tumor model to help elucidate the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate using poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels with brain-mimicking biochemical and mechanical properties. We have chosen PEG given its bioinert nature and tunable physical property, and the resulting hydrogels allow tunable matrix stiffness without changing the biochemical contents. To facilitate cell proliferation and migration, CRGDS and a MMP-cleavable peptide were chemically incorporated. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was also incorporated to mimic the concentration in the brain extracellular matrix. Using U87 cells as a model GBM cell line, we demonstrate that such biomimetic hydrogels support U87 cell growth, spreading, and migration in 3D over the course of 3 weeks in culture. Gene expression analyses showed U87 cells actively deposited extracellular matrix and continued to upregulate matrix remodeling genes. To examine the effects of matrix stiffness on GBM cell fate in 3D, we encapsulated U87 cells in soft (1 kPa) or stiff (26 kPa) hydrogels, which respectively mimics the matrix stiffness of normal brain or GBM tumor tissues. Our results suggest that changes in matrix stiffness induce differential GBM cell proliferation, morphology, and migration modes in 3D. Increasing matrix stiffness led to delayed U87 cell proliferation inside hydrogels, but cells formed denser spheroids with extended cell protrusions. Cells cultured in stiff hydrogels also showed upregulation of HA synthase 1 and matrix

  9. Williams syndrome as a model for elucidation of the pathway genes - the brain - cognitive functions: genetics and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, E A; Medvedeva, A V; Zakharov, G A; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2014-01-01

    Genomic diseases or syndromes with multiple manifestations arise spontaneously and unpredictably as a result of contiguous deletions and duplications generated by unequal recombination in chromosomal regions with a specific architecture. The Williams syndrome is believed to be one of the most attractive models for linking genes, the brain, behavior and cognitive functions. It is a neurogenetic disorder resulting from a 1.5 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 which covers more than 20 genes; the hemizigosity of these genes leads to multiple manifestations, with the behavioral ones comprising three distinct domains: 1) visuo-spatial orientation; 2) verbal and linguistic defect; and 3) hypersocialisation. The shortest observed deletion leads to hemizigosity in only two genes: eln and limk1. Therefore, the first gene is supposed to be responsible for cardiovascular pathology; and the second one, for cognitive pathology. Since cognitive pathology diminishes with a patient's age, the original idea of the crucial role of genes straightforwardly determining the brain's morphology and behavior was substituted by ideas of the brain's plasticity and the necessity of finding epigenetic factors that affect brain development and the functions manifested as behavioral changes. Recently, non-coding microRNAs (miRs) began to be considered as the main players in these epigenetic events. This review tackles the following problems: is it possible to develop relatively simple model systems to analyze the contribution of both a single gene and the consequences of its epigenetic regulation in the formation of the Williams syndrome's cognitive phenotype? Is it possible to use Drosophila as a simple model system?

  10. Elucidating the role of compression waves and impact duration for generating mild traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Phillips, Michael; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Smith, Kelly E; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Regele, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    In total, 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the US leading to acute functional deficits, but the underlying histopathologic changes that occur are relatively unknown. In order to improve understanding of acute injury mechanisms, appropriately designed pre-clinical models must be utilized. The clinical relevance of compression wave injury models revolves around the ability to produce consistent histopathologic deficits. Mild traumatic brain injuries activate similar neuroinflammatory cascades, cell death markers and increases in amyloid precursor protein in both humans and rodents. Humans, however, infrequently succumb to mild traumatic brain injuries and, therefore, the intensity and magnitude of impacts must be inferred. Understanding compression wave properties and mechanical loading could help link the histopathologic deficits seen in rodents to what might be happening in human brains following concussions. While the concept of linking duration and intensity of impact to subsequent histopathologic deficits makes sense, numerical modelling of compression waves has not been performed in this context. In this interdisciplinary work, numerical simulations were performed to study the creation of compression waves in an experimental model. This work was conducted in conjunction with a repetitive compression wave injury paradigm in rats in order to better understand how the wave generation correlates with histopathologic deficits.

  11. [(18)F]FDG-PET Combined with MRI Elucidates the Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Brabazon, Fiona; Wilson, Colin M; Shukla, Dinesh K; Mathur, Sanjeev; Jaiswal, Shalini; Bermudez, Sara; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Selwyn, Reed

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive measurements of brain metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) may provide important information about injury severity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is growing interest in the potential of combining functional PET imaging with anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combining clinically available FDG-PET with T2 and diffusion MR imaging, with a particular focus on inflammation and the influence of glial alterations after injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by FDG-PET, MRI, and histological evaluation. FDG uptake showed significant alterations in the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and amygdala after TBI, demonstrating that a relatively "focal" CCI injury can result in global alterations. Analysis of MRI T2 intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) also showed significant alterations in these regions to include cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. Histology showed increased glial activation in the corpus callosum and hippocampus that was associated with increased FDG uptake at sub-acute time-points. Glial activation was not detected in the amygdala but neuronal damage was evident, as the amygdala was the only region to show a reduction in both FDG uptake and ADC at sub-acute time-points. Overall, FDG-PET detected glial activation but was confounded by the presence of cell damage, whereas MRI consistently detected cell damage but was confounded by glial activation. These results demonstrate that FDG-PET and MRI can be used together to improve our understanding of the complex alterations in the brain after TBI.

  12. Disentangling How the Brain is "Wired" in Cortical (Cerebral) Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Merabet, Lotfi B; Mayer, D Luisa; Bauer, Corinna M; Wright, Darick; Kran, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being. Given the complex neurologic underpinnings of this condition, CVI is often undiagnosed by eye care practitioners. Furthermore, the neurophysiological basis of CVI in relation to observed visual processing deficits remains poorly understood. Here, we present some of the challenges associated with the clinical assessment and management of individuals with CVI. We discuss how advances in brain imaging are likely to help uncover the underlying neurophysiology of this condition. In particular, we demonstrate how structural and functional neuroimaging approaches can help gain insight into abnormalities of white matter connectivity and cortical activation patterns, respectively. Establishing a connection between how changes within the brain relate to visual impairments in CVI will be important for developing effective rehabilitative and education strategies for individuals living with this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Topographic variations in rat brain oligodendrocyte morphology elucidated by injection of Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue slices.

    PubMed

    Weruaga-Prieto, E; Eggli, P; Celio, M R

    1996-01-01

    Visualisation of oligodendrocytes by fluorochrome labelling in fresh tissue is a relatively recent innovation, but its widespread applicability in comparative analyses between different regions of the brain has been hampered by the limited survival time of excised preparations. We here applied the technique of impaling and injecting these cells with Lucifer Yellow in fixed tissue slices. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we reconstructed the three-dimensional forms of oligodendrocytes derived from the optic nerve, corpus callosum, cerebellum and spinal cord of young adult rats. Differences in shape and size of the cell body, in the number of internodal segments supplied by a single cell, as well in their spatial orientation, and in the thickness of the myelinated fibre, were observed between the four white matter tracts analysed.

  14. Williams Syndrome As a Model for Elucidation of the Pathway Genes – the Brain – Cognitive Functions: Genetics and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, E. A.; Medvedeva, A. V.; Zakharov, G. A.; Savvateeva-Popova, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic diseases or syndromes with multiple manifestations arise spontaneously and unpredictably as a result of contiguous deletions and duplications generated by unequal recombination in chromosomal regions with a specific architecture. The Williams syndrome is believed to be one of the most attractive models for linking genes, the brain, behavior and cognitive functions. It is a neurogenetic disorder resulting from a 1.5 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 which covers more than 20 genes; the hemizigosity of these genes leads to multiple manifestations, with the behavioral ones comprising three distinct domains: 1) visuo-spatial orientation; 2) verbal and linguistic defect; and 3) hypersocialisation. The shortest observed deletion leads to hemizigosity in only two genes: eln and limk1. Therefore, the first gene is supposed to be responsible for cardiovascular pathology; and the second one, for cognitive pathology. Since cognitive pathology diminishes with a patient’s age, the original idea of the crucial role of genes straightforwardly determining the brain’s morphology and behavior was substituted by ideas of the brain’s plasticity and the necessity of finding epigenetic factors that affect brain development and the functions manifested as behavioral changes. Recently, non-coding microRNAs (miRs) began to be considered as the main players in these epigenetic events. This review tackles the following problems: is it possible to develop relatively simple model systems to analyze the contribution of both a single gene and the consequences of its epigenetic regulation in the formation of the Williams syndrome’s cognitive phenotype? Is it possible to use Drosophila as a simple model system? PMID:24772323

  15. Altered Wiring of the Human Structural Connectome in Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    van der Horn, Harm Jan; Kok, Jelmer G; de Koning, Myrthe E; Scheenen, Myrthe E; Leemans, Alexander; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-03-01

    In this study, structural connectivity after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was examined from a network perspective, with a particular focus on post-traumatic complaints. Fifty-three patients with and without self-reported complaints at 2 weeks after uncomplicated mTBI were included, in addition to 20 matched healthy controls. Diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 4 weeks post-injury, and neuropsychological tests measuring processing speed and verbal memory were administered at 3 months post-injury to determine cognitive outcome. Structural connectivity was investigated using whole brain tractography and subsequent graph theory analysis. In patients with mTBI, eigenvector centrality within the left temporal pole was lower than in healthy controls. In patients without complaints, global and mean local efficiency were lower than in patients with complaints, although no differences were found between either subgroup and the group of healthy controls. Neuropsychological test scores were similar for patients with mTBI and healthy controls. However, patients with complaints showed higher processing speed than patients without complaints. Within the total mTBI group, a trend was found toward a correlation between lower network clustering and higher processing speed. Additionally, significant correlations were found between higher betweenness centrality values of language areas and lower verbal memory scores in patients with mTBI. In conclusion, our findings may indicate that global graph measures of the structural connectome are associated with pre- and/or non-injury-related factors that determine the susceptibility to developing (persistent) complaints after mTBI. Further, correlations between graph measures and neuropsychological test scores could suggest early compensatory mechanisms to maintain adequate cognitive performance.

  16. Incretin mimetics as pharmacologic tools to elucidate and as a new drug strategy to treat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Greig, Nigel H; Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Li, Yazhou; Rubovitch, Vardit; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Hoffer, Barry J; Miller, Jonathan; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Sambamurti, Kumar; Becker, Robert E; Pick, Chaim G

    2014-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), either as an isolated injury or in conjunction with other injuries, is an increasingly common event. An estimated 1.7 million injuries occur within the USA each year and 10 million people are affected annually worldwide. Indeed, nearly one third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the USA are associated with TBI, which will soon outpace many common diseases as the major cause of death and disability. Associated with a high morbidity and mortality and no specific therapeutic treatment, TBI has become a pressing public health and medical problem. The highest incidence of TBI occurs in young adults (15-24 years age) and in the elderly (≥75 years of age). Older individuals are particularly vulnerable to these types of injury, often associated with falls, and have shown increased mortality and worse functional outcome after lower initial injury severity. In addition, a new and growing form of TBI, blast injury, associated with the detonation of improvised explosive devices in the war theaters of Iraq and Afghanistan, are inflicting a wave of unique casualties of immediate impact to both military personnel and civilians, for which long-term consequences remain unknown and may potentially be catastrophic. The neuropathology underpinning head injury is becoming increasingly better understood. Depending on severity, TBI induces immediate neuropathologic effects that, for the mildest form, may be transient; however, with increasing severity, these injuries cause cumulative neural damage and degeneration. Even with mild TBI, which represents the majority of cases, a broad spectrum of neurologic deficits, including cognitive impairments, can manifest that may significantly influence quality of life. Further, TBI can act as a conduit to longer term neurodegenerative disorders. Prior studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated neurotrophic/neuroprotective activities across a broad

  17. Incretin mimetics as pharmacological tools to elucidate and as a new drug strategy to treat traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Nigel H.; Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Li, Yazhou; Rubovitch, Vardit; Schreiber, Shaul; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Hoffer, Barry J.; Miller, Jonathan; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Sambamurti, Kumar; Becker, Robert E.; Pick, Chaim G.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), either as an isolated injury or in conjunction with other injuries, is an increasingly common occurring event. An estimated 1.7 million injuries occur within the US each year and 10 million people are affected annually worldwide. Indeed, some one-third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the U.S. are associated with TBI, which will soon outstrip many common diseases as the major cause of death and disability. Associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and no specific therapeutic treatment, TBI has become a pressing public health and medical problem. The highest incidence of TBI occurs among young adults (15 to 24 years age) as well as in the elderly (75 years and older) who are particularly vulnerable as injury, often associated with falls, carries an increased mortality and worse functional outcome following lower initial injury severity. Added to this, a new and growing form of TBI, blast injury, associated with the detonation of improvised explosive devices in the war theaters of Iraq and Afghanistan, are inflicting a wave of unique casualties of immediate impact to both military personnel and civilians, for which long-term consequences remain unknown and may potentially be catastrophic. The neuropathology underpinning head injury is becoming increasingly better understood. Depending on severity, TBI induces immediate neuropathological effects that for the mildest form may be transient but with increasing severity cause cumulative neural damage and degeneration. Even with mild TBI, which represents the majority of cases, a broad spectrum of neurological deficits, including cognitive impairments, can manifest that may significantly influence quality of life. In addition, TBI can act as a conduit to longer-term neurodegenerative disorders. Prior studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated neurotrophic/neuroprotective activities across a broad spectrum of cellular and

  18. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  19. Wire stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economu, M. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An insulation stripper is described which is especially useful for shielded wire, the stripper including a first pair of jaws with blades extending substantially perpendicular to the axis of the wire, and a second pair of jaws with blades extending substantially parallel to the axis of the wire. The first pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the device is turned to form circumferential cuts in the insulation. Then the second pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the wire is moved through the device to form longitudinal cuts that permit easy removal of the insulation. Each of the blades is located within the concave face of a V-block, to center the blades on the wire and to limit the depth of blade penetration.

  20. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  1. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  2. Information handling by the brain: proposal of a new "paradigm" involving the roamer type of volume transmission and the tunneling nanotube type of wiring transmission.

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Carone, Chiara; De Caro, Raffaele; Genedani, Susanna; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-12-01

    The current view on the organization of the central nervous system (CNS) is basically anchored to the paradigm describing the brain as formed by networks of neurons interconnected by synapses. Synaptic contacts are a fundamental characteristic for describing CNS operations, but increasing evidence accumulated in the last 30 years pointed to a refinement of this view. A possible overcoming of the classical "neuroscience paradigm" will be here outlined, based on the following hypotheses: (1) the basic morpho-functional unit in the brain is a compartment of tissue (functional module) where different resident cells (not only neurons) work as an integrated unit; (2) in these complex networks, a spectrum of intercellular communication processes is exploited, that can be classified according to a dichotomous criterion: wiring transmission (occurring through physically delimited channels) and volume transmission (exploiting diffusion in the extracellular space); (3) the connections between cells can themselves be described as a network, leading to an information processing occurring at different levels from cell network down to molecular level; (4) recent evidence of the existence of specialized structures (microvesicles and tunneling nanotubes) for intercellular exchange of materials, could allow a further type of polymorphism of the CNS networks based on at least transient changes in cell phenotype. When compared to the classical paradigm, the proposed scheme of cellular organization could allow a strong increase of the degrees of freedom available to the whole system and then of its plasticity. Furthermore, long range coordination and correlation can be more easily accommodated within this framework.

