Science.gov

Sample records for em portugal fim

  1. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  2. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  3. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  4. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the…

  5. FIM Avionics Operations Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the operation and use of the Flight Interval Management (FIM) Application installed on an electronic flight bag (EFB). Specifically, this document includes: 1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; 2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification, and input error correction; 3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; 4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and 5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft.

  6. Crystal Structure of the FimD Usher Bound to its Cognate FimC-FimH Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    G Phan; H Remaut; T Wang; W Allen; K Pirker; A Lebedev; N Henderson; S Geibel; E Volkan; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Type 1 pili are the archetypal representative of a widespread class of adhesive multisubunit fibres in Gram-negative bacteria. During pilus assembly, subunits dock as chaperone-bound complexes to an usher, which catalyses their polymerization and mediates pilus translocation across the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length FimD usher bound to the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex and that of the unbound form of the FimD translocation domain. The FimD-FimC-FimH structure shows FimH inserted inside the FimD 24-stranded {beta}-barrel translocation channel. FimC-FimH is held in place through interactions with the two carboxy-terminal periplasmic domains of FimD, a binding mode confirmed in solution by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To accommodate FimH, the usher plug domain is displaced from the barrel lumen to the periplasm, concomitant with a marked conformational change in the {beta}-barrel. The amino-terminal domain of FimD is observed in an ideal position to catalyse incorporation of a newly recruited chaperone-subunit complex. The FimD-FimC-FimH structure provides unique insights into the pilus subunit incorporation cycle, and captures the first view of a protein transporter in the act of secreting its cognate substrate.

  7. Crystal structure of the FimD usher bound to its cognate FimC-FimH substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, G.; Li, H.; Remaut, H.; Wang, T.; Allen, W. J.; Pirker, K. F.; Lebedev, A.; Henderson, N. S.; Geibel, S.; Volkan, E.; Yan, J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Pinkner, J. S.; Ford, B.; Kay, C. W. M.; Hultgren, S. J.; Thanassi, D. G.; Waksman, G.

    2011-06-02

    Type 1 pili are the archetypal representative of a widespread class of adhesive multisubunit fibres in Gram-negative bacteria. During pilus assembly, subunits dock as chaperone-bound complexes to an usher, which catalyses their polymerization and mediates pilus translocation across the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length FimD usher bound to the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex and that of the unbound form of the FimD translocation domain. The FimD-FimC-FimH structure shows FimH inserted inside the FimD 24-stranded {beta}-barrel translocation channel. FimC-FimH is held in place through interactions with the two carboxy-terminal periplasmic domains of FimD, a binding mode confirmed in solution by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To accommodate FimH, the usher plug domain is displaced from the barrel lumen to the periplasm, concomitant with a marked conformational change in the {beta}-barrel. The amino-terminal domain of FimD is observed in an ideal position to catalyse incorporation of a newly recruited chaperone-subunit complex. The FimD-FimC-FimH structure provides unique insights into the pilus subunit incorporation cycle, and captures the first view of a protein transporter in the act of secreting its cognate substrate.

  8. Crystal structure of the FimD usher bound to its cognate FimC:FimH substrate

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Gilles; Remaut, Han; Wang, Tao; Allen, William J.; Pirker, Katharina F.; Lebedev, Andrey; Henderson, Nadine S.; Geibel, Sebastian; Volkan, Ender; Yan, Jun; Kunze, Micha B.A.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Ford, Bradley; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Li, Huilin; Hultgren, Scott; Thanassi, David G.; Waksman, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 pili are the archetypal representative of a widespread class of adhesive multisubunit fibres in Gram-negative bacteria. During pilus assembly, subunits dock as chaperone-bound complexes to an usher, which catalyzes their polymerization and mediates pilus translocation across the outer membrane. We report the crystal structure of the full-length FimD usher bound to the FimC:FimH chaperone:adhesin complex and that of the unbound form of the FimD translocation domain. The FimD:FimC:FimH structure shows FimH inserted inside the FimD 24-stranded β-barrel translocation channel. FimC:FimH is held in place through interactions with the two C-terminal periplasmic domains of FimD, a binding mode confirmed in solution by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To accommodate FimH, the usher plug domain is displaced from the barrel lumen to the periplasm, concomitant with a dramatic conformational change in the β-barrel. The N-terminal domain of FimD is observed in an ideal position to catalyse incorporation of a newly recruited chaperone:subunit complex. The FimD:FimC:FimH structure provides unique insights into the pilus subunit incorporation cycle, and captures the first view of a protein transporter in the act of secreting its cognate substrate. PMID:21637253

  9. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  10. Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim): relevance for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Andrew R; Vaughan, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    Bordetella pertussis produces two serologically distinct fimbriae, Fim2 and Fim3. Expression of these antigens is governed by the BvgA/S system and by the length of a poly(C) tract in the promoter of each gene. Fim2 and Fim3 are important antigens for whole cell pertussis vaccines as clinical trials have shown an association of anti-fimbriae antibody-mediated agglutination and protection. The current five component acellular pertussis vaccine contains co-purified Fim2/3 and provided good efficacy in clinical trials with the anti-Fim antibody response correlating with protection when pre and post exposure antibody levels were analysed. The predominant serotype of B. pertussis isolates has changed over time in most countries but it is not understood whether this is vaccine-driven or whether serotype is linked to the prevailing predominant genotype. Recent studies have shown that both Fim2 and Fim3 are expressed during infection and that Fim2 is more immunogenic than Fim3 in the acellular vaccine.

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis Fim-A genotype distribution among Colombians

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Adriana; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier Enrique; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with periodontitis and exhibit a wide array of virulence factors, including fimbriae which is encoded by the FimA gene representing six known genotypes. Objetive: To identify FimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in subjects from Cali-Colombia, including the co-infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Methods: Subgingival samples were collected from 151 people exhibiting diverse periodontal condition. The occurrence of P. gingivalis, FimA genotypes and other bacteria was determined by PCR. Results: P. gingivalis was positive in 85 patients. Genotype FimA II was more prevalent without reach significant differences among study groups (54.3%), FimA IV was also prevalent in gingivitis (13.0%). A high correlation (p= 0.000) was found among P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia co-infection. The FimA II genotype correlated with concomitant detection of T. denticola and T. forsythia. Conclusions: Porphyromonas gingivalis was high even in the healthy group at the study population. A trend toward a greater frequency of FimA II genotype in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was determined. The FimA II genotype was also associated with increased pocket depth, greater loss of attachment level, and patients co-infected with T. denticola and T. forsythia. PMID:26600627

  12. Contrails over Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-05

    This image from NASA EarthKAM shows Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. The superb natural harbor at Lisbon is a commercially important European port handling much of the import-export traffic for Portugal and Spain.

  13. Vocational Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Artur; And Others

    This report on vocational training in Portugal contains 8 chapters, a 26-item bibliography, and 2 appendices. Chapter 1 describes the geography, political system, population, and employment situation of Portugal. Chapter 2 describes the economic framework of Portugal. Chapter 3 describes the education system, the apprenticeship system, other…

  14. Comprehensive mutagenesis of the fimS promoter regulatory switch reveals novel regulation of type 1 pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huibin; Susanto, Teodorus T; Wan, Yue; Chen, Swaine L

    2016-04-12

    Type 1 pili (T1P) are major virulence factors for uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which cause both acute and recurrent urinary tract infections. T1P expression therefore is of direct relevance for disease. T1P are phase variable (both piliated and nonpiliated bacteria exist in a clonal population) and are controlled by an invertible DNA switch (fimS), which contains the promoter for the fim operon encoding T1P. Inversion of fimS is stochastic but may be biased by environmental conditions and other signals that ultimately converge at fimS itself. Previous studies of fimS sequences important for T1P phase variation have focused on laboratory-adapted E coli strains and have been limited in the number of mutations or by alteration of the fimS genomic context. We surmounted these limitations by using saturating genomic mutagenesis of fimS coupled with accurate sequencing to detect both mutations and phase status simultaneously. In addition to the sequences known to be important for biasing fimS inversion, our method also identifies a previously unknown pair of 5' UTR inverted repeats that act by altering the relative fimA levels to control phase variation. Thus we have uncovered an additional layer of T1P regulation potentially impacting virulence and the coordinate expression of multiple pilus systems.

  15. Antibody Responses to Individual Bordetella pertussis Fimbrial Antigen Fim2 or Fim3 following Immunization with the Five-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine or to Pertussis Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Frances; Matheson, Mary; Fry, Norman K.; Labram, Briony

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis expresses two serologically distinct fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) which are included in the Sanofi Pasteur 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine, and antibody responses to these antigens have been shown to be associated with protection. Studies to date have assessed the IgG response to this vaccine using a copurified mixture of Fim2 and Fim3, and the response to the individual antigens has not been characterized. We have purified separate Fim2 and Fim3 from strains that express either Fim2 or Fim3 and have used these antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify IgG responses following immunization with 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine in 15-month-old, 4- to 6-year-old, and 11- to 18-year-old subjects. All individuals showed increases in Fim2 and Fim3 IgG concentrations following immunization, with 3-fold-greater Fim2 than Fim3 IgG concentrations seen in the younger two age groups. Fim2 IgG concentrations were 1.5-fold greater than Fim3 IgG concentrations in the 11- to 18-year-olds. We have also compared Fim2 and Fim3 IgG concentrations in individuals with prolonged cough who were diagnosed as having recent pertussis using a pertussis toxin (Ptx) IgG ELISA with individuals with prolonged cough but without elevated Ptx IgG concentrations. Individuals with evidence of recent pertussis had greater Fim3 IgG concentrations, consistent with the predominant serotype of isolates obtained in the United Kingdom. However, a surprising number of individuals had moderate Fim2 IgG concentrations despite very few isolates of that serotype obtained in the sampling period. PMID:22956654

  16. Antibody responses to individual Bordetella pertussis fimbrial antigen Fim2 or Fim3 following immunization with the five-component acellular pertussis vaccine or to pertussis disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Frances; Matheson, Mary; Fry, Norman K; Labram, Briony; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2012-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis expresses two serologically distinct fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) which are included in the Sanofi Pasteur 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine, and antibody responses to these antigens have been shown to be associated with protection. Studies to date have assessed the IgG response to this vaccine using a copurified mixture of Fim2 and Fim3, and the response to the individual antigens has not been characterized. We have purified separate Fim2 and Fim3 from strains that express either Fim2 or Fim3 and have used these antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify IgG responses following immunization with 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine in 15-month-old, 4- to 6-year-old, and 11- to 18-year-old subjects. All individuals showed increases in Fim2 and Fim3 IgG concentrations following immunization, with 3-fold-greater Fim2 than Fim3 IgG concentrations seen in the younger two age groups. Fim2 IgG concentrations were 1.5-fold greater than Fim3 IgG concentrations in the 11- to 18-year-olds. We have also compared Fim2 and Fim3 IgG concentrations in individuals with prolonged cough who were diagnosed as having recent pertussis using a pertussis toxin (Ptx) IgG ELISA with individuals with prolonged cough but without elevated Ptx IgG concentrations. Individuals with evidence of recent pertussis had greater Fim3 IgG concentrations, consistent with the predominant serotype of isolates obtained in the United Kingdom. However, a surprising number of individuals had moderate Fim2 IgG concentrations despite very few isolates of that serotype obtained in the sampling period.

  17. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  18. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  19. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  20. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae FimK Promotes Virulence in Murine Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A; Hilliard, Julia K; Tiemann, Kristin M; Todd, Elizabeth M; Morley, S Celeste; Hunstad, David A

    2016-02-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a chief cause of nosocomial pneumonia, is a versatile and commonly multidrug-resistant human pathogen for which further insight into pathogenesis is needed. We show that the pilus regulatory gene fimK promotes the virulence of K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 in murine pneumonia. This contrasts with the attenuating effect of fimK on urinary tract virulence, illustrating that a single factor may exert opposing effects on pathogenesis in distinct host niches. Loss of fimK in TOP52 pneumonia was associated with diminished lung bacterial burden, limited innate responses within the lung, and improved host survival. FimK expression was shown to promote serum resistance, capsule production, and protection from phagocytosis by host immune cells. Finally, while the widely used K. pneumoniae model strain 43816 produces rapid dissemination and death in mice, TOP52 caused largely localized pneumonia with limited lethality, thereby providing an alternative tool for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis and control within the lung. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae FimK Promotes Virulence in Murine Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David A.; Hilliard, Julia K.; Tiemann, Kristin M.; Todd, Elizabeth M.; Morley, S. Celeste; Hunstad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a chief cause of nosocomial pneumonia, is a versatile and commonly multidrug-resistant human pathogen for which further insight into pathogenesis is needed. We show that the pilus regulatory gene fimK promotes the virulence of K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 in murine pneumonia. This contrasts with the attenuating effect of fimK on urinary tract virulence, illustrating that a single factor may exert opposing effects on pathogenesis in distinct host niches. Loss of fimK in TOP52 pneumonia was associated with diminished lung bacterial burden, limited innate responses within the lung, and improved host survival. FimK expression was shown to promote serum resistance, capsule production, and protection from phagocytosis by host immune cells. Finally, while the widely used K. pneumoniae model strain 43816 produces rapid dissemination and death in mice, TOP52 caused largely localized pneumonia with limited lethality, thereby providing an alternative tool for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis and control within the lung. PMID:26347570

  3. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  4. Ventilation mapping of chest using Focused Impedance Method (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, M. Abdul; Ferdous, Humayra; Baig, Tanvir Noor; Siddique-e-Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Focused Impedance Method (FIM) provides an opportunity for localized impedance measurement down to reasonable depths within the body using surface electrodes, and has a potential application in localized lung ventilation study. This however needs assessment of normal values for healthy individuals. In this study, localized ventilation maps in terms of electrical impedance in a matrix formation around the thorax, both from the front and the back, were obtained from two normal male subjects using a modified configuration of FIM. For this the focused impedance values at full inspiration and full expiration were measured and the percentage difference with respect to the latter was used. Some of the measured values would have artefacts due to movements of the heart and the diaphragm in the relevant anatomical positions which needs to be considered with due care in any interpretation.

  5. Validation of FIM-MDS crosswalk conversion algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chih; Byers, Katherine L; Velozo, Craig A

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we performed a validation analysis of a crosswalk that converts Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores to Minimum Data Set (MDS) scores and vice versa in order to achieve score compatibility. Data from 2,130 patients were obtained from the Department of Veteran Affairs' Austin Automation Center. The conversion algorithm was tested at the (1) individual patient level, (2) classification level, and (3) facility level. The validity testing resulted in mixed findings. The mean MDS-derived FIM (FIMc) scores were within 1.3 and 0.1 points of the mean actual FIM (FIMa) scores for the motor and cognition scales, respectively. Kappa statistics demonstrated a fair to substantial (0.37-0.66) strength of agreement between functional-related group classifications generated from the FIMa and FIMc scores. Four of the five facilities had an average point difference of 2.4 between the mean FIMa and FIMc scores. While the sample distributions were similar, individual score comparisons fell short of expectations. Only 37% to 67% of the FIMc scores were within 5 points of the FIMa scores. The crosswalk algorithm demonstrated a convenient way to achieve score comparisons across different rehabilitation settings. However, the effectiveness of a single measure or of crosswalk conversions may ultimately depend on the quality of the data.

  6. The alginate regulator AlgR and an associated sensor FimS are required for twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Whitchurch, C B; Alm, R A; Mattick, J S

    1996-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients produce large amounts of the exopolysaccharide alginate. AlgR has long been considered a key regulator of alginate production, but its cognate sensor has not been identified. Here we show that AlgR is required for twitching motility, which is a form of bacterial surface translocation mediated by type 4 fimbriae. Adjacent to algR we have identified a sensor gene (fimS), which is also required for twitching motility. However, FimS does not appear to be required for alginate production in mucoid strains. FimS and AlgR are representative of a new subclass of two-component transmitter-receiver regulatory systems. The alternative sigma factor AlgU also affects both alginate production and twitching motility. Therefore, these two virulence determinants appear to be closely associated and coordinately regulated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790418

  7. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global map based on the FIMS observations aboard STSAT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoung Wook

    2016-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS), a dual-channel instrument with 900 - 1150 A and 1350 - 1750 A passbands, was launched aboard the Korean microsatellite STSAT-1 on 2003 September 27. FIMS, with moderate spectral and angular resolutions while maintaining large fields of view, was optimized for observations of diffuse emissions such as those from hot gases in our Galaxy. About 70 percent of the sky was covered after 18 months of survey with sufficient exposure time for the long wavelength band. The dataset has been used to study the interaction between the hot gas and the cold component as well as the molecular hydrogen fluorescence emission for a variety of targets. Furthermore, it was successfully used to determine the optical properties of dust scattering and thereby the distances for several prominent clouds from the continuum observations. In the present paper, the global distribution of ion and molecular hydrogen lines will be presented although the coverage of the sky is somewhat limited. For example, topics such as the ion lines distribution in the Galactic halo regions and correlation of molecular hydrogen with dust or CO will be discussed.

  9. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  10. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  11. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  12. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  13. The Conformational Variability of FimH: Which Conformation Represents the Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed

    Eris, Deniz; Preston, Roland C; Scharenberg, Meike; Hulliger, Fabian; Abgottspon, Daniela; Pang, Lijuan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Schwardt, Oliver; Ernst, Beat

    2016-06-02

    FimH is a bacterial lectin found at the tips of type 1 pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). It mediates shear-enhanced adhesion to mannosylated surfaces. Binding of UPEC to urothelial cells initiates the infection cycle leading to urinary tract infections (UTIs). Antiadhesive glycomimetics based on α-d-mannopyranose offer an attractive alternative to the conventional antibiotic treatment because they do not induce a selection pressure and are therefore expected to have a reduced resistance potential. Genetic variation of the fimH gene in clinically isolated UPEC has been associated with distinct mannose binding phenotypes. For this reason, we investigated the mannose binding characteristics of four FimH variants with mannose-based ligands under static and hydrodynamic conditions. The selected FimH variants showed individually different binding behavior under both sets of conditions as a result of the conformational variability of FimH. Clinically relevant FimH variants typically exist in a dynamic conformational equilibrium. Additionally, we evaluated inhibitory potencies of four FimH antagonists representing different structural classes. Inhibitory potencies of three of the tested antagonists were dependent on the binding phenotype and hence on the conformational equilibrium of the FimH variant. However, the squarate derivative was the notable exception and inhibited FimH variants irrespective of their binding phenotype. Information on antagonist affinities towards various FimH variants has remained largely unconsidered despite being essential for successful antiadhesion therapy.

  14. Child Health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Teresa; Ferreira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Inês

    2016-10-01

    Portugal has experienced rapid decline of neonatal and infant mortality in the last century, similar to that of other western European states. The joint venture of pediatricians and obstetricians with adequate top-down government commissions for maternal and child health for the decision making by health administrators and a well-defined schedule of preventive and managerial measures in the community and in hospitals are the most likely explanations for this success. Another achievement of child health care services is the registry for special diseases. Education of health care workers plays a fundamental role in improving health statistics. Portugal has a reasonable number of doctors, nurses, and health technicians per capita. Quality assurance monitoring systems and implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines with digital records, including international coding, are essential steps to improve health care systems.

  15. Inhalant Allergens in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes Câmara Camacho, Irene

    2017-02-23

    This review aims to present in a simple manner the work performed in Portugal regarding the identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in the country and the sensitization levels in Portuguese patients. Much of the data was summarized in tables and illustrated on maps, enabling the community of clinicians, researchers, and patient organizations to access the knowledge about the research performed. This study provides an overview about the distribution of aeroallergens in Portugal, signaling regions and critical periods of exposure of the sensitized population. The illustrated data can help the community of allergy specialists to view the temporal and spatial distribution of aeroallergens across the country. In addition, this information can guide clinicians to select the most appropriate allergens for allergy diagnostic testing, treatment, and allergen avoidance.

  16. Tornadoes in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Paula

    In Portugal, research on tornadoes is very recent and has shown that they are not as rare as it is believed by public and even by scientific opinion. As tornadoes only affect a small area, the probability of their being observed at a meteorological station is very small. Thus, most of the existing records are people's recollections, some description in newspapers and some photos. It was possible to find data on 30 tornadoes that occurred from 1936 to 2002. This number is undoubtedly underestimated because the database is always under construction. Those tornadoes were moderate to strongly devastating, some of them causing great damage. The strongest tornado in Portugal, a T7 event, happened in November 1954. The less intense tornadoes are, for sure, underestimated. After the year 2000, a more careful look for reports reveals the existence of some weak tornadoes. Tornadoes occur mainly from October to January in association with strong cold fronts or line squalls. Most cases were in association with deep extratropical cyclones west of Portugal, when there was a moist and warm south-west strong to gale-force flow and a generalised severe weather over the country. Some cases happened in a very unstable westerly flow. There are also records on summer tornadoes, developing from strong thunderstorm cells. Often, such thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems resulting from strong heating of the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

  17. Development of a Web Tool for Escherichia coli Subtyping Based on fimH Alleles.

    PubMed

    Roer, Louise; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Allesøe, Rosa; Muradova, Mariya; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Thomsen, Martin C F; Lund, Ole; Hansen, Frank; Hammerum, Anette M; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a valid publicly available method for in silico fimH subtyping of Escherichia coli particularly suitable for differentiation of fine-resolution subgroups within clonal groups defined by standard multilocus sequence typing (MLST). FimTyper was constructed as a FASTA database containing all currently known fimH alleles. The software source code is publicly available at https://bitbucket.org/genomicepidemiology/fimtyper, the database is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/genomicepidemiology/fimtyper_db, and a service implementing the software is available at https://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/FimTyper FimTyper was validated on three data sets: one containing Sanger sequences of fimH alleles of 42 E. coli isolates generated prior to the current study (data set 1), one containing whole-genome sequence (WGS) data of 243 third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (data set 2), and one containing a randomly chosen subset of 40 E. coli isolates from data set 2 that were subjected to conventional fimH subtyping (data set 3). The combination of the three data sets enabled an evaluation and comparison of FimTyper on both Sanger sequences and WGS data. FimTyper correctly predicted all 42 fimH subtypes from the Sanger sequences from data set 1 and successfully analyzed all 243 draft genomes from data set 2. FimTyper subtyping of the Sanger sequences and WGS data from data set 3 were in complete agreement. Additionally, fimH subtyping was evaluated on a phylogenetic network of 122 sequence type 131 (ST131) E. coli isolates. There was perfect concordance between the typology and fimH-based subclones within ST131, with accurate identification of the pandemic multidrug-resistant clonal subgroup ST131-H30. FimTyper provides a standardized tool, as a rapid alternative to conventional fimH subtyping, highly suitable for surveillance and outbreak detection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Analysis of FimX, a phosphodiesterase that governs twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Barbara I.; Lebron, Maria B.; Murray, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Type IV pili (Tfp) are polar surface structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa required for twitching motility, biofilm formation and adherence. One protein required for the assembly of tfp is FimX, which possesses both GGDEF and EAL domains characteristic of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases respectively. In this work we demonstrate that FimX has phosphodiesterase activity towards bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), but does not show diguanylate cyclase activity. Instead, the imperfect GGDEF domain of FimX likely serves to activate phosphodiesterase activity when bound to GTP, as has recently been described for the Caulobacter crescentus composite GGDEF-EAL protein, CC3396. Bacteria expressing FimX in which either the GGDEF or EAL domain is deleted or mutated have phenotypes indistinguishable from a ΔfimX strain, demonstrating the importance of both domains to function. Previous work has shown that FimX localizes to the bacterial pole. In this work we show that restriction of FimX to a single pole requires intact GGDEF and EAL domains. Deletion of the amino-terminal REC domain of FimX, which contains a putative polar localization signal, results in a protein that still supports intermediate levels of pilus assembly and function. RFP–FimXΔREC, unlike RFP–FimX, is no longer localized to the bacterial pole, while transmission electron microscopy shows that surface pili can originate from non-polar sites in this mutant. Although ΔfimX mutants show limited in vitro cytotoxicity, they are as virulent as the wild-type strain in a murine model of acute pneumonia. PMID:16677312

  19. Antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following immunization with a whole-cell, two-component, or five-component acellular pertussis vaccine and following pertussis disease in children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2014-02-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection.

  20. Antibody Responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following Immunization with a Whole-Cell, Two-Component, or Five-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and following Pertussis Disease in Children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection. PMID:24307240

  1. Arabidopsis FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in the pollen tube

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ruihui; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is increasingly recognized as a major regulator of pollen tube growth. Actin filaments have distinct distribution patterns and dynamic properties within different regions of the pollen tube. Apical actin filaments are highly dynamic and crucial for pollen tube growth. However, how apical actin filaments are generated and properly constructed remains an open question. Here we showed that Arabidopsis fimbrin5 (FIM5) decorates filamentous structures throughout the entire tube but is apically concentrated. Apical actin structures are disorganized to different degrees in the pollen tubes of fim5 loss-of-function mutants. Further observations suggest that apical actin structures are not constructed properly because apical actin filaments cannot be maintained at the cortex of fim5 pollen tubes. Actin filaments appeared to be more curved in fim5 pollen tubes and this was confirmed by measurements showing that the convolutedness and the rate of change of convolutedness of actin filaments was significantly increased in fim5 pollen tubes. This suggests that the rigidity of the actin filaments may be compromised in fim5 pollen tubes. Further, the apical cell wall composition is altered, implying that tip-directed vesicle trafficking events are impaired in fim5 pollen tubes. Thus, we found that FIM5 decorates apical actin filaments and regulates their organization in order to drive polarized pollen tube growth. PMID:27117336

  2. Catch-bond mechanism of the bacterial adhesin FimH.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Maximilian M; Jakob, Roman P; Eras, Jonathan; Baday, Sefer; Eriş, Deniz; Navarra, Giulio; Bernèche, Simon; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-03-07

    Ligand-receptor interactions that are reinforced by mechanical stress, so-called catch-bonds, play a major role in cell-cell adhesion. They critically contribute to widespread urinary tract infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These pathogens attach to host epithelia via the adhesin FimH, a two-domain protein at the tip of type I pili recognizing terminal mannoses on epithelial glycoproteins. Here we establish peptide-complemented FimH as a model system for fimbrial FimH function. We reveal a three-state mechanism of FimH catch-bond formation based on crystal structures of all states, kinetic analysis of ligand interaction and molecular dynamics simulations. In the absence of tensile force, the FimH pilin domain allosterically accelerates spontaneous ligand dissociation from the FimH lectin domain by 100,000-fold, resulting in weak affinity. Separation of the FimH domains under stress abolishes allosteric interplay and increases the affinity of the lectin domain. Cell tracking demonstrates that rapid ligand dissociation from FimH supports motility of piliated E. coli on mannosylated surfaces in the absence of shear force.

  3. Catch-bond mechanism of the bacterial adhesin FimH

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Maximilian M.; Jakob, Roman P.; Eras, Jonathan; Baday, Sefer; Eriş, Deniz; Navarra, Giulio; Bernèche, Simon; Ernst, Beat; Maier, Timm; Glockshuber, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions that are reinforced by mechanical stress, so-called catch-bonds, play a major role in cell–cell adhesion. They critically contribute to widespread urinary tract infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These pathogens attach to host epithelia via the adhesin FimH, a two-domain protein at the tip of type I pili recognizing terminal mannoses on epithelial glycoproteins. Here we establish peptide-complemented FimH as a model system for fimbrial FimH function. We reveal a three-state mechanism of FimH catch-bond formation based on crystal structures of all states, kinetic analysis of ligand interaction and molecular dynamics simulations. In the absence of tensile force, the FimH pilin domain allosterically accelerates spontaneous ligand dissociation from the FimH lectin domain by 100,000-fold, resulting in weak affinity. Separation of the FimH domains under stress abolishes allosteric interplay and increases the affinity of the lectin domain. Cell tracking demonstrates that rapid ligand dissociation from FimH supports motility of piliated E. coli on mannosylated surfaces in the absence of shear force. PMID:26948702

  4. Expression and purification of the mannose recognition domain of the FimH adhesin.

    PubMed

    Schembri, M A; Hasman, H; Klemm, P

    2000-07-15

    Type 1 fimbriae have been shown to be specifically required for Escherichia coli colonisation and pathogenesis of the urinary tract. These structural organelles mediate specific adhesion to alpha-D-mannosides by virtue of the FimH adhesin. FimH is a two-domain protein in which the N-terminal domain contains the receptor-binding site and the C-terminal domain is required for organelle integration. To date, FimH has only been isolated as a complex with the system-specific chaperone FimC. Here we report that a functional form of the FimH receptor-binding domain can be readily isolated and characterised by replacing the C-terminal domain with a histidine tag.

  5. Adhesion of Escherichia coli under flow conditions reveals potential novel effects of FimH mutations.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, T; Thøgersen, M S; Wieser, E; Peschel, A; Ball, M J; Brandes, R; Satchell, S C; Stockner, T; Aarestrup, F M; Rees, A J; Kain, R

    2017-03-01

    FimH-mediated adhesion of Escherichia coli to bladder epithelium is a prerequisite for urinary tract infections. FimH is also essential for blood-borne bacterial dissemination, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of different FimH mutations on bacterial adhesion using a novel adhesion assay, which models the physiological flow conditions bacteria are exposed to. We introduced 12 different point mutations in the mannose binding pocket of FimH in an E. coli strain expressing type 1 fimbriae only (MSC95-FimH). We compared the bacterial adhesion of each mutant across several commonly used adhesion assays, including agglutination of yeast, adhesion to mono- and tri-mannosylated substrates, and static adhesion to bladder epithelial and endothelial cells. We performed a comparison of these assays to a novel method that we developed to study bacterial adhesion to mammalian cells under flow conditions. We showed that E. coli MSC95-FimH adheres more efficiently to microvascular endothelium than to bladder epithelium, and that only endothelium supports adhesion at physiological shear stress. The results confirmed that mannose binding pocket mutations abrogated adhesion. We demonstrated that FimH residues E50 and T53 are crucial for adhesion under flow conditions. The coating of endothelial cells on biochips and modelling of physiological flow conditions enabled us to identify FimH residues crucial for adhesion. These results provide novel insights into screening methods to determine the effect of FimH mutants and potentially FimH antagonists.

  6. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  7. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Heparin Binding Regions of the Fim2 Subunit of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Geuijen, Cecile A. W.; Willems, Rob J. L.; Hoogerhout, Peter; Puijk, Wouter C.; Meloen, Rob H.; Mooi, Frits R.

    1998-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae bind to sulfated sugars such as heparin through the major subunit Fim2. The Fim2 subunit contains two regions, designated H1 and H2, which show sequence similarity with heparin binding regions of fibronectin, and the role of these regions in heparin binding was investigated with maltose binding protein (MBP)-Fim2 fusion proteins. Deletion derivatives of MBP-Fim2 showed that both regions are important for binding to heparin. The role of H2 in heparin binding was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis in which basic amino acids were replaced by alanine. These studies revealed that Lys-186 and Lys-187 are important for heparin binding of MBP-Fim2, whereas Arg-179 is not required. Peptides derived from H1 and H2 (pepH1 and pepH2) also showed heparin binding activity. Using a series of peptides, in each of which a different basic amino acid was substituted for alanine, we demonstrated that the structural requirements for heparin binding differ significantly among pepH1 and pepH2 peptides. A Pepscan analysis of Fim2 revealed regions outside H1 and H2 which bind heparin and showed that not only basic amino acids but also tyrosines may be important for binding to sulfated sugars. A comparison of the heparin binding regions of Fim2 with homologous regions of Fim3 and FimX, two closely related but antigenically distinct fimbrial subunits, showed that basic amino acids and tyrosines are generally conserved. The major heparin binding regions identified in Fim2 are part of epitopes recognized by human antibodies, suggesting that the heparin binding regions are exposed at the fimbrial surface and are immunodominant. Since B. pertussis fimbriae show weak serological cross-reactivity, the differences in primary structure in the heparin binding regions of Fim2, Fim3, and FimX may affect antibody binding but not heparin binding, allowing the bacteria to evade antibody-mediated immunity by switching the fimbrial gene expressed. PMID:9573115

  9. The effect of inaccurate FIM instrument ratings on prospective payment: a study of clinician expertise and FIM rating difficulty as contributing to inaccuracy.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Jason N; Wolfson, Aaron M; McKnight, Patrick; Burns, Stephen P

    2003-01-01

    To test whether clinician expertise and FIM instrument rating difficulty explain clinician overconfidence in FIM rating accuracy. Participants answered 60 true/false FIM questions and, for each question, completed a 6-category scale to assess confidence in the accuracy of their responses. Experts and novices, as well as hard and easy items, were identified through a Rasch analysis. The relation between confidence and accuracy was examined for these different groups. Three urban medical centers. Fifty medical rehabilitation professionals, including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation psychologists, speech pathologists, and rehabilitation nurses. Not applicable. Observed proportion of correct responses to 60 true/false questions and responses from the 6-category confidence scale. The amount of overconfidence was mediated by the difficulty of the FIM task and the level of expertise of the clinical judge. Decreasing the level of overconfidence in FIM scoring is a promising avenue for improving the accuracy of functional assessment. Accurate assessment of functional status for case-mix group classification will be of even greater importance under the recently initiated Medicare prospective payment system. Copyright 2003 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  10. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Silva, S; Soutar, A K

    2008-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised clinically by an increased level of circulating LDL cholesterol that leads to lipid accumulation in tendons and arteries, premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although Portugal should have about 20,000 cases, this disease is severely under-diagnosed in our country, this being the first presentation of Portuguese data on FH. A total of 602 blood samples were collected from 184 index patients and 418 relatives from several centres throughout Portugal. Fifty-three different mutations were found in 83 index patients, 79 heterozygous and 4 with two defective LDLR alleles. Additionally, 4 putative alterations were found in 8 patients but were not considered mutations causing disease, mainly because they did not co-segregate with hypercholesterolaemia in the families. Three unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for the APOB(3500) mutation and two unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for a novel mutation in PCSK9, predicted to cause a single amino acid substitution, D374H. Cascade screening increased the number of FH patients identified genetically to 204. The newly identified FH patients are now receiving counselling and treatment based on the genetic diagnosis. The early identification of FH patients can increase their life expectancy and quality of life by preventing the development of premature CHD if patients receive appropriate pharmacological treatment.

  11. Distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2010-03-01

    Long fimbriae (FimA) are important virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Based on the diversity of the fimA gene, this species is classified into 6 genotypes. This study surveyed samples from primary endodontic infections for the presence of these P. gingivalis fimA variants. Genomic DNA isolated from samples taken from 25 root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis and 25 aspirates from acute apical abscess was used as template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays directed toward the detection of the different P. gingivalis fimA genotypes. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected by a 16S rRNA gene-based PCR in 36% of the total number of cases sampled (44% of chronic apical periodontitis and 28% of abscess aspirates). In cases of chronic apical periodontitis, P. gingivalis variant type IV was the most prevalent (24%), followed by types I (20%), II (16%), and III (8%). In acute abscess samples, variant type II was the most prevalent (12%), followed by types III and IV (8% of each) and type I (4%). Combinations of up to 3 different genotypes were detected in a few cases. No single fimA genotype variant or combination thereof was significantly associated with symptoms. Overall, fimA types IV (16%), II (14%), and I (12%) were the most prevalent. Findings demonstrated that different P. gingivalis fimA genotypes can be present in primary endodontic infections. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of FimX, a phosphodiesterase that governs twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Barbara I; Lebron, Maria B; Murray, Thomas S

    2006-05-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are polar surface structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa required for twitching motility, biofilm formation and adherence. One protein required for the assembly of tfp is FimX, which possesses both GGDEF and EAL domains characteristic of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases respectively. In this work we demonstrate that FimX has phosphodiesterase activity towards bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), but does not show diguanylate cyclase activity. Instead, the imperfect GGDEF domain of FimX likely serves to activate phosphodiesterase activity when bound to GTP, as has recently been described for the Caulobacter crescentus composite GGDEF-EAL protein, CC3396. Bacteria expressing FimX in which either the GGDEF or EAL domain is deleted or mutated have phenotypes indistinguishable from a DeltafimX strain, demonstrating the importance of both domains to function. Previous work has shown that FimX localizes to the bacterial pole. In this work we show that restriction of FimX to a single pole requires intact GGDEF and EAL domains. Deletion of the amino-terminal REC domain of FimX, which contains a putative polar localization signal, results in a protein that still supports intermediate levels of pilus assembly and function. RFP-FimXDeltaREC, unlike RFP-FimX, is no longer localized to the bacterial pole, while transmission electron microscopy shows that surface pili can originate from non-polar sites in this mutant. Although DeltafimX mutants show limited in vitro cytotoxicity, they are as virulent as the wild-type strain in a murine model of acute pneumonia.

  13. An integumentary mucin (FIM-B.1) from Xenopus laevis homologous with von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Probst, J C; Gertzen, E M; Hoffmann, W

    1990-07-03

    We present a new protein from X. laevis skin termed "frog integumentary mucin B.1" (FIM-B.1) with a general structure similar to FIM-A.1 (formerly "spasmolysin"). The central region consisting of tandem repeats of 11 amino acid residues is probably a target for extensive O-glycosylation, whereas the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain shows pronounced homology with the C1-C2 domains and the C-terminal end of von Willebrand factor. Furthermore, we describe homology with antistasin, an anticoagulant peptide from a leech. We also discuss some implications concerning the evolutionary origin of von Willebrand factor. In situ hybridization studies revealed the expression of FIM-B.1 exclusively in mucous glands of the skin. This is comparable with FIM-A.1 but is in contrast to all other physiologically active peptides, which are synthesized in granular glands.

  14. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  15. Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Portugal: Pregnant Women Nutrition in Portugal and its Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: Tem havido baixa adesão ao padrão da dieta mediterrânica na população portuguesa. Nesta perspectiva, procedemos à revisão crítica do estado de nutrição das mulheres em idade fértil, grávidas e recém-nascidos, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos uma revisão narrativa crítica de estudos recentes com qualidade e inquéritos nacionais oficiais, que tivessem avaliado a dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e de grávidas portuguesas e sua influência no estado de nutrição dos respetivos fetos e recém-nascidos. Resultados: Foram selecionados e analisados cinco estudos ecológicos multinacionais que incluíram Portugal, dois inquéritos oficiais nacionais sobre disponibilidade de alimentos, sete estudos nacionais sobre dieta e estado de nutrição de mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas e cinco estudos nacionais sobre a influência de fatores nutricionais maternos no crescimento dos fetos. A prevalência de excesso de peso/obesidade em mulheres em idade fértil e grávidas aumentou substancialmente associada à diminuição da adesão à dieta mediterrânica. As variações no consumo de energia e macronutrientes na gravidez parecem não ter impacto significativo no estado de nutrição dos fetos. Pelo contrário, o excesso de peso/obesidade pré-concecional associa-se a aumento de adiposidade ao nascer e o excessivo aumento de peso na gravidez associa-se ao excesso ponderal na infância. Os fatores potencialmente relacionados com a baixa adesão à dieta mediterrânica, merecendo futura investigação, incluem políticas agrícolas da União Europeia que promoveram a produção de grupos alimentares não tipicamente mediterrânicos a baixo preço e a pouca capacidade financeira referida pela população portuguesa para aquisição de alimentos de qualidade. Conclusão: A recuperação dos hábitos dietéticos mediterrânicos tradicionais deve ser incluída em estratégias de prevenção e tratamento do

  16. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  17. Portugal: Health System Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Simoes, Jorge; Figueiredo Augusto, Goncalo; Fronteira, Ines; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This analysis of the Portuguese health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Overall health indicators such as life expectancy at birth and at age 65 years have shown a notable improvement over the last decades. However, these improvements have not been followed at the same pace by other important dimensions of health: child poverty and its consequences, mental health and quality of life after 65. Health inequalities remain a general problem in the country. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Out-of-pocket payments have been increasing over time, not only co-payments, but particularly direct payments for private outpatient consultations, examinations and pharmaceuticals. The level of cost-sharing is highest for pharmaceutical products. Between one-fifth and one-quarter of the population has a second (or more) layer of health insurance coverage through health subsystems (for specific sectors or occupations) and voluntary health insurance (VHI). VHI coverage varies between schemes, with basic schemes covering a basic package of services, whereas more expensive schemes cover a broader set of services, including higher ceilings of health care expenses. Health care delivery is by both public and private providers. Public provision is predominant in primary care and hospital care, with a gate-keeping system in place for access to hospital care. Pharmaceutical products, diagnostic technologies and private practice by physicians constitute the bulk of private health care provision. In May 2011, the economic crisis led Portugal to sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Monetary Fund, the European Commission and the European Central Bank, in exchange for a loan of 78 billion euros. The agreed Economic and Financial Adjustment Programme included

  18. Detection of antibodies against fimbria type 3 (Fim3) is useful diagnostic assay for pertussis.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Kaoru; Miyata, Akiko; Kazuyama, Yukimasa; Noda, Atsuya; Suzuki, Eri; Watanabe, Mineo; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Isolation of Bordetella pertussis and detection of the pertussis genome are not always successful because of low bacterial loads in adult patients with pertussis. Antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT) are measured but have low sensitivity in vaccinated subjects. There is no reliable diagnostic method at present. In this study, a fluorescent-EIA against several pertussis antigens and genome detection were investigated to establish clinical laboratory diagnostic methods for pertussis. The study was conducted in an outpatient clinic between September 2007 and 2013. Subjects consisted of 209 patients including adults suspected of pertussis and 35 staff members of the clinic. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was performed to detect the pertussis genome in 5' UTR of the pertussis toxin (PT) gene. The catalytic region of the adenylate cyclase toxin (catACT), C-terminal of filamentous hemagglutinin (cFHA), and type 3 fimbria (Fim3) were selected, which are not pertussis vaccine component. Conventional PT and FHA antibodies were examined together with type 2 fimbria (Fim2) antibodies, and these are vaccine antigens. Pertussis DNA was detected in 23 (11%) out of 209. Detection sensitivity was high in young infants. Antibodies against Fim3 showed a higher positive rate in all age groups. Staff members at the pediatric outpatient clinic showed serological booster responses in Fim2 and Fim3 antibodies more sensitively than those in PT antibodies during outbreaks. LAMP was useful for detecting the pertussis genome in young infants, whereas a serological assay for fluorescent-EIA against Fim2 and Fim3 was preferable for adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Streptococcus gordonii Expressing Porphyromonas gingivalis FimA Domains

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashu; Honma, Kiyonobu; Evans, Richard T.; Hruby, Dennis E.; Genco, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobe, is implicated in the etiology of adult periodontitis. P. gingivalis fimbriae are one of several critical surface virulence factors involved in both bacterial adherence and inflammation. P. gingivalis fimbrillin (FimA), the major subunit protein of fimbriae, is considered an important antigen for vaccine development against P. gingivalis-associated periodontitis. We have previously shown that biologically active domains of P. gingivalis fimbrillin can be expressed on the surface of the human commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii. In this study, we examined the effects of oral coimmunization of germfree rats with two S. gordonii recombinants expressing N (residues 55 to 145)- and C (residues 226 to 337)-terminal epitopes of P. gingivalis FimA to elicit FimA-specific immune responses. The effectiveness of immunization in protecting against alveolar bone loss following P. gingivalis infection was also evaluated. The results of this study show that the oral delivery of P. gingivalis FimA epitopes via S. gordonii vectors resulted in the induction of FimA-specific serum (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgA) and salivary (IgA) antibody responses and that the immune responses were protective against subsequent P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. These results support the potential usefulness of the S. gordonii vectors expressing P. gingivalis fimbrillin as a mucosal vaccine against adult periodontitis. PMID:11292708

  1. Expression of spasmolysin (FIM-A.1): an integumentary mucin from Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hauser, F; Gertzen, E M; Hoffmann, W

    1990-08-01

    In the past, a unique type of precursor for a secretory protein was discovered. It contains a central repetitive domain rich in threonine residues and terminal cysteine-rich domains. Due to striking homologies of these terminal domains with pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide, originally the name "prepro-spasmolysin" was proposed. Here we show that the mature protein has a MW of about 130 kDa, consisting of about 70% carbohydrate and 30% protein. Similar O-linked glycoproteins have been found in mucins from human intestine. For this and numerous other reasons we decided to rename this glycoprotein "frog integumentary mucin A.1" (FIM-A.1). Furthermore, analysis of the protein with specific antibodies against the predicted C-terminal end indicates that FIM-A.1 is probably not processed at pairs of basic residues. In situ hybridization as well as immunofluorescence studies revealed that FIM-A.1 is expressed and stored exclusively in mature mucous glands of Xenopus laevis skin. Only cone cells at the proximal part of these glands do not synthesize FIM-A.1. In contrast, all other physiologically active peptides from X. laevis skin investigated so far are synthesized in granular glands. A hypothetical function of FIMs for defense against microbial infections is discussed.

  2. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik . E-mail: kwangkim@jhmi.edu

    2005-09-02

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis.

  3. Focused impedance measurement (FIM). A new technique with improved zone localization.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, K S; Sarker, M; Akond, M H; Akter, T

    1999-04-20

    Conventional four-electrode impedance measurements (FEIM) cannot localize a zone of interest in a volume conductor. On the other hand, the recently developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system offers an image with reasonable resolution, but is complex and needs many electrodes. By placing two FEIM systems perpendicular to each other over a common zone at the center and combining the two results, it is possible to obtain enhanced sensitivity over this central zone. This is the basis of the proposed new method of focused impedance measurement (FIM). Sensitivity maps in both 2D and 3D show the desired improvement. A comparison of stomach-emptying studies also indicates the improvement achieved. This new method may be useful for impedance measurements of large organs like stomach, heart, and lungs. Being much simpler in comparison to EIT, multifrequency systems can be simply built for FIM. Besides, FIM may have utility in other fields like geology where impedance measurements are performed.

  4. Aerosol impact on seasonal prediction using FIM-Chem-iHYCOM coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sun, shan; Grell, Georg; Bleck, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    A coupled model consisting of the weather model FIM and the ocean model iHYCOM, both operating on an icosahedral horizontal grid, is being developed for subseasonal to seasonal prediction. Initial results indicate that the model skill is comparable to that of the operational model CFSv2 used by NCEP. In addition, an online atmospheric chemistry module is coupled to FIM. The purpose of onging experiments with the FIM-Chem-iHYCOM combination is to investigate the aerosol impact on the atmospheric and oceanic circulation at the seasonal scale. We compare the model sensitivity with various chemistry emissions, including aerosols, fire and anthropogenic emissions. Additional emphasis of this work is on the effect of aerosols on cloudiness and precipitation, either directly or indirectly through changes in SST. To isolate the latter effect, we conduct parallel experiments with observed SST.

  5. Application of the 30km FIM-iHYCOM Coupled Model to Subseasonal Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project organized by NOAA/CPC is aimed at improving S2S forecast skill by employing a multi-model ensemble strategy. ESRL has committed to participating in the S2S NMME with its coupled global atmospheric/ocean model consisting of the Flow-following Icosahedral Model (FIM) and the icosahedral Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (i-HYCOM). FIM-iHYCOM hindcast runs are now in progress at 30km resolution, highest resolution for the 16-year subseasonal NMME, and provides another tool in which phenomena predictability and process sensitivity studies can be performed. Initial results from FIM-iHYCOM show different but comparable overall skill with CFSv2, suggesting that ensemble diversity and skill can be improved with its addition. Additional hindcast results including MJO and sudden stratospheric warming verifictions will be presented.

  6. Improved Subseasonal Prediction with Advanced Coupled Models including the 30km FIM-HYCOM Coupled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Stan; Sun, Shan; Grell, Georg; Green, Benjamin; Bleck, Rainer; Li, Haiqin

    2017-04-01

    Extreme events for subseasonal duration have been linked to multi-week processes related to onset, duration, and cessation of blocking events or, more generally, quasi-stationary waves. Results will be shown from different sets of 32-day prediction experiments (3200 runs each) over a 16-year period for earth system processes key for subseasonal prediction for different resolution, numerics, and physics using the FIM-HYCOM coupled model. The coupled atmosphere (FIM) and ocean (HYCOM) modeling system is a relatively new coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed for subseasonal to seasonal prediction (Green et al. 2017 Mon.Wea.Rev. accepted, Bleck et al 2015 Mon. Wea. Rev.). Both component models operate on a common icosahedral horizontal grid and use an adaptive hybrid vertical coordinate (sigma-isentropic in FIM and sigma-isopycnic in HYCOM). FIM-HYCOM has been used to conduct 16 years of subseasonal retrospective forecasts following the NOAA Subseasonal (SubX) NMME protocol (32-day forward integrations), run with 4 ensemble members per week. Results from this multi-year FIM-HYCOM hindcast include successful forecasts out to 14-20 days for stratospheric warming events (from archived 10 hPa fields), improved MJO predictability (Green et al. 2017) using the Grell-Freitas (2014, ACP) scale-aware cumulus scheme instead of the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme, and little sensitivity to resolution for blocking frequency. Forecast skill of metrics from FIM-HYCOM including 500 hPa heights and MJO index is at least comparable to that of the operational Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) used by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Subseasonal skill is improved with a limited multi-model (FIM-HYCOM and CFSv2), consistent with previous seasonal multi-model ensemble results. Ongoing work will also be reported on for adding inline aerosol/chemistry treatment to the coupled FIM-HYCOM model and for advanced approaches to subgrid-scale clouds to address regional biases

  7. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  8. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  9. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  10. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  11. Serious fungal infections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Verissímo, C; Brandão, J; Martins, C; Alves, D; Pais, C; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. An estimated 1,510,391 persons develop a skin or nail fungal infection each year. The second most common fungal infection in Portugal is recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, with an estimated 150,700 women (15-50 years of age) suffering from it every year. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, oral or oesophageal candidiasis rates were estimated to be 19.5 and 16.8/100,000, respectively. Candidaemia affects 2.19/100,000 patients, in a total of 231 cases nationally. Invasive aspergillosis is less common than in other countries as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncommon in Portugal, a total of 240 cases annually. The estimated prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after tuberculosis (TB) is 194 cases, whereas its prevalence for all underlying pulmonary conditions was 776 patients. Asthma is common (10% in adults) and we estimate 16,614 and 12,600 people with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, respectively. Sixty-five patients develop Pneumocystis pneumonia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 13 develop cryptococcosis. Overall, we estimate a total number of 1,695,514 fungal infections starting each year in Portugal.