  3. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  4. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  5. Neural wiring optimization.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial network optimization theory concerns minimization of connection costs among interconnected components in systems such as electronic circuits. As an organization principle, similar wiring minimization can be observed at various levels of nervous systems, invertebrate and vertebrate, including primate, from placement of the entire brain in the body down to the subcellular level of neuron arbor geometry. In some cases, the minimization appears either perfect, or as good as can be detected with current methods. One question such best-of-all-possible-brains results raise is, what is the map of such optimization, does it have a distinct neural domain?

  6. Elucidation of the impact of P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein on the brain distribution of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bicker, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Alves, Gilberto; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Falcao, Amilcar

    2017-09-15

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are clinically important efflux transporters that act cooperatively at the blood-brain barrier, limiting the entry of several drugs into the CNS and affecting their pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy and safety. In the present study, the interactions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (BIA 9-1059, BIA 9-1079, entacapone, nebicapone, opicapone and tolcapone) with P-gp and BCRP were investigated in order to determine the contribution of these transporters in their access to the brain. In vitro cellular accumulation and bidirectional transport assays were conducted in MDCK II, MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were carried out for tolcapone and BIA 9-1079 in rats, with and without elacridar, a well-known P-gp and BCRP modulator. The results suggest that BIA 9-1079, nebicapone and tolcapone inhibit BCRP in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, with net flux ratios higher than 2 and decreased over 50 % in the presence of verapamil or Ko143, BIA 9-1079 was identified as P-gp substrate while BIA 9-1059, entacapone, opicapone and nebicapone revealed to be BCRP substrates. In vivo, brain exposure was limited for tolcapone and BIA 9-1079, although tolcapone crossed the blood-brain barrier in greater rate and extent than BIA 9-1079. The extent of brain distribution of both compounds was significantly increased in the presence of elacridar, attesting the involvement of efflux transporters. These findings provide relevant information and improve the understanding of the mechanisms that govern the access of these COMT inhibitors to the CNS. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Elucidating a magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroanatomic biomarker for psychosis: classification analysis using probabilistic brain atlas and machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daqiang; van Erp, Theo G M; Thompson, Paul M; Bearden, Carrie E; Daley, Melita; Kushan, Leila; Hardt, Molly E; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Toga, Arthur W; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2009-12-01

    No objective diagnostic biomarkers or laboratory tests have yet been developed for psychotic illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies consistently find significant abnormalities in multiple brain structures in psychotic patients relative to healthy control subjects, but these abnormalities show substantial overlap with anatomic variation that is in the normal range and therefore nondiagnostic. Recently, efforts have been made to discriminate psychotic patients from healthy individuals using machine-learning-based pattern classification methods on MRI data. Three-dimensional cortical gray matter density (GMD) maps were generated for 36 patients with recent-onset psychosis and 36 sex- and age-matched control subjects using a cortical pattern matching method. Between-group differences in GMD were evaluated. Second, the sparse multinomial logistic regression classifier included in the Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Python machine-learning package was applied to the cortical GMD maps to discriminate psychotic patients from control subjects. Patients showed significantly lower GMD, particularly in prefrontal, cingulate, and lateral temporal brain regions. Pattern classification analysis achieved 86.1% accuracy in discriminating patients from controls using leave-one-out cross-validation. These results suggest that even at the early stage of illness, psychotic patients present distinct patterns of regional cortical gray matter changes that can be discriminated from the normal pattern. These findings indicate that we can detect complex patterns of brain abnormality in early stages of psychotic illness, which has critical implications for early identification and intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis/schizophrenia.

  8. Analyses of mental dysfunction-related ACSl4 in Drosophila reveal its requirement for Dpp/BMP production and visual wiring in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Di; Wang, Zhaohui

    2009-10-15

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) convert long-chain fatty acids to acyl-CoAs, the activated substrates essential in various metabolic and signaling pathways. Mutations in ACSL4 are associated with non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (MRX). However, the developmental functions of ACSL4 and how it is involved in the pathogenesis of MRX remain largely unknown. The Drosophila ACSL-like protein is highly homologous to human ACSL3 and ACSL4, and we designate it as dAcsl. In this study, we demonstrate that dAcsl and ACSL4 are highly conserved in terms of ACSL4's ability to substitute the functions of dAcsl in organismal viability, lipid storage and the neural wiring in visual center. In neurodevelopment, decapentaplegic (Dpp, a BMP-like molecule) production diminished specifically in the larval brain of dAcsl mutants. Consistent with the Dpp reduction, the number of glial cells and neurons dramatically decreased and the retinal axons mis-targeted in the visual cortex. All these defects in Drosophila brain were rescued by the wild-type ACSL4 but not by the mutant products found in MRX patients. Interestingly, expression of an MRX-associated ACSL4 mutant form in a wild-type background led to the lesions in visual center, suggesting a dominant negative effect. These findings validate Drosophila as a model system to reveal the connection between ACSL4 and BMP pathway in neurodevelopment, and to infer the pathogenesis of ACSL4-related MRX.

  9. Is the ADHD brain wired differently? A review on structural and functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Kerstin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, a change in perspective in etiological models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has occurred in concordance with emerging concepts in other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. These models shift the focus of the assumed pathology from regional brain abnormalities to dysfunction in distributed network organization. In the current contribution, we report findings from functional connectivity studies during resting and task states, as well as from studies on structural connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging, in subjects with ADHD. Although major methodological limitations in analyzing connectivity measures derived from noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging still exist, there is convergent evidence for white matter pathology and disrupted anatomical connectivity in ADHD. In addition, dysfunctional connectivity during rest and during cognitive tasks has been demonstrated. However, the causality between disturbed white matter architecture and cortical dysfunction remains to be evaluated. Both genetic and environmental factors might contribute to disruptions in interactions between different brain regions. Stimulant medication not only modulates regionally specific activation strength but also normalizes dysfunctional connectivity, pointing to a predominant network dysfunction in ADHD. By combining a longitudinal approach with a systems perspective in ADHD in the future, it might be possible to identify at which stage during development disruptions in neural networks emerge and to delineate possible new endophenotypes of ADHD.

  10. Wired on Steroids: Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Its Role in the Expression of Sexual Partner Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Brenda M.; Skinner, Donal C.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity. PMID:22654808

  11. Elucidating a Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Neuroanatomic Biomarker for Psychosis: Classification Analysis Using Probabilistic Brain Atlas and Machine Learning Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Daqiang; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Daley, Melita; Kushan, Leila; Hardt, Molly E.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Toga, Arthur W.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2011-01-01

    Background No objective diagnostic biomarkers or laboratory tests have yet been developed for psychotic illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies consistently find significant abnormalities in multiple brain structures in psychotic patients relative to healthy control subjects, but these abnormalities show substantial overlap with anatomic variation that is in the normal range and therefore nondiagnostic. Recently, efforts have been made to discriminate psychotic patients from healthy individuals using machine-learning-based pattern classification methods on MRI data. Methods Three-dimensional cortical gray matter density (GMD) maps were generated for 36 patients with recent-onset psychosis and 36 sex- and age-matched control subjects using a cortical pattern matching method. Between-group differences in GMD were evaluated. Second, the sparse multinomial logistic regression classifier included in the Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Python machine-learning package was applied to the cortical GMD maps to discriminate psychotic patients from control subjects. Results Patients showed significantly lower GMD, particularly in prefrontal, cingulate, and lateral temporal brain regions. Pattern classification analysis achieved 86.1% accuracy in discriminating patients from controls using leave-one-out cross-validation. Conclusions These results suggest that even at the early stage of illness, psychotic patients present distinct patterns of regional cortical gray matter changes that can be discriminated from the normal pattern. These findings indicate that we can detect complex patterns of brain abnormality in early stages of psychotic illness, which has critical implications for early identification and intervention in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis/schizophrenia. PMID:19729150

  12. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  13. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  14. Structural Elucidation of the Cell-Penetrating Penetratin Peptide in Model Membranes at the Atomic Level: Probing Hydrophobic Interactions in the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Bera, Swapna; Kar, Rajiv K; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-09-06

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have shown promise in nonpermeable therapeutic drug delivery, because of their ability to transport a variety of cargo molecules across the cell membranes and their noncytotoxicity. Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain-derived CPP penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), being rich in positively charged residues, has been increasingly used as a potential drug carrier for various purposes. Penetratin can breach the tight endothelial network known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permitting treatment of several neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, a detailed structural understanding of penetratin and its mechanism of action is lacking. This study defines structural features of the penetratin-derived peptide, DK17 (DRQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), in several model membranes and describes a membrane-induced conformational transition of the DK17 peptide in these environments. A series of biophysical experiments, including high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provides the three-dimensional structure of DK17 in different membranes mimicking the BBB or total brain lipid extract. Molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental results showing preferential binding of DK17 to particular lipids at atomic resolution. The peptide conserves the structure of the subdomain spanning residues Ile6-Arg11, despite considerable conformational variation in different membrane models. In vivo data suggest that the wild type, not a mutated sequence, enters the central nervous system. Together, these data highlight important structural and functional attributes of DK17 that could be utilized in drug delivery for neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE)

    EPA Science Inventory



    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer to simultaneously determine exact masses and relative isotopic abundances from mass peak profiles. These can be determined more accurately and at higher sensitivity ...

  16. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  17. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  18. Wire Retrieves Broken Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burow, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Safety wire retains pieces of broken tool. Retrieval wire running through shaft of tool used to pull pieces of tool out of hole, should tool break during use. Safety wire concept suitable for pins subject to deflection or breakage.

  19. Automated wire preparation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Deborah J.

    The first step toward an automated wire harness facility for the aerospace industry has been taken by implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 into the wire harness preparation area. An overview of the Wire Vektor 2000 is given, including the facilities for wire cutting, marking, and transporting, for wire end processing, and for system control. Production integration in the Wire Vektor 2000 system is addressed, considering the hardware/software debug system and the system throughput. The manufacturing changes that have to be made in implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 are discussed.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated...

  1. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  2. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  3. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  4. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  5. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  6. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management ...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information

  7. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  8. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  9. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  10. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  11. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  12. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  13. Coupled spatial multimode solitons in microcavity wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavcheva, G.; Gorbach, A. V.; Pimenov, A.

    2016-12-01

    A modal expansion approach is developed and employed to investigate and elucidate the nonlinear mechanism behind the multistability and formation of coupled multimode polariton solitons in microcavity wires. With pump switched on and realistic dissipation parameters, truncating the expansion up to the second-order wire mode, our model predicts two distinct coupled soliton branches: stable and unstable. Modulational stability of the stationary homogeneous solution and soliton branches stability are studied. Our simplified 1D model is in remarkably good agreement with the full 2D mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii model, reproducing correctly the soliton existence domain upon variation of pump amplitude and the onset of multistability.

  14. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  15. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  16. Elucidation of Transport Mechanism of Paeoniflorin and the Influence of Ligustilide, Senkyunolide I and Senkyunolide A on Paeoniflorin Transport through Mdck-Mdr1 Cells as Blood-Brain Barrier in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-Yi; Liu, Dan; Zheng, Qin; Wu, Qing; Tang, Yu; Yang, Ming

    2016-03-02

    The objectives of the present investigation were to: (1) elucidate the transport mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) across MDCK-MDR1 monolayers; and (2) evaluate the effect of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide I (SENI) and senkyunolide A (SENA) on the transport of PF through blood-brain barrier so as to explore the enhancement mechanism. Transport studies of PF were performed in both directions, from apical to basolateral side (A→B) and from basolateral to apical sides (B→A). Drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. PF showed relatively poor absorption in MDCK-MDR1 cells, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) ranging from 0.587 × 10(-6) to 0.705 × 10(-6) cm/s. In vitro experiments showed that the transport of PF in both directions was concentration dependent and not saturable. The B→A/A→B permeability ER of PF was more than 2 in the MDCK-MDR1 cells, which indicated that the transport mechanism of PF might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased Papp of PF in A→B direction by EDTA-Na₂ suggested that PF was absorbed via the paracellular route. The P-gp inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of PF in A→B direction, and ER decreased from 2.210 to 0.690, which indicated that PF was P-gp substance. The transport of PF in A→B direction significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. An increased cellular accumulation of Rho 123 and Western blot analysis indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had increased the transport of PF in the BBB models attribute to down-regulate P-gp expression. A decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) during the permeation experiment can be explained by the modulation and opening of the tight junctions caused by the permeation enhancer LIG, SENI and SENA.

  17. Flicking-wire drag tensioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dassele, M. A.; Fairall, H.

    1978-01-01

    Wire-drag system improves wire profile and applies consistent drag to wire. Wire drag is continuously adjustable from zero drag to tensile strength of wire. No-sag wire drag is easier to thread than former system and requires minimal downtime for cleaning and maintenance.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work or...

  7. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  8. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  9. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  10. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  11. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  12. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  13. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  14. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  15. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  16. Imagination Visualized in Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson achieved with a Very Special Artist (VSA) in residence for sixth- and seventh-grade students in which they created wire sculptures. Discusses how the VSA taught the students. Includes a list of art materials and characteristics of wire. (CMK)

  17. Imagination Visualized in Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson achieved with a Very Special Artist (VSA) in residence for sixth- and seventh-grade students in which they created wire sculptures. Discusses how the VSA taught the students. Includes a list of art materials and characteristics of wire. (CMK)

  18. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural.

  19. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  20. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  1. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-09-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  2. Neuroscientists Find Learning Is Not "Hard-Wired"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience exploded into the education conversation more than 20 years ago, in step with the evolution of personal computers and the rise of the Internet, and policymakers hoped medical discoveries could likewise help doctors and teachers understand the "hard wiring" of the brain. That conception of how the brain works, exacerbated by the…

  3. Neuroscientists Find Learning Is Not "Hard-Wired"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience exploded into the education conversation more than 20 years ago, in step with the evolution of personal computers and the rise of the Internet, and policymakers hoped medical discoveries could likewise help doctors and teachers understand the "hard wiring" of the brain. That conception of how the brain works, exacerbated by the…

  4. Superconducting wire manufactured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuexian; Sun, Yue; Xu, Shiming; Peng, Ying

    1985-10-01

    The MF Nb/Cu Extrusion Tube Method was used to manufacture 3 kg of stable practical MF Nb2Sn composite superconducting wire containing pure Cu(RRR approx. 200)/Ta. The draw state composite wire diameter was 0.56 mm, it contained 11,448 x 2.6 micron Nb core, and the twist distance was 1.5 cm. The composite wire cross-section was pure Cu/Ta/11,448 Nb core/Cu/ 91Sn-Cu; containing 22.8 v. % pure Cu, 13.3 v. % Ta; within the Ta layer to prevent Sn diffusion. The wire was sheathed in nonalkaline glass fiber as an insulating layer. A section of wire weighing 160 g was cut off and coiled it into a small solenoid. After reaction diffusion processing at 675 C/30 and curing by vacuum dipping in paraffin, it was measured in a Nb-Ti backfield of 7.2 T intensity, a current of 129 A was passed through the Nb3Sn solenoid and produced a strength of 2.5 T, the overall magnetic field intensity of the composite magnet reached 9.7 T. At this time, the wire full current density J sub c.w. = 5.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm; the effective current density J sub c (Nb + Sn - Cu) = 8.2 x 10 to the 4th power A/sq cm.