  12. Psychiatry training towards a global future: trainees' perspective in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Guerra, Cátia; Malta, Rui; Moura, Manuela; Carvalho, Serafim; Mendonça, Denisa

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A psiquiatria é influenciada pelas mudanças que ocorrem na sociedade, devendo estar em constante renovação, antevendo futuros comportamentos e doenças. Este estudo pretende descrever a opinião dos internos de psiquiatria em Portugal relativamente ao seu internato e às modificações que nele gostariam de assistir no futuro próximo.Material e Métodos: Um questionário estruturado de 26 perguntas foi desenvolvido pela Associação Portuguesa de Internos de Psiquiatria e enviado por email.Resultados: A percentagem de respostas obtidas foi de 41,5%. A maioria dos internos estava satisfeita com a sua formação. Contudo, algumas mudanças foram sugeridas no que diz respeitos aos estágios obrigatórios e opcionais. A maior parte dos internos requer que as psicoterapias sejam incluídas no âmbito do internato, solicitando também um acesso mais fácil à investigação e a oportunidades de estágio no estrangeiro.Discussão e Conclusão: Esta perspectiva detalhada pode facilitar a transformação dos currículos do internato em Portugal e naEuropa, permitindo a melhoria do internato de psiquiatria, bem como dos cuidados de saúde mental.

  13. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) and Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) for localized measurements - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    This paper summarises up to date development in Focused Impedance Method (FIM) initiated by us. It basically involves taking the sum of two orthogonal tetra-polar impedance measurements around a common central region, giving a localized enhanced sensitivity. Although the basic idea requires 8 electrodes, versions with 6- and 4-electrodes were subsequently conceived and developed. The focusing effect has been verified in 2D and 3D phantoms and through numerical analysis. Dynamic stomach emptying, and ventilation of localized lung regions have been studied successfully suggesting further applications in monitoring of gastric acid secretion, artificial respiration, bladder emptying, etc. Multi-frequency FIM may help identify some diseases and disorders including certain cancers. FIM, being much simpler and having less number of electrodes, appears to have the potential to replace EIT for applications involving large and shallow organs. An enhancement of 6-electrode FIM led to Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI) in a square matrix through backprojection in two orthogonal directions, good for localising of one or two well separated objects.

  14. Uropathogenic virulence factor FimH facilitates binding of uteropathogenic Escherichia coli to canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-09-01

    Pyometra is a potentially life-threatening condition in bitches and is often caused by Escherichia coli infection. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli strains commonly carry the genes for type 1 fimbriae that mediate bacterial adhesion onto host epithelium. To investigate whether the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, FimH, facilitates the binding of uropathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium, the fimH gene was insertionally inactivated in a pathogenic E. coli strain. The ability of E. coli to bind to canine endometrial epithelial cells was determined in vitro using canine uterine biopsies. Binding of the fimH mutant was only 0.3% of that of the wild type. Complementation of the mutation restored the phenotype to that of the parent. This study has developed an in vitro model that allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial binding to canine endometrium and has demonstrated that the fimH gene plays a role in adherence of pathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium.

  15. Genetic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and red complex in coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Mahendra, Little; Felix, John; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and red complex in the coronary plaque of patients with coronary artery disease. The study population consisted of 51 patients with chronic periodontitis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DNA was extracted from subgingival and coronary atherosclerotic plaque samples. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the part of 16S rRNA gene to detect the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), and Treponema denticola were detected in 0%, 31.4%, 45.1%, 39.2%, and 51% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples, respectively. In both subgingival and coronary atherosclerotic plaque samples, Tannerella forsythia was detected in 19.6%, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 39.2%, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA) in 33.3%, and Treponema denticola in 35.3% of the samples. The study confirmed the detection of red complex bacteria in coronary plaque samples. However Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans could not be detected in these samples. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Differentiating organic from conventional peppermints using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were tested for their potential in differentiating organic and conventional peppermint samples. Ten organic and ten conventional peppermint samples were examined using HPLC-UV and FI...

  17. Validity and reliability of the FIM instrument in the inpatient burn rehabilitation population.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Paul; Goldstein, Richard; Divita, Margaret A; Ryan, Colleen M; Mix, Jacqueline; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Kowalske, Karen; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2013-08-01

    To provide evidence of construct validity for the FIM instrument in the inpatient rehabilitation burn population. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to assess construct validity. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on a 2-factor model of the FIM instrument and on a 6-subfactor model. Mokken scale analysis, a nonparametric item response theory, was performed on each of the FIM instrument's 2 major factors, motor and cognitive domains. Internal consistency using Cronbach alpha and Molenaar and Sijtsma's statistic was also examined. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation for patients with an impairment code of burn injury from the years 2002 to 2011 were used for this analysis. A total of 7569 subjects were included in the study. Not applicable. Comparative fit index results for the confirmatory factor analyses and adherence to assumptions of the Mokken scale model. Confirmatory factor analysis provided a comparative fit index of .862 for the 2-factor model and .941 for the 6-subfactor model. Mokken scale analysis showed scalability coefficients of .681 and .891 for the motor and cognitive domains, respectively. Measures of internal consistency statistic gave values of >.95 for each major domain of the FIM instrument. The FIM instrument has evidence of validity and reliability as an outcome measure for patients with burn injuries in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. The 6-subfactor model provides a better fit than the 2-factor model by confirmatory factor analysis. There is evidence that the motor and cognitive domains each form valid unidimensional metrics based on nonparametric item response theory. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Career Satisfaction of Medical Residents in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João; Laíns, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Teixeira, Pedro Pinto; Brandão, Mariana; Cerqueira, Rui João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardes, Carlos; Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Baptista, Bernardo Soares; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Rei, Mariana Cruz; Rosa, Gilberto Pires da; Martins, José Luís; Mendonça Sanches, Maria; Ferreira-Pinto, Manuel J; Rato, Margarida; Costa e Silva, Miguel; Policiano, Catarina; Beato, João; Barbosa-Breda, João; Torres, João Pimentel; Leal, Inês; Rosa, Sílvia Aguiar; Ribeiro, Bárbara Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Rego; Palmela, Carolina; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Morais, Luis; Marques, Tiago Reis

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A satisfação com a profissão médica tem sido apontada como um fator essencial para a qualidade assistencial, o bemestar dos doentes e a estabilidade dos sistemas de saúde. Estudos recentes têm vindo a enfatizar um crescente descontentamento dos médicos, principalmente como consequência das alterações das relações laborais.Objetivos: Avaliar a perceção dos médicos de formação específica em Portugal, sobre as expectativas e grau de satisfação com a profissão, especialidade e local de formação; razões da insatisfação e intenção de emigrar.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal. A colheita de dados foi efetuada entre Maio e Agosto de 2014 através de um Inquérito online sobre a âÄúSatisfação com a EspecialidadeâÄù.Resultados: De uma população total de 5788 médicos, foram obtidas 804 respostas (12,25% do total de médicos internos). Desta amostra, 77% das respostas correspondem a internos dos três primeiros anos de formação. Verificou-se que 90% dos médicos se encontram satisfeitos com a especialidade, tendo-se encontrado também níveis elevados de satisfação com a profissão (85%) e local de formação (86%). Por outro lado, constatou-se que estes diminuíam com a progressão ao longo dos anos de internato. A avaliação global sobre o panorama da prática médica foi negativa e 65% dos médicos responderam que consideram emigrar após conclusão do internato.Conclusão: Os médicos internos em Portugal apresentam níveis positivos de satisfação com a sua profissão. No entanto, a sua opinião sobre o panorama da Medicina e os resultados relativos à intenção de emigrar alertam para a necessidade de tomada de medidas para inverter este cenário.

  19. The profile of Porphyromonas gingivalis kgp biotype and fimA genotype mosaic in subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Chapple, Cheryl C; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Hunter, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Combined analysis of allelic variation of the virulence-associated, strain-specific lys-gingipain gene (kgp) and major fimbrial gene (fimA) of Porphyromonas gingivalis was undertaken in 116 subgingival plaque samples to understand the kgp biotype and fimA genotype profile in a subject-specific manner. Allelic variation in the polyadhesin domain of kgp from P. gingivalis strains 381 (ATCC 33277), HG66 and W83 generated four isoforms corresponding to four biotypes of P. gingivalis. Similarly, variation in the fimA subunit of the fimA gene cluster of P. gingivalis resulted in six fimA genotypes. Strain-specific differential PCR was performed for kgp and fimA using DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples. Our findings demonstrate that all of the P. gingivalis kgp biotypes detected in this study were predominantly associated with the fimA II genotype. Dominance of kgp biotypes 381 or HG66 combined with fimA II fimbriae could imply an adaptive strategy by P. gingivalis to generate the fittest strains for survival in the host environment.

  20. [Pharmacy Medicines Not Subject to Medical Prescription in Portugal: An Underused Access Opportunity?

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Elizabete; Marcelo, Ana; Vilão, Sergio; Aranda Silva, José

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: Em 2013 foi introduzida em Portugal a classificação quanto à dispensa de medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica de dispensa exclusiva em farmácia, uma subclassificação dos medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica. A existência desta classificação de medicamentos promove a acessibilidade aos medicamentos, garantindo a eficácia e a segurança na sua utilização, com benefícios para a saúde pública. O presente artigo analisa os medicamentos classificados como medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica de dispensa exclusiva em farmácia ou com classificação equivalente em sete países europeus, Reino Unido, Dinamarca, Suécia, Noruega, Itália, República Checa e Portugal, e propõe uma lista preliminar das denominações comuns internacionais/ medicamentos que reúnem características que justificariam a sua classificação, em Portugal, como medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica de dispensa exclusiva em farmácia. Material e Métodos: Para a seleção efetuada, foram analisadas, no universo dos medicamentos autorizados nos países em estudo denominações comuns internacionais/ apresentações que, em pelo menos num dos países considerados, se encontram classificadascomo medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica de dispensa exclusiva em farmácia ou categoria equivalente, e/ou têm a classificação de medicamentos sujeitos a receita médica em Portugal e medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica em algum dos países considerados.Resultados: A lista preliminar obtida continha 271 denominações comuns internacionais /apresentações diferentes. Cerca de 19% das denominações comuns internacionais selecionadas não possuíam uma autorização de introdução no mercado válida em Portugal e a maioria (42%) encontra-se classificada em Portugal como medicamentos não sujeitos a receita médica, uma percentagem menor (35%) como medicamentos sujeitos a receita médica, e apenas 4% como medicamentos n

  1. Prevalence of Late Preterm and Early Term Birth in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana G; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, vários autores evidenciaram a morbilidade associada aos partos ocorridos entre as 34 e 36 semanas (pré-termo tardio) e entre as 37 e 38 semanas de gestação (termo precoce). Neste sentido, pretendemos realizar um estudo epide-miológico dos partos que ocorrem nestas idades gestacionais, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um inquérito, que foi aplicado a todos os hospitais públicos de Portugal, acerca da prevalência e via de parto nos partos pré-termo tardios e de termo precoce, e morbilidade e mortalidade neonatal associada. As questões referiam-se apenas a gestações de feto único e a partos ocorridos em 2013. Resultados: Incluímos 14 hospitais, correspondendo a 33,5% dos partos ocorridos em Portugal, em 2013. Verificámos que 5,4% dos partos ocorreram no período pré-termo tardio e 27% no termo precoce. Aproximadamente dois terços dos partos pré-termo tardio e três quartos dos partos de termo precoce foram espontâneos. A taxa de cesariana foi mais elevada entre as 34 e 36 semanas de gestação (39,1%) do que entre as 37 e 38 semanas (26,4%). As complicações neonatais foram mais frequentes após um parto pré-termo tardio (34,2%), quando comparadas com os de termo precoce (14,2%). Discussão: Na nossa amostra, a prevalência de parto pré-termo tardio e de termo precoce, ainda que ligeiramente inferior, é comparável à publicada em estudos anteriores. Conclusão: Á importante que a comunidade obstétrica nacional adote atitudes no sentido de limitar os partos antes das 39 semanas de gestação. Assim, nestas idades gestacionais os partos devem possuir uma indicação médica válida.

  2. Evolutionary fine-tuning of conformational ensembles in FimH during host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kalas, Vasilios; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Hibbing, Michael E.; Dodson, Karen W.; Holehouse, Alex S.; Zhang, Hao; Tolia, Niraj H.; Gross, Michael L.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Janetka, James; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Positive selection in the two-domain type 1 pilus adhesin FimH enhances Escherichia coli fitness in urinary tract infection (UTI). We report a comprehensive atomic-level view of FimH in two-state conformational ensembles in solution, composed of one low-affinity tense (T) and multiple high-affinity relaxed (R) conformations. Positively selected residues allosterically modulate the equilibrium between these two conformational states, each of which engages mannose through distinct binding orientations. A FimH variant that only adopts the R state is severely attenuated early in a mouse model of uncomplicated UTI but is proficient at colonizing catheterized bladders in vivo or bladder transitional-like epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, the bladder habitat has barrier(s) to R state–mediated colonization possibly conferred by the terminally differentiated bladder epithelium and/or decoy receptors in urine. Together, our studies reveal the conformational landscape in solution, binding mechanisms, and adhesive strength of an allosteric two-domain adhesin that evolved “moderate” affinity to optimize persistence in the bladder during UTI. PMID:28246638

  3. FIM FRAME: a method for assessing and improving emergency plans for floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbroso, D. M.; Di Mauro, M.; Tagg, A. F.; Vinet, F.; Stone, K.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past decade Europe has been hit by a number of severe flood events. Reviews of recent large flood events in England and France have indicated that there is room for improvement in the emergency planning for floods. Methods that can be used for the systematic assessment and improvement of emergency plans are extensively documented in readily available literature. However, those that do exist are often limited to appraising the content of the plans rather than the process that the plan should guide. This paper describes research to develop a systematic method for assessing and improving emergency plans, which is called the FIM FRAME method. The development of the method was informed by research carried out with stakeholders in France, the Netherlands and England, as well as an appraisal of available tools that can be used to develop and improve plans, and an analysis of a selection of flood emergency plans from the three countries. One of the fundamental requirements of the FIM FRAME method was that it should be able to be applied by the relevant stakeholders to a range of emergency plans that mainly focus on flooding. The method comprises a series of steps (known as Appraise, Tackle and Implement) that can assist stakeholders with assessing and improving emergency plans. The method was piloted in the three countries and then refined following feedback from end users. This paper describes the development of the FIM FRAME method and its application in three case studies affected by different types of floods.

  4. Prevalence of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis and other periodontal bacteria in a Spanish population with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Silla, Miriam; Dasí-Fernánde, Francisco; Montiel-Company, José-María

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the different fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult Spanish patients with chronic periodontitis, patients with gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects, and the relationship between these genotypes and other periodontopathogenic bacteria. Study design: Samples of subgingival plaque were taken from 86 patients (33 with chronic periodontitis, 16 with gingivitis, and 37 periodontally healthy) in the course of a full periodontal examination. PCR was employed to determine the presence of the 6 fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis (I-V and Ib) and of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib were present in significantly higher percentages in periodontal patients (39.4% and 12.1% respectively) than in healthy or gingivitis subjects. The prevalence of Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV was significantly higher in the group that presented bleeding greater than 30%. A positive correlation was found between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotype IV and Treponema denticola. Conclusions: A strong association between Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes II and Ib and chronic periodontitis exists in the Spanish population. The most prevalent genotype in periodontal patients is II. Key words:Periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA genotype, periodontal bacteria, polymerase chain reaction. PMID:22549664

  5. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 18, including spm, Grl-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Mbp.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Miyawaki, S; Shimizu, A; Ohno, K; Watanabe, T

    1991-02-01

    Restriction endonuclease fragment length variations (RFLV) were detected in mice with DNA probes for myelin basic protein (Mbp), glucocorticoid receptor-1 (Grl-1), and Friend MuLV integration site-2 (Fim-2). RFLV of the Mbp gene were found in SacI restriction patterns, RFLV of the Grl-1 gene were found in EcoRV patterns, and RFLV of the Fim-2 were found in BglII patterns. A three-point backcross was carried out by the backcross mating (C57BL/KsJ-spm/spm x MOL-MIT)F1 males x C57BL/KsJ-spm/spm; spm is an autosomal recessive gene causing sphingomyelinosis. From the results, spm, Grl-1, Fim-2, and Mbp loci were mapped on chromosome 18, and the following order of genes is proposed, with distances between genes in parentheses: centromere--spm--(7.8 cM)--Grl-1--(7.8 cM)--Fim-2--(39.1 cM)--Mbp--telomere. All laboratory strains and two European subspecies (Mus mus domesticus and M. m. brevirostris) carry the Grl-1a, Fim-2a, and Mbpa alleles. In contrast, another wild subspecies from Europe (M. m. musculus) and some Asian subspecies (M. m. molossinus, Chinese mice of wild origin, and M. m. yamashinai) carry the Grl-1b, Fim-2b, and Mbpb alleles. Only castaneus strains carry the intermediate combination of the Grl-1b, Fim-2a, and Mbpb alleles.

  6. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  7. Quantitative differences in adhesiveness of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli due to structural differences in fimH genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sokurenko, E V; Courtney, H S; Maslow, J; Siitonen, A; Hasty, D L

    1995-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are heteropolymeric surface organelles responsible for the D-mannose-sensitive (MS) adhesion of Escherichia coli. We recently reported that variation of receptor specificity of type 1 fimbriae can result solely from minor alterations in the structure of the gene for the FimH adhesin subunit. To further study the relationship between allelic variation of the fimH gene and adhesive properties of type 1 fimbriae, the fimH genes from five additional strains were cloned and used to complement the FimH deletion in E. coli KB18. When the parental and recombinant strains were tested for adhesion to immobilized mannan, a wide quantitative range in the ability of bacteria to adhere was noted. The differences in adhesion do not appear to be due to differences in the levels of fimbriation or relative levels of incorporation of FimH, because these parameters were similar in low-adhesion and high-adhesion strains. The nucleotide sequence for each of the fimH genes was determined. Analysis of deduced FimH sequences allowed identification of two sequence homology groups, based on the presence of Asn-70 and Ser-78 or Ser-70 and Asn-78 residues. The consensus sequences for each group conferred very low adhesion activity, and this low-adhesion phenotype predominated among a group of 43 fecal isolates. Strains isolated from a different host niche, the urinary tract, expressed type 1 fimbriae that conferred an increased level of adhesion. The results presented here strongly suggest that the quantitative variations in MS adhesion are due primarily to structural differences in the FimH adhesin. The observed differences in MS adhesion among populations of E. coli isolated from different host niches call attention to the possibility that phenotypic variants of FimH may play a functional role in populations dynamics. PMID:7601831

  8. Student Mobility in Portugal: Grappling with Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Neave, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The article examines how far the key Bologna objective of student mobility has been achieved in Portuguese higher education institutions and the main factors shaping it. It analyzes credit mobility, outgoing and incoming, between Portugal and Europe. Although mobility overall has risen, incoming mobility has grown faster, making Portugal an…

  9. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  10. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  11. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  12. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  13. Comparing the WeeFIM and PEDI in neurorehabilitation for children with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katie S; Young, David K; Burke, G A Amos; Fountain, Daniel M

    2017-10-01

    We sought to compare the suitability of the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) as outcome measures in rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI). We performed a systematic review of the evidence base using five databases. PRISMA guidelines were adhered to and the review was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration number CRD42015025370). Twenty-six retrospective studies were included. Twelve studies utilized the PEDI, thirteen studies the WeeFIM, and one study included both. Statistically significant responsiveness was demonstrated for both the WeeFIM and PEDI, although significant ceiling effects were detected. Evidence of clinically significant responsiveness was limited to one center utilizing the PEDI. Although requiring licensing to use, the WeeFIM is more suitable for the inpatient setting, is quicker to administer and showed minimal ceiling effects compared to the PEDI counterpart.

  14. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis in Portugal: A Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Correia, Ana Sofia; Augusto, Luís; Meireles, Joana; Pinto, Joana; Sousa, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Introdução: A esclerose múltipla é habitualmente diagnosticada em adultos jovens mas, mais raramente, pode manifestar-se durante a infância ou adolescência. Os dados sobre a esclerose múltipla pediátrica em Portugal são escassos. O objectivo principal deste estudo é a avaliação das características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriais e neurorradiológicas da esclerose múltipla de início em idade pediátrica em Portugal. Os objetivos secundários consistem na comparação entre a esclerose múltipla de início na infância e a esclerose múltipla de início na adolescência e na caracterização dos tratamentos prescritos. Material e Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, observacional e multicêntrico, que consistiu na análise dos dados de todos os doentes com apresentação da EM antes dos 18 anos. Resultados: Incluíram-se 46 doentes (72% do sexo feminino), com uma idade média de diagnóstico de 16,1 anos. Seis casos tiveram início na infância, 40 na adolescência. A esclerose múltipla apresentou-se em 98% dos casos com a forma surto-remissão. O estudo do líquor revelou bandas oligoclonais em 74% dos doentes. A ressonância magnética encefálica mostrou predominantemente lesões supratentoriais (98% dos casos), enquanto que a ressonância medular revelou que o segmento cervical foi o mais frequentemente afectado. Todos os doentes iniciaram terapêutica imunomoduladora (75% com interferão β). Relativamente às diferenças entre os dois grupos etários, encontrámos uma maior proporção de doentes do sexo masculino e com pleocitose no grupo com apresentação na infância. Discussão: Este trabalho fornece novos dados sobre as características da esclerose múltipla pediátrica em Portugal e os resultados são semelhantes aos reportados em outras partes do mundo. Conclusão: Este é o primeiro estudo multicêntrico português sobre a esclerose múltipla com apresentação na infância e adolescência. Mais estudos são necess

  15. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  16. Hierarchical linear modeling of FIM instrument growth curve characteristics after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Warschausky, S; Kay, J B; Kewman, D G

    2001-03-01

    To examine the recovery of aspects of functional independence as a continuous process using growth curve analysis. Retrospective database review of functional outcome assessment data from inception cohort. Inpatient rehabilitation unit; community. A total of 142 subjects (79.6% men; age range, 18-77yr; mean age +/- standard deviation, 36.2 +/- 15.5yr) who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit between March 1986 and November 1994 with a minimum of 4 postinjury FIM assessments. Neurologic subgroups included 63 individuals with paraplegia, 36 with low tetraplegia, 24 with high tetraplegia, and 19 with incomplete injury. FIM instrument. Growth curve analyses with hierarchical linear modeling using a decelerating recovery function yielded a reliable model in which longer rehabilitation length of stay was associated with a more rapid rate of recovery but lower plateau. Neurologic injury category had expected effects on rate and degree of recovery. Level of impairment-specific results included an age effect in which older age was associated with lower level of plateau. In specific neurologic groups there was a significant gender effect, in which men made more rapid recovery than women, and a significant effect of level of education, in which higher education was associated with more rapid rate of recovery. Rate of FIM recovery was reliably modeled in the sample with incomplete injuries, but none of the demographic predictors was significant. Functional recovery can be modeled as a decelerating rather than simple linear function. The study of predictors of recovery characteristics, including rate of recovery and plateau, offers a valuable way of understanding rehabilitative needs and outcomes. Gender and education effects on the recovery process are intriguing and warrant further investigation.

  17. [Cloning of the fimA gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its expression and purification in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yu, Fei; Chen, Wei-Min; He, Wei

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE; To clone the fimA gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and detect its expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The fimA gene was obtained by PCR from the genome of P. gingivalis to construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid pT-BAD/fimA. pT-BAD/fimA was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells and the recombination protein was characterized by means of matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. The bound protein was eluted with different concentrations of imidazole (250, 200, 150, 100, 50 micromol x L(-1)) respectively. DNA sequencing showed that the fragment was 99.9% consistent with that of the published. After induction with L-arabinose, a new 3.8 x 10(4) protein appeared on SDS-PAGE gel. The protein was further identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Purity of 95% of the target protein was purified by Ni-NTA Purification System after eluted with 100 micromol x L(-1) imidazole. The fimA gene of P. gingivalis was cloned successfully and its protein was expressed correctly in E. coli. A high purity of protein FimA was obtained and it could be applied for follow-up researches.