  5. Cavitation during wire brushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  6. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  7. Neuronal branching patterns and the economy of cortical wiring.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, G

    1991-08-22

    Keeping the volume of connections in the cortex as low as possible may be an important evolutionary constraint on the design of the brain. Much as an engineer tries to arrange the components of a computer in such a way as to give efficient wiring, so the brain may have evolved a layout of neuronal types which gives an economical use of axonal 'wiring'. One key difference between computer and brain is that connections in the brain take the form of elaborate branching structures. It is argued here that certain features of cortical mapping, such as the stripes and patches seen within cortical areas, may be adaptations which allow efficient wiring by such structures. Some simple calculations are given to support this, using as models for axonal arbors certain branching patterns which give a low volume of wiring. In particular, it is shown that a pattern of stripes can give economical wiring when axon diameters follow a law dp = dp1 + dp2 with p greater than 4, where d1 and d2 are the diameters of the daughter branches and d that of the parent.

  8. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  9. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  10. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  11. 2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION - CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT (ABANDONED WEST LEG OF WYE AT SIXTH AVENUE AND PINE STREET) - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Trackage, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  12. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Development of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks in Children

    PubMed Central

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7–9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19–22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar “small-world” organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:19621066

  14. Elucidating the functions of brain GSK3α: Possible synergy with GSK3β upregulation and reversal by antidepressant treatment in a mouse model of depressive-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Dmitrii; Markova, Nataliia; Bettendorff, Lucien; Chekhonin, Vladimir; Pomytkin, Igor; Lioudyno, Viktoria; Svistunov, Andrei; Ponomarev, Eugene; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2017-09-29

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has been linked to the mechanisms of stress, mood regulation, and the effects of antidepressants. The functions of the GSK3β isoform have been extensively investigated, but little is known about the α-isoform, although they may functionally related. In a recently established modified swim test with a third delayed swim exposure, brain GSK3β mRNA expression positively correlated with floating behaviour on the third test. A two-week-long pretreatment regime with imipramine (7.5mg/kg/day) or thiamine (200mg/kg/day), which is known to have antidepressant properties, reduced the GSK3β over-expression and decreased floating behaviour on Day 5. GSK3α mRNA levels were measured in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex on Days 1, 2 and 5. GSK3α expression was decreased in the prefrontal cortex on Day 2 and increased on Day 5. In this model, GSK3α mRNA changes were prevented by imipramine or thiamine treatment. There was a significant correlation between the expression of the two isoforms in the prefrontal cortex on Day 2 in untreated group. These results provide the first evidence for the potential involvement of GSK3α in depressive-like behaviours and as a target of anti-depressant therapy. Furthermore, the correlations suggest some cross-talk may exist between the two GSK3 isoforms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Wiring for space applications program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad

    1994-01-01

    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  16. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  17. Childhood cancer in relation to a modified residential wire code

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. ); Kaune, W.T. )

    1993-04-22

    Several studies have found associations between wire configuration codes, a proxy for historical residential magnetic field exposure, and childhood cancer. The Wertheimer-Leeper coding method was modified by eliminating the distinction between thick and thin primaries, distinguishing only between open and spun secondaries, and reducing the number of categories from five to three. The association between the modified code and measured magnetic fields was similar to the association with the original wire code. The modified code was used to reanalyze data from a case-control study of childhood cancer in the Denver metropolitan area. In the original study, cases were diagnosed from 1976 to 1983 among children under age 15 and compared to controls selected through random digit dialing. Wire codes for the residence at diagnosis yielded imprecise elevations of two and above for very high current configuration homes or modest 1.5-fold elevations for a dichotomous wire code. In contrast, the modified Wertheimer-Leeper code generated risk estimates that were both precise and markedly elevated for the high wire code (HWC) compared to low wire code (LWC) classifications, with medium wire code (MWC) showing little or no increase in risk. High wire code yielded odds ratios of 1.9 for total cancers (95% CI: 1.1--3.2), 2.9 for leukemias (95% CI: 1.5--5.5), and 2.5 for brain cancer (95% CI: 1.1--5.5) that were not confounded by measured potential risk factors for childhood cancer. These risk estimates are larger than the dichotomized results and more precise than those from the original five-level wire code, though limitations in the original study remain, particularly potential control selection bias. This refined and greatly simplified approach to wire configuration coding may be useful in other studies. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Assessing the MR compatibility of dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Wezel, Joep; Kooij, Bert Jan; Webb, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the MR compatibility of common dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla in terms of potential RF heating and magnetic susceptibility effects. Electromagnetic simulations and experimental results were compared for dental retainer wires placed in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Simulations were then performed for a human model with wire in place. Finally, image quality was assessed for different scanning protocols and wires. Simulations and experimental data in phantoms agreed well, with the length of the wire correlating to maximum heating in phantoms being approximately 47 mm. Even in this case, no substantial heating occurs when scanning within the specific absorption rate (SAR) guidelines for the head. Image distortions from the most ferromagnetic dental wire were not significant for any brain region. Dental retainer wires appear to be MR compatible at 7 Tesla. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  20. SCALING UNDERWATER EXPLODING WIRES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    heat of detonation of TNT in calories per gram. This scaling behavior extends the law of similarity six decades in terms of weight, from pounds to micropounds. The peak pressure for exploding-wire phenomena has been obtained from data and is emprically expressed as pm = 26,800 (cube root of W/R) to

  1. Hopkins installs wire harnesses

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-24

    ISS038-E-008291 (24 Nov. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Michael Hopkins, Expedition 38 flight engineer, installs wire harnesses in the International Space Station?s Harmony node to support the installation of Ethernet video cables for the station?s local area network. These new cables will provide Ethernet connectivity to the visiting vehicles that dock to Harmony?s Earth-facing port.

  2. Gaseous wire detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1997-08-01

    This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations.

  3. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  4. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  5. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  6. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  7. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  8. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  9. Residential Wiring. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    This competency-based curriculum guide contains materials for conducting a course in residential wiring. A technically revised edition of the 1978 publication, the guide includes 28 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the following basic components: performance objectives, suggested activities for teachers and students,…

  10. One-wire thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Staimach, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Nickel alloy/constantan device accurately measures surface temperature at precise locations. Device is moderate in cost and simplifies fabrication of highly-instrumented seamless-surface heat-transfer models. Device also applies to metal surfaces if constantan wire has insulative coat.

  11. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  12. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  13. Genomics: Applications in Mechanism Elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Venita; McLeod, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    The inability to predict the pharmacology and toxicology of drug candidates in preclinical studies has led to the decline in the number of new drugs which make it to market and the rise in cost associated with drug development. Identifying molecular interactions associated with therapeutic and toxic drug effects early in development is a top priority. Traditional mechanism elucidation strategies are narrow, often focusing on the identification of solely the molecular target. Methods which can offer additional insight into wide-ranging molecular interactions required for drug effect and the biochemical consequences of these interactions are in demand. Genomic strategies have made impressive advances in defining a more global view of drug action are expected to increasingly be used a complimentary tool in drug discovery and development. PMID:19166886

  14. Extending wire rope service life

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

  15. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  16. Elucidating Mechanisms of Extensive Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egolf, David A.; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Pesch, Werner; Ecke, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    We report studies of the mechanism for the generation of chaotic disorder in a phenomenon found in nature, Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC), in a regime exhaustively studied experimentally. Through large-scale, parallel-computational studies of the detailed space-time evolution of the dynamical degrees of freedom, we find that the Spiral Defect Chaos (SDC) state of RBC is spatially- and temporally- localized to defect creation/annihilation events (D.A. Egolf, I.V. Melnikov, W. Pesch, and R.E. Ecke, Nature, 404:733--736, 2000), and we elucidate how these divergent, but very brief, events lead to eventual macroscopic differences between initially similar flow patterns. We also demonstrate that SDC is extensively chaotic, in that the number of dynamical degrees of freedom (the fractal dimension) is proportional to the system size, suggesting the possibility for a hydrodynamic-like description of the long-wavelength properties of SDC. The computational technique employed shows promise for analyzing a wide variety of extended dynamical systems.

  17. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  18. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  19. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  20. From wires to cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  1. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  2. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  3. Printed wiring assembly cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This work installed a product cleanliness test capability in a manufacturing environment. A previously purchased testing device was modified extensively and installed in a production department. The device, the testing process, and some soldering and cleaning variables were characterized to establish their relationship to the device output. The characterization provided information which will be required for cleanliness testing to be an adequate process control of printed wiring assembly soldering and cleaning processes.

  4. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  5. Impact Wire Dislodges Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1990-01-01

    Snakelike tool loosens trapped debris obstructing narrow passages in normally inaccessible locations. Flexible tool threaded into obstructed channel, much like common plumbing snake. Wire fed along inner tube of tool until tip reaches obstruction. Delivers impact from impact tool to obstruction. Designed for use in narrow, intricate coolant channels of rocket engine. Lends itself readily to modification for use in engine blocks, heat exchangers, general plumbing, and like.

  6. Magnetoconductance of quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Gerson J.; Sammarco, Filipe; Egues, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    At low temperatures the conductance of a quantum wires exhibit characteristic plate-aus due to the quantization of the transverse modes [1]. In the presence of high in-plane magnetic fields these spin-split transverse modes cross. Recently, these crossings were observed experimentally [2] via measurements of the differential conductance as a function of the gate voltage and the in-plane magnetic-field. These show structures described as either anti-crossings or magnetic phase transitions. Motivated by our previous works on magnetotransport in 2DEGs via the Spin Density Functional Theory (SDFT) [3], here we propose a similar model to investigate the magnetoconductance of quantum wires. We use (i) the SDFT via the Kohn-Sham self-consistent scheme within the local spin density approximation to obtain the electronic structure and (ii) the Landauer-Buettiker formalism to calculate the conductance of a quantum wire. Our results show qualitative agreement with the data of Ref. [2]. [1] B. J. van Wees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988). [2] A. C. Graham et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 226804 (2008). [3] H. J. P. Freire, and J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 026801 (2007); G. J. Ferreira, and J. Carlos Egues, J. Supercond. Nov. Mag., in press; G. J. Ferreira, H. J. P. Freire, J. Carlos Egues, submitted.

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  9. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  10. Hemispheric asymmetry: contributions from brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A series of studies using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging measures also, to elucidate the aspects of hemispheric asymmetry are reviewed. It is suggested that laterality evolved as a response to the demands of language and the need for air-based communication which may have necessitated a division of labor between the hemispheres in order to avoid having duplicate copies in both the hemispheres that would increase processing redundancy. This would have put pressure on brain structures related to the evolution of language and speech, such as the left peri-Sylvian region. MRI data are provided showing structural and functional asymmetry in this region of the brain and how fibers connecting the right and left peri-Sylvian regions pass through the corpus callosum. It is further suggested that the so-called Yakelovian-torque, i.e., the twisting of the brain along the longitudinal axis, with the right frontal and left occipital poles protruding beyond the corresponding left and right sides, was necessary for the expansion of the left peri-Sylvian region and the right occipito-parietal regions subserving the processing of spatial relations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data related to sex differences for visuo-spatial processing are presented showing enhanced right-sided activation in posterior parts of the brain in both sexes, and frontal activation including Broca's area in the female group only, suggesting that males and females use different strategies when solving a cognitive task. The paper ends with a discussion of the role of the corpus callosum in laterality and the role played by structural asymmetry in understanding corresponding functional asymmetry. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 461-478 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.122 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. The Drag of Streamline Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N

    1933-01-01

    Preliminary results are given of drag tests of streamline wires. Full-size wires were tested over a wide range of speeds in the N.A.C.A. high speed tunnel. The results are thus directly applicable to full-scale problems and include any compressibility effects encountered at the higher speeds. The results show how protuberances may be employed on conventional streamline wires to reduce the drag, and also show how the conventional wires compare with others having sections more like strut or symmetrical airfoil sections. Because the new wire sections developed are markedly superior aerodynamically to conventional wires, it is recommended that some of them be tested in service in order to investigate their relative susceptibility to vibration and to fatigue failure.

  12. Nature's Anti-Alzheimer's Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Galantamine from "Leucojum Aestivum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Catherine M.; Reilly, Ciara; Walsh, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that galantamine penetrates the blood-brain barrier has led to its clinical use in the treatment of choline-deficiency conditions in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of galantamine from "Leucojum aestivum". Isolation of the alkaloid constituents in "L. aestivum"…

  13. Nature's Anti-Alzheimer's Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Galantamine from "Leucojum Aestivum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Catherine M.; Reilly, Ciara; Walsh, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that galantamine penetrates the blood-brain barrier has led to its clinical use in the treatment of choline-deficiency conditions in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of galantamine from "Leucojum aestivum". Isolation of the alkaloid constituents in "L. aestivum"…

  14. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.

  15. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ˜1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

  16. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  17. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  18. Plasma Formation Around Single Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duselis, Peter U.; Kusse, Bruce R.

    2002-12-01

    At Cornell's Laboratory of Plasma Studies, single wires of various metals were exploded using a ˜250 ns pulser with a rise time of ˜20 A/ns. It was found that the wires first experience a resistive heating phase that lasts 50-80 ns before a rapid collapse of voltage. From that point on, the voltage across the wire was negligible while the current through the wire continued to increase. We attribute this voltage collapse to the formation of plasma about the wire. Further confirmation of this explanation will be presented along with new experimental data describing preliminary spectroscopy results, the expansion rate of the plasma, and current flow along the wire as a function of radius. The resistance of the wire-electrode connection will be shown to significantly affect the energy deposition. Various diagnostics were used to obtain these experiments. Ultraviolet sensitive vacuum photodiodes and a framing camera with an 8 ns shutter were used to detect and measure the width of the visible light emitted by the plasma. A special wire holder was constructed that allowed the transfer of current from the wire to the surrounding plasma to be observed.

  19. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  20. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  1. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  2. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  3. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  4. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  5. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fouling wires. 234.231 Section 234.231..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.231 Fouling wires. Each set of fouling wires in a highway... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations having...

  6. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fouling wires. 234.231 Section 234.231..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.231 Fouling wires. Each set of fouling wires in a highway... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations having...

  7. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  8. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  9. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  10. Soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  11. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  12. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  13. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  14. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  15. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  17. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  18. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  19. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  20. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  1. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  2. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  4. Tungsten wire for incandescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.L.; Briant, C.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Tungsten wire for incandescent lamp filaments must operate at high temperatures and for long times. To meet these requirements, the grain morphology of the wire must be controlled to reduce the propensity for grain boundary sliding. The morphology is a function of the distribution of very small pockets of potassium in the wire and the mechanical processing from ingot to wire. The behavior of the filament is directly related to the grain morphology. This paper describes the mechanism by which the potassium is incorporated into and distributed in the ingot. The elongation and spheroidization of the bubbles during hot rolling and swaging is also examined and related to the grain morphology of wire. Some indications of the relationship between grain morphology and filament behavior are also given.

  5. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  6. Wiring Economy of Pyramidal Cells in the Juvenile Rat Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Cajal hypothesized that the structure of neurons is designed in such a way as to save space, time and matter, numerous researchers have analyzed wiring properties at different scales of brain organization. Here we test the hypothesis that individual pyramidal cells, the most abundant type of neuron in the cerebral cortex, optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. In this study, we analyze the neuronal wiring of complete basal arborizations of pyramidal neurons in layer II, III, IV, Va, Vb and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats. For each cell, we search for the optimal basal arborization and compare its length with the length of the real dendritic structure. Here the optimal arborization is defined as the arborization that has the shortest total wiring length provided that all neuron bifurcations are respected and the extent of the dendritic arborizations remain unchanged. We use graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques to search for the minimal wiring arborizations. Despite morphological differences between pyramidal neurons located in different cortical layers, we found that the neuronal wiring is near-optimal in all cases (the biggest difference between the shortest synthetic wiring found for a dendritic arborization and the length of its real wiring was less than 5%). We found, however, that the real neuronal wiring was significantly closer to the best solution found in layers II, III and IV. Our studies show that the wiring economy of cortical neurons is related not to the type of neurons or their morphological complexities but to general wiring economy principles.

  7. Wiring Economy of Pyramidal Cells in the Juvenile Rat Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Cajal hypothesized that the structure of neurons is designed in such a way as to save space, time and matter, numerous researchers have analyzed wiring properties at different scales of brain organization. Here we test the hypothesis that individual pyramidal cells, the most abundant type of neuron in the cerebral cortex, optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. In this study, we analyze the neuronal wiring of complete basal arborizations of pyramidal neurons in layer II, III, IV, Va, Vb and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats. For each cell, we search for the optimal basal arborization and compare its length with the length of the real dendritic structure. Here the optimal arborization is defined as the arborization that has the shortest total wiring length provided that all neuron bifurcations are respected and the extent of the dendritic arborizations remain unchanged. We use graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques to search for the minimal wiring arborizations. Despite morphological differences between pyramidal neurons located in different cortical layers, we found that the neuronal wiring is near-optimal in all cases (the biggest difference between the shortest synthetic wiring found for a dendritic arborization and the length of its real wiring was less than 5%). We found, however, that the real neuronal wiring was significantly closer to the best solution found in layers II, III and IV. Our studies show that the wiring economy of cortical neurons is related not to the type of neurons or their morphological complexities but to general wiring economy principles. PMID:27832100

  8. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  9. Control Methods for Wire Arrangement Unit of New Multi-Wire Saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Qian, Juying; Cai, Ji-Fei; Wang, Yan

    To solve such problems as unstable wire transmission caused by overly dense or overlaid local wire arrangement, an electronic cam wire arrangement method is put forward in this paper, adopting servo motor to drive the cam, making the wire arrangement motor follow the speed change of taking-up motor, outputing the wire arrangement motor speed with the deduced functional operation relation, and controlling the wire arrangement pulley to evenly distribute the steel wire on the taking-up roller.

  10. Genesis and regulatory wiring of retroelement-derived domesticated genes: a phylogenomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kokošar, Janez; Kordiš, Dušan

    2013-05-01

    Molecular domestications of transposable elements have occurred repeatedly during the evolution of eukaryotes. Vertebrates, especially mammals, possess numerous single copy domesticated genes (DGs) that have originated from the intronless multicopy transposable elements. However, the origin and evolution of the retroelement-derived DGs (RDDGs) that originated from Metaviridae has been only partially elucidated, due to absence of genome data or to limited analysis of a single family of DGs. We traced the genesis and regulatory wiring of the Metaviridae-derived DGs through phylogenomic analysis, using whole-genome information from more than 90 chordate genomes. Phylogenomic analysis of these DGs in chordate genomes provided direct evidence that major diversification has occurred in the ancestor of placental mammals. Mammalian RDDGs have been shown to originate in several steps by independent domestication events and to diversify later by gene duplications. Analysis of syntenic loci has shown that diverse RDDGs and their chromosomal positions were fully established in the ancestor of placental mammals. By analysis of active Metaviridae lineages in amniotes, we have demonstrated that RDDGs originated from retroelement remains. The chromosomal gene movements of RDDGs were highly dynamic only in the ancestor of placental mammals. During the domestication process, de novo acquisition of regulatory regions is shown to be a prerequisite for the survival of the DGs. The origin and evolution of de novo acquired promoters and untranslated regions in diverse mammalian RDDGs have been explained by comparative analysis of orthologous gene loci. The origin of placental mammal-specific innovations and adaptations, such as placenta and newly evolved brain functions, was most probably connected to the regulatory wiring of DGs and their rapid fixation in the ancestor of placental mammals.

  11. Requirements for Printed Wiring Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  12. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  13. Influence of Flaws of Wire Rod Surface, Inclusions and Voids on Wire Breaks in Superfine Wire Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Norasethasopon, Somchai; Shinohara, Tetsuo; Ido, Ryuta

    By means of the finite element analysis (FEA), this study analyzed wire breaks that occurred in the drawing fine wires containing flaws on the wire surface, inclusion and void. The deformation behavior of an inclusion was examined, in which the inclusion's location is assumed to be on the center axis of the wire, and the cause of wire breaks and their prevention method were clarified. It was found that an inclusion diameter/wire diameter ratio of 0.4 or higher increases the likelihood of wire breaks occurring. When the inclusion is not assumed to be in the center axis of the wire, it was also found that necking and wire breaks appear more frequently. FEA showed that a flaw grows with each processing step, when a small circumferential flaw is placed on the wire rod surface, and eventually becomes a surface defect, which is called a check mark in practice.

  14. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  16. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  17. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  18. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a) Wire rope and replacement wire rope shall be of the same size, same or better grade, and same...

  19. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  20. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  1. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  2. Dieless wire drawing with lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.

    2007-06-01

    Thin wires are produced by drawing through nozzle-like tools, so called dies, that suffer from strong wear due to friction. In order to avoid the latter disadvantage the dies can be replaced by a laser beam heating the wire to such extend that the yield strength becomes smaller than the tensile strength and thus the wire is elongated and consequently constricted. To avoid rupture, the wire is cooled down again after the desired reduction of the diameter is reached. A further important advantage of this new process is that only one drawing step with a laser can substitute a large number of mechanical drawing actions, thus making the process much more efficient. Theoretical considerations and experimental investigations prove the feasibility of the latter new laser process and are subject to a description in the actual paper.

  3. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  4. Modeling birds on wires.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes.

  5. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...

  6. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits,...

  8. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits,...

  9. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits,...

  10. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  11. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  12. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  13. Brake-By-Wire Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Two design iterations for electric calipers and two systems (full brake by wire and hybrid brakes ...were developed for use on a ground vehicle. The program demonstrated a fully integrated electric caliper and full brake -by-wire system on a sports...release. Project Context The development of an electric brake caliper and associated systems for automotive application represented a significant

  14. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  15. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  16. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  17. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  18. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  19. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  20. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  1. Correlated atomic wires on substrates. II. Application to Hubbard wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahab, Anas; Jeckelmann, Eric; Hohenadler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In the first part of our theoretical study of correlated atomic wires on substrates, we introduced lattice models for a one-dimensional quantum wire on a three-dimensional substrate and their approximation by quasi-one-dimensional effective ladder models [Abdelwahab et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. B 96, 035445 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.035445]. In this second part, we apply this approach to the case of a correlated wire with a Hubbard-type electron-electron repulsion deposited on an insulating substrate. The ground-state and spectral properties are investigated numerically using the density-matrix renormalization group method and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. As a function of the model parameters, we observe various phases with quasi-one-dimensional low-energy excitations localized in the wire, namely, paramagnetic Mott insulators, Luttinger liquids, and spin-1 /2 Heisenberg chains. The validity of the effective ladder models is assessed for selected parameters by studying the dependence of results on the number of legs and comparing to the full three-dimensional model. We find that narrow ladder models accurately reproduce the quasi-one-dimensional excitations of the full three-dimensional model but predict only qualitatively whether excitations are localized around the wire or delocalized in the three-dimensional substrate.

  2. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  3. Wire chambers revisited.

    PubMed

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative

  4. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  5. Does Pictorial Elucidation Foster Recollection of Idioms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Piquer Piriz, Ana Maria; Stengers, Helene; Eyckmans, June

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that pictorial elucidation helps learners comprehend and remember the meaning of second language (L2) idioms. In this article we address the question whether it also helps retention of the form of idioms, i.e. their precise lexical composition. In a small-scale experiment, the meaning of English idioms was clarified…

  6. Does Pictorial Elucidation Foster Recollection of Idioms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Piquer Piriz, Ana Maria; Stengers, Helene; Eyckmans, June

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that pictorial elucidation helps learners comprehend and remember the meaning of second language (L2) idioms. In this article we address the question whether it also helps retention of the form of idioms, i.e. their precise lexical composition. In a small-scale experiment, the meaning of English idioms was clarified…

  7. Structure Elucidation of a Natural Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Roy M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment simulating a real-life structure elucidation problem through isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an "unknown," naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations. Information given to students, procedures, results, and discussion of…

  8. Elucidation of wear mechanisms by ferrographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ferrographic analysis in conjunction with light and scanning electron microscopy is described for the elucidation of wear mechanisms taking place in operating equipment. Example of adhesive wear, abrasive wear, corrosive wear, rolling element fatigue, lubricant breakdown, and other wear modes are illustrated. In addition, the use of magnetic solutions to precipitate nonmagnetic debris from aqueous and nonaqueous fluids is described.

  9. Structure Elucidation of a Natural Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Roy M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment simulating a real-life structure elucidation problem through isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an "unknown," naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations. Information given to students, procedures, results, and discussion of…

  10. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  11. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.

  12. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more » mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  13. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  14. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  15. Twist knot cerclage wire: the appropriate wire tension for knot construction and fracture stability.

    PubMed

    Harnroongroj, Thossart

    1998-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find the best wire tension in order to permit a reliable first twist and simultaneously provide the best stability of fracture fixation from the twist knot cerclage wire. DESIGN: Wires at different distal tensions, looped around the fracture, were measured during twist and compared with the yield strength of the wire. Then, the fracture stability of the twist knot cerclage wire was determined from the pull-out strength. METHODS: In order to measure wire tension during twist knot construction, an instrument was designed using the tension load cell of a universal testing machine, a 15 degrees oblique osteotomy femoral shaft and 1.25 mm diameter wire. A wire tensioner and a pair of extraction grips were then used for measuring the pull-out strength of the cerclage wire fixation. RESULT: Three wire tensions (160, 200 and 240 N) were used as looped wire for the first twist knot construction. The 200 N tension cerclage wire provided the best fracture stability. CONCLUSION: It was found that 200 N was the best wire tension for the construction of a twist knot cerclage wire. RELEVANCE: When a cerclage wire is twisted at a femoral shaft using 1.25 mm diameter wire, a wire tension of 200 N should be used to achieve a reliable first twist and the best stability of fracture fixation.

  16. Quantitative assessment of tension in wires of fine-wire external fixators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yin; Saleh, Micheal; Yang, Lang

    2005-01-01

    Fine-wire fixators are widely used in fracture management. Stable fixation requires the wires maintaining tension throughout the treatment. Clinical experience indicates that wire site complications relate to wire tension. However, there lacks a method to assess wire tension quantitatively in the clinic. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative assessment method for in situ wire tension and to investigate the factors that influence the assessment. An apparatus was developed based on a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) displacement transducer that measured the deflection of the testing wire with respect to a parallel reference wire when a constant transverse force of 30N was applied to the testing wire. The wire deflection measured was correlated with the wire tension measured by the force transducer. The experiment was performed under different conditions to assess the effect of bone-clamp distance, reference wire tension, number of wires, and fracture stiffness. The results showed that there was a significant and negative correlation between wire tension and deflection and the bone-clamp distance was the most important factor that affected the wire tension-deflection relationship. The assessment method makes it possible to investigate the relationship between wire tension and wire site complications in the clinic.

  17. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  18. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning

  19. Plasma spraying with wire feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, M.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma spraying has been limited to using powder feedstocks for a number of reasons. One limitation has been the low energy output of conventional plasma guns. The advent of high energy plasma spraying (HEPS) devices and the associated technology has effectively removed this functional limitation. With HEPS, the combination of high gas velocities and high thermal plasma temperatures coupled with a large exit gas volume enables wire and rod feedstocks to be effectively utilized. Rather than a bulk melting mechanism, a model based on ablation phenomena is considered. The paper examines an analysis of melting phenomena and presents a simple model for molten droplet formation for plasma spraying using wire feedstocks.

  20. Connectomic Analysis of Brain Networks: Novel Techniques and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cazemier, J. Leonie; Clascá, Francisco; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. “Connectomics” is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network. However, because of the submicron caliber, 3D complexity, and high packing density of most such structures, as well as the fact that axons frequently extend over long distances to make synapses in remote brain regions, creating connectomic maps is technically challenging and requires multi-scale approaches, Such approaches involve the combination of the most sensitive cell labeling and analysis methods available, as well as the development of new ones able to resolve individual cells and synapses with increasing high-throughput. In this review, we provide an overview of recently introduced high-resolution methods, which researchers wanting to enter the field of connectomics may consider. It includes several molecular labeling tools, some of which specifically label synapses, and covers a number of novel imaging tools such as brain clearing protocols and microscopy approaches. Apart from describing the tools, we also provide an assessment of their qualities. The criteria we use assess the qualities that tools need in order to contribute to deciphering the key levels of circuit organization. We conclude with a brief future outlook for neuroanatomic research, computational methods, and network modeling, where we also point out several outstanding issues

  1. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  2. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  3. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  4. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  5. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  6. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  7. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  8. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  9. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  10. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  11. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  12. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  13. Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1995-01-01

    The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

  14. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  15. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  16. Moving Large Wiring-Harness Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Samuel D.; Gurman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    Carrier for wiring-harness fabrication boards enables lone operator to move board easily and safely. Holds harness while operator fabricating, while being stored, and being transported to equipment frame for mounting. When positioned for assembly of wiring harness, board and carrier give operator easy and convenient access to wires and cables, when positioned for transfer of wiring harness to or from storage area, carrier holds board securely while moved by one person.