  18. Are D-manno-configured Amadori products ligands of the bacterial lectin FimH?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Amadori rearrangement was employed for the synthesis of C-glycosyl-type D-mannoside analogues, namely 1-propargylamino- and 1-phenylamino-1-deoxy-α-D-manno-heptopyranose. They were investigated as ligands of type 1-fimbriated E. coli bacteria by means of molecular docking and bacterial adhesion studies. It turns out that Amadori rearrangement products have a limited activity as inhibitors of bacterial adhesion because the β-C-glycosidically linked aglycone considerably hampers complexation within the carbohydrate binding site of the type 1-fimbrial lectin FimH. PMID:26199665

  19. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  20. Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection with Orally Active FimH Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Corinne K.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Han, Zhenfu; Greene, Sarah E.; Ford, Bradley A.; Crowley, Jan R.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Janetka, James W.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent urinary tract infections pose a serious medical problem because there are few effective treatment options. Patients with chronic urinary tract infections are commonly treated with long-term prophylactic antibiotics that promote the development of antibiotic-resistant forms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), further complicating treatment. We developed small–molecular weight compounds termed mannosides that specifically inhibit the FimH type 1 pilus lectin of UPEC, which mediates bacterial colonization, invasion, and formation of recalcitrant intracellular bacterial communities in the bladder epithelium. Here, we optimized these compounds for oral bioavailability and demonstrated their fast-acting efficacy in treating chronic urinary tract infections in a preclinical murine model. These compounds also prevented infection in vivo when given prophylactically and strongly potentiated the activity of the current standard of care therapy, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, against clinically resistant PBC-1 UPEC bacteria. These compounds have therapeutic efficacy after oral administration for the treatment of established urinary tract infections in vivo. Their unique mechanism of action—targeting the pilus tip adhesin FimH—circumvents the conventional requirement for drug penetration of the outer membrane, minimizing the potential for the development of resistance. The small–molecular weight compounds described herein promise to provide substantial benefit to women suffering from chronic and recurrent urinary tract infections. PMID:22089451

  1. Abdominal fat thickness measurement using Focused Impedance Method (FIM) - phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haowlader, Salahuddin; Baig, Tanveer Noor; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Abdominal fat thickness is a risk indicator of heart diseases, diabetes, etc., and its measurement is therefore important from the point of view of preventive care. Tetrapolar electrical impedance measurements (TPIM) could offer a simple and low cost alternative for such measurement compared to conventional techniques using CT scan and MRI, and has been tried by different groups. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) appears attractive as it can give localised information. An intuitive physical model was developed and experimental work was performed on a phantom designed to simulate abdominal subcutaneous fat layer in a body. TPIM measurements were performed with varying electrode separations. For small separations of current and potential electrodes, the measured impedance changed little, but started to decrease sharply beyond a certain separation, eventually diminishing gradually to negligible values. The finding could be explained using the intuitive physical model and gives an important practical information. TPIM and FIM may be useful for measurement of SFL thickness only if the electrode separations are within a certain specific range, and will fail to give reliable results if beyond this range. Further work, both analytical and experimental, are needed to establish this technique on a sound footing.

  2. FIM Imaging and FIMtrack: Two New Tools Allowing High-throughput and Cost Effective Locomotion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berh, Dimitri; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of neuronal network function requires a reliable measurement of behavioral traits. Since the behavior of freely moving animals is variable to a certain degree, many animals have to be analyzed, to obtain statistically significant data. This in turn requires a computer assisted automated quantification of locomotion patterns. To obtain high contrast images of almost translucent and small moving objects, a novel imaging technique based on frustrated total internal reflection called FIM was developed. In this setup, animals are only illuminated with infrared light at the very specific position of contact with the underlying crawling surface. This methodology results in very high contrast images. Subsequently, these high contrast images are processed using established contour tracking algorithms. Based on this, we developed the FIMTrack software, which serves to extract a number of features needed to quantitatively describe a large variety of locomotion characteristics. During the development of this software package, we focused our efforts on an open source architecture allowing the easy addition of further modules. The program operates platform independent and is accompanied by an intuitive GUI guiding the user through data analysis. All locomotion parameter values are given in form of csv files allowing further data analyses. In addition, a Results Viewer integrated into the tracking software provides the opportunity to interactively review and adjust the output, as might be needed during stimulus integration. The power of FIM and FIMTrack is demonstrated by studying the locomotion of Drosophila larvae. PMID:25591081

  3. Using Rasch motor FIM individual growth curves to inform clinical decisions for persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Pretz, C R; Kozlowski, A J; Charlifue, S; Chen, Y; Heinemann, A W

    2014-09-01

    A longitudinal retrospective study. To better understand individual-level temporal change in functional status for participants with paraplegia in the National Spinal Cord Injury Database (NSCID), as measured by Rasch Transformed Motor Functional Indepedence Measure (FIM) scores. Multicenter/Multistate longitudinal study across the United States. Non-linear random effects modeling, that is, individual growth curve analysis of retrospective data obtained from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) NSCID. We generated non-linear individual level trajectories of recovery for Rasch Transformed Motor FIM scores that rise rapidly from inpatient rehabilitation admission to a plateau. Trajectories are based on relationships between growth parameters and patient and injury factors: race, gender, level of education at admission, age at injury, neurological level at discharge, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) at discharge, days from injury to first system inpatient rehabilitation admission, rehabilitation length of stay, marital status and etiology. On the basis of study results, an interactive tool was developed to represent individual level longitudinal outcomes as trajectories based upon an individual's given baseline characteristics, that is, information supplied by the covariates and provides a robust description of temporal change for those with paraplegia within the NSCID. This methodology allows researchers and clinicians to generate and better understand patient-specific trajectories through the use of an automated interactive tool where a nearly countless number of longitudinal paths of recovery can be explored. Projected trajectories holds promise in facilitating planning for inpatient and outpatient services, which could positively impact long term outcomes.

  4. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  5. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  6. ADL structure for nondisabled Japanese children based on the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM).

    PubMed

    Tsuji, T; Liu, M; Toikawa, H; Hanayama, K; Sonoda, S; Chino, N

    1999-01-01

    The Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) instrument was developed, based on the FIM instrument, to assess disability in children aged 6 mo to 7 yr. Normative data are reported for American and Japanese children, and it is increasingly used for the disabled. Our purpose was to confirm scale quality and to determine the difficulty pattern of the WeeFIM in Japan. The WeeFIM was measured in 225 children (113 girls and 112 boys) aged 6 mo to 7 yr without developmental delays. The scores were converted to an interval scale by Rasch analysis, which assumes unidimensionality of the measurement items, determines the degree of the fit to the assumption, and decides item difficulty. When the WeeFIM items were divided into two groups of motor and cognitive items to minimize misfit, the degree of misfit was acceptable, except for eating, bladder management, tub/shower transfer, and comprehension. For the motor items, grooming, bathing, and bladder control were more difficult, and stairs, bed/chair transfer, and walk or wheelchair were easier. Concerning the cognitive items, expression and comprehension were easier, and problem-solving was most difficult. When we compared item difficulty patterns in the four age groups (6-21 mo, 22-45 mo, 46-62 mo, and 63-100 mo), we found no differences, except in toilet transfer. It was more difficult for younger children, possibly because of its different pattern of chronological change, which shows rapid changes from dependent to independent levels over a short period of time. Our study confirmed the scale quality of the WeeFIM instrument with Rasch analysis and demonstrated the difficulty pattern of the WeeFIM in nondisabled Japanese children.

  7. Phytoplankton off the Coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A large phytoplankton bloom off of the coast of Portugal can be seen in this true-color image taken on April 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The bloom is roughly half the size of Portugal and forms a bluish-green cloud in the water. The red spots in northwest Spain denote what are likely small agricultural fires. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. A low-pH medium in vitro or the environment within a macrophage decreases the transcriptional levels of fimA, fimZ and lrp in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Chuan; Hsu, Yuan-Hsun; Huang, Yi-Ning; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Lin, Jiunn-Horng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    Many Salmonella Typhimurium isolates produce type 1 fimbriae and exhibit fimbrial phase variation in vitro. Static broth culture favours the production of fimbriae, while solid agar medium inhibits the generation of these appendages. Little information is available regarding whether S. Typhimurium continues to produce type 1 fimbriae during in vivo growth. We used a type 1 fimbrial phase-variable strain S. Typhimurium LB5010 and its derivatives to infect RAW 264.7 macrophages. Following entry into macrophages, S. Typhimurium LB5010 gradually decreased the transcript levels of fimbrial subunit gene fimA, positive regulatory gene fimZ, and global regulatory gene lrp. A similar decrease in transcript levels was detected by RT-PCRwhen the pH of static brothmediumwas shifted frompH 7 to amore acidic pH 4. A fimA-deleted strain continued to multiply within macrophages as did the parental strain. An lrp deletion strain was unimpaired for in vitro growth at pH 7 or pH 4, while a strain harboring an lrp-containing plasmid exhibited impaired in vitro growth at pH 4. We propose that acidic medium, which resembles one aspect of the intracellular environment in a macrophage, inhibits type 1 fimbrial production by down-regulation of the expression of lrp, fimZ and fimA.

  9. Short communication: Distribution of Porphyromonas gulae fimA genotypes in oral specimens from dogs with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Nomura, Ryota; Kato, Yukio; Murakami, Masaru; Kondo, Chihiro; Takahashi, Soraaki; Yamasaki, Yoshie; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Arai, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Hidemi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2015-10-01

    Porphyromonas gulae, a suspected pathogen for periodontal disease in dogs, possesses approximately 41-kDa fimbriae (FimA) that are encoded by the fimA gene. In the present study, the association of fimA genotypes with mitral regurgitation (MR) was investigated. Twenty-five dogs diagnosed with MR (age range 6-13 years old, average 10.8 years) and 32 healthy dogs (8-15 years old, average 10.8 years) were selected at the participating clinics in a consecutive manner during the same time period. Oral swab specimens were collected from the dogs and bacterial DNA was extracted, then polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed using primers specific for each fimA genotype, with the dominant genotype determined. The rate for genotype C dominant specimens was 48.0% in the MR group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (18.8%) (P <0.05). These results suggest that P. gulae fimA genotype C is associated with MR.

  10. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  11. Simple and rapid detection of Salmonella by direct PCR amplification of gene fimW.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-ying; Dong, Li-wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Xiao-zhou; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Wen; Zhu, Chun-hong; Meng, Xia; Zhu, Guo-qiang

    2014-10-01

    This study established a simple method of specifically detecting Salmonella species by amplifying fimW gene, which was involved in regulating Salmonella type I fimbriae expression. A pair of primers was designed to target and discriminate the 68 Salmonella strains of 23 Salmonella serovars available to us from 12 non-Salmonella strains of five different kinds of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results showed that specific DNA fragment with an expected size of 477 bp was successfully amplified from all Salmonella serovars, while no target band was detected in non-Salmonella species. The sensitivity of this PCR-amplifying system reached to 1 pg DNA chromosome and 10(2) cfu of Salmonella enteritis strain CMCC(B) 50336. The above results demonstrated the method as a simple, sensitive, and specific way for Salmonella detection.

  12. Initial stages of oxide formation on the Zr surface at low oxygen pressure: An in situ FIM and XPS study

    PubMed Central

    Bespalov, I.; Datler, M.; Buhr, S.; Drachsel, W.; Rupprechter, G.; Suchorski, Y.

    2015-01-01

    An improved methodology of the Zr specimen preparation was developed which allows fabrication of stable Zr nanotips suitable for FIM and AP applications. Initial oxidation of the Zr surface was studied on a Zr nanotip by FIM and on a polycrystalline Zr foil by XPS, both at low oxygen pressure (10−8–10−7 mbar). The XPS data reveal that in a first, fast stage of oxidation, a Zr suboxide interlayer is formed which contains three suboxide components (Zr+1, Zr+2 and Zr+3) and is located between the Zr surface and a stoichiometric ZrO2 overlayer that grows in a second, slow oxidation stage. The sole suboxide layer has been observed for the first time at very early states of the oxidation (oxygen exposure ≤4 L). The Ne+ FIM observations are in accord with a two stage process of Zr oxide formation. PMID:25766998

  13. Bordetella pertussis fim3 gene regulation by BvgA: phosphorylation controls the formation of inactive vs. active transcription complexes.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Alice; Moon, Kyung; Decker, Kimberly B; Chen, Qing; Knipling, Leslie; Stibitz, Scott; Hinton, Deborah M

    2015-02-10

    Two-component systems [sensor kinase/response regulator (RR)] are major tools used by microorganisms to adapt to environmental conditions. RR phosphorylation is typically required for gene activation, but few studies have addressed how and if phosphorylation affects specific steps during transcription initiation. We characterized transcription complexes made with RNA polymerase and the Bordetella pertussis RR, BvgA, in its nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated (BvgA∼P) state at P(fim3), the promoter for the virulence gene fim3 (fimbrial subunit), using gel retardation, potassium permanganate and DNase I footprinting, cleavage reactions with protein conjugated with iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA, and in vitro transcription. Previous work has shown that the level of nonphosphorylated BvgA remains high in vivo under conditions in which BvgA is phosphorylated. Our results here indicate that surprisingly both BvgA and BvgA∼P form open and initiating complexes with RNA polymerase at P(fim3). However, phosphorylation of BvgA is needed to generate the correct conformation that can transition to competent elongation. Footprints obtained with the complexes made with nonphosphorylated BvgA are atypical; while the initiating complex with BvgA synthesizes short RNA, it does not generate full-length transcripts. Extended incubation of the BvgA/RNA polymerase initiated complex in the presence of heparin generates a stable, but defective species that depends on the initial transcribed sequence of fim3. We suggest that the presence of nonphosphorylated BvgA down-regulates P(fim3) activity when phosphorylated BvgA is present and may allow the bacterium to quickly adapt to the loss of inducing conditions by rapidly eliminating P(fim3) activation once the signal for BvgA phosphorylation is removed.

  14. A comparison of FUV dayglows measured by STSAT-1/FIMS with the AURIC model in a geomagnetic quiet condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Hosik; Kim, Yong Ha; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Joon-Chan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyung Wook

    2014-09-01

    The Korea scientific microsatellite, STSAT-1 (Science and Technology Satellite-1), was launched in 2003 and observed far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow from the upper atmosphere with a Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) at an altitude of 690 km. The FIMS consists of a dual-band imaging spectrograph of 900-1150 Å (S-band) and 1340-1715 Å (L-band). Limb scanning observations were performed only at the S-band, resulting in intensity profiles of OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emission lines near the horizon. We compare these emission intensities with those computed by using a theoretical model, the AURIC (Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code). The intensities of the OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emissions measured by using the FIMS are overall consistent with the values computed by using AURIC under the thermospheric and solar activity conditions on August 6, 1984, which is close to the FIMS's observation condition. We find that the FIMS dayglow intensity profiles match reasonably well with AURIC intensity profiles for the MSIS90 oxygen atom density profiles within factors of 0.5 and 2. However, the FIMS intensities of the OI 989 Å line are about 2 ˜ 4 times stronger than the AURIC intensities, which is expected because AURIC does not properly simulate resonance scattering of airglow and solar photons at 989 Å by atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. We also find that the maximum tangential altitudes of the oxygen bearing dayglows (OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å) are higher than those of the nitrogen-bearing dayglows (NII 1085 Å, NI 1134 Å), which is confirmed by using AURIC model calculations. This is expected because the oxygen atoms are distributed at higher altitudes in the thermosphere than the nitrogen molecules. Validations of the qualities of both the FIMS instrument and the AURIC model indicate that AURIC should be updated with improved thermospheric models and with measured solar FUV spectra for better agreement with the

  15. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  16. Silica-gold nanoparticles for atheroprotective management of plaques: results of the NANOM-FIM trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, Alexander N.; Tyurnina, Anastasiya E.; Veselova, Vera S.; Kovtun, Olga P.; Shur, Vladimir Y.; Gabinsky, Jan L.

    2015-04-01

    Background: Atheroregression becomes an attractive target for cardiovascular treatment. Some clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive therapy with rosuvastatin or recombinant ApoA-I Milano can partially reduce the total atheroma volume (TAV) up to 6.38 mm3 or 14.1 mm3 respectively. Our previous bench studies of selected nanotechnologies documented TAV reduction up to an unprecedented 79.4 mm3. Methods: The completed observational three arms (n = 180) first-in-man trial (the NANOM FIM trial) assessed (NCT01270139) the safety and feasibility of two delivery techniques for nanoparticles (NP), and plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT). Patients were assigned to receive either (1) nano-intervention with delivery of silica-gold NP in a bioengineered on-artery patch (n = 60), or (2) nano-intervention with delivery of silica-gold iron-bearing NP with targeted micro-bubbles and stem cells using a magnetic navigation system (n = 60) versus (3) stent implantation (n = 60). The primary outcome was TAV at 12 months. Results: The mean TAV reduction at 12 months in the Nano group was 60.3 mm3 (SD 39.5; min 41.9 mm3, max 94.2 mm3; p < 0.05) up to mean 37.8% (95% CI: 31.1%, 51.7%; p < 0.05) plaque burden. The analysis of the event free survival of the ongoing clinical follow-up shows the significantly lower risk of cardiovascular death in the Nano group when compared with others (91.7% vs. 81.7% and 80% respectively; p < 0.05) with no cases of the target lesion-related complications. Conclusions: PPTT using silica-gold NP associated with significant regression of coronary atherosclerosis.Background: Atheroregression becomes an attractive target for cardiovascular treatment. Some clinical trials have demonstrated that intensive therapy with rosuvastatin or recombinant ApoA-I Milano can partially reduce the total atheroma volume (TAV) up to 6.38 mm3 or 14.1 mm3 respectively. Our previous bench studies of selected nanotechnologies documented TAV reduction up to an

  17. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mário J; Valente, João; Capela, Tiago; Russo, Pedro; Calinas, Filipe

    2017-03-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal is insufficiently characterized. We aimed to review the epidemiology of hepatitis B in Portugal since 1980. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, Scielo, Web of Science, and the Portuguese Scientific Repository for studies containing 'Hepatitis B' and 'Portugal' published from 1980 to June 2016. The initial search was complemented by abstract books from national gastroenterology and hepatology meetings and reports from the Service for Intervention on Addictive Behaviours and Dependences, the Portuguese Blood Institute, and Directorate-General of Health. Further studies were identified in references of retrieved papers and https://www.google.pt. Ninety references were included. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence was up to 2% in the general population and decreased in the last decades: 1.13-2.0% in studies carried out in 1980-1989 and 0.02-1.45% in studies carried out in 1990-2014. Among pregnant women, HBsAg prevalence was 1.35% in those on primary care, but 6.2% among risk parturients. Among drug abusers, HBsAg prevalence decreased from 10-19.6% in the decades of 1980-1990 to 4.8% in 2014. Higher HBsAg prevalence rates were observed among populations of African or Asian origin. Individuals with hepatitis B were mostly men, mean age 36.9-49 years. The most frequent viral genotype was D. Genotype E is more prevalent in patient cohorts from Central-Southern Portugal (10-62%) than those from Northern Portugal (1-4.1%). The proportion of inactive carriers varied from 24.2 to 73%. The prevalence of cirrhosis varied from 5.8 to 23.7%. Portugal is a low-endemicity country for hepatitis B. Nevertheless, prevalence is high among specific subgroups that may benefit from specifically designed healthcare programs.

  18. Lead Optimization Studies on FimH Antagonists: Discovery of Potent and Orally Bioavailable Ortho-substituted Biphenyl Mannosides

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenfu; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Ford, Bradley; Chorell, Erik; Crowley, Jan M.; Cusumano, Corinne K.; Campbell, Scott; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Janetka, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe the X-ray structure-based design and optimization of biaryl mannoside FimH inhibitors. Diverse modifications to the biaryl ring to improve drug-like physical and pharmacokinetic properties of mannosides were assessed for FimH binding affinity based on their effects on hemagglutination and biofilm formation along with direct FimH binding assays. Substitution on the mannoside phenyl ring ortho to the glycosidic bond results in large potency enhancements of several-fold higher than corresponding unsubstituted matched pairs and can be rationalized from increased hydrophobic interactions with the FimH hydrophobic ridge (Ile13) or “tyrosine gate” (Tyr137 and Tyr48) also lined by Ile52. The lead mannosides have increased metabolic stability and oral bioavailability as determined from in vitro PAMPA predictive model of cellular permeability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice, thereby representing advanced preclinical candidates with promising potential as novel therapeutics for the clinical treatment and prevention of recurring urinary tract infections. PMID:22449031

  19. Point Mutations in FimH Adhesin of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Enhance Intestinal Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Dreux, Nicolas; Denizot, Jérémy; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Mellmann, Alexander; Billig, Maria; Kisiela, Dagmara; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Neut, Christel; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are abnormally predominant on Crohn's disease (CD) ileal mucosa. AIEC reference strain LF82 adheres to ileal enterocytes via the common type 1 pili adhesin FimH and recognizes CEACAM6 receptors abnormally expressed on CD ileal epithelial cells. The fimH genes of 45 AIEC and 47 non-AIEC strains were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree based on fimH DNA sequences indicated that AIEC strains predominantly express FimH with amino acid mutations of a recent evolutionary origin - a typical signature of pathoadaptive changes of bacterial pathogens. Point mutations in FimH, some of a unique AIEC-associated nature, confer AIEC bacteria a significantly higher ability to adhere to CEACAM-expressing T84 intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, in the LF82 strain, the replacement of fimHLF82 (expressing FimH with an AIEC-associated mutation) with fimHK12 (expressing FimH of commensal E. coli K12) decreased the ability of bacteria to persist and to induce severe colitis and gut inflammation in infected CEABAC10 transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM receptors. Our results highlight a mechanism of AIEC virulence evolution that involves selection of amino acid mutations in the common bacterial traits, such as FimH protein, and leads to the development of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a genetically susceptible host. The analysis of fimH SNPs may be a useful method to predict the potential virulence of E. coli isolated from IBD patients for diagnostic or epidemiological studies and to identify new strategies for therapeutic intervention to block the interaction between AIEC and gut mucosa in the early stages of IBD. PMID:23358328

  20. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATION OF THE DRACO CLOUD WITH FIMS/SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.-J.; Min, K.-W.; Seon, K.-I.; Han, W.; Lee, D.-H.; Edelstein, J.; Korpela, E.; Sankrit, R.

    2009-07-20

    We report an observation of the Draco cloud region using the Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS/SPEAR). The spectra show important ionic lines, such as C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548, 1551, Si IV+O IV] {lambda}1394, Si II* {lambda}1533, and Al II {lambda}1671, indicating the existence of hot and warm interstellar gases toward the region. The map of the continuum is generally in accord with the infrared map, which indicates far-ultraviolet continuum is mostly the starlight scattered off by the dust grains in the Draco cloud. Enhanced C IV emission is seen inside the Draco cloud region and attributed to the turbulent mixing of the interacting cold and warm/hot media. This interpretation is supported by the detection of O III] {lambda}1661 emission line and the H{alpha} feature in this region. We found slightly fainter C IV and far brighter Si II* emissions covering the rest of the region outside the Draco cloud, in agreement with previous observations of Galactic halos. Additionally, we also found that the molecular hydrogen fluorescence map is consistent with the morphology of the atomic neutral hydrogen and dust emission of the Draco cloud, direct evidence supporting the notion that substantial amounts of hydrogen nuclei exist in molecular form in the cloud.

  1. Inhibition profiles of mono- and polyvalent FimH antagonists against 10 different Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, T; Brissonnet, Y; Sivignon, A; Deniaud, D; Cremet, L; Barnich, N; Bouckaert, J; Gouin, S G

    2015-12-14

    Mono- and polyvalent ligands with strong affinities for the mannose-binding adhesin FimH were synthesised, and their anti-adhesive properties against ten E. coli strains were compared in two cell-based assays. The compounds were assessed against the non-pathogenic E. coli K12 and nine strains isolated by coproculture or from patients with osteoarticular infections (OIs), Crohn's disease (CD) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The results showed that the compounds could inhibit the whole set of bacterial strains but with marked differences in terms of effective concentrations. The relative inhibitory potency of the monovalent compounds was also conserved for the ten strains and in the two assays. These results clearly suggest that a potent monovalent anti-adhesive assessed on a single E. coli strain will probably be effective on a broad range of strains and may treat diverse E. coli infections (OIs, CD and UTIs). In contrast, the polyvalent compounds showed a significant strain-dependancy in preventing E. coli attachment to intestinal cells. The multivalent antiadhesive effect may therefore vary depending on the E. coli strain tested.

  2. Competencia Comunicativa em Portuges (Communicative Competence in Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Ricardo

    A textbook designed to give speech and writing practice to intermediate and advanced students of Portuguese as a second language includes 14 units intended to cover two semesters' work with approximately five hours per week of instruction. The units typically include: a text forming the basis for free conversation and practice of language…

  3. Differentiation of the two major species of Echinacea (E. augustifolia and E. purpurea) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method and chemometric analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...