  17. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

  18. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

  19. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or more...

  20. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4 Section 75.701-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE...; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  1. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  2. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  3. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  4. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  5. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  6. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  7. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  8. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  9. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  10. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  11. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fouling wires. 234.231 Section 234.231... EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.231 Fouling wires. Each set of fouling wires in a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall consist...

  12. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fouling wires. 234.231 Section 234.231... EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.231 Fouling wires. Each set of fouling wires in a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall consist...

  13. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fouling wires. 234.231 Section 234.231... EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.231 Fouling wires. Each set of fouling wires in a highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall consist...

  14. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  15. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  16. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit. ...

  17. Braided cerclage wires: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Ely L; Shavit, Ronen

    2011-04-01

    One of the drawbacks that makes many surgeons reluctant to use cerclage wires is the risk of periosteal vascular compromise. A new, easily applied braided wire configuration has been developed to improve mechanical wire gripping and to decrease the contact area between the hardware and the bony surface. Braided wires with two diameters (1 mm and 1.5 mm) were compared to single strand and double-strand wire configurations. The biomechanical properties, peak and elongation loads,and wire pressure imprint points of this new configuration were evaluated in the current study. The braided wire was found to have the same peak load as the double-strand wire (P = 0.315) and more than twice the peak load than the single-strand wire (P = 0.0001), but a much shorter elongation peak than the other two. The imprint test showed that the braided wire has an interrupted dotted pattern compared to the continuous circular one that characterises the single-strand and double strand wires, indicating less potential damage to the bone. The braided cerclage wire may decrease the extent of insult to the bone by decreasing the contact area between the hardware and the bony surface and by enhancing stability by reducing the elongation peak, affording increased fracture fixation stability. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall meet the...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in the construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and wire...

  20. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  1. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... may be drawn or rolled and may have a round, square or other profile. Wire decking is sold in a... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for...

  2. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  3. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  4. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  5. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  9. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  10. Superconductivity and wire fabrication of FeSe family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Deguchi, Keita; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Takano, Yoshihiko; National InstituteMaterials Science Team

    2011-03-01

    The 11 family is an fascinating iron-based superconducting system for not only elucidation of superconducting mechanism but also technological applications because of the simplest crystal structures, the less toxic and high critical field. Recently, we found that the superconductivity appears in the specimen immersed in alcoholic beverages. Focused on the pressure dependence of Se height from Fe layer in FeSe, we found that the Tc is correlated to Se height. Moreover, the anion height dependence of Tc for all FeAs-based superconductor obeyed a universal curve with a peak around 1.38 AA}. We succeeded in observing the transport Jc in the single- and 7-core wires of FeTe x Se 1-x superconductor using an in-situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The Jc values in single- and 7-core wire are as high as 159 A/cm2 and 100 A/cm2 at 4.2 K, respectively. It is considered that the optimization of the composition, together with the improvement of the grain boundary in FeTe x Se 1-x superconducting wires, will lead to higher Jc .

  11. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): AN INVESTIGATIVE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) often leads to identification of compounds and provides high quality evidence for tracking compounds to their sources. Mass spectra for most organic compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries used to tentatively identify analytes. In addition, multiple matches are common. Ion Composition Elucidation provides the numbers of atoms of each element in the ions in the mass spectrum, greatly limiting the number of possible compounds that could produce the mass spectrum. Review of chemical and commercial literature then limits the number of possible compounds to one or a few that can be purchased to confirm tentative compound identifications by comparison of mass spectra and chromatographic retention times. Ion Composition Elucidation is conceptually simple relative to other analytical techniques and more easily explained to a judge or jury. It is based on sums of the exact masses of atoms and their isotopic abundances. Several applications of ICE are demonstrated for ultra-trace-level compounds in an extract of the effluent from a tertiary sewage treatment plant including: (i) measurement of five values to determine an ion's composition and to generate evidence for the compound's identity, (ii) rejection of incorrect library matches, (iii) rapid screening for a target compound in an extract, and (iv) a strategy for tracking unidentified compounds to their sources. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and

  12. Experimental Study on EHD Flow Transition in a Small Scale Wire-plate ESP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuan; Xie, Zhenqiang; Xu, Binggui; Li, Jun; Zhou, Xu

    2016-06-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow induced by the corona discharge was experimentally investigated in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The ESP was a narrow horizontal Plexiglas box (1300 mm×60 mm×60 mm). The electrode set consisted of a single wire discharge electrode and two collecting aluminum plate electrodes. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method was used to visualize the EHD flow characteristics inside the ESP seeded with fine oil droplets. The influence of applied voltage (from 8 kV to 10 kV) and primary gas flow (0.15 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.4 m/s) on the EHD flow transition was elucidated through experimental analysis. The formation and transition of typical EHD flows from onset to the fully developed were described and explained. Experimental results showed that the EHD flow patterns change depends on the gas velocity and applied voltage. EHD flow starts with flow streamlines near collecting plates bending towards the wire electrode, forming two void regions. An oscillating jet forming the downstream appeared and moved towards the wire electrode as voltage increased. For higher velocities (≥0.2 m/s), the EHD transition became near wire phenomenon with a jet-like flow structure near the wire, forming a void region behind the wire and expanding as voltage increased. Fully developed EHD secondary flow in the form of counter-rotating vortices appeared upstream with high applied voltage.

  13. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Karbowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3)2, and capillaries around (1/3)4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays) are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called “spine economy maximization” is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest that for the

  14. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at

  15. Wire rope and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Verreet, R.

    1984-06-19

    A wire rope, particularly a non-twistable wire rope, wherein an annulus of outer strands surrounds a wire rope center with a central strand and one or more annuli of neighboring strands surrounding the central strand. The wires of the strands in the center do not intersect each other. The entire center or at least some of its strands are densified prior to or during application of the outer strands. Alternatively, or in addition to such densification, at least some strands of the center are assembled of wires having an other than circular outline to thereby reduce the combined cross-sectional area of voids in the center.

  16. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-1 Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Adequate precaution shall be taken to insure that equipment being moved along...

  18. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise...

  19. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-1 Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Adequate precaution shall be taken to insure that equipment being moved...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-1 Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Adequate precaution shall be taken to insure that equipment being moved...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-1 Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Adequate precaution shall be taken to insure that equipment being moved...

  3. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.76 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1003-1 - Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003-1 Section 75.1003-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1003-1 Other requirements for guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Adequate precaution shall be taken to insure that equipment being moved...

  5. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  6. Anisotropic Thermal Response of Packed Copper Wire

    DOE PAGES

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Emily Cousineau, J.; Bennion, Kevin; ...

    2017-04-19

    The apparent thermal conductivity of packed copper wire test specimens was measured parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the wire using laser flash, transient plane source, and transmittance test methods. Approximately 50% wire packing efficiency was produced in the specimens using either 670- or 925-μm-diameter copper wires that both had an insulation coating thickness of 37 μm. The interstices were filled with a conventional varnish material and also contained some remnant porosity. The apparent thermal conductivity perpendicular to the wire axis was about 0.5–1 W/mK, whereas it was over 200 W/mK in the parallel direction. The Kanzaki model andmore » an finite element analysis (FEA) model were found to reasonably predict the apparent thermal conductivity perpendicular to the wires but thermal conductivity percolation from nonideal wire-packing may result in their underestimation of it.« less

  7. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  8. High Tc superconductors - Composite wire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Sherwood, R. C.; van Dover, R. B.; Tiefel, T. H.; Johnson, D. W., Jr.

    1987-07-01

    The fabrication of fine-wire, composite superconductors consisting of a high-conductivity normal metal shell, such as Ag or Cu/Ni/Au, and a superconducting core of Ba2YCu3O oxide is described. The functions of the normal metal shell and the importance of using the proper diffusion barrier metals are discussed. A resistivity-temperature curve for the composite wire Ag/Ba2YCu3O7 is examined, and the compound inside the finished wire is analyzed using X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the zero-field critical current density of the wire at 77 K is about 175 A/sq cm and the superconducting core is continuous and retains phase composition after wire drawing and heat treatment. The supplying of oxygen to the core of the long wire during heat treatments is studied. The data reveal that it is possible to process ceramic superconductors into a desirable composite wire form.

  9. Switching mechanism in Co based amorphous wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nderu, J. N.; Yamasaki, J.; Humphrey, F. B.

    1997-04-01

    To get a deeper insight into the mechanism involved in the flux reversal of Co based wire we have tickled the wire with an ac field of smaller amplitude than the switching field, H*, and observed the signal induced in a pancake coil moved along the wire, vibrated a small coil along the wire and observed the induced signal, and taken the temperature dependence of normalized saturation magnetization, Ms, and H*. No signal was observed in the pancake coil in the tickling experiment. A signal that has peak values close to the wire ends, but practically zero in the central region, was observed in the vibrating coil. The variations of Ms and H* with temperature only show a correlation. The results of the above experiments suggest that for Co based wire the most reasonable mechanism for the flux switching is nucleation of a free wall other than the depinning of residual reverse domains at the wire ends.

  10. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  11. Parallel wire cable static load testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gil, Isabella C.

    This report is the result of two evaluations for the analysis of parallel wire cables. The purpose of the first assessment was to evaluate the stiffness and strength of parallel wire cables. For the methodology, three test setups were executed utilizing single wires, seven wire parallel cables, and 100 wire parallel cables as specimens. The parallel wire cables were connected with molted zinc to their sockets. The cables were manufactured by Wilolamb Construction. The results indicate that the single, seven, and 100 wire specimens had similar performance in yield stress, yield strain, modulus, and ultimate strain. However, the amount of strain decreased as the number of wires increased. Because the mechanical properties of the multi wires specimens had not significant difference, it is suggested that the zinc sockets had insignificant impact on their performance. Comparing these results to a previous test executed for parallel wire cables, there were significant differences on the ultimate capacity. It is assumed that the fabrication method of the cables were different. The second evaluation had two purposes. First, it was intended to compare the results of the single wire test from OSU to the single wire test results from Sherry Laboratories. From the analysis, it was found that the ultimate and yield loads were similar between both laboratories procedures, but their strength capacity and ultimate strain were different. It was observed that the Sherry Lab used a different method to compute the mechanical properties of the wire and that the measurement of the elongation was different to the procedures from OSU. Second, the secondary analysis was to evaluate if there is any significant difference between wires sanded at the mid-length of the specimen and wires that were not sanded. From this analysis it was observed that there was no difference between the sanded and non-sanded wires, which indicated that cross-section reduction should not be necessary for the

  12. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  13. Single-Layer Wire Routing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Theorem: (Ascoli’s Theorem) Let f be an equicontinuous family of functions from a separable space X to a metric space Y. Let (f,) be a sequence in 4o... separable : A separable space is one that has a countable dense subset. settle: Section 8A defines for each suitably restricted sketch a family of...a four-year study on the general problem of wire routing under separation and homotopy constraints. Originally intended as a master’s thesis, the

  14. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  15. The transmaxillary K-wire.

    PubMed Central

    Silverton, J. S.; Bostwick, J.; Jurkiewicz, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The transmaxillary K-wire is a simple, fast, safe, and effective technique for the fixation of unstable tractured malar bones. Combined with other techniques such as interdental fixation it simplifies and provides the fixation of the Le Fort II fracture or osteotomy and certain osteotomies used for facial advancement. The technique of insertion is described and illustrated. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:666241

  16. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  17. SpaceWire Satellite Usage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Figure 1. SpaceWire Topologies 309 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...RS422 Hosted Payload data interface Joint  Architeccture  Standards Sandia,  LANL control interface; backplane sRIO, PCIe Common standards for joint

  18. Elucidation of SESANS correlation functions through model

    SciTech Connect

    Shew, Chwen-Yang; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Several single-modal Debye correlation functions are closely examined to elucidate the behavior of their corresponding SESANS (Spin Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering) correlation functions. We nd that the upper bound of a Debye correlation function and of its SESANS correlation func- tion is identical. For discrete Debye correlation functions, the peak of SESANS correlation function emerges at their rst discrete point, whereas for continuous Debye correlation functions with greater width, the peak position shifts to a greater value. In both cases, the intensity and shape of the peak of the SESANS correlation function are determined by the width of the normalized Debye correlation functions. In the application, we mimic the intramolecular and intermolecular Debye correlation functions of liquids composed of interacting particles by using the simple models to elucidate their competition in the SESANS correlation function. Our calculations show that the position of the rst minimum of SESANS correlation function shifts to a smaller value as inter- molecular attraction or correlation is enhanced. The minimum value can be positive or negative, and the positive values are observed for the cases equivalent to stronger intermolecular attraction, consistent with literature results based on more sophisticated liquid state theory and simulations.

  19. Elucidating novel disease mechanisms in severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard Y; Rae, Brittany; Neal, Rachel; Donovan, Chantal; Pinkerton, James; Balachandran, Lohis; Starkey, Malcolm R; Knight, Darryl A; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are broadly active and potent anti-inflammatory agents that, despite the introduction of biologics, remain as the mainstay therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Significantly, there are cohorts of these patients with poor sensitivity to steroid treatment even with high doses, which can lead to many iatrogenic side effects. The dose-limiting toxicity of corticosteroids, and the lack of effective therapeutic alternatives, leads to substantial excess morbidity and healthcare expenditure. We have developed novel murine models of respiratory infection-induced, severe, steroid-resistant asthma that recapitulate the hallmark features of the human disease. These models can be used to elucidate novel disease mechanisms and identify new therapeutic targets in severe asthma. Hypothesis-driven studies can elucidate the roles of specific factors and pathways. Alternatively, 'Omics approaches can be used to rapidly generate new targets. Similar approaches can be used in other diseases. PMID:27525064

  20. Principles of brain development.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes. Second, brain development is dynamic: the biological state of the brain at any moment is the product of developmental processes that involve an intricate interplay among genes and an ever-expanding range of environmental factors-from local cellular events to influences from the outside world. In science, models matter. They reflect underlying assumptions about how things can happen, and thus influence the kinds of questions we ask, the kinds of experiments we propose, the therapies we develop, and the educational curricula we construct. The dynamic model of brain development accounts for powerful neurobehavioral effects that can simply not be accommodated by deterministic models. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1402. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1402 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Intra-Vascular Neural Interface with Nano-Wire Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirobumi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakao, Masayuki; Walton, Kerry; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    A less-invasive recording technique capable of simultaneously monitoring the activity of significant number (103 ∼ 104) of neurons is a vital step in developing an effective brain-machine interface. Although there are many excellent techniques for recording activities of a single neuron or a group of neurons, there is no methodology for accessing large number of cells in a behaving experimental animal or human individual. Brain vascular parenchyma offers the promising candidate to solve this problem. We have proposed the use of myriad of nano-wire-electrodes that are introduced into the Central Nervous System through the vascular system to address any brain area. In this study we design a microcatheter for ex vivo experiments. Using a Wollaston platinum wire we design a submicron-scale electrode, and develop the fabrication method. We then evaluate the mechanical property of the electrode to flow into the intricacies of the capillary bed in ex vivo Xenopus laevis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of intravascular recording in the spinal cord of Xenopus laevis.

  2. Manuscript for TINS Forum: A postulate on the brain’s basic wiring logic

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2015-01-01

    How should evolution and development build the brain to be capable of flexible and generative cognition? I wish to put forth a “power-of-two”-based wiring logic that provides the basic computational principle in organizing the microarchitecture of cell assemblies that would readily enable knowledge and adaptive behaviors to emerge upon learning. PMID:26482260

  3. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  4. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  5. Early experience and brain development.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Healthy brain development takes place within the context of individual experience. Here, we describe how certain early experiences are necessary for typical brain development. We present evidence from multiple studies showing that severe early life neglect leads to alterations in brain development, which compromises emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. We also show how early intervention can reverse some of the deleterious effects of neglect on brain development. We conclude by emphasizing that early interventions that start at the earliest possible point in human development are most likely to support maximal recovery from early adverse experiences. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1387. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. How To Build a Baby's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Explores how experiences after birth exert a dramatic and precise impact, physically determining how the intricate neural circuits of the brain are wired, in particular, in areas of language and vocabulary. Discusses the brain's acute vulnerability to trauma such as under or over stimulation or abuse. (HTH)

  7. Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiher, Markus; Wiebe, Nathan; Svore, Krysta M.; Wecker, Dave; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. We discuss how quantum computers can augment classical computer simulations used to probe these reaction mechanisms, to significantly increase their accuracy and enable hitherto intractable simulations. Our resource estimates show that, even when taking into account the substantial overhead of quantum error correction, and the need to compile into discrete gate sets, the necessary computations can be performed in reasonable time on small quantum computers. Our results demonstrate that quantum computers will be able to tackle important problems in chemistry without requiring exorbitant resources.

  8. Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers.

    PubMed

    Reiher, Markus; Wiebe, Nathan; Svore, Krysta M; Wecker, Dave; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-07-18

    With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. We discuss how quantum computers can augment classical computer simulations used to probe these reaction mechanisms, to significantly increase their accuracy and enable hitherto intractable simulations. Our resource estimates show that, even when taking into account the substantial overhead of quantum error correction, and the need to compile into discrete gate sets, the necessary computations can be performed in reasonable time on small quantum computers. Our results demonstrate that quantum computers will be able to tackle important problems in chemistry without requiring exorbitant resources.

  9. Factors influencing K-wire migration in tension-band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Zubair M; Trickett, Ryan W; Yewlett, Alun D; Matthews, Timothy J W

    2014-08-01

    Tension-band wiring is a popular method of internal fixation for simple olecranon fractures. Although fracture union rates and clinical outcomes are good, up to 80% of patients require removal because of prominent/symptomatic metalwork. The current literature remains unclear as to the best orientation of the longitudinal wires to minimize hardware failure. The aim of this study was to determine the surgically modifiable factors related to spontaneous wire pullout. A retrospective review of hospital theater records over a period of 6 years was performed to identify all olecranon tension-band wire procedures. Preoperative radiographs were used to confirm and classify the fracture. Intraoperative and postoperative radiographs were analyzed for a number of wire-associated variables: wire length within the ulna, medullary/cortical position, parallelism of wires, proximal wire prominence, wire angle relative to the ulna, distance from the articular surface, fracture gap, and subsequent pullout. A total of 182 wires were analyzed. The mean age was 52.5 years, and the mean radiographic follow-up period was 7.3 months. Intramedullary wires had a mean pullout of 5.5 mm compared with 2.4 mm for transcortical wires (P < .0001). A multiple regression model noted 7 independent variables affecting wire pullout: age, bent wires, medullary/transcortical wire positioning, proximal prominence, ulnar shaft angle, distance from the articular surface, and articular step. To minimize postoperative pullout of wires, we suggest anatomic reduction and transcortical wire orientation, without bending, in the subchondral bone close to the articular surface. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elucidating the pathway for arsenic methylation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J; Waters, Stephen B; Styblo, Miroslav

    2004-08-01

    Although biomethylation of arsenic has been studied for more than a century, unequivocal demonstration of the methylation of inorganic arsenic by humans occurred only about 30 years ago. Because methylation of inorganic arsenic activates it to more reactive and toxic forms, elucidating the pathway for the methylation of this metalloid is a topic of considerable importance. Understanding arsenic metabolism is of public health concern as millions of people chronically consume drinking water that contains high concentrations of inorganic arsenic. Hence, the focus of our research has been to elucidate the molecular basis of the steps in the pathway that leads from inorganic arsenic to methylated and dimethylated arsenicals. Here we describe a new S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferase from rat liver cytosol that catalyzes the conversion of arsenite to methylated and dimethylated species. This 42-kDa protein has sequence motifs common to many non-nucleic acid methyltransferases and is closely related to methyltransferases of previously unknown function that have been identified by conceptual translations of cyt19 genes of mouse and human genomes. Hence, we designate rat liver arsenic methyltransferase as cyt19 and suggest that orthologous cyt19 genes encode an arsenic methyltransferase in the mouse and human genomes. Our studies with recombinant rat cyt19 find that, in the presence of an exogenous or a physiological reductant, this protein can catalyze the entire sequence of reactions that convert arsenite to methylated metabolites. A scheme linking cyt19 and thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase in the methylation and reduction of arsenicals is proposed.

  11. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  12. Effluent Based Characterization of Aerospace Wiring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.

    2004-02-01

    This paper discusses a wire insulation characterization method under development, which identifies the relative molecular weight and binding energy of effluents given off during wire heating and is aimed at nondestructively assessing wire insulation degradation. An overview of how this technique can be used to monitor wire insulation emissions is presented. A series of measurements made on wire specimens (MIL-W-22759/11-20) with polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®) insulation is presented. A change of up to 55% in the emission concentration of a particular effluent was observed by repeated heating the wire specimens. Temperature measurements of the conductor and insulation were correlated to effluent emission concentrations. A basis for the changes in effluent concentration is also presented and leads to a determination of binding energies and associated time constants.

  13. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  14. Signal propagation in long wire chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, P.; Engelfried, J.; Friedrich, T.; Heintze, J.; Lennert, P.; Russ, M.; Zimmer, M.

    2012-09-01

    The propagation of signals in long proportional counters or multi-wire tracking chambers is simulated, using numerical solutions of the multi-wire telegraph equations. The results are compared to experimental data, recorded with a proportional counter and a multi-wire test chamber. The signal shape, the charge division ratio and, in the case of the drift chamber, also the cross talk between the wires, are well reproduced. Similar shapes for signals and their cross talk can be obtained with a properly chosen electrical termination. It is shown how data from a multi-wire chamber can then be corrected for cross talk. The effects limiting the precision of position measurements along the wires with the charge division method are discussed. The simulation was applied to the reconstruction of tracks measured with the OPAL JET chamber.

  15. Conductance oscillations of a metallic quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapinski, T.

    2005-09-01

    The electron transport through a monatomic metallic wire connected to leads is investigated using the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green function technique. Analytical formulae for the transmittance are derived and M-atom oscillations of the conductance versus the length of the wire are found. Maxima of the transmittance function versus the energy, for a wire consisting of N atoms, determine the (N+1) period of the conductance. The periods of conductance oscillations are discussed and the local and average quantum wire charges are presented. The average charge of the wire is linked with the period of the conductance oscillations and for M-atom periodicity there are possible (M-1) average occupations of the wire states.

  16. Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

  17. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    PubMed

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  18. The split-brain.

    PubMed

    Lassonde, Maryse; Ouimet, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Research on split-brain individuals started to flourish approximately 70 years ago and has since then significantly contributed to our understanding of hemispheric specialization. This overview aims to capture the essential of its progress. Amongst other things, the disconnection syndrome is exposed through a description of its manifestations on sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Ground work and recent studies on split-brain individuals are integrated. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  20. Printed Wiring Assembly and Interconnection Reliability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    2.2.1 Plated Through Holes (PTH). The PTH multilayer printed wiring board consists of a number of layers of thin circuit boards which ara stacked...interconnection on discrete wiring w/PTH assemblies. The discrete wiring boards are plated in an electroless copper bath where copper is deposited to... board failures is the mismatch of thermal coefficients of expansion in the plated through hole. The thermal coefficients of expansion for the copper

  1. Evaluating Extinction Values using Wire Impactor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the extinctions calculated from data obtained with the Ames Wire Impactor to extinctions measured with the SAGE H satellite system. The comparison was intended to serve as a validation of the extinctions obtained using the wire impactor data. It was felt that if the extinctions obtained by the two diverse methods agreed well, it would be an indication that the number densities measured on the wires were correct.

  2. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  3. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  4. Development of Intercalated Wire and Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    size because of longitudinal splitting. Attempts have been made to 2 substitute wire drawing for the swaging (7) but these have been unsuccessful. It...appears that the radial pressure of the swaging may be an essential ingredient to the process and that the longitudinal tension of wire drawing causes...conductivity. It is possible that the high pressures encountered in swaging as opposed to wire drawing , for instance, are a significant factor. High

  5. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  6. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  7. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  8. Adjustable Bracket For Entry Of Welding Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wire-entry bracket on welding torch in robotic welding system provides for adjustment of angle of entry of welding wire over range of plus or minus 30 degrees from nominal entry angle. Wire positioned so it does not hide weld joint in view of through-the-torch computer-vision system part of robot-controlling and -monitoring system. Swiveling bracket also used on nonvision torch on which wire-feed-through tube interferes with workpiece. Angle simply changed to one giving sufficient clearance.

  9. Superconducting-wire fabrication. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, W.E.; Chase, G.G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/cm2) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  10. Wondering PTCA Wire: Retrieval by Tangling Technique.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay; Thakur, Ramesh; Kumar, Prakash; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Razi, Mahmadulla

    2015-04-01

    A 38-year-old man underwent coronary angiography in our institution due to acute myocardial infarction as part of pharmaco-invasive strategy following thrombolysis. The patient showed total occlusion of mid left anterior descending (LAD) artery which was tortuous and calcified. The planned treatment was percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of culprit artery with wire being "jailed" in obtuse marginal branch of left circumflex artery (LCX) as left main was short and because of lesion characteristics. After successful stent implantation in the LAD, the "jailed" wire fractured as guiding catheter got deeply intubated as stent was being deployed in LAD. Initially, two balance middle weight (BMW) wires were used to retrieve but failed. Wire was wondering as it moved to proximal LCX, left main, partly into aortic sinus, sometimes proximal LAD and finally to LCX again during retrieval. Then it was decided to use tangling technique with the help of three BMW wires acting as rescue wires. The proximal ends of all three wires were inserted together in a torque device which were firmly screwed and rotated 40 - 50 times in circular pattern. During this rotational motion, the broken segment was tangled within these rescue wires and all four wires were removed together.

  11. Influence of electronic emission on wire initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Gennady; Struve, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Stephen; Sasorov, Pavel

    2001-10-01

    Direct experimental evidence of influence of electronic emissions on energy deposition during electrical explosion of fine metal wires is presented. Set of electrical and optical diagnostics has been used to observe value and structure of deposited energy. Main experiment has been done with different polarity between wire and coaxial ground. For a positive polarity explosion, the radial electric field “pushes” electrons into the wire, and a “conical” growth of deposited energy to the anode has been observed. For a negative polarity explosion, the radial electric field “expels” electrons from the wire, and more energy is deposited on the cathode and anode ends, and less in the central part of the wire. In this case the absorbed energy drops 2 times below positive polarity explosion. Explosion of wires in air does not show any polarity effect. Energy deposition is the same and the wire expands homogeneously. This experiment gives convincing evidence of direct influence of electronic thermo-field emissions on a process of energy deposition into the wire. Influence of electronic emission on energy deposition becomes stronger with decreasing dI/dt. The structure of the radial electric field surrounding the wire has been simulated using 2D electrostatic code. The experimental result has been compared with 2D MHD simulations.

  12. Spatial filtering of radiation from wire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, E. E.; Solyankin, P. M.; Angeluts, A. A.; Lee, A.; Kosareva, O. G.; Ozheredov, I. A.; Balakin, A. V.; Andreeva, V. A.; Panov, N. A.; Aksenov, V. N.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    In this letter we propose an approach to obtain directive radiation from wire lasers with subwavelength transverse dimensions and length much larger than the radiation wavelength (wire lasers) based on spatial filtering of their radiation using a combination of a spherical lens and a diaphragm. Theoretical modeling based on the antenna model for wire lasers shows that a directive beam with the uniform phase front can be formed when the diaphragm separates the maximum of the image field of the laser created by the lens. We demonstrate spatial filtering of wire laser radiation experimentally using a terahertz quantum cascade laser.

  13. Quantitative Inspection of Broken Wire in Wire Ropes: Method and Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hongjian, Xue; Kechong, Yang; Shuzi, Yang

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a complete system for automatic inspection of broken wire in wire ropes. The development of this technique is reviewed. It is followed by a description of the hardware and software of the apparatus. The hardware uses magnetic concentrators and Hall-effect sensors. Signal analysis is based on wavelet processing. Quantitative identification of broken wire in wire ropes is based on a pattern recognition approach of the neural network.

  14. Gold nanoparticle wire and integrated wire array for electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Diao, J. J.; Cao, Qing

    2011-03-30

    Nanoparticle wire and integrated nanoparticle wire array have been prepared through a green technique: discontinuous vertical evaporation-driven colloidal deposition. The conducting gold nanoparticle wire made by this technique shows ability for the sensitive electronic detection of chemical and biological molecules due to its high surface to volume ratio. In addition, we also demonstrate a potential usage of integrated gold nanoparticle wire array for the localized detection.

  15. Effect of an Axial Wire on Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Presura, R.; Martinez, D.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a wire on the axis of wire arrays significantly affects the x-ray emission of the conical arrays, and much less that of the cylindrical ones. The radiation of the conical wire arrays increases with the thickness of the central wire, surpassing that of the equivalent cylindrical arrays. Significant energy is emitted early on, around the time of the conical shock formation, before the pinch stagnation.

  16. Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Twin-Axial Wire Antenna David A. Tonn Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St., Code 00L, Bldg 102T...A An antenna includes a polymer coating having a VLF/LF element and an HF/VHF element embedded therein. A blocking choke is interposed between the...VLF/LF element and the antenna feed t block HF/VHF signals. Small chokes are regularly positioned on the VLF/LF element to eliminate resonances caused

  17. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

  18. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  19. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  20. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 77.1430 Section 77.1430... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 77.1431 through 77.1438 apply to wire ropes.... (b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators....

  2. 30 CFR 77.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 77.1430 Section 77.1430... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 77.1431 through 77.1438 apply to wire ropes.... (b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators....

  3. 30 CFR 77.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 77.1430 Section 77.1430... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 77.1431 through 77.1438 apply to wire ropes.... (b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators....