  4. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  5. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  6. Taking New Paths: Experiential Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Pressley Ridge is a non-profit organization that provides an array of treatment services to at-risk and developmentally delayed children that allow them to remain close to their families and communities. In 2007 Pressley Ridge Portugal started an experiential education and adventure therapy center. This pilot project aims to help participants…

  7. Governance in Educational Institutions in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Redondo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses the governance processes governing the organization and management of educational institutions in Portugal, in a context of analysis in which the educational reforms carried out in this country, from the early nineteenth century (when school responsibility is assumed exclusively by the State) to the present, play what…

  8. Differentiation of the Four Major Species of Cinnamons (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. cassia, and C. loureiroi) Using a Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka were studied using the developed FIMS fingerprinting method. The FIMS fingerprints of the cinnamon samples were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The FIMS technique required only 1 min of analysis time per sample. The representative samples from each of the four major species of cinnamon were further examined using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry system, and the chemical differences between the four species were profiled. The results showed that the 1 min FIMS fingerprinting method successfully differentiated the four cinnamon species studied. PMID:24628250

  9. Determination of abdominal fat thickness using dual electrode separation in the focused impedance method (FIM).

    PubMed

    Surovy, Nusrat Jahan; Billah, Md Masum; Haowlader, Salahuddin; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Rabbani, K Siddique-e

    2012-05-01

    Subcutaneous fat layer thickness in the abdomen is a risk indicator of several diseases and disorders like diabetes and heart problems and could be used as a measure of fitness. Skinfold measurement using mechanical calipers is simple but prone to error. Ultrasound scanning techniques are yet to be established as accurate methods for this purpose. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans can provide the answer but are expensive and not available widely. Some initiatives were made earlier to use electrical impedance to this end, but had inadequacies. In the first part of this paper, a 4-electrode focused impedance method (FIM) with different electrode separations has been studied for its possible use in the determination of abdominal fat thickness in a localized region. For this, a saline phantom was designed to provide different electrode separations and different layers of resistive materials adjacent to the electrodes. The background saline simulated the internal organs having low impedance while the resistive layers simulated the subcutaneous fat. The plot of the measured impedance with electrode separation had different 'slopes' for different thicknesses of resistive layers, which offered a method to obtain an unknown thickness of subcutaneous fat layer. In the second part, measurements were performed on seven human subjects using two electrode separations. Fat layer thickness was measured using mechanical calipers. A plot of the above 'slope' against fat thickness could be fitted using a straight line with an R(2) of 0.93. Then this could be used as a calibration curve for the determination of unknown fat thickness. Further work using more accurate CT and MRI measurements would give a better calibration curve for practical use of this non-invasive and low-cost technique in abdominal fat thickness measurement.

  10. Far-ultraviolet Observation Of The Aquila Rift With Fims Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Joon; Min, K.; Seon, K.; Han, W.; Lee, D.; Edelstein, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present the first FUV observation of the Aquila Rift region near the Galactic plane by the FIMS instrument flown aboard the STSAT-1. Various wavelength datasets are used to compare with our FUV observation. While the core of the Aquila Rift suffers heavy dust extinction, the FUV continuum emission outside the Aquila Rift is found to be proportional to the certain amount of dust. The FUV Intensity clearly correlates with the dust extinction for E(B-V) < 0.3,, while anti-correlation is seen for E(B-V) > 0.3, which is in agreement with Hurwitz (1994) and Luhman & Jaffe (1996). Our entire field of view basically consists of inside and outside of Aquila Rift. The "Aquila-East,” "Aquila-Serpens,” and "Aquila-West,” are the inside sub-regions, and the "Scutum,” "Halo,” "Ophiuchus,” and "Hercules” are the outside. The CLOUD model and the calculation of H2 fluorescent line intensities are applied to investigate the physical conditions of each inside sub-region. Based on the velocity break (l 33°) in CO emission and our result that the H2 fluorescent emission is poor in the "Aquila-East” region compared to the "Aquila-Serpens” and "Aquila-West” regions although the ``Aquila-East'' is similar to the other two inside sub-regions, we conclude the east region of Aquila is different in molecular condition or dust distribution, which may be related with the fact that the "Aquila-East” region is lack of star-forming regions. Furthermore, by calculating the line ratio of H2 fluorescent emissions, the characteristics of temperature and amount of dust can be expected for each sub-region.

  11. OBSERVATION OF THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM BACKGROUND WITH SPEAR/FIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Han, Wonyong; Shinn, Jongho; Kim, Il-Joong; Edelstein, Jerry; Korpela, Eric; Witt, Adolf; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Park, Jae-Woo

    2011-10-01

    We present the general properties of the far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1370-1710 A) continuum background over most of the sky, obtained with the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR) instrument (also known as FIMS), flown aboard the STSAT-1 satellite mission. We find that the diffuse FUV continuum intensity is well correlated with N{sub HI}, 100 {mu}m, and H{alpha} intensities but anti-correlated with soft X-ray intensity. The correlation of the diffuse background with the direct stellar flux is weaker than the correlation with other parameters. The continuum spectra are relatively flat. However, a weak softening of the FUV spectra toward some sight lines, mostly at high Galactic latitudes, is found not only in direct stellar but also in diffuse background spectra. The diffuse background is relatively softer than the direct stellar spectrum. We also find that the diffuse FUV background averaged over the sky has a bit softer spectrum compared to direct stellar radiation. A map of the ratio of 1370-1520 A to 1560-1710 A band intensity shows that the sky is divided into roughly two parts. However, this map shows a lot of patchy structures on small scales. The spatial variation of the hardness ratio seems to be largely determined by the longitudinal distribution of OB-type stars in the Galactic plane. A correlation of the hardness ratio with the FUV intensity is found at high intensities but an anti-correlation is found at low intensities. We also find evidence that the FUV intensity distribution is log-normal in nature.

  12. The Conserved Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing C-Terminal Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FimV Is Required for Its Cyclic AMP-Dependent and -Independent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Buensuceso, Ryan N. C.; Nguyen, Ylan; Zhang, Kun; Daniel-Ivad, Martin; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Junop, Murray S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FimV is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inner membrane protein that regulates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels—and thus type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility and type II secretion (T2S)—by activating the adenylate cyclase CyaB. Its cytoplasmic domain contains three predicted tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs separated by an unstructured region: two proximal to the inner membrane and one within the “FimV C-terminal domain,” which is highly conserved across diverse homologs. Here, we present the crystal structure of the FimV C terminus, FimV861–919, containing a TPR motif decorated with solvent-exposed, charged side chains, plus a C-terminal capping helix. FimV689, a truncated form lacking this C-terminal motif, did not restore wild-type levels of twitching or surface piliation compared to the full-length protein. FimV689 failed to restore wild-type levels of the T4P motor ATPase PilU or T2S, suggesting that it was unable to activate cAMP synthesis. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis showed that TPR3 interacts directly with the CyaB activator, FimL. However, FimV689 failed to restore wild-type motility in a fimV mutant expressing a constitutively active CyaB (fimV cyaB-R456L), suggesting that the C-terminal motif is also involved in cAMP-independent functions of FimV. The data show that the highly conserved TPR-containing C-terminal domain of FimV is critical for its cAMP-dependent and -independent functions. IMPORTANCE FimV is important for twitching motility and cAMP-dependent virulence gene expression in P. aeruginosa. FimV homologs have been identified in several human pathogens, and their functions are not limited to T4P expression. The C terminus of FimV is remarkably conserved among otherwise very diverse family members, but its role is unknown. We provide here biological evidence for the importance of the C-terminal domain in both cAMP-dependent (through FimL) and -independent functions of FimV. We present X-ray crystal structures

  13. [Diabetes Knowledge Test Feasibility in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Constança; Santiago, Luiz

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: Dada a crescente incidência da diabetes tipo 2 e considerando que parte do seu controlo se deve à atitude do pacienteface à doença, torna-se importante munir os profissionais de saúde com ferramentas capazes de determinar as carências educacionais dos utentes, permitindo uma intervenção mais personalizada na correção de hábitos nocivos. Objetivos: Verificação da fiabilidade da Escala de Conhecimentos da Diabetes em Portugal. Análise e correlação das diferentes variáveis sociodemográficas e patológicas com o número de respostas corretas. Material e Métodos: Aplicação da escala a uma amostra de conveniência de diabéticos tipo 2 do Centro de Saúde da Covilhã.Resultados: Na generalidade, as questões obtiveram um valor de alfa de Cronbach > 0,800. Diabéticos com melhores resultados demonstraram maior controlo, estabelecendo uma relação positiva entre o conhecimento e o controlo da diabetes. Apenas 9,2% dos diabéticos apresentou bom conhecimento sobre a doença, sendo que a maioria (65,8%) demonstrou um conhecimento mediano. Os insulinotratados exibiram os piores resultados (77,6% com baixo conhecimento). As variáveis ‘via de tratamento’ e ‘complicações’ demonstraram ter impacto no desempenho obtido no questionário (valores p iguais a 0,00 e 0,048, respetivamente). Os diabéticos rurais, os sem complicações e os não insulinotratados revelaram-se os mais cumpridores e conhecedores. Discussão: Contrariando estudos anteriores, variáveis como a idade e o grau de escolaridade não demonstraram influenciar o conhecimentodo diabético. Habitantes do meio rural e diabéticos tratados oralmente obtiveram melhores resultados do que o que havia sido defendido previamente. Conclusão: Demonstrou-se a fidelidade psicométrica moderada a elevada do teste, assim como uma correlação positiva entre o controloda diabetes e o desempenho no inquérito. Espera-se que a sua futura aplicação possibilite identificar as

  14. [The geography of diabetes mellitus in Portugal: how context influence the risk of dying].

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula; Costa, Cláudia; Loureiro, Adriana; Raposo, João; Boavida, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Diabetes Mellitus é um problema de saúde pública em crescimento em todo o mundo e também em Portugal. Pretendemos identificar a evolução do padrão geográfico desta causa de morte e a associação com a privação sociomaterial, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Estudo ecológico transversal dos óbitos por Diabetes Mellitus ocorridos nos municípios portugueses em três períodos (1989-1993, 1999-2003 e 2006-2010). Aplicámos um modelo hierárquico bayesiano, de modo a obter a Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada e o Risco Relativo, de mortalidade por diabetes associado à privação sociomaterial. Resultados: Observámos os valores da Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada mais elevados, em 1989-1993, nos municípios urbanos do litoral (80% dos municípios com Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada ≥ 161, sendo 60% urbanos); em 2006-2010 verificámos o oposto, destacando-se, pelos valores de Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada elevados, as áreas rurais localizadas no interior sul do país (76,9% dos municípios com Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada ≥ 161 sendo 69,2% rurais), principalmente no Alentejo. O Risco Relativo de mortalidade por Diabetes Mellitus aumenta com o aumento da vulnerabilidade associada às condições sociais e económicas da área de residência, principalmente nos dois últimos períodos (Risco Relativo: 1,00; IC95%: 0,98-1,02). Discussão: A Diabetes Mellitus apresenta um padrão geográfico marcado pela assimetria litoral-interior e urbano-rural, que tem vindo a alterar-se ao longo dos últimos vinte anos, verificando-se uma transição geográfica: 48% da população reside em municípios em que a Razão Padronizada de Mortalidade Suavizada aumentou nos últimos vinte anos, com destaque para as áreas rurais do interior de Portugal. Conclusão: As Razões Padronizadas de Mortalidade Suavizada mais elevadas verificam-se, actualmente, em municípios rurais, com índice de priva

  15. FimH antagonists: bioisosteres to improve the in vitro and in vivo PK/PD profile.

    PubMed

    Kleeb, Simon; Pang, Lijuan; Mayer, Katharina; Eris, Deniz; Sigl, Anja; Preston, Roland C; Zihlmann, Pascal; Sharpe, Timothy; Jakob, Roman P; Abgottspon, Daniela; Hutter, Aline S; Scharenberg, Meike; Jiang, Xiaohua; Navarra, Giulio; Rabbani, Said; Smiesko, Martin; Lüdin, Nathalie; Bezençon, Jacqueline; Schwardt, Oliver; Maier, Timm; Ernst, Beat

    2015-03-12

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), belong to the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. The attachment of UPEC to host cells is mediated by FimH, a mannose-binding adhesin at the tip of bacterial type 1 pili. To date, UTIs are mainly treated with antibiotics, leading to the ubiquitous problem of increasing resistance against most of the currently available antimicrobials. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we describe the development of an orally available FimH antagonist. Starting from the carboxylate substituted biphenyl α-d-mannoside 9, affinity and the relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (solubility, permeability, renal excretion) were substantially improved by a bioisosteric approach. With 3'-chloro-4'-(α-d-mannopyranosyloxy)biphenyl-4-carbonitrile (10j) a FimH antagonist with an optimal in vitro PK/PD profile was identified. Orally applied, 10j was effective in a mouse model of UTI by reducing the bacterial load in the bladder by about 1000-fold.

  16. Rapid in vitro conformational changes of the catalytic site of PKC alpha assessed by FIM-1 fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Janoshazi, A; de Barry, J

    1999-10-05

    To study the activation process of protein kinase C (PKCalpha), we used a fluorescent probe, FIM-1, a bis-indolylmaleimide derivative, which binds to the ATP-binding site on the catalytic domain [Chen, C. S., and Poenie, M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 15812]. This enabled us to directly observe the microenvironment of the ATP-binding site in vitro during the activation process. The FIM-1 binding affinity for PKCalpha (EC(50) between 6 and 10 nM) was affected neither by PKCalpha activating conditions nor by enzyme proteolysis. The fluorescence yield of the PKCalpha-FIM-1 complex depended on the PKCalpha activation state. This fluorescence yield was decreased upon proteolysis, which allowed us to study the rate of PKC proteolysis by mu-calpain and its modification by cofactors. Two binding sites were also observed for Ca2+ on the partially activated PKCalpha. After phorbol ester (TPA) application, PKC activation was characterized by biexponential kinetics, including a rapid phase completed within 5 min and a slow phase lasting at least 30 min, which reflected several activation steps. Two different binding sites for TPA were revealed on membrane-associated PKCalpha (EC(50) = 31 +/- 12 and 580 +/- 170 nM), and their modulation by phosphatidylserine and Ca2+ was characterized. The high-affinity TPA binding site was highly conserved, even on the soluble enzyme. Our study shows that binding of low concentrations of TPA triggers conformational changes in the soluble PKCalpha, which affect the microenvironment of its catalytic domain.

  17. Structural basis for mechanical force regulation of the adhesin FimH via finger trap-like beta sheet twisting.

    PubMed

    Le Trong, Isolde; Aprikian, Pavel; Kidd, Brian A; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rajagopal, Ponni; Rodriguez, Victoria; Interlandi, Gianluca; Klevit, Rachel; Vogel, Viola; Stenkamp, Ronald E; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Thomas, Wendy E

    2010-05-14

    The Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesive protein, FimH, mediates shear-dependent binding to mannosylated surfaces via force-enhanced allosteric catch bonds, but the underlying structural mechanism was previously unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of FimH incorporated into the multiprotein fimbrial tip, where the anchoring (pilin) domain of FimH interacts with the mannose-binding (lectin) domain and causes a twist in the beta sandwich fold of the latter. This loosens the mannose-binding pocket on the opposite end of the lectin domain, resulting in an inactive low-affinity state of the adhesin. The autoinhibition effect of the pilin domain is removed by application of tensile force across the bond, which separates the domains and causes the lectin domain to untwist and clamp tightly around the ligand like a finger-trap toy. Thus, beta sandwich domains, which are common in multidomain proteins exposed to tensile force in vivo, can undergo drastic allosteric changes and be subjected to mechanical regulation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Characterization and Evolution of Avoidable Admissions in Portugal: The Impact of Two Methodologic Approaches].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, João; Alves, Conceição; Oliveira, Paula; Sebastião, Rita; Santana, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a performance dos sistemas de saúde através dos internamentos evitáveis, dado que estes têm vindo a ganhar importância a nível internacional. Foram utilizadas duas metodologias distintas para a identificação dos internamentos por Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, fazendo uma descrição da realidade e a evolução destes em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Analisámos mais de 12 milhões de internamentos entre 2000 e 2012, utilizando as bases de dados de resumos de alta nacionais. Utilizaram-se duas metodologias de identificação das Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, determinando a sua concordância. Calculámos cenários de melhoria potencial. Resultados: Em 2012, 4,4% e 32,5% dos internamentos por causas médicas seriam evitáveis segundo a metodologia canadiana e espanhola respectivamente. Os internamentos são mais frequentes nas crianças e nos idosos, divergindo as suas causas de acordo com o grupo etário e a metodologia utilizada. A taxa de internamentos no período em análise diminuiu 20% segundo a metodologia canadiana e aumentou 16% segundo a espanhola. Existem agregados regionais de performance acima e abaixo da média nacional. A concord ncia entre as duas metodologias é baixa. Estimaram-se reduções potenciais entre 20,3% e 53,5% dos internamentos.Discussão: Os internamentos evitáveis assumem um volume considerável em Portugal. Apesar de em teoria serem evitáveis a sua eliminação por completo não é uma possibilidade prática, no entanto, o seu estudo possibilita a avaliação e monitorização de resultados e o estabelecimento de prioridades de intervenção. Conclusão: Para uma caracterização mais precisa dos internamentos evitáveis é necessário consensualizar em Portugal a metodologia para a sua identificação.

  19. Nursing in Portugal: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    This global perspectives column on nursing in Portugal is based primarily on an edited transcript of an interview by the author with Nuno Miguel Dias Pereira, who has a master's degree in nursing management and is a doctoral nursing student at Lisbon University. The interview took place on June 7, 2013. In additional to being a doctoral student, Mr. Periera has a position at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology in Lisbon.

  20. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  1. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato . E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  2. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  3. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Epidemiological study of place of death in Portugal in 2010 and comparison with the preferences of the Portuguese population].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Barbara; Sarmento, Vera P; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: No contexto de um envelhecimento acentuado da população e aumento da mortalidade por doenças crónicas, este estudo epidemiológico nacional compara os locais onde as pessoas morrem com as preferências da população.Material e Métodos: Dados de óbitos em 2010 por género, grupo etário, região de residência (NUTS II) e local de morte (hospital/clínica, domicílio e outro), em pessoas com 16 anos ou mais, foram cedidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Dados de preferências da população para local de morte obtiveram-se em 2010 através do inquérito telefónico PRISMA. Compara-se a distribuição de óbitos por local de morte com as preferências da população, segundo variáveis independentes, através de análise descritiva e inferencial.Resultados: Dos 105 471 óbitos que ocorreram em Portugal em 2010, 61,7% deram-se em hospitais/clínicas e 29,6% no domicílio. Dos 1 286 residentes em Portugal que participaram no inquérito PRISMA, 51,2% expressaram preferência por morrer em casa, 35,7% escolheram uma unidade de cuidados paliativos, 8,9% o hospital e 2,2% lar ou residência.Discussão e Conclusão: Existe um desfasamento substancial entre a realidade e preferências para local de morte em Portugal. Para ir ao encontro destas preferências é prioridade nacional desenvolver serviços de cuidados paliativos domiciliários, que previnam o aumento de óbitos hospitalares e que apoiem a morte em casa, com qualidade e respeitando preferências individuais. Recomenda-se a alteração das categorias de local de óbito no certificado oficial, com inclusão das opções ‘unidade de cuidados paliativos’ e ‘lar ou residência’, dado que as preferências dos cidadãos distinguem claramente entre estes locais.

  6. [Hospital readmissions in Portugal over the last decade].

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Gomes, Ana Rita; Oliveira, Andreia; Ivo, Carlos; Costa, Gustavo; Ramos, João; Silva, Joel; Carneiro, Maria Carolina; Domingues, Maria João; Cunha, Maria João; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro Da; Freitas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Os reinternamentos hospitalares estão associados a um incremento das despesas com a saúde e da mortalidade intrahospitalar. Neste trabalho, pretende-se caracterizar os reinternamentos hospitalares não-planeados, ocorridos num período de 30 dias após alta, de acordo com a sua Grande Categoria Diagnóstica, contexto hospitalar e características demográficas dos utentes, bem como estimar as taxas de mortalidade associadas. Pretende-se também estudar a evolução da taxa de reinternamentos na última década (2000-2008). Procurar-se-á ainda caracterizar os reinternamentos por insuficiência cardíaca.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se à análise estatística da base de dados de internamentos hospitalares públicos fornecida pelaAutoridade Central do Sistema de Saúde. Recorreu-se aos testes do qui-quadrado e de tendência para comparação de taxas dereinternamentos.Resultados: Das 5 514 331 hospitalizações não-planeadas no período em estudo, 4,1% corresponderam a reinternamentos hospitalares. Entre 2000 e 2008, a taxa de reinternamentos hospitalares aumentou continuamente de 3,0% para 4,7%. A mortalidade hospitalar foi significativamente maior entre os episódios de reinternamento (9,5%) do que nos restantes episódios (5,6%), p < 0,001. A taxa de reinternamentos foi significativamente maior em homens (4,5% versus 3,9% nas mulheres, p < 0,001) e doentes mais velhos (2,6% nas crianças e 5,3% nos idosos), sendo menor na região de Lisboa (2,7%) e nos hospitais centrais (3,0%, p < 0,001). Para os episódios de insuficiência cardíaca, foi obtida uma taxa de reinternamentos de 6,7%.Discussão e Conclusão: Em termos gerais, as diferenças encontradas são similares às descritas noutros Países Ocidentais. Os episódios de reinternamento, cujas taxas têm vindo a aumentar em Portugal, estão associados a maior mortalidade intra-hospitalar.

  7. P-domains as shuffled cysteine-rich modules in integumentary mucin C.1 (FIM-C.1) from Xenopus laevis. Polydispersity and genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hauser, F; Hoffmann, W

    1992-12-05

    A new frog integumentary mucin (FIM-C.1) has been discovered by molecular cloning. This mucin contains at least six typical P-domains as cysteine-rich modules. Shuffled P-domains have previously been detected in FIM-A.1, and they also form the basis of various P-domain peptides, which presumably have growth-modulating activities. Furthermore, FIM-C.1 contains at least three threonine-rich clusters, which consist of semi-repetitive cassettes. Various polydisperse transcripts have been characterized. They originate from two genes only and differ by deletions/insertions that are congruent with the semi-repetitive cassettes. Thus, polydispersities are probably generated by alternative splicing. Southern analysis revealed genetic polymorphism between different individuals. Furthermore, a specific antiserum was generated against a synthetic peptide deduced from the COOH-terminal end of FIM-C.1 and used for Western analysis.

  8. Mutation of Tyr137 of the universal Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesin FimH relaxes the tyrosine gate prior to mannose binding

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Said; Krammer, Eva-Maria; Roos, Goedele; Zalewski, Adam; Preston, Roland; Eid, Sameh; Zihlmann, Pascal; Prévost, Martine; Lensink, Marc F.; Thompson, Andrew; Ernst, Beat; Bouckaert, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The most prevalent diseases manifested by Escherichia coli are acute and recurrent bladder infections and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease. E. coli clinical isolates express the FimH adhesin, which consists of a mannose-specific lectin domain connected via a pilin domain to the tip of type 1 pili. Although the isolated FimH lectin domain has affinities in the nanomolar range for all high-mannosidic glycans, differentiation between these glycans is based on their capacity to form predominantly hydrophobic interactions within the tyrosine gate at the entrance to the binding pocket. In this study, novel crystal structures of tyrosine-gate mutants of FimH, ligand-free or in complex with heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside or 4-biphenyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside, are combined with quantum-mechanical calculations and molecular-dynamics simulations. In the Y48A FimH crystal structure, a large increase in the dynamics of the alkyl chain of heptyl α-d-O-mannopyranoside attempts to compensate for the absence of the aromatic ring; however, the highly energetic and stringent mannose-binding pocket of wild-type FimH is largely maintained. The Y137A mutation, on the other hand, is the most detrimental to FimH affinity and specificity: (i) in the absence of ligand the FimH C-terminal residue Thr158 intrudes into the mannose-binding pocket and (ii) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid interacts strongly with Glu50, Thr53 and Asn136, in spite of multiple dialysis and purification steps. Upon mutation, pre-ligand-binding relaxation of the backbone dihedral angles at position 137 in the tyrosine gate and their coupling to Tyr48 via the interiorly located Ile52 form the basis of the loss of affinity of the FimH adhesin in the Y137A mutant. PMID:28250938

  9. Role of fimV in type II secretion system-dependent protein secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on solid medium.

    PubMed

    Michel, Gérard P F; Aguzzi, Anthony; Ball, Geneviève; Soscia, Chantal; Bleves, Sophie; Voulhoux, Romé

    2011-07-01

    Although classical type II secretion systems (T2SSs) are widely present in Gram-negative bacteria, atypical T2SSs can be found in some species. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in addition to the classical T2SS Xcp, it was reported that two genes, xphA and xqhA, located outside the xcp locus were organized in an operon (PaQa) which encodes the orphan PaQa subunit. This subunit is able to associate with other components of the classical Xcp machinery to form a functional hybrid T2SS. In the present study, using a transcriptional lacZ fusion, we found that the PaQa operon was more efficiently expressed (i) on solid LB agar than in liquid LB medium, (ii) at 25 °C than at 37 °C and (iii) at an early stage of growth. These results suggested an adaptation of the hybrid system to particular environmental conditions. Transposon mutagenesis led to the finding that vfr and fimV genes are required for optimal expression of the orphan PaQa operon in the defined growth conditions used. Using an original culturing device designed to monitor secretion on solid medium, the ring-plate system, we found that T2SS-dependent secretion of exoproteins, namely the elastase LasB, was affected in a fimV deletion mutant. Our findings led to the discovery of an interplay between FimV and the global regulator Vfr triggering the modulation of the level of Vfr and consequently the modulation of T2SS-dependent secretion on solid medium.