  4. 30 CFR 77.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 77.1430 Section 77.1430... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 77.1431 through 77.1438 apply to wire ropes.... (b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators....

  5. 30 CFR 77.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 77.1430 Section 77.1430... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 77.1431 through 77.1438 apply to wire ropes.... (b) These standards do not apply to wire ropes used for elevators....

  6. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  7. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purchase the wiring at the replacement cost, and the subscriber declines. If the subscriber declines to purchase the cable home wiring, the cable system operator must then remove the cable home wiring within... cable home wiring unless: it gives the subscriber the opportunity to purchase the wiring at...

  8. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  9. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  10. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  11. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  12. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  13. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated...

  14. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of...

  16. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  17. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of...

  18. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  19. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of...

  20. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  1. Modular Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sporns, Olaf; Betzel, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new technologies for mapping structural and functional brain connectivity has led to the creation of comprehensive network maps of neuronal circuits and systems. The architecture of these brain networks can be examined and analyzed with a large variety of graph theory tools. Methods for detecting modules, or network communities, are of particular interest because they uncover major building blocks or subnetworks that are particularly densely connected, often corresponding to specialized functional components. A large number of methods for community detection have become available and are now widely applied in network neuroscience. This article first surveys a number of these methods, with an emphasis on their advantages and shortcomings; then it summarizes major findings on the existence of modules in both structural and functional brain networks and briefly considers their potential functional roles in brain evolution, wiring minimization, and the emergence of functional specialization and complex dynamics. PMID:26393868

  2. Structural elucidation of gemifloxacin mesylate degradation product.

    PubMed

    Paim, Clésio Soldateli; Führ, Fernanda; Martins, Magda Targa; Gnoatto, Simone; Bajerski, Lisiane; Garcia, Cássia Virginia; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2016-03-01

    Gemifloxacin mesylate (GFM), chemically (R,S)-7-[(4Z)-3-(aminomethyl)-4-(methoxyimino)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid methanesulfonate, is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. Although many papers have been published in the literature describing the stability of fluorquinolones, little is known about the degradation products of GFM. Forced degradation studies of GFM were performed using radiation (UV-A), acid (1 mol L(-1) HCl) and alkaline conditions (0.2 mol L(-1) NaOH). The main degradation product, formed under alkaline conditions, was isolated using semi-preparative LC and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (proton - (1) H; carbon - (13) C; correlate spectroscopy - COSY; heteronuclear single quantum coherence - HSQC; heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation - HMBC; spectroscopy - infrared, atomic emission and mass spectrometry techniques). The degradation product isolated was characterized as sodium 7-amino-1-pyrrolidinyl-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylate, which was formed by loss of the 3-(aminomethyl)-4-(methoxyimino)-1-pyrrolidinyl ring and formation of the sodium carboxylate. The structural characterization of the degradation product was very important to understand the degradation mechanism of the GFM under alkaline conditions. In addition, the results highlight the importance of appropriate protection against hydrolysis and UV radiation during the drug-development process, storage, handling and quality control. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mitogenome sequence accuracy using different elucidation methods

    PubMed Central

    Velozo Timbó, Renata; Coiti Togawa, Roberto; M. C. Costa, Marcos; A. Andow, David

    2017-01-01

    Mitogenome sequences are highly desired because they are used in several biological disciplines. Their elucidation has been facilitated through the development of massive parallel sequencing, accelerating their deposition in public databases. However, sequencing, assembly and annotation methods might induce variability in their quality, raising concerns about the accuracy of the sequences that have been deposited in public databases. In this work we show that different sequencing methods (number of species pooled in a library, insert size and platform) and assembly and annotation methods generated variable completeness and similarity of the resulting mitogenome sequences, using three species of predaceous ladybird beetles as models. The identity of the sequences varied considerably depending on the method used and ranged from 38.19 to 90.1% for Cycloneda sanguinea, 72.85 to 91.06% for Harmonia axyridis and 41.15 to 93.60% for Hippodamia convergens. Dissimilarities were frequently found in the non-coding A+T rich region, but were also common in coding regions, and were not associated with low coverage. Mitogenome completeness and sequence identity were affected by the sequencing and assembly/annotation methods, and high within-species variation was also found for other mitogenome depositions in GenBank. This indicates a need for methods to confirm sequence accuracy, and guidelines for verifying mitogenomes should be discussed and developed by the scientific community. PMID:28662089

  4. Structural elucidation of rabeprazole sodium photodegradation products.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cássia V; Nudelman, Norma S; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2008-01-07

    Rabeprazole sodium is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux. It is known to be an acid-labile drug, however, few data about its stability under other factors are available. The aim of this work was to study the photodegradation of rabeprazole, to determine its kinetics and to elucidate the structures of the main degradation products. UVC-254 nm and metal-halide lamps were used. The analysis of the samples was carried out by HPLC. When the drug was in methanol solution, one main degradation product was formed; the degradation rate followed zero-order kinetics. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic determinations revealed the product was the benzimidazolone. Another isolated product was identified as benzimidazole. The latter was confirmed against an authentic sample. A third photodegradation product was identified as the [4-(3-methoxy-propoxy)-3-methyl-pyridin-2-yl]methanol, by (1)H and (13)C NMR of the reaction mixture in chloroform-d. When powdered commercial tablets were exposed to UVC irradiation, they showed the same degradation products along with other unidentified, which appeared as traces; the degradation rate was slower than in solution. The intact tablets were stable after 50 days of exposition to the same light source.

  5. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When tentatively identifying compounds in complex mixtures using mass spectral libraries, multiple matches or no plausible matches due to a high level of chemical noise or interferences can occur. Worse yet, most analytes are not in the libraries. In each case, Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) provides a means for identifying compounds. This poster illustrates an example of each problem and its solution. Three Compound Identification Problems Multiple Plausible Library Matches The mass spectrum in Figure la is a background-subtracted mass spectrum for a compound in an extract of 12 L of effluent from a tertiary waste water treatment plant. Figures lb-g are NIST library matches over the same mass range. The isomers in parenthesis in Figure I also had similar NIST mass spectra. The compound that provided the mass spectrum was present in the extract at an ultra-trace level. Chemical noise, coelution of compounds in the complex extract, and septum and column bleed components generally result in background-subtracted mass spectra containing extraneous ions or lacking low-abundance ions expected from the analyte. Hence, none of the NIST library matches can be ruled out without additional data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in supp

  6. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags..., and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.239 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so marked that it can be identified at...

  7. 49 CFR 234.239 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags..., and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.239 Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so marked that it can be identified at...

  8. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  9. Tuning a terahertz wire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-12-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique `wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is <<λ. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of ~137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at ~3.8 THz.

  10. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  11. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  12. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  13. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire. ...

  15. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  17. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  18. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  20. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  1. Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

  2. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOEpatents

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  3. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  4. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  5. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  6. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  7. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  8. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  9. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  10. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  11. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  12. Corrosion and biocompatibility of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Widu, F; Drescher, D; Junker, R; Bourauel, C

    1999-05-01

    With the increasing number of orthodontic treatments using devices containing nickel and the growing prevalence of nickel allergy in the average population, biocompatibility studies of these devices have become a topic of major interest. The corrosion behavior of orthodontic wires is a decisive factor determining their biocompatibility. Therefore four nickel-titanium guiding arches, a titanium-molybdenum and a stainless steel wire were analyzed for corrosion behavior under realistic conditions. Pure potentiostatic, pure mechanical and combined potentiostatic and mechanical stresses were applied to the specimens. Subsequently, the surfaces of the wires were investigated employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nickel loss was measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results yield information about the relative corrosion tendency of the wires under in vitro conditions. The wires examined can be classified into two groups, one with a high and a second group with a low tendency towards corrosion, that is American Orthodontics Memory wire as well as GAC Neo Sentalloy and Ormco Ni-Ti as well as Unitek Nitinol respectively. Although corrosion behavior under clinical conditions can not be directly derived from these results, analyses of wires after clinical usage indicate that changes of wire surfaces might show the same characteristics under in vitro conditions.

  13. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  14. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    PubMed

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  15. Add-On Shielding for Unshielded Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. C.; Billitti, J. W.; Tallon, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Fabrication sequence used to produce compact shields slipped into place from free ends of wires already soldered into connectors at other ends. Single shields are formed into harnesses by connecting grounding jumpers. Technique is especially useful for small diameter wire attached to microminiature connectors.

  16. Wire-Guide Manipulator For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; White, Kevin; Gordon, Steve; Emerich, Dave; Richardson, Dave; Faulkner, Mike; Stafford, Dave; Mccutcheon, Kim; Neal, Ken; Milly, Pete

    1994-01-01

    Compact motor drive positions guide for welding filler wire. Drive part of automated wire feeder in partly or fully automated welding system. Drive unit contains three parallel subunits. Rotations of lead screws in three subunits coordinated to obtain desired motions in three degrees of freedom. Suitable for both variable-polarity plasma arc welding and gas/tungsten arc welding.

  17. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Emily; Schamel, Wynell

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of teaching activities to be used in conjunction with a reproduction of Joseph Glidden's patent for barbed wire fencing. These include document analysis, creative interpretation, and personal experience. Presents a brief history of the social and economic effects of the introduction of barbed wire to the West. (MJP)

  18. Motion control of the accumulator flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Q.

    1990-04-23

    Flying wire systems for the Fermilab Accumulator are being constructed in order to measure the transverse beam profiles during stacking. Each device passes a 25 micron carbon filament through the beam transversely at a constant velocity of 10 m/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary particle cascades, which in turn produce photons in a scintillator. A photomultiplier tube is used to measure the light intensity while the wire position is determined by an optical encoder. There are six Accumulator flying wire systems. Four of them are to be used in normal stacking operation: two horizontal and two vertical flying wires are in the AP40 high dispersion section, covering the core orbit and the extraction orbit respectively. The other two horizontal wires are for measuring the momentum distribution of the beam on the central orbit at the Accumulator transition energy. At the AP40 high dispersion region a wire covers the central orbit, the other is in the AP30 low dispersion section. The operation and control of the flying wire system is discussed in this paper. 11 figs.

  19. Diamond-Coated Wire-Feeding Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Hard vacuum-deposited film improves nozzle properties. Tip and bore surfaces of proposed nozzle for feeding wire for gas/tungsten arc welding coated with film of synthetic diamond. Film gives nozzle following advantages: lower friction, thermal conductivity, less wear, electrical isolation of wire from nozzle, and high resistance to corrosion.

  20. Butt welder for fine gage wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabana, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    Device welds fine gage wire 0.001-in. in diameter. It permits welding of thermocouple junctions of the same size with straight sections adjacent to the junctions. Electrode arrangement provides constant pressure on the joint during welding while fully supporting the wires to prevent buckling or movement.

  1. Abstract Sculptures: Wire and Plaster Cloth Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-dimensional art project for middle-school students in which they create sculptures of plaster cloth and wire. The introduction explains that they learn about Alexander Calder, a master of using wire in art. Discusses how to make the sculptures. (CMK)

  2. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Emily; Schamel, Wynell

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of teaching activities to be used in conjunction with a reproduction of Joseph Glidden's patent for barbed wire fencing. These include document analysis, creative interpretation, and personal experience. Presents a brief history of the social and economic effects of the introduction of barbed wire to the West. (MJP)

  3. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  4. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F. D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  5. Abstract Sculptures: Wire and Plaster Cloth Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-dimensional art project for middle-school students in which they create sculptures of plaster cloth and wire. The introduction explains that they learn about Alexander Calder, a master of using wire in art. Discusses how to make the sculptures. (CMK)

  6. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  7. Wire-Guide Manipulator For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; White, Kevin; Gordon, Steve; Emerich, Dave; Richardson, Dave; Faulkner, Mike; Stafford, Dave; Mccutcheon, Kim; Neal, Ken; Milly, Pete

    1994-01-01

    Compact motor drive positions guide for welding filler wire. Drive part of automated wire feeder in partly or fully automated welding system. Drive unit contains three parallel subunits. Rotations of lead screws in three subunits coordinated to obtain desired motions in three degrees of freedom. Suitable for both variable-polarity plasma arc welding and gas/tungsten arc welding.

  8. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  9. MSFC inspections of installed polyimide wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landers, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    An alert was issued because of the arc-tracking possibilities of installed polyimide wire harnesses. MSFC undertook a program to try to enhance the safety and reliability of these harnesses. Photographs are presented showing the need for inspections of installed wiring harnesses.

  10. Elucidation of constant current density molecular plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vascon, A.; Santi, S.; Isse, A. A.; Reich, T.; Drebert, J.; Christ, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.

    2012-12-01

    The production of thin layers by means of constant current or constant voltage electrolysis in organic media is commonly known as molecular plating. Despite the fact that this method has been applied for decades and is known to be among the most efficient ones for obtaining quantitative deposition, a full elucidation of the molecular plating is still lacking. In order to get a general understanding of the process and hence set the basis for further improvements of the method, constant current density electrolysis experiments were carried out in a mixture of isopropanol and isobutanol containing millimolar amounts of HNO3 together with [Nd(NO3)3·6H2O] used as a model electrolyte. The process was investigated by considering the influence of different parameters, namely the electrolyte concentrations (i.e., Nd(NO3)3·6H2O: 0.11, 0.22, 0.44 mM, and HNO3: 0.3, 0.4 mM), the applied current (i.e., 2 mA and 6 mA), and the surface roughness of the deposition substrates (i.e., a few tens to several hundreds of nm). The response of the process to changes of these parameters was monitored recording cell potential curves, which showed to be strongly influenced by the investigated conditions. The produced layers were characterized using γ-ray spectroscopy for the evaluation of Nd deposition yields, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis of the surfaces, and atomic force microscopy for surface roughness evaluation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results clearly indicate that Nd is present only as Nd3+ on the cathodic surface after molecular plating. The results obtained from this characterization and some basic features inferred from the study of the cell potential curves were used to interpret the different behaviours of the deposition processes as a consequence of the applied variables.

  11. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  12. Measurement of wire diameter by optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodier, Soraya A.

    2004-02-01

    A combined interference and diffraction pattern, in the form of equidistant interference fringes, resulting from illuminating a vertical metallic wire by a laser beam is analyzed to measure the diameter of four standard wires. The diameters range from 170 to 450 μm. It is found that the error in the diameter measurements increases for small metallic wires and for small distances between the wire and the screen due to scattering effects. The intensity of the incident laser beam was controlled by a pair of sheet polaroids to minimize the scattered radiation. The used technique is highly sensitive, but requires controlled environmental conditions and absence of vibration effects. The expanded uncertainty for k=2 is calculated and found to decrease from U(D)=±1.45 μm for the wire of nominal diameter 170 μm to ±0.57 μm for the diameter 450 μm.

  13. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  14. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  15. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  16. Realization of a Strained Atomic Wire Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Song, Inkyung; Goh, Jung Suk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Jin Sung; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-11-24

    A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires.