  10. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA Type I Genotype in Gingivitis by Real-Time PCR–A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Mahalakshmi; Chandrasekaran, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Published literature till date reveals a high prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type I genotype among healthy subjects. Quite a few studies have reported its prevalence also in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless incidence of this genotype in gingivitis is lacking in adult population. Aim The present study was chosen to detect P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype among chronic gingivitis patients. Materials and Methods A total of 46 subgingival plaque samples collected from chronic marginal gingivitis (n=23) and chronic periodontitis subjects (control group) (n=23) were subjected to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect the P. gingivalis fimA type I gene. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. Results Prevalence of P. gingivalis fimA type I gene among chronic periodontitis and chronic gingivitis patients were 8.7% and 30.4% respectively. P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype prevalence was found to be statistically insignificant between the two study groups (p=0.135). Conclusion The avirulent P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype, occurred in high prevalence among chronic gingivitis patients, while its presence was low in chronic periodontitis patients. Presence of this avirulent genotype in chronic marginal gingivitis signifies its reversible condition. PMID:27504406

  11. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a reference gene (BdFIM) for quantifying transgene copy numbers in Brachypodium distachyon by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Wen, Feng; Li, Peng; Liu, Xiang; Cao, Jianmei; Jiang, Min; Ming, Feng; Chu, Zhaoqing

    2014-03-01

    Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a new model system for gramineous plants with a sequenced genome and an efficient transformation system. Many transgenic B. distachyon plants have been generated in recent years. To develop a reliable fast method for detecting transgenic B. distachyon and quantifying its transgene copy numbers, a species-specific reference gene is of great priority to be validated both in qualitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR detection. In this study, we first proved that the BdFIM (B. distachyon fimbrin-like protein) gene is a suitable reference gene in qualitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for B. distachyon. Fourteen different B. distachyon varieties were tested by both qualitative and quantitative PCRs, and identical amplification products of BdFIM were obtained with all of them, while no amplification products were observed with samples from 14 other plant species, suggesting that BdFIM gene was specific to B. distachyon. The results of Southern blot analysis revealed that the BdFIM gene was low copy number in seven tested B. distachyon varieties. In conclusion, the BdFIM gene can be used as a reference gene, since it had species specificity, low heterogeneity, and low copy number among the tested B. distachyon varieties. Furthermore, the copy number of inserted sequences from transgenic B. distachyon obtained by real-time PCR methods and Southern blot confirmed that the BdFIM gene was an applicable reference gene in B. distachyon.

  13. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis differentiating Chinese wolfberries by UPLC-MS and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Jiang, Qianqian; Shi, Haiming; Niu, Yuge; Gao, Boyan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-09-17

    Lycium barbarum L. fruits (Chinese wolfberries) were differentiated for their cultivation locations and the cultivars by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques combined with chemometrics analyses. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to the data projection and supervised learning with validation. The samples formed clusters in the projected data. The prediction accuracies by PLS-DA with bootstrapped Latin partition validation were greater than 90% for all models. The chemical profiles of Chinese wolfberries were also obtained. The differentiation techniques might be utilized for Chinese wolfberry authentication.

  14. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  15. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  16. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  17. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  18. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection.

  19. Nurses in advanced roles: a review of acceptability in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James; Temido, Marta; Fronteira, Ines; Lapão, Luis; Dussault, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the policy context for the deployment of nurses in advanced roles, with particular reference to Portugal. The health sector in Portugal, as in all countries, is labour intensive, and the scope to utilise nurses in more advanced roles is currently being debated. Mixed methods were used: an analysis of international data on the nursing workforce; an analysis of documents and media articles; interviews with key-informants; an online survey of managers, and a technical workshop with key-informants. The limited evidence base on nurses in advanced roles in Portugal is a constraint on progress, but it is not an excuse for inaction. Further research in Portugal on health professionals in innovative roles would assist in informing policy direction. There is the need to move forward with a fully informed policy dialogue, taking account of the current political, economic and health service realities of Portugal.

  20. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Rosário; Costa, Gracinda

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine in Portugal has been an autonomous speciality since 1984. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, 5 years of training are necessary. The curriculum is very similar to the one approved under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, namely concerning the minimum recommended number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. There is a final assessment, and during the training the resident is in an approved continuing education programme. Departments are accredited by the Medical College in order to verify their capacity to host nuclear medicine residencies.

  2. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  4. Hospital admissions for herpes zoster in Portugal between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Margarida; Froes, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Introdução e Objectivos: O aumento da incidência de herpes zoster e da nevralgia pós-herpética estão associados ao envelhecimento da população. Estas patologias podem ser francamente debilitantes e ter um grande impacto na qualidade de vida dos doentes. Numa população envelhecida como a portuguesa, é esperado que o impacto do herpes zoster e da post-herpetic neuralgia aumentem. No entanto, não existe no país nenhum sistema específico de monitorização da doença e não foram encontrados dados epidemiológicos portugueses nas últimas décadas. A vacina contra o herpes zoster, já recomendada noutros países europeus, ainda não se encontra disponível em Portugal. Conhecer o impacto do herpes zoster é importante para fundamentar medidas de saúde pública relacionadas com a vacinação.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se a uma análise retrospetiva da base de dados da Administração Central dos Sistemas de Saúde com a informação clínica codificada dos internamentos hospitalares de todos os indivíduos com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster (ICD-9-CM 053) e que tiveram alta entre 2000 e 2010.Resultados: Em Portugal, entre 2000 e 2010, ocorreram 1 706 internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal de herpes zoster. A maioria dos doentes era idosa. Do total de internados, 10,6% tinham formas potencialmente graves de imunocompromisso. A doença predominante de herpes zoster sem complicações, seguido de herpes zoster do sistema nervoso e oftálmico. A duração média dos internamentos foi de 9,3 dias, aumentando com a idade. A letalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 1%. Considerando o período de 2000-2009 e apenas a população adulta, a média anual da incidência dos internamentos hospitalares com o diagnóstico principal deherpes zoster foi de 1,9 por 100 000 habitantes, aumentando com a idade.Conclusão: Este estudo confirma que, em Portugal, as formas graves de herpes zoster estão relacionadas com a idade e associadas a

  5. [Disciplinary Actions in Gynecology and Obstetrics in the North of Portugal from Year 2008 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Silva, Francisco; Rodrigues E Rodrigues, Manuel; Bernardes, João

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: As ações disciplinares podem ter um impacto significativo na vida dos médicos e dos doentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação das ações disciplinares em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia ocorridas na região norte de Portugal nos anos 2008 a 2012.Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospetivo baseado nos dados anonimizados disponíveis nos relatórios anuais de atividades do Conselho Disciplinar da Seção Regional Norte da Ordem dos Médicos dos anos 2008 a 2012. Calculámos a proporção de ações disciplinares em Ginecologia e Obstetrícia sobre o número total de especialistas inscritos. Avaliámos também os tipos de queixoso, de arguido, de instituição, de queixa e de decisão envolvidos. Para comparação de proporções utilizámos intervalos de confiança de 95%.Resultados: De 2008 a 2012, registou-se um total de 1040 ações disciplinares na região norte de Portugal. A Ginecologia e Obstetrícia foi a quarta especialidade mais afetada, com 54 queixas, 43 das quais relacionadas com alegada negligência médica e a mais afetada, se considerarmos apenas este tipo de queixa. Os queixosos e os arguidos mais frequentes foram, respetivamente, doentes em nome próprio e profissionais do sexo feminino, com idade compreendida entre os 41 e 60 anos. Das 54 ações disciplinares registadas, 52 foram concluídas sem penalização e duas aguardam decisão.Discussão: Os resultados estão genericamente de acordo com os de outros autores.Conclusões: A Ginecologia e Obstetrícia foi a quarta especialidade com maior risco de ação disciplinar na região norte de Portugal nos anos 2008 a 2012 e a primeira se considerarmos só as queixas de alegada negligência médica. Todas as ações disciplinares foram arquivadas, sem penalização dos médicos visados, com exceção de duas que se encontram ainda em avaliação.

  6. The Shaft of the Type 1 Fimbriae Regulates an External Force to Match the FimH Catch Bond

    PubMed Central

    Zakrisson, Johan; Wiklund, Krister; Axner, Ove; Andersson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae mediate adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to host cells. It has been hypothesized that due to their ability to uncoil under exposure to force, fimbriae can reduce fluid shear stress on the adhesin-receptor interaction by which the bacterium adheres to the surface. In this work, we develop a model that describes how the force on the adhesin-receptor interaction of a type 1 fimbria varies as a bacterium is affected by a time-dependent fluid flow mimicking in vivo conditions. The model combines in vivo hydrodynamic conditions with previously assessed biomechanical properties of the fimbriae. Numerical methods are used to solve for the motion and adhesion force under the presence of time-dependent fluid profiles. It is found that a bacterium tethered with a type 1 pilus will experience significantly reduced shear stress for moderate to high flow velocities and that the maximum stress the adhesin will experience is limited to ∼120 pN, which is sufficient to activate the conformational change of the FimH adhesin into its stronger state but also lower than the force required for breaking it under rapid loading. Our model thus supports the assumption that the type 1 fimbria shaft and the FimH adhesin-receptor interaction are optimized to each other, and that they give piliated bacteria significant advantages in rapidly changing fluidic environments. PMID:23708354

  7. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  8. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea Ortholog of Fim and UFO, Is Required for Normal Development of Flowers, Inflorescences, and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott; Hofer, Julie; Murfet, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2—mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea—suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea. PMID:11158527

  9. Variability of the fimA gene in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from periodontitis and non-periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    León, Rubén; Blanc, Vanessa; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the fimA gene in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from Spanish patients. Study Design: Pooled subgingival samples were taken, processed and cultured in non-selective blood agar medium. Pure cultures of one to six isolates per patient were obtained and PCR and PCR-RFLP were used for fimbrillin gene (fimA) type determination of the extracted genomic (DNA). Results: Two hundred and twenty four Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from 65 patients were analyzed consisting of 15 non-periodontitis patients (66 isolates) and 50 with periodontitis (158 isolates). Genotype II was the most prevalent (50.9%), while the other types of fimbriae did not exceed fifteen percent of prevalence. Isolates with types II and IV of fimbriae were significantly more prevalent in periodontitis patients than isolates with genotype I. Co-infection was observed in 17.65% of the patients analyzed. Conclusion: The results suggest that in this population Porphyromonas gingivalis with type II of fimbriae are significantly more predominant in periodontitis patients than genotype I. Key words:Fimbriae, genotype, porphyromonas gingivalis, periodontitis. PMID:23229246

  10. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Zwecker, Manuel; Levenkrohn, Shalom; Fleisig, Yudit; Zeilig, Gabi; Ohry, Avi; Adunsky, Abraham

    2002-03-01

    To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in predicting functional outcome at discharge in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Cohort study. Geriatric rehabilitation department of a tertiary care hospital in Israel. Sixty-six patients undergoing acute inpatient comprehensive rehabilitation after first clinical stroke. Not applicable. Cognitive status was assessed with the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the cognitive subscale of the FIM instrument. The FIM motor subscale was used to assess functional outcome status. Functional gain was determined by the motor FIM gain (efficacy), and the relative (to potential) functional gain was determined by the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score. Efficiency was calculated by efficacy divided by the length of hospital stay. A significant increase in total FIM scores (34.8 points) occurred during rehabilitation mainly because of improvement in motor functioning (31.5 points). Significant improvement in global cognitive status was documented by all 3 tests. Intertest correlation coefficients ranged between.47 and.67. The LOTCA showed somewhat higher correlation coefficients with most of the parameters of functional motor outcomes. Correlation between the MMSE and FIM cognitive subscale and these outcome parameters were nearly identical. The LOTCA is slightly better than the MMSE and the FIM cognitive subscale in predicting functional status change after stroke rehabilitation but it is a time-consuming and exhausting instrument to use. The FIM cognitive subscale requires a better overall understanding of the patient's situation at time of administration and therefore is less convenient for the initial assessment. The similar correlation of all 3 tests with functional outcomes and the simplicity of administration of the MMSE suggests its use in the

  11. Transurethral instillation with fusion protein MrpH.FimH induces protective innate immune responses against uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in human. Innate immunity recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate responses against pathogens. Recently, we demonstrated that MrpH.FimH fusion protein consisting of MrpH from Proteus mirabilis and FimH from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in the higher immunogenicity and protection, as compared with FimH and MrpH alone. In this study, we evaluated the innate immunity and adjuvant properties induced by fusion MrpH.FimH through in vitro and in vivo methods. FimH and MrpH.FimH were able to induce significantly higher IL-8 and IL-6 responses than untreated or MrpH alone in cell lines tested. The neutrophil count was significantly higher in the fusion group than other groups. After 6 h, IL-8 and IL-6 production reached a peak, with a significant decline at 24 h post-instillation in both bladder and kidney tissues. Mice instilled with the fusion and challenged with UPEC or P. mirabilis showed a significant decrease in the number of bacteria in bladder and kidney compared to control mice. The results of these studies demonstrate that the use of recombinant fusion protein encoding TLR-4 ligand represents an effective vaccination strategy that does not require the use of a commercial adjuvant. Furthermore, MrpH.FimH was presented as a promising vaccine candidate against UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Portugal and Europe are poliomyelitis free].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Santos, Luís Almeida; Sarmento, António; Rocha, Graça; Valente, Paula

    2003-01-01

    On the 21st of June 2002, in Copenhagen, the Regional Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication, declared the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) as polio-free. The last case (not imported) of poliomyelitis in Europe had occurred in November 1998. The health impact is enormous. In Portugal, the last case of poliomyelitis caused by the wild poliovirus, had occurred in December 1986. The path to eradication in Portugal had begun with a vaccination campaign in 1965/1966, with the oral polio vaccine (Sabin). High vaccination coverage has been maintained since then. The Portuguese program to eliminate poliomyelitis follows the strategic recommendations of WHO, with three components: vaccination; surveillance of acute placid paralysis (AFP); laboratory containment of wild polioviruses. Global eradication has not yet been achieved but is likely to happen till 2005. Keeping the high levels of motivation among Portuguese health workers is essential, in order not to loose what has been achieved. High vaccination coverage has to be maintained. Surveillance of AFP has to be improved and the prompt notification of cases by hospital clinicians, sending stool samples to the reference laboratory, is essential for the success of this activity. The laboratory containment programme is important to prevent the accidental reintroduction of poliomyelitis from laboratories.

  13. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  14. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Sexology in Portugal: Narratives by Portuguese Sexologists.

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Beato, Ana; Almeida, Joana; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the emergence and development of modern sexology in Portugal through the analysis of Portuguese sexologists' narratives, to explore how they commit to a professional identity as sexologists, and to discuss how they integrate their professional role into the vast multidisciplinary field of sexology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 key professionals, purposefully recruited to guarantee heterogeneity concerning generation, gender, training, and practice. Content analysis focused on highlighting differences and articulations among the main professionals making up the field. The findings indicate that sexology is not seen as a full-fledged profession but rather as a specialization or a secondary field of action. The sexual medicine perspective is prevalent and more visible among physicians, thus reflecting the gap between psychosocial and biomedical approaches. A close link between clinical work and research and a gap between clinical work and health promotion were found. Despite the multidisciplinary nature of sexology being acknowledged, it is not fully implemented by the experts in the field. However, it is this characteristic that permitted sexology to institutionalize and to legitimate itself as a discourse of truth about sex, in Portugal as in other countries.

  16. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

  17. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  18. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  19. A Decision Support Matrix (DSM) approach to mapping the impacts of flooding mitigation using a Flood Impact Model (FIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The village of Great Ayton on the River Leven catchment (35 km2), UK, has been impacted by a number of floods in recent years. A flood management scheme based on the installation of Natural Flood Management (NFM) interventions has commenced to deal with this issue. Evidence gathered within the subtributaries (less than 10 km2) demonstrates the potential for NFM techniques to have some effect on the local flood peaks. However, the problem arises as to how to upscale these results to the catchment scale, which involves consideration of the timing of the delivery of water from the landscape units, interactions flows at confluences, the spatial patterns of rainfall, antecedent conditions and so forth. This study uses a novel Flood Impact Model (FIM) and a nested network of observed flow measurements. Essentially the approach involves the disaggregation of the outlet hydrograph by making assumptions about the spatial distribution of runoff generation. The channel network is parameterised through a comparison of the timing of observed hydrographs at a number of nested locations within the catchment. The greater the number of flow recording instruments installed within the catchment the better network is thus defined. The Environment Agency, North Yorkshire Moor National Park, the Forestry Commission (England), local farming and town residents formed a catchment consortium for the Leven. An initial catchment plan was created and local evidence was gathered, with a flow instrumentation network installed. A simple visual Decision Support Matrix (DSM) was then used to convey the likely impacts that arise from any area undergoing future flood management measures. The DSM encourages end users to create a NFM scheme by studying the degree to which runoff can be altered locally and how that flow will be propagated through the network to the point of impact. The model contains a simple runoff generator based on the UK Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) method (though any runoff

  20. Two autonomous structural modules in the fimbrial shaft adhesin FimA mediate Actinomyces interactions with streptococci and host cells during oral biofilm development

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arunima; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Reardon, Melissa E.; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Krishnan, Vengadesan; Cisar, John O.; Das, Asis; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; Ton-That, Hung

    2011-09-06

    By combining X-ray crystallography and modelling, we describe here the atomic structure of distinct adhesive moieties of FimA, the shaft fimbrillin of Actinomyces type 2 fimbriae, which uniquely mediates the receptor-dependent intercellular interactions between Actinomyces and oral streptococci as well as host cells during the development of oral biofilms. The FimA adhesin is built with three IgG-like domains, each of which harbours an intramolecular isopeptide bond, previously described in several Gram-positive pilins. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that although these isopeptide bonds are dispensable for fimbrial assembly, cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation, they contribute significantly to the proteolytic stability of FimA. Remarkably, FimA harbours two autonomous adhesive modules, which structurally resemble the Staphylococcus aureus Cna B domain. Each isolated module can bind the plasma glycoprotein asialofetuin as well as the polysaccharide receptors present on the surface of oral streptococci and epithelial cells. Thus, FimA should serve as an excellent paradigm for the development of therapeutic strategies and elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between cellular receptors and Gram-positive fimbriae.

  1. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  2. Antivirulence Isoquinolone Mannosides: Optimization of the Biaryl Aglycone for FimH Lectin Binding Affinity and Efficacy in the Treatment of Chronic UTI

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Cassie; Han, Zhenfu; Kalas, Vasilios; Klein, Roger; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Ford, Bradley; Binkley, Jana; Cusumano, Corinne K.; Cusumano, Zachary; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) employ the mannose-binding adhesin FimH to colonize the bladder epithelium during urinary tract infection (UTI). Previously reported FimH antagonists exhibit good potency and efficacy, but low bioavailability and a short half-life in vivo. In a rational design strategy, we obtained an X-ray structure of lead mannosides and then designed mannosides with improved drug-like properties. We show that cyclizing the carboxamide onto the biphenyl B-ring aglycone of biphenyl mannosides into a fused heterocyclic ring, generates new biaryl mannosides such as isoquinolone 22 (2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-1,2-dihydroisoquinolin-7-yl)phenyl α-D-mannopyranoside) with enhanced potency and in vivo efficacy resulting from increased oral bioavailability. N-Substitution of the isoquinolone aglycone with various functionalities produced a new potent subseries of FimH antagonists. All analogues of the subseries have higher FimH binding affinity than unsubstituted lead 22, as determined by thermal shift differential scanning fluorimetry assay. Mannosides with pyridyl substitution on the isoquinolone group inhibit bacteria-mediated hemagglutination and prevent biofilm formation by UPEC with single-digit nanomolar potency, which is unprecedented for any FimH antagonists or any other antivirulence compounds reported to date. PMID:26812660

  3. Characterization of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum., is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1 min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  4. Alternative splicing of repetitive units is responsible for the polydispersities of integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1) from Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Joba, W; Hoffmann, W

    1996-10-01

    Frog integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1) represents a polymorphic extracellular mosaic protein which contains tandemly arranged serine/threonine-rich modules as well as cysteine-rich domains. The latter are probably important for oligomerization of FIM-B.1 and have also been found in many proteins of the complement cascade as well as regions homologous to von Willebrand factor. The repetitive modules are targets for extensive O-glycosylation. Previous cDNA cloning experiments clearly established polydispersities within the same individual, which originate from deletions/insertions in the repetitive domain. Here, we analyse part of the corresponding genomic region. Each repetitive unit as well as the cysteine-rich domain is encoded by an individual class 1-1 exon typical of shuffled modules. Alternative splicing of these multiple cassettes creates the polydisperse FIM-B.1 transcripts.

  5. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined.

  6. Structural fire risk: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G

    2016-12-15

    This study is focused in mapping the structural fire risk in the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The fire susceptibility map of Verde and Zêzere (2010) was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975-2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. The susceptibility was mapped with five classes to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area were consider to estimate the fire hazard which allow to estimate the likelihood of a pixel to burn (ranging between 0% and 20%) depending on the class to which it belongs and on the future burnt area scenario. The potential economic damage was estimated with the vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law. The obtained fire risk map identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription practices in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Neves, A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Fernandez-Llimos, F

    2014-02-01

    The use of guidelines for neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) improves its clinical efficiency and the safety of prescription. To evaluate the practices of neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription in Portugal, and the adherence to the National Consensus on neonatal PN (2008). A questionnaire based on a multiple choice response on parenteral nutrition prescription was conducted, and sent to the coordinators of the 50 public and private Portuguese neonatal special care units, 25 being level III and 25 level II. Parenteral nutrition was prescribed in 32 neonatal units, 23 of which (71.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (82.6%) refer to follow the National Consensus, the remaining following local guidelines; 17 (73.9%) of units referred to using an electronic based system for prescription. In preterm neonates, most mentioned: administering judiciously the fluid intake during the first post-natal week; starting amino acids from the first post-natal day with 1.5-3g/kg/d, increasing up to 3-4g/kg/d; starting lipids from the first three post-natal days with 1g/kg/d, increasing up to 3g/kg/d; administering 40-70mg/kg/d of calcium and of phosphorus with the fixed calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1.7: 1 (mg:mg); and estimating the osmolality of the solutions, and weekly monitoring of serum triglycerides, blood urea, serum phosphorus and liver function. The high response rate is probably representative of the practice of PN prescription in Portugal. Most of the units used the National Consensus on neonatal PN as a reference, thus contributing to better nutritional support for neonates. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. DoubleSun® Performance Across Mainland Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, F.; Silva, J.; Leandro, R.; Botelho, D.; Wemans, J.; Sorasio, G.; Brito, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been gaining a significant share in Portugal's renewable energy mix. In this paper we focus on the analysis of 29 PV systems (mounted and connected to the grid under the micro-generation incentive scheme in Portugal), from which 59% are DoubleSun® technology, the remaining being flat-plate systems. The period in analysis is July 2009-June 2010. A preliminary analysis of the PV systems has confirmed their high potential in Portugal and highlighted the relevance of such analysis to identify: (1) the geographical characterization of PV performance across mainland Portugal; (2) improvement of a tool [1] that predicts the potential of different PV technologies; and (3) the challenges of PV systems when installed on-field and connected to the grid.

  9. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in the peri-implant sulcus of Koreans assessed using a new primer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA is a virulence factor associated with periodontal diseases, but its role in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the condition of peri-implant tissue and the distribution of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes in Koreans using a new primer. Methods A total of 248 plaque samples were taken from the peri-implant sulci of 184 subjects. The control group consisted of sound implants with a peri-implant probing depth (PD) of 5 mm or less with no bleeding on probing (BOP). Test group I consisted of implants with a peri-implant PD of 5 mm or less and BOP, and test group II consisted of implants with a peri-implant PD of more than 5 mm and BOP. DNA was extracted from each sample and analyzed a using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with P. gingivalis-specific primers, followed by an additional PCR assay to differentiate the fimA genotypes in P. gingivalis-positive subjects. Results The Prevalence of P. gingivalis in each group did not significantly differ (P>0.05). The most predominant fimA genotype in all groups was type II. The prevalence of type Ib fimA was significantly greater in test group II than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The fimA type Ib genotype of P. gingivalis was found to play a critical role in the destruction of peri-implant tissue, suggesting that it may be a distinct risk factor for peri-implantitis. PMID:26937292

  10. Sensitivity of dust emissions to aerosol feedback and the impact of dust loading on climate forcing with varied resolutions using FIM-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Grell, Georg; Henze, Daven; Mckeen, Stuart; Sun, Shan; Li, Haiqin

    2016-04-01

    Meteorological conditions directly impact aerosol loading, especially dust emissions. Variations in dust emissions on the other hand, will also impact meteorology and climate through direct and indirect aerosol forcing. To study these impacts in more detail we use the global Flow-following finite-volume Icosahedra Model (FIM, http://fim.noaa.gov/), a new global weather prediction model currently under development in the Global Systems Division of NOAA/ESRL, as it is coupled online with the aerosol modules from the Goddard Gobal Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model (FIM-Chem). FIM-Chem includes direct and semi direct feedback, and uses the dust schemes of GOCART and the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). FIM-Chem is able to investigate the contribution of climate feedbacks to simulated hyperspectral data by considering a range of simulations with different dust emissions and different levels of aerosol feedbacks enabled at four different spatial resolutions. The emitted dust flux and total emissions are highly depending on the wind, soil moisture and model resolution. We compare the dust emissions by including and excluding the aerosol radiative feedback in the simulations to quantify the sensitivity of dust emissions to aerosol feedback. The results show that all aerosol-induced dust emissions increase about 10% globally, which is mainly dominated by the contributions of anthropogenic black carbon (EC) aerosol. While the dust-induced percentage changes of dust emissions are about -5.5%, that indicates reduction effect globally. Also, the simulations based on different resolutions of 240x240 km, 120x120 km, 60x60 km and 30x30 km are performed to test the impacts of model resolution on total dust emissions. By comparing the dust emission sensitivity to aerosol feedback and model resolution, we can estimate the uncertainty of model resolution versus aerosol feedback. We also conduct FIM-Chem simulations to investigate the sensitivity of dust

  11. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  12. [The Epidemiology of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in Portugal: Estimations of Prevalence and Treatment-Costs].