  17. Development and Manufacture of Bi-2223 Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi

    This chapter reviews Ag-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) wire made by the powder-in-tube technique (PIT). The currently leading high-temperature superconductors (HTS) wire technology for practical use is Bi-2223 wire, made by the controlled over-pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. The CT-OP process uses pressures up to 30MPa during heat treatment. The technique densifies the Bi-2223 filaments and enhances the uniformity of the electrical and mechanical performance in the Bi-2223 wire. Today, Bi-2223 wires are used in most HTS applications, such as power cables, many kinds of magnets, and motors for ship propulsion and electric vehicles.

  18. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  19. Wire-free fixation of jaw fractures.

    PubMed

    Cousin, G C S

    2009-10-01

    Stainless steel wire is often used in the management of jaw fractures to provide intraoperative or postoperative intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Wiring of the jaws is time-consuming, a second procedure is needed to remove it, and needlestick injuries occur during placement. We report on 151 consecutive patients who had wire-free fixation of jaw fractures, and outline the value of a system of plastic anchorage points applied to individual teeth in both jaws that allows for wire-free IMF when they are linked by elastics (Rapid IMF, Synthes, PA, USA). A total of 150 successive patients had wire-free fixation of 146 mandibular and 5 maxillary fractures. Ninety-eight were hand-held in occlusion, and 52 were treated using Rapid IMF. There were few complications.

  20. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  1. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Miller, Theodore A.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schwartzkopf, Louis A.; Sanders, Steven C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  2. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  3. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  4. Sleep function: Toward elucidating an enigma.

    PubMed

    Krueger, James M; Frank, Marcos G; Wisor, Jonathan P; Roy, Sandip

    2016-08-01

    Sleep function remains controversial. Individual perspectives frame the issue of sleep function differently. We briefly illustrate how sleep measurement and the evolution, tissue organization levels, molecular mechanisms, and regulation of sleep could influence one's view of sleep function. Then we discuss six viable theories of sleep function. Sleep serves host-defense mechanisms and conserves caloric expenditures, but these functions likely are opportunistic functions evolving later in evolution. That sleep replenishes brain energy stores and that sleep serves a glymphatic function by removing toxic byproducts of waking activity are attractive ideas, but lack extensive supporting experimental evidence. That sleep restores performance is experimentally demonstrated and has obvious evolutionary value. However, this hypothesis lacks experimentally verified mechanisms although ideas relating to this issue are presented. Finally, the ideas surrounding the broad hypothesis that sleep serves a connectivity/plasticity function are many and attractive. There is experimental evidence that connectivity changes with sleep, sleep loss, and with changing afferent input, and that those changes are linked to sleep regulatory mechanisms. In our view, this is the leading contender for the primordial function of sleep. However, much refinement of ideas and innovative experimental approaches are needed to clarify the sleep-connectivity relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  6. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  7. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  8. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  9. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  10. Behavior of large diameter wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Raoof, M.; Kraincanic, I.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reviews the recent theoretical work of the present authors as regards the prediction of the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing axial/torsional coupling of large diameter wire ropes. The theoretical analysis is based on results from a previously reported orthotropic sheet model which enables one to obtain estimates of the coefficients in the 2 {times} 2 stiffness matrix describing the axial/torsional coupling of the constituent spiral strands. The proposed model can (unlike previously available theories for wire ropes) cater for the presence of interwire friction and the various wire rope stiffness coefficients corresponding to both no-slip and full-slip regimes can be calculated. The no-slip regime corresponds to cases when an axially preloaded wire rope experiences cyclic variations of external load which are small enough not to induce initiation of gross interwire slippage within the constituent spiral strands. For sufficiently large values of range/mean axial load ratios, on the other hand, gross interwire slippage takes place and the effects of interwire friction on wire rope stiffness coefficients will be negligibly small compared with the effects due to the force changes in the wires themselves. Theoretical models have been developed for two types of wire ropes, i.e., those with an independent wire rope core (IWRC) or the types with a fiber core: the salient features for both approaches are reviewed with an emphasis on the characteristics of various wire rope constructions. In addition, experimental results from other sources are found to provide encouraging support for the theoretical predictions in a number of areas.

  11. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires.

  12. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  13. Linear stability of an accelerated wire array

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J H; Ryutov, D D

    1998-10-15

    The linear stability of an array of a large number of thin wires is considered. The wires form a cylindrical surface which is accelerated towards the axis under the action of a current excited in the array by an external source. General equations governing stability of this system are derived and a complete classification of all the modes present in such a system is presented. In agreement with an earlier analysis by Felber and Rostoker, it is shown that there exist two types of modes: medial modes, in which the wires experience deformation in the rz plane, and lateral modes, in which only a purely azimuthal deformation is present. For a given axial wave number k, the maximum growth rate for medial perturbations corresponds to a mode in which all the wires move "in phase" (an analog of an axisymmetric mode for a continuous cylindrical shell), whereas for the lateral perturbations the maximum growth rate corresponds to the opposite displacements of the neighboring wires. Numerical analysis of a dispersion relation for a broad range of modes is presented: Some limiting cases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that a traditional k1/2 scaling holds until surprisingly high wave numbers, even exceeding the inverse inter- wire distance. In the limit of long-wavelength perturbations, a model of a continuous shell becomes valid; the presence of the wires manifests itself in this model by a strong anisotropy of electrical conductivity, high along the wires and vanishing across the wires. The resulting modes differ considerably from the modes of a thin perfectly conducting shell. In particular, a new mode of "zonal flows" is identified.

  14. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  15. Coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomale, Ronny; Meng, Tobias; Neupert, Titus; Greiter, Martin

    We develop a coupled wire construction of chiral spin liquids. The starting point are individual wires of electrons in the Mott regime that are subject to a Zeeman field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Suitable spin-flip couplings between the wires yield an Abelian chiral spin liquid state which supports spinon excitations above a bulk gap, and chiral edge states. The approach generalizes to non-Abelian chiral spin liquids at level k with parafermionic edge states. RT is supported by the European Research Council through ERC-StG-336012-TOPOLECTRICS. MG and RT are supported by DFG-SFB 1170.

  16. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-05-07

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

  17. Evaluating Extinction Values Using Wire Impactor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the extinctions calculated from data obtained with the Ames Wire Impactor to extinctions measured with the SAGE 11 satellite system. The comparison was intended to serve as a validation of the extinctions obtained using the wire impactor data. It was felt that if the extinctions obtained by the two diverse methods agreed well, it would be an indication that the number densities measured on the wires were correct. Tables and charts are presented to show the extinction values from the two different methods.

  18. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires

  19. Ultranarrow AuPd and Al wires

    SciTech Connect

    Altomare, Fabio; Chang, Albert M.; Melloch, Michael R.; Hong Yuguang; Tu, Charles W.

    2005-04-25

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile template technique aimed to the fabrication of sub-10 nm wide wires. Using this technique, we have measured AuPd wires, 12 nm wide and as long as 20 {mu}m. Even materials that form a strong superficial oxide, and thus not suited to be used in combination with other techniques, can be employed. In particular, we have measured Al wires, with lateral width smaller or comparable to 10 nm, and length exceeding 10 {mu}m.

  20. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  1. Pulse speed on a plucked wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekirk, Tristan; Slaton, William V.

    2012-04-01

    This paper serves to update an elegant experiment published in The Physics Teacher to measure the speed of a pulse on a taut metal wire. Unfortunately, commercially available units2 that serve the same purpose are priced outside the range of most high school or college physics teaching laboratories. Wakeland et al. show how an affordable adaptation of the traditional standing wave apparatus using taut metal wire and horseshoe magnets can be used to measure the speed of a pulse by using an oscilloscope to measure an induced voltage in the wire as the pulse transverses the middle of the magnets, which are a known distance apart.

  2. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T.; Agladze, N. I.; Bazarov, I. V.; Bartnik, A.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Full, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Savino, J.; Smolenski, K.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell's high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  3. Telephone wire is backbone of security system

    SciTech Connect

    Brede, K.; Rackson, L.T.

    1995-09-01

    Video provides a variety of low-cost, high-quality solutions in today`s security environment. Cost-conscious managers of power generation stations, casinos, prison facilities, military bases and office buildings are considering using regular telephone wire (unshielded twisted pair-UTP) within their existing systems as the backbone of a video to the PC, personal and video-conferencing and training are other areas where phone wire in a building can save money and provide an alternative to coax or fiber for video. More and more, businesses and government agencies are meeting their needs efficiently by using telephone wires for more than just telephones.

  4. Subarachnoid and basal cistern navigation through the sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance.

    PubMed

    Layer, Lauren; Riascos, Roy; Firouzbakht, Farhood; Amole, Adewumi; Von Ritschl, Rudiger; Dipatre, Pier; Cuellar, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    Intraspinal navigation with catheters and fiberscopes has shown feasible results for diagnosis and treatment of intraspinal and intracranial lesions. The most common approach, lumbar puncture, has allowed access to the spinal cord, however, coming with the difficulties of fiberscope damage and decreased torque for guidance. Our objective in this study is to allow an alternate access, the sacral hiatus, with guide wire assistance into the subarachnoid and intracranial structures, while easing the angle of entry and increasing torque. We advanced catheters with guide wire and fluoroscopy assistance into the sacral hiatus of three cadavers. After entry, the thecal sac was punctured and the catheter with guide wire was advanced rostrally until positioned in the basal cisterns of the brain. We confirmed catheter placement with contrast injection, autopsy, and dissection. In our study, the sacral hiatus was easily accessed, but resistance was found when attempting to puncture the thecal sac. The advancement of the catheter with guide wire assistance glided easily rostrally until some mild resistance was discovered at entry into the foramen magnum. With redirection, all catheters passed with ease into the basal cisterns. Positioning was confirmed with contrast injection with fluoroscopy evidence, autopsy, and dissection. There was no macroscopic or microscopic evidence of damage to the spinal roots, spinal cord, or cranial nerves. The sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance is an accessible conduit for uncomplicated entry into the subarachnoid and basal cistern space without damaging surrounding structures.

  5. Wire rope research: Analysis of bending fatigue in a 2-inch IWRC wire rope

    SciTech Connect

    Miscoe, A.J.; McKewan, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    A unique machine for inducing bending fatigue in wire ropes was built at the US Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Research Center. This machine can produce nine levels of degradation through repetitive cycling of long samples of wire ropes of the types used in the mining industry. This report provides an analysis of the results of the first wire rope to be fatigued on this machine. These results have indicated that as a wire rope accumulates bending cycles, its strength first decreases because of wear and then increases due to cold working of the wires. As the amount of cold working increases, more and more of the embrittled wires break and the strength of the rope decreases rapidly. In this test, application of several of the regulatory retirement criteria to various sections of the rope suggests that there may be some inconsistency among them.

  6. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Bas B G M; Schuurman, Arnold H; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    2010-02-01

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-1942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initially used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly influenced by the change in operative goals and by the introduction of antibiotics. The first versions of the Kirschner wire were hammered through a predrilled hole into the bone, but later on drilling became the standard technique of insertion. Drilling is considered a simple way of implanting, with many advantages, such as percutaneous and atraumatic insertion. However, this technique also has its disadvantages like temperature elevation, resulting in osteonecrosis and heat-related complications. Despite these complications the K-wire is now standard for the treatment of hand fractures, worldwide.

  7. Effect of wire tension on stiffness of tensioned fine wires in external fixation: a mechanical study.

    PubMed

    Antoci, Valentin; Voor, Michael J; Antoci, Valentin; Roberts, Craig S

    2007-09-01

    To determine the effect of changes in magnitude of transfixion wire tension on stiffness of fine-wire external-fixation load deformation, we compared results obtained with different wire tensions (50-140 kg) under identical conditions of central axial compression, medial compression-bending, posterior compression-bending, posteromedial compression-bending, and torsion. Stiffness values were calculated from the load-deformation and torque-angle curves. Tension of 140 kg provided the most stiffness, and there was a trend toward increasing overall stiffness with increasing wire tension. The 1.8-mm wires should be tensioned to at least 110 kg in most cases of fine-wire external fixation; compared with all tensions less than 110 kg, this tension provides significantly more mechanical stability in all loading modes.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 75.1430 Section 75.1430... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist— (1) Persons...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 75.1430 Section 75.1430... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist— (1) Persons...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 75.1430 Section 75.1430... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist— (1) Persons...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 75.1430 Section 75.1430... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist— (1) Persons...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1430 - Wire ropes; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire ropes; scope. 75.1430 Section 75.1430... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1430 Wire ropes; scope. (a) Sections 75.1430 through 75.1438 apply to wire ropes in service used to hoist— (1) Persons...

  13. What's in the Walls: Copper, Fiber, or Coaxial Wiring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents planning guidelines for wiring specifications for K-12 schools by reviewing advantages and disadvantages of using copper, fiber-optic, and coaxial wire. Addresses the future of network wiring and educational technology, and makes recommendations. A sidebar describes the physical appearance of different types of wire and a table compares…

  14. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only ...

  15. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only ...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  20. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  1. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  2. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  3. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870.1330...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is designed to fit inside a...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed... limitations would prevent the safe installation or use of such trolley and trolley feeder wire. ...

  7. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  8. Sensor Monitors Force On Filler Wire During Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; Milly, Pete, Sr.; White, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Sensor measures lateral contact force between filler wire and weldment. Output of sensor fed as input to motorized wire-position controller, which strives to maintain desired contact force. Sensor built into wire-feed assembly. Pivoting arm transmits lateral force on tip of wire to load cell. Setscrews prevent underload and overload on load cell.

  9. Electro-optical device for monitoring wire size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1973-01-01

    Device recognizes variations in wire size and is being used during computer memory-plane fabrication. Decrease in wire diameter, due to stretching, permits removal of wire from memory-plant mold. Monitoring provides means of detecting imperfect wire and permits fabrication of computer memory plane to be stopped prior to its insertion into mold.

  10. What's in the Walls: Copper, Fiber, or Coaxial Wiring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents planning guidelines for wiring specifications for K-12 schools by reviewing advantages and disadvantages of using copper, fiber-optic, and coaxial wire. Addresses the future of network wiring and educational technology, and makes recommendations. A sidebar describes the physical appearance of different types of wire and a table compares…

  11. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed... limitations would prevent the safe installation or use of such trolley and trolley feeder wire....

  13. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870.1330...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is designed to fit inside...

  14. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870.1330...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is designed to fit inside...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed... limitations would prevent the safe installation or use of such trolley and trolley feeder wire....

  17. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed... limitations would prevent the safe installation or use of such trolley and trolley feeder wire....

  18. 21 CFR 870.1330 - Catheter guide wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catheter guide wire. 870.1330 Section 870.1330...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1330 Catheter guide wire. (a) Identification. A catheter guide wire is a coiled wire that is designed to fit inside...

  19. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12086 - Location of trolley wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Location of trolley wire. 57.12086 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12086 Location of trolley wire. Trolley and trolley feeder wire shall be installed... limitations would prevent the safe installation or use of such trolley and trolley feeder wire....