    PubMed

    Santana, Isabel; Farinha, Filipa; Freitas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Vítor; Carvalho, Ålvaro

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A incidência e prevalência de demência e de Doença de Alzheimer aumentam com a idade, duplicando a cada cinco anos após a sexta década de vida. Portugal é um país envelhecido, previsivelmente com um número crescente de casos de demência. No entanto, os dados epidemiológicos são escassos e os estudos sobre os custos da doença praticamente inexistentes. Propomo-nos apresentar uma estimativa actualizada da prevalência de demência/ Doença de Alzheimer em Portugal e inferir, a partir da prescrição específica para demência, o número de diagnósticos efectivos e os encargos financeiros com esses medicamentos.Material e Métodos: ÃÄ população residente em Portugal (2013), aplicámos os valores de prevalência de demência para a Europa Ocidental (estudo da AlzheimerâÄôs Disease International). A estimativa dos diagnósticos efectivos de Doença de Alzheimer e dos encargos financeiros com medicação específica baseou-se nas informações do Intercontinental Marketing Services Health (IMSH) âÄì 2013.Resultados: O número estimado de Portugueses com mais de 60 anos e com demência foi 160287, o que corresponde a 5,91% deste universo populacional. Sabendo que a Doença de Alzheimer representa 50-70% dos casos, inferimos que existirão entre 80144 e 112201 doentes. Por outro lado, os dados da IMSH indicam que estarão diagnosticados e a receceber anti-demenciais 76250 doentes, representando um encargo financeiro de 37 MâǬ/ano.Conclusão: O envelhecimento da população incrementa o número de casos de demência. Aparentemente, nem todos os doentes com Doença de Alzheimer recebem a medicação aconselhada, sugerindo que esta condição ainda está sub-diagnosticada. A evolução tem sido positiva, com incremento do número de doentes tratados e redução dos custos com fármacos específicos.

  13. Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From Patients With Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rahdar, Masoud; Rashki, Ahmad; Miri, Hamid Reza; Rashki Ghalehnoo, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Objectives; This study aimed to determine the occurrence of fim, pap, sfa, and afa genes among 100 UPEC isolates collected from patients diagnosed with UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 100 UPEC isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. The prevalence of 5 virulence genes encoding type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc) and afimbrial adhesins (afa) were determined through PCR method. We also investigated the phylogenetic background of all isolates. In addition, the distribution of adhesin-encoding operons between the phylogroups was assessed. Results: The prevalence of genes encoding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 95% for fim, 57% for pap, 16% for foc, and 81% for sfa. The operons encoding for afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 12% of isolates. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The fim gene, which occurred in strains from all phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) was evaluated and no significant differences were found among these groups. Conversely, significant differences were observed in relation to pap, afa, foc, and sfa operons. Conclusions: These results indicate that the PCR method is a powerful genotypic assay for the detection of adhesin-encoding operons. Thus, this assay can be recommended for clinical use to detect virulent urinary E. coli strains, as well as epidemiological studies. PMID:26464770

  14. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  15. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  16. Localization of a domain in the FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae capable of receptor recognition and use of a domain-specific antibody to confer protection against experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Thankavel, K; Madison, B; Ikeda, T; Malaviya, R; Shah, A H; Arumugam, P M; Abraham, S N

    1997-01-01

    The FimH subunit of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli has been implicated as an important determinant of bacterial adherence and colonization of the urinary tract. Here, we sought to localize the functionally important domain(s) within the FimH molecule and to determine if antibodies against this domain would block adherence of type 1-fimbriated E. coli to the bladder mucosa in situ and in vivo in an established mouse model of cystitis. We generated translational fusion proteins of disparate regions of the FimH molecule with an affinity tag MalE, and tested each of the fusion products in vitro for functional activity. The minimum region responsible for binding mouse bladder epithelial cells and a soluble mannoprotein, horseradish peroxidase, was contained within residues 1-100 of the FimH molecule. We validated and extended these findings by demonstrating that antibodies directed at the putative binding region of FimH or at synthetic peptides corresponding to epitopes within the binding domain could specifically block type 1 fimbriae-mediated bacterial adherence to bladder epithelial cells in situ and yeast cells in vitro. Next, we compared the ability of mice passively immunized intraperitoneally with antisera raised against residues 1-25 and 253-264 of FimH or 1-13 of FimA to resist bladder colonization in vivo after intravesicular challenge with type 1-fimbriated E. coli. Only the antibody directed at the putative binding region of FimH (anti- s-FimH1-25) significantly reduced E. coli bladder infections in the experimental mouse model of urinary tract infections. Similar results were obtained when the mice were actively immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 1-25 and 253-264 of FimH or 1-13 of FimA. The mechanism of protection was attributed, at least in part, to inhibition of bacterial adherence to the bladder surface by s-FimH1-25-specific antibody molecules that had filtered through the kidneys into the urine. The level of Fim

  17. Phenotypic analysis of random hns mutations differentiate DNA-binding activity from properties of fimA promoter inversion modulation and bacterial motility.

    PubMed

    Donato, G M; Kawula, T H

    1999-02-01

    H-NS is a major Escherichia coli nucleoid-associated protein involved in bacterial DNA condensation and global modulation of gene expression. This protein exists in cells as at least two different isoforms separable by isoelectric focusing. Among other phenotypes, mutations in hns result in constitutive expression of the proU and fimB genes, increased fimA promoter inversion rates, and repression of the flhCD master operon required for flagellum biosynthesis. To understand the relationship between H-NS structure and function, we transformed a cloned hns gene into a mutator strain and collected a series of mutant alleles that failed to repress proU expression. Each of these isolated hns mutant alleles also failed to repress fimB expression, suggesting that H-NS-specific repression of proU and fimB occurs by similar mechanisms. Conversely, alleles encoding single amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of H-NS resulted in significantly reduced affinity for DNA yet conferred a wild-type fimA promoter inversion frequency, indicating that the mechanism of H-NS activity in modulating promoter inversion is independent of DNA binding. Furthermore, two specific H-NS amino acid substitutions resulted in hypermotile bacteria, while C-terminal H-NS truncations exhibited reduced motility. We also analyzed H-NS isoform composition expressed by various hns mutations and found that the N-terminal 67 amino acids were sufficient to support posttranslational modification and that substitutions at positions 18 and 26 resulted in the expression of a single H-NS isoform. These results are discussed in terms of H-NS domain organization and implications for biological activity.

  18. Phenotypic Analysis of Random hns Mutations Differentiate DNA-Binding Activity from Properties of fimA Promoter Inversion Modulation and Bacterial Motility

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gina M.; Kawula, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    H-NS is a major Escherichia coli nucleoid-associated protein involved in bacterial DNA condensation and global modulation of gene expression. This protein exists in cells as at least two different isoforms separable by isoelectric focusing. Among other phenotypes, mutations in hns result in constitutive expression of the proU and fimB genes, increased fimA promoter inversion rates, and repression of the flhCD master operon required for flagellum biosynthesis. To understand the relationship between H-NS structure and function, we transformed a cloned hns gene into a mutator strain and collected a series of mutant alleles that failed to repress proU expression. Each of these isolated hns mutant alleles also failed to repress fimB expression, suggesting that H-NS-specific repression of proU and fimB occurs by similar mechanisms. Conversely, alleles encoding single amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of H-NS resulted in significantly reduced affinity for DNA yet conferred a wild-type fimA promoter inversion frequency, indicating that the mechanism of H-NS activity in modulating promoter inversion is independent of DNA binding. Furthermore, two specific H-NS amino acid substitutions resulted in hypermotile bacteria, while C-terminal H-NS truncations exhibited reduced motility. We also analyzed H-NS isoform composition expressed by various hns mutations and found that the N-terminal 67 amino acids were sufficient to support posttranslational modification and that substitutions at positions 18 and 26 resulted in the expression of a single H-NS isoform. These results are discussed in terms of H-NS domain organization and implications for biological activity. PMID:9922259

  19. Improved detection of low vapor pressure compounds in air by serial combination of single-sided membrane introduction with fiber introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS-FIMS).

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Handberg, Eric; Noll, Robert J; Kilgour, David P A; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-05-01

    The use of two methods in tandem, single-sided membrane introduction mass spectrometry (SS-MIMS) and fiber introduction mass spectrometry (FIMS), is presented as a technique for field analysis. The combined SS-MIMS-FIMS technique was employed in both a modified commercial mass spectrometer and a miniature mass spectrometer for the selective preconcentration of the explosive simulant o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and the chemical warfare agent simulant, methyl salicylate (MeS), in air. A home-built FIMS inlet was fabricated to allow introduction of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber into the mass spectrometer chamber and subsequent desorption of the trapped compounds using resistive heating. The SS-MIMS preconcentration system was also home-built from commercial vacuum parts. Optimization experiments were done separately for each preconcentration system to achieve the best extraction conditions prior to use of the two techniques in combination. Improved limits of detection, in the low ppb range, were observed for the combination compared to FIMS alone, using several SS-MIMS preconcentration cycles. The SS-MIMS-FIMS response for both instruments was found to be linear over the range 50 to 800 ppb. Other parameters studied were absorption time profiles, effects of sample flow rate, desorption temperature, fiber background, memory effects, and membrane fatigue. This simple, sensitive, accurate, robust, selective, and rapid sample preconcentration and introduction technique shows promise for field analysis of low vapor pressure compounds, where analyte concentrations will be extremely low and the compounds are difficult to extract from a matrix like air.

  20. Müllerian precursor lesions in serous ovarian cancer patients: using the SEE-Fim and SEE-End protocol.

    PubMed

    Mingels, Marjanka J J M; van Ham, Maaike A P C; de Kievit, Ineke M; Snijders, Marc P M L; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2014-07-01

    Serous ovarian cancer is suggested to develop from epithelium embryologically derived from the Müllerian ducts. The aim of the current study is to thoroughly, analyze the epithelium derived from the Müllerian ducts (cervix, endometrium and fallopian tubes) in serous ovarian cancer patients. Sixty women diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma were included in this multicentre, observational study. Tissues were embedded completely for histological assessment, in accordance with the SEE-Fim and SEE-End protocol (Sectioning and Extensively Examining of the Fimbriated end; and-Endometrium), and prevalence of cervical, as well as endometrial and tubal pathology was analyzed. In 31 (52%) cases, a pathologic lesion was identified, and in 16 (27%) of these cases coexistence of pathologic lesions. In 1 case, severe dysplasia was found in the cervix, in 9 (15%) cases endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, in 19 (32%) cases atypical hyperplasia, and in 23 (43%) cases serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma was seen significantly more often concurrent with endometrial atypical hyperplasia or endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma than with benign endometrium (64 vs 28%; P=0.01). To conclude, histological assessment of epithelium derived from Müllerian ducts of serous ovarian cancer patients resulted in the identification of endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma and/or endometrial atypical hyperplasia in more than half of cases. Coexistence of these pathologic lesions was common, and might represent an effect of field carcinogenesis or tumor implantation of migrating cells.

  1. [Approach and Registry of Anaphylaxis in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Mota, Inês; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Celso; Tomaz, Elza; Ferreira, Manuel Branco; Sabino, Filipa; Coelho, Anabela; Santos, Anabela; Martins, Henrique; Morais-Almeida, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis has a growing incidence, especially in children. It represents a medical emergency and its successful therapy depends on early and proper intervention. Intramuscular epinephrine, with dose adjustment according to weight and age, is the drug of choice for anaphylaxis treatment. After resolution of the acute reaction, the patient should be kept under clinical surveillance for 6 to 24 hours, due to possible biphasic reactions. Prescription of an epinephrine auto injectable device should be considered in all patients with diagnosed or suspected anaphylaxis; additionally these patients should always be referred to an Immunoallergy consultation, to perform adequate investigation and management in order to reduce future risk. All anaphylaxis episodes must be recorded in The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions (Catálogo Português de Alergias e outras Reações Adversas, CPARA), which represents a fundamental tool to share clinical information within the Health System. The present manuscript intends to disclose the most recent Portuguese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis, making its clinical approach more effective and homogeneous, and to promote the use of The Portuguese Catalogue of Allergies and other Adverse Reactions as an essential tool to register and share information on anaphylaxis in Portugal.

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  3. Traumatic brain injury in Portugal: trends in hospital admissions from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Dias, Celeste; Rocha, João; Pereira, Eduarda; Cerejo, António

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O traumatismo crânio-encefálico tem um impacto sócio-económico considerável, sendo uma importante causa de mobimortalidade, frequentemente causador de incapacidade permanente. Procuramos caracterizar a utilização dos recursos de saúde de adultos com traumatismo crânio-encefálico em Portugal entre 2000-2010. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de registos de adultos com código ICD9 de traumatismo crânio-encefálico incluídos na Base-de-Dados Nacional de Grupos Diagnósticos Homogéneos de 2000-2010. Realizamos uma análise estatística descritiva e avaliamos as tendências durante a década. Resultados: Analisamos 72 865 admissões em 111 hospitais, 64,1% do sexo masculino, idade média de 57,9 ± 21,8 anos (18-107). Encontramos uma diminuição no número de traumatismo crânio-encefálico em pacientes jovens e um aumento nos mais velhos. O número de acidentes de trânsito diminuiu e o número de quedas aumentou. Houve um aumento de traumatismos crânio-encefálicos moderados-graves internados: 47,2% em 2000 / 80% em 2010. O número de admissões em Cuidados Intensivos quase duplicou (15,8% vs 29,5%), assim como o número de procedimentos neurocirúrgicos efectuados (8,2% vs 15,2%). A mortalidade total aumentou de 7,1% para 10,6%. Discussão: A diminuição do traumatismo crânio-encefálico observada pode estar associada com as campanhas de prevenção rodoviária, melhoria da rede rodoviária e políticas de saúde. O aumento da mortalidade poderá ser explicado pelo melhor atendimento pré-hospitalar, permitindo que casos mais graves cheguem ao hospital com vida e, embora tratados com mais frequência em Cuidados Intensivos e exigindo procedimentos neurocirúrgicos, vêm a falecer. Por outo lado, o aumento da idade dos doentes presumivelmente com maiores co-morbilidades associadas ao envelhecimento também estará a contribuir para a maior mortalidade. Conclusão: O traumatismo crânio-encefálico em Portugal está a mudar

  4. How patients with heart failure are managed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cândida; Ceia, Fátima; Brito, Dulce; Madeira, Hugo

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of heart failure is increasing all over the world. It is a common and growing public health problem in Portugal as in many other European countries. This article provides a review of health service organization and current heart failure management in Portugal, discusses primary care and ward practices in different hospitals and reports on the use of proven standard therapies for the treatment of heart failure in the community. Despite major advances in diagnosis and treatment, heart failure is only satisfactorily managed. Furthermore efforts are necessary before the beneficial effects observed in trials have a real impact in clinical practice. A broader view and priority for the management of this syndrome on a national level are needed to improve the quality of heart failure care in Portugal.

  5. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carla; Ramalho Sousa, Sérgio; Anastácio, Sofia; Goreti Matias, Maria; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; João Vieira, Maria; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-23

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered from alive animal were morphological identified as T. callipaeda. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox 1) from nematode specimens was amplified by PCR. Cox1 sequences of all specimens were identical to T. callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal.

  6. Analysis of the Type IV Fimbrial-Subunit Gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: Application in PCR-Mediated Detection of Yellow Disease in Hyacinths

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J.; Hollinger, T. C.; Oudega, B.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280–1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR. PMID:11157222

  7. Estimating the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A L; Lisboa, M

    2016-10-01

    Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. Prevalence estimation. Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged <15 years living in Portugal who have undergone or will probably undergo FGM/C. It is estimated that 6576 women aged ≥15 years living in Portugal have undergone FGM/C, with cases distributed unevenly throughout the national territory. In addition, it is estimated that 1830 girls aged <15 years living in Portugal have undergone or are likely to undergo FGM/C. This study estimated that more than 6000 women living in Portugal have undergone FGM/C, and many girls remain at risk. These two groups need different types of interventions. Awareness of the number and geographical dispersion of cases of FGM/C will enable more informed and targeted definition of public health policies for protection of females who have undergone or are at risk of undergoing FGM/C. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  9. Pediatric and neonatal transport in Spain, Portugal and Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, S; Escobar, M; Cabrerizo, M; Gómez, M; González, R; López-Herce Cid, J

    2017-04-01

    To study the organization of inter-hospital transport of pediatric and neonatal patients in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. An observational study was performed. An on-line survey was sent by email including questions about characteristics of national, regional and local health transport systems, vehicles, material, and composition of the transport team and their training. Hospital pediatric healthcare professionals treating children in Spain, Portugal and Latin America RESULTS: A total of 117 surveys from 15 countries were analyzed. Of them, 55 (47%) come from 15 regions of Spain and the rest from Portugal and 13 Latin American countries. The inter-hospital transport of pediatric patients is unified only in the Spanish regions of Baleares and Cataluña and in Portugal. Chile has a mixed unified transport system for pediatric and adult patients. Only 51.4% of responders have an educational program for the transport personnel, and only in 36.4% of them the educational program is specific for pediatric patients. In Spain and Portugal the transport is executed mostly by public entities, while in Latin America public and private systems coexist. Specific pediatric equipment is more frequent in the transport teams in the Iberian Peninsula than in Latin American teams. The specific pediatric transport training is less frequent for teams in Latin America than on Spain and Portugal. There is a great variation in the organization of children transport in each country and region. Most of countries and cities do not have unified and specific teams of pediatric transport, with pediatric qualified personnel and specific material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of H-type BSE in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Orge, Leonor; Machado, Carla Guedes; Ramalho, Luísa; Carvalho, Renata; Silva, João; Almeida, Paula; Tavares, Paula; Ochoa, Cristina; Lima, Carla; Pinto, Maria J Marques; Simas, J Pedro

    2015-01-01

    During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, Portugal was the third most affected country. As a result of a successful national eradication plan, the number of BSE affected animals has been progressively declining in Portugal with no cases identified in 2013. However, within the scope of this active surveillance scheme, we have identified the first H-type BSE case born after the introduction of the reinforced ban in fallen stock. Here, we report the phenotypic features of this case and the analysis of the protein coding sequence of prnp as well as the prnp promoter and intron 1 insertion-deletions.

  11. Adult Acne: Prevalence and Portrayal in Primary Healthcare Patients, in the Greater Porto Area, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Diogo; Ladeiro, Filipa; Ruivo, Mariana; D'Oliveira, Carlos; De Sousa, Filipa; Gayo, Mariana; Lima, Clara; Magalhães, Frederico; Brandão, Rui; Branco, Maria; Da Silva, Isabel; Batista, Joana; Amado, João; Massa, António; Neves-Amado, João

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: A acne, apesar de caraterística no adolescente, afeta frequentemente o adulto. Em Portugal, não são conhecidos estudos sobre a prevalência da acne no adulto, nomeadamente observada nos grandes centros populacionais. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a prevalência da acne nos utentes dos serviços de cuidados de saúde primários, as suas características, incluindo fatores de risco para início e/ou agravamento, além de coletar informação relacionada com a automedicação e/ou tratamento prescrito. Material e Métodos: Aplicação de questionário e exame físico a amostra composta por adultos entre os 20 - 60 anos de idade que visitaram, em dias aleatórios, cinco centros de saúde da área do Grande Porto. Resultados: Dos 1 055 adultos avaliados, a prevalência estimada de acne foi de 61,5%. Apenas 36,8% dos portadores estavam cientes da sua condição e somente 25% afirmou ter procurado tratamento. Mais de metade dos fumadores (62,3%) apresentavam acne. A zona mais afetada foi a região malar, diferindo da forma adolescente da doença. Discussão: A prevalência encontrada de acne foi mais elevada do que em outros estudos. A acne aparentou estar relacionada com a ingestão calórica aumentada, tabagismo, consumo de leite gordo ou meio gordo, hirsutismo, alopécia e seborreia. Conclusão: No contexto dos cuidados de saúde primários, mais de metade dos adultos eram portadores de acne. Estes números demonstram o quão importante pode ser a prevenção e intervenção pelos profissionais dos cuidados de saúde primários, tanto para a redução de eventuais factores de risco como para a intervenção terapêutica e consequências psicossociais relacionadas com a acne. Palavras-chave: Acne Vulgaris/epidemiologia; Adulto; Cuidados de Saúde Primários; Portugal; Prevalência.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of KPC-Producing Escherichia coli: Occurrence of ST131-fimH30 Subclone Harboring pKpQIL-Like IncFIIk Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Jessica A.; Hu, Fupin; Ahn, Chulsoo; Nelson, Jeremy; Rivera, Jesabel I.; Pasculle, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Of 20 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Escherichia coli isolates identified at hospitals in western Pennsylvania, 60% belonged to the epidemic ST131-fimH30 subclone. IncFIIk was the most common replicon type for the blaKPC-carrying plasmids (n = 8). All IncFIIk plasmids possessed a scaffold similar to that of pKpQIL, and seven of them were borne by ST131-fimH30 isolates. IncN plasmids conferred resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and IncA/C plasmids conferred resistance to gentamicin. Three blaKPC-carrying plasmids (IncA/C and IncN) possessed blaSHV-7/12 and qnrA1 or qnrS1. PMID:24820082

  13. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    PubMed

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  14. Palliative care and nursing in dissertations and theses in Portugal: a bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Amélia Leite; Pereira, Alexandra Manuela Nogueira de Andrade; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Barbieri-Figueiredo, Maria do Céu

    2016-04-01

    To identify the academic scientific production on palliative care in master dissertations and PhD theses carried out by nurses in Portugal. A descriptive retrospective study of bibliometric type with search for the abstracts available in repositories of higher education institutions in the period 2000-2014. Of the 1814 papers identified, 249 met the inclusion criteria (ten doctoral theses and 239 master dissertations). The most representative methodological approach was quantitative (31.35%) and the most studied area was family/informal caregiver (20.69%). The most studied target population were the students/health professionals (38.51%). The academic scientific production in this area has been growing in spite of the need for continued investment in order to fill the identified gaps. Identificar a produção científica académica sobre cuidados paliativos nos estudos de mestrados e doutoramentos efetuados por enfermeiros em Portugal. Estudo descritivo e retrospetivo, do tipo bibliométrico, recorrendo aos resumos disponíveis nos repositórios das instituições de ensino superior no período 2000-2014. Dos 1814 trabalhos identificados, 249 corresponderam aos critérios de inclusão (10 teses de doutoramento e 239 dissertações de mestrado). A abordagem metodológica mais representativa é a quantitativa (31,35%), a área mais estudada foi a família/cuidador informal (20,69%) e a população-alvo mais estudada foram os estudantes/profissionais de saúde (38,51%). A produção científica académica nessa área tem vindo a crescer. Embora exista necessidade de investimento contínuo de forma a colmatar as lacunas identificadas.

  15. Challenges and strategies to improve the availability and geographic accessibility of physicians in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Cavalcante; Dussault, Gilles; Craveiro, Isabel

    2017-03-23

    Shortages of physicians in remote, rural and other underserved areas and lack of general practitioners limit access to health services. The aims of this article are to identify the challenges faced by policy and decision-makers in Portugal to guarantee the availability and geographic accessibility to physicians in the National Health Service and to describe and analyse their causes, the strategies to tackle them and their results. We also raise the issue of whether research evidence was used or not in the process of policy development. We analysed policy and technical documents, peer-reviewed papers and newspaper articles from 1995 to 2015 through a structured search of government websites, Portuguese online newspapers and PubMed and Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS)) databases; key informants were consulted to validate and complement the documentary search. The challenges faced by decision-makers to ensure access to physicians were identified as a forecasted shortage of physicians, geographical imbalances and maldistribution of physicians by level of care. To date, no human resources for health policy has been formulated, in spite of most documents reviewed stating that it is needed. On the other hand, various isolated and ad hoc strategies have been adopted, such as incentives to choose family health as a specialty or to work in an underserved region and recruitment of foreign physicians through bilateral agreements. Health workforce research in Portugal is scarce, and therefore, policy decisions regarding the availability and accessibility of physicians are not based on evidence. The policy interventions described in this paper should be evaluated, which would be a good starting point to inform health workforce policy development.

  16. A FimH Inhibitor Prevents Acute Bladder Infection and Treats Chronic Cystitis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131

    PubMed Central

    Totsika, Makrina; Kostakioti, Maria; Hannan, Thomas J.; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A.; Janetka, James W.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 represents a predominant clone of multidrug-resistant uropathogens currently circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli ST131 are typically associated with limited treatment options and are often recurrent. Methods. Using established mouse models of acute and chronic UTI, we mapped the pathogenic trajectory of the reference E. coli ST131 UTI isolate, strain EC958. Results. We demonstrated that E. coli EC958 can invade bladder epithelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities early during acute UTI. Moreover, E. coli EC958 persisted in the bladder and established chronic UTI. Prophylactic antibiotic administration failed to prevent E. coli EC958–mediated UTI. However, 1 oral dose of a small-molecular-weight compound that inhibits FimH, the type 1 fimbriae adhesin, significantly reduced bacterial colonization of the bladder and prevented acute UTI. Treatment of chronically infected mice with the same FimH inhibitor lowered their bladder bacterial burden by >1000-fold. Conclusions. In this study, we provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanisms used by the globally disseminated E. coli ST131 clone during acute and chronic UTI and establish the potential of FimH inhibitors as an alternative treatment against multidrug-resistant E. coli. PMID:23737602

  17. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM—admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM—Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself. PMID:27780215

  18. Men and family planning in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vicente, A

    1993-10-01

    Although family planning services in Portugal are open to everybody, male and female, and they are free of charge, it is mostly women who are using the services, since family planning services have integrated maternal health care. Between 1978 and 1981, the Commission for the Portuguese Commission for Equality and Women's Rights implemented a family planning information, education, and communication project under technical and financial aid by the United Nations Population Fund. During a training course for a group of 12 women, which took place in the small town Vialonga near Lisbon in 1992, all women said that their husbands did not play any role in family planning. The choice of the method was their sole responsibility. In 1988, data were gathered by the General Direction of Primary Health Care from the local health services. 17.6% of women used the pill, and 28% practiced coitus interruptus. Condom use amounted to 5.7%. Other methods were the IUD (7.3%), natural methods (3.6%), spermicides (2.6%), the diaphragm (0.3%), and sterilization (female 3.6%; male 0.3%). In 1992, the Commission published a study on family planning, involving 638 men and 882 women, which concluded that the responsibility for family planning was no longer exclusively with women and that young, single people were in favor of family planning information sessions. The Portuguese Constitution states that the state shall promote a wider knowledge of family planning methods and responsible parenthood. The Health Secretary of State ordered the integration of family planning into the National Health Service in 1976. A 1984 law, Sex Education and Family Planning, and a 1985 Government Order constitute the legal framework for the practice of family planning. The Commission for Equality and Women's Rights has been implementing information, education, and communication activities since 1976. One of the members of the Consultative Council is the Association for Family Planning, which has also been

  19. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  20. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  1. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  2. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY - MOROCCO, SPAIN, PORTUGAL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46044 (18-21 July 1966) --- Straits of Gibraltar and Spain ? Portugal (left), Morocco (right), Atlantic Ocean (foreground), and unique vortex, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  5. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  6. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  7. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  8. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  9. Open Plan Schools in Portugal: Failure or Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinho, Miguel; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Open plan schools have been largely contested in Portugal; many teachers, administrators and even parents consider this model of schooling inappropriate and therefore a failure. Recently however the Escola da Ponte, one of the open plan schools that has survived, was recognised as one of the country's most innovative educational facilities.…

  10. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  11. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  12. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  13. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  14. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  15. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  16. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  17. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  18. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  19. Christmas, Natal, Navidad in Cuba, Mexico, and Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Maria Joao, Ed.; Fontes, Manuel da Costa, Ed.

    This material is a compilation of junior high school student-developed stories and games about the way Christmas is celebrated in Portugal, Mexico, and Cuba. The material was developed in the classroom by Portuguese, Mexican, and Cuban immigrant students and by American students who do not have a recent immigrant background, all of whom were…

  20. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  1. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  2. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  3. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  4. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  5. School Closures and Community Revitalisation: The Case of Obidos, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godinho, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Rural communities in many countries are faced with the need to restructure their school networks and close some smaller facilities. Obidos, a town in western Portugal, provides a case study of how to meet these challenges by creating new school complexes that offer improved educational opportunities to the teaching staff, students and local…

  6. Diversity of Cercopithifilaria species in dogs from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Filarioids belonging to the genus Cercopithifilaria (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) have been described in dogs in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks, which act as their biological vectors. This study represents the first investigation on Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs from Portugal. Findings Dogs (n = 102) from the Algarve region (south of Portugal) were sampled by skin snip collection and tissues were left to soak overnight in saline solution. Sediments were observed under a light microscope and the detected microfilariae identified according to their morphology. Twenty-four dogs (23.5%) were found infected with at least one species of Cercopithifilaria, namely C. bainae (9.8%), C. grassii (3.9%) and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2013 (13.7%). Results were confirmed by molecular amplification of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rRNA genes and sequence analysis. Co-infections with more than one Cercopithifilaria species were detected in 3.9% of the animals. Conclusions This is the first report of Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs from Portugal. The estimated level of infection with C. bainae, C. grassii and Cercopithifilaria sp. II suggests that these filarioids are prevalent in the canine population of southern Portugal. PMID:24898125

  7. [Hepatitis B genotype distribution in Portugal and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana; Areias, Jorge; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. In Portugal, around 1% of the population is chronically infected. Some genotypes are only predominant in some geographical regions; however migration around the world can lead to the dissemination of the different genotypes. The heterogeneity of hepatitis B genotypes seems to be related to differences in clinical evolution of the infection and response to antiviral treatment. The present study was designed to review the worldwide geographical distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes, and to analyze the possible relationships with the distribution of genotypes in Portugal. Studies of interest were identified by search on indexed journals. Search of Portuguese information was extended to conference proceedings in the areas of Virology and Hepatology. In Asia genotypes B and C were prevalent; in the North of Africa the genotype D was prevalent, and in the East Coast genotype E was predominant. In the American continent the most predominant genotypes were A, D, F, G and H. In South America, Venezuela and Argentina showed a high prevalence of genotype F, in Brazil genotype A was prevalent. In Europe, including Portugal, genotypes A and D were predominant. In Portugal genotypes C, E and F were observed in Portuguese patients and in immigrant patients. The pattern of global migration affects the pattern of genotype distribution, introducing genotypes in regions where the clinical outcome can differ from the population of origin. The genotypic distribution found in Portugal seems to be associated not just with being a European country, but also with immigration from Africa, Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Asian countries like China. The study of the hepatitis B genotypic distribution should be extended to all regions in Portugal, namely Lisbon where the immigration levels are higher, as well as to the autonomous regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira islands. The relationship between hepatitis B genotypes and

  8. Body Mass Index assessment of health care professionals in a primary care setting in Portugal: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Campos-Matos, Inês; Peralta-Santos, André; Gomes, Bernardo; Borges, Gustavo; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A obesidade é um importante problema de saúde pública por ser fator de risco para numerosas doenças e estar associada a maior risco de morte. A evidência sobre a prevalência de excesso de peso em profissionais de saúde é escassa e este grupo é frequentemente esquecido em programas de intervenção. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estimar a prevalência de obesidade e excesso de peso entre os profissionais nos cuidados de saúde primários portugueses e descrever diferenças entre os grupos profissionais.Material e Métodos: Estudo descritivo transversal em contexto de cuidados de saúde primários em Portugal em 2011. Foram recolhidos dados sobre a ocupação, idade, sexo e altura de profissionais de quatro agrupamentos de centros de saúde. Fizemos uma análise descritiva das principais variáveis e uma análise de covariância para comparar o índice de Massa Corporal.Resultados: O grupo de conveniência representou 52,8% do total da população dos quatro agrupamentos de centros de saúde, sendo que 38,6% tinham excesso de peso e 16,9% eram obesos. Após ajustamento por idade e sexo, os assistentes técnicos e operacionais tiveram a média mais elevada de índice de Massa Corporal.Discussão: Apesar de não se poder garantir a generalização dos resultados nem excluir a possibilidade de viés de amostragem, estes resultados sugerem uma elevada prevalência de obesidade e excesso de peso nos profissionais dos cuidados primários de saúde em Portugal.Conclusão: Neste contexto de cuidados de saúde primários mais de metade dos profissionais de saúde apresentavam excesso de peso ou obesidade. ɉ possível que sejam necessárias intervenções específicas.

  9. Uncertainties in climate change projections for viticulture in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of climate change impacts on viticulture is often carried out using regional climate model (RCM) outputs. These studies rely on either multi-model ensembles or on single-model approaches. The RCM-ensembles account for uncertainties inherent to the different models. In this study, using a 16-RCM ensemble under the IPCC A1B scenario, the climate change signal (future minus recent-past, 2041-2070 - 1961-2000) of 4 bioclimatic indices (Huglin Index - HI, Dryness Index - DI, Hydrothermal Index - HyI and CompI - Composite Index) over mainland Portugal is analysed. A normalized interquartile range (NIQR) of the 16-member ensemble for each bioclimatic index is assessed in order to quantify the ensemble uncertainty. The results show significant increases in the HI index over most of Portugal, with higher values in Alentejo, Trás-os-Montes and Douro/Porto wine regions, also depicting very low uncertainty. Conversely, the decreases in the DI pattern throughout the country show large uncertainties, except in Minho (northwestern Portugal), where precipitation reaches the highest amounts in Portugal. The HyI shows significant decreases in northwestern Portugal, with relatively low uncertainty all across the country. The CompI depicts significant decreases over Alentejo and increases over Minho, though decreases over Alentejo reveal high uncertainty, while increases over Minho show low uncertainty. The assessment of the uncertainty in climate change projections is of great relevance for the wine industry. Quantifying this uncertainty is crucial, since different models may lead to quite different outcomes and may thereby be as crucial as climate change itself to the winemaking sector. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.

  10. Employment and basic needs: lessons of a mission to Portugal.

    PubMed

    Van Rijckeghem, W

    1978-01-01

    The task of the International Labour Organization (ILO) mission that visited Portugal in 1977 differed in several respects from that of earlier missions undertaken in the framework of the World Employment Programme: 1) with a per capita consumption of U.S. $1000 a year, Portugal is far better off than the other countries to which ILO missions were sent; 2) following the Revolution of April 25, 1974, Portugal had already adopted many of the recommendations such as those concerning income redistribution and land reform contained in the reports of earlier ILO missions; and 3) as a consequence of the above, the ILO mission to Portugal was not asked to produce a report and make recommendations, but to participate directly in the drafting of the 1977-80 Plan through a joint Portuguese-ILO Working Group. The present article draws both on the report of the Working Group and on subsequent research. Open unemployment is a recent phenomenon in Portugal, and the objective of the Medium-Term Plan is to improve basic-needs satisfaction and reduce unemployment. It can be reasonably assumed that the increased activity of the agricultural sector, together with continued north-south migration, will absorb much of the existing underemployment. Concerning industry, the reorientation of industrial growth towards the requirements of a basic-needs strategy and more employment-intensive production represents a considerable change from past strategies and policies. Concerning the basic-needs approach as a development strategy, it is useful to show that such a strategy remains compatible with the pursuit of more traditional objectives, such as sustained growth, full employment, balance-of-payments equilibrium, equitable income distribution, and harmonious regional development.

  11. [A community-based study of stroke code users in northern Portugal].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Mariana; Magalhães, Rui; Correia, Manuel; Silva, M Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2002 Portugal detinha uma das mais altas taxas de mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares entre os países europeus. Várias estratégias foram adoptadas para melhorar a prevenção da doença e o seu tratamento na fase aguda, entre as quais a criação da Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral. O objectivo deste trabalho é descrever a utilização e resultados desta estratégia no contexto de um registo prospectivo comunitário na Região Norte de Portugal. Material e Métodos: Foram registados todos os AVCs ocorridos entre 1 de Outubro de 2009 e 30 de Setembro de 2010 nos utentes inscritos no agrupamento de centros de saúde do Porto Ocidental e nos de Mirandela e Vila Pouca de Aguiar. Para a detecção de casos utilizaram-se múltiplas fontes de informação: notificação via WEB, e-mail, Alerta P1 e pesquisas sistemáticas em registos disponibilizados pelas entidades envolvidas - urgências hospitalares, listas de altas, procedimentos de diagnóstico, óbitos, Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral e serviço de atendimento de situações urgentes. Resultados: Ocorreram 600 AVCs em 241 000 habitantes (taxa de incidência de 250 / 100 000), dos quais 434 foram primeiros na vida (180 / 100 000). Foram registados 72 acessos à Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, dos quais 66,7% foram diagnosticados como AVC. Considerando os quatro critérios de activação (idade ≤ 80 anos, independência funcional, sinais/sintomas do AVC e tempo após episódio ≤ 3 horas), só 15,9% dos doentes a poderiam utilizar e, dos utilizadores, apenas 56,3% satisfaziam esses critérios. Dos doentes com critérios de activação, foram internados 96,3% pela VV pré-hospitalar, 83,3% pela VV intra/inter-hospitalar e 64,0% dos restantes; a fibrinólise foi realizada em 77,3%, 36,4% e 17,4% dos doentes com enfarte cerebral, respectivamente. O Rankin pós- AVC é mais grave nos utilizadores da VV pré-hospitalar (70,3% vs. 35,3%), mas estes apresentam mais

  12. Economic analysis of rivaroxaban for the treatment and long-term prevention of venous thromboembolism in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Isabel Fonseca; Pereira, Sónia; McLeod, Euan; Guillermin, Anne-Laure; Chatzitheofilou, Ismini

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O tromboembolismo venoso representa uma carga substancial para os sistemas de saúde. O objectivo foi estimar os resultados clínicos e económicos a longo-prazo associados a rivaroxabano relativamente à prática clínica (enoxaparina/varfarina) no tratamento e prevenção secundária de tromboembolismo venoso em Portugal.Material e Métodos: Foi desenvolvido um modelo de Markov baseado nos ensaios clínicos EINSTEIN e dados da literatura para complicações a longo-prazo. Foram avaliados custos e anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade de vida totais e incrementais e rácio custo-efectividade incremental. As indicações trombose venosa profunda e embolismo pulmonar foram analisados separadamente. Adoptou-se a perspectiva da sociedade portuguesa e um horizonte temporal de cinco anos. Aplicou-se uma taxa de actualização de cinco por cento para custos e consequências. Foram desenvolvidas análises de sensibilidade e diversas análises de cenário para avaliação da variação dos resultados em função de determinados pressupostos.Resultados: Rivaroxabano está associado a menores custos na trombose venosa profunda e constitui uma alternativa associada a menores custos e a maior eficácia no tratamento de embolismo pulmonar, relativamente a enoxaparina/varfarina.Discussão: O recurso a um painel de peritos para identificação de alguns recursos e a ausência de utilidades específicas para Portugal constituem as principais limitações.Conclusão: Rivaroxabano constitui uma alternativa eficaz, estando associado a menores custos (para ambas as indicações) e a mais anos de vida ajustados pela qualidade de vida (para embolismo pulmonar) relativamente a enoxaparina/varfarina em Portugal.

  13. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Survivors: Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Sexual Activity Questionnaire for Use in Portugal.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Filipa Alves; Ribeiro, Manuel Castro; Braga, Sofia; Carvalho, Elisabete; Francisco, Fátima; Miranda, Ana Costa; Moreira, António; Fallowfield, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    Introdução: A crescente população de sobreviventes de cancro da mama tem redireccionado o interesse investigacional e prático para o impacto da doença e do seu tratamento nas várias áreas da qualidade de vida. A falta de questionários para avaliar de forma objectiva a disfunção sexual conduziu à necessidade de adaptar e validar culturalmente o Sexual Activity Questionnaire para utilização em Portugal. Material e Métodos: O Sexual Activity Questionnaire foi traduzido e retrovertido, sua versão de consenso refinada após teste de compreensão, e subsequentemente auto-administrado a uma amostra alargada de sobreviventes de cancro da mama em dois momentos, espaçados 15 dias, para julgar a sua validade e fiabilidade. Resultados: Após alterações minor à versão de consenso, o Sexual Activity Questionnaire foi aplicado a 134 doentes. Obteve-se uma estrutura de três factores (75,5% da variância), compreendendo as escalas do Prazer, Hábito e Desconforto, todas com boa consistência interna (α de Cronbach > 0,70), boa validade concorrente com o FACt-An e a checklist BCPT (r de Spearman > 0,65; p-value < 0,001) e estabilidade temporal aceitável (k de Cohen > 0,44). Foi identificada inactividade sexual em 23,9% das mulheres, devido a falta de interesse ou ao facto de não ter parceiro. Discussão: Os dados reportados pelos doentes conduziram a alterações nos cuidados prestados, que passaram a contemplar a oncosexologia. Estudos futuros deverão focar-se na aplicabilidade deste questionário a amostras com diferentes características e mesmo à população global, para se poderem generalizar os resultados. Conclusão: A versão obtida do Sexual Activity Questionnaire é válida para avaliar a função sexual em sobreviventes de cancro da mama em Portugal.

  14. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  15. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal.

  16. Social Movements in Renewable Energy Development in Portugal and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Nathan William

    Changes in the climatic stasis of the planet have been observed for many years and these changes are at last having an impact on the perceived security of the planet as a whole. The causes of these changes are linked generally to the emission of gasses emitted by the burning of hydrocarbons for the production of energy. The shift toward less intensive hydrocarbon use and more non-emitting sources of energy appear to be driven by a popular desire for action from populations. Among the many examples of renewable energy development Portugal stands out as a shining example of great development in a short period of time. Whether that development has been caused by popular demand within the state or due to political processes within the state or political influences external to the state is important to understand so that similar results can be replicated throughout the world. KEYWORDS: Social Movement Theory, Collective Action, Renewable Energy development, Portugal, California.

  17. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health.

  18. [Politicized sexualities: AIDS activism and sexual orientation in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks.

  1. [Cutaneous loxoscelism in Portugal: a rare cause of dermonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Inês; Rocha, Sónia; Ferreira, Maria Eugénia; Vieira, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Margarida Robalo; Reis, José Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous loxoscelism is an exceptional diagnosis in Portugal, regardless of the documented presence of Loxosceles rufescens.We report a 33-year old female patient presenting to our clinic after having visualized a bite from a spider in the inner aspect of the right thigh. Afterwards, she developed a warm, painful erythematous plaque, progressing to skin necrosis and torpid ulcer formation. Considering the failure of conservative measures, surgical debridement of the ulcer followed by repair using an O-Z plasty achieved good functional outcome. Definite diagnosis of cutaneous loxoscelism may be difficult since it relies on the visualization of the bite, capture of the spider for identification and typical clinical features. This case meets several criteria that allow the establishment of a causative link between spider bite and dermonecrosis. It is, to the best of our knowledge, the first diagnosis of loxoscelism reported in Portugal.

  2. Generation of construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    In line with the growing concern around the world about construction and demolition waste (CDW) management, an attempt has been made to quantify the amount of CDW generated in Portugal, a country where no reliable/official data exist. This is an increasingly important concern of companies, businesses and municipalities involved with CDW, in a context of rising demands and more demanding recent legislation. One methodology is presented to quantify the present generation, and another to extrapolate this generation over the next few years, up to 2020. It is concluded that at present substantially less CDW is generated than the figure usually cited for Portugal, based on Spanish estimates, although it is predicted that this value will be higher on a 10-15 year timescale, reaching over 400 kg person⁻¹ year⁻¹.

  3. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J; Werneburg, Glenn T; Thanassi, David G; Li, Huilin

    2016-09-01

    The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli use this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function. Pili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. Uropathogenic E. coli relies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to adhere to the urinary tract and establish infection. Studying pilus assembly is important for understanding mechanisms of protein secretion, as well as for identifying points for therapeutic

  4. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli use this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function. IMPORTANCE Pili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. Uropathogenic E. coli relies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to adhere to the urinary tract and establish infection. Studying pilus assembly is important for understanding mechanisms of protein secretion, as well as for identifying points for

  5. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.; Li, Huilin; Christie, P. J.

    2016-06-27

    ABSTRACT

    The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains ofEscherichia coliuse this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function.

    IMPORTANCEPili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. UropathogenicE. colirelies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to adhere to the urinary

  6. [Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Machado, F L

    1997-06-01

    "With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union." (EXCERPT)

  7. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  8. History of Astronomy in Portugal: Theories, Institutions and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, throughout its history, astronomy was developed in the context of the mathematical sciences. During the times of Portugal's Maritime Discoveries, astronomical navigation was based on spherical trigonometry, and therefore it was the mathematicians who taught astronomy to the pilots. During the 17th century, basic notions of astronomy were taught in mathematical courses in the University and in the main Jesuit colleges. This tradition continued in the 18th century, so it is no wonder that one of the most influent Portuguese astronomers during this period was the mathematician José Monteiro da Rocha. During the 19th century the new centres of science teaching, as the Polytechnic School in Lisbon, or the Polytechnic Academy in Oporto, developed astronomy teaching and research in the context of the mathematics subjects. The inheritors of these 19th century institutions, respectively the Faculties of Sciences of Lisbon and Oporto, upheld this tradition until the final decades of 20th century and continued to consider astronomy as a subject to be taught in their mathematics departments. This Meeting aims at outlining several perspectives on the history of astronomy in Portugal, particularly analysing its ties with mathematical sciences and astronomy applications. The Meeting is organised by the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon (MCUL) with CMAF, CMUC, CMUP and the CIUHCT, and is included in CIM events. It is integrated in the commemorations of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009).

  9. Regulation of clinical research and bioethics in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fatima Lampreia

    2007-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the Portuguese transposition of the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (2001/20/E) concerning scientific and academic debates on bioethics and clinical investigation. Since the Directive was transposed into Portuguese law by its National Assembly, the bureaucracy of clinical trials has been ever more complex. Despite demands for swift application processes by the Pharmaceutical industry, supported by the European Parliament, the Directive's transcription to the national law has not always delivered the expected outcome. However, this has led to an increased number of applications for clinical trials in Portuguese hospitals. In this article I revise bioethical publications and decree-laws enabling an informed appraisal of the anxieties and prospects for the implementation of the clinical trials Directive in Portugal. This article also places the European Directive in the field of sociology of bioethics, arguing that Portuguese bioethical institutions differ from those of the US, and also from Northern European counterparts. The main divergence is that those people in Portugal who claim expertise in 'legal' bioethics do not dominate either the bureaucratic structure of research or ethics committees for health. Even experts in the applied ethics field now claim that 'professional bioethicists do not exist'. The recent creation of a national Ethics Committee for Clinical Investigation (CEIC) in line with the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (GCP) will not change the present imbalance between different professional jurisdictions in the national bioethical debate in Portugal.

  10. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal.

  11. The valuation of the EQ-5D in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a preference-based measure widely used in cost-utility analysis (CUA). Several countries have conducted surveys to derive value sets, but this was not the case for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to estimate a value set for the EQ-5D for Portugal using the time trade-off (TTO). A representative sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 450) stratified by age and gender valued 24 health states. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers. Each respondent ranked and valued seven health states using the TTO. Several models were estimated at both the individual and aggregated levels to predict health state valuations. Alternative functional forms were considered to account for the skewed distribution of these valuations. The models were analyzed in terms of their coefficients, overall fit and the ability for predicting the TTO values. Random effects models were estimated using generalized least squares and were robust across model specification. The results are generally consistent with other value sets. This research provides the Portuguese EQ-5D value set based on the preferences of the Portuguese general population as measured by the TTO. This value set is recommended for use in CUA conducted in Portugal.

  12. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  13. Presence of fimH, mrkD, and irp2 virulence genes in KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Recife-PE, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Andrade Melo, Rita; de Barros, Emmily Margate Rodrigues; Loureiro, Noel Guedes; de Melo, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strains can produce different virulence factors, such as fimbrial adhesins and siderophores, which are important in the colonization and development of the infection. The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of fimH, mrkD, and irp2 virulence genes in 22 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates as well as 22 not producing-KPC isolates, from patients from different hospitals in Recife-PE, Brazil, and also to analyze the clonal relationship of the isolates by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The genes were detected by PCR and DNA sequencing. The bla KPC-2 gene was identified in 22 KPC-positive isolates. On analyzing the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates, it was detected that polymyxin and amikacin were the antimicrobials of best activity against K. pneumoniae. On the other hand, five isolates exhibited resistance to polymyxin. In the KPC-positive group, was observed a high rate of resistance to cephalosporins, followed by carbapenems. Molecular typing by ERIC-PCR detected 38 genetic profiles, demonstrating a multiclonal spread of the isolates analyzed. It was observed that the virulence genes irp2, mrkD, and fimH were seen to have together a higher frequency in the KPC-positive group. The accumulation of virulence genes of KPC-positive K. pneumoniae isolates, observed in this study, along with the multi-resistance impose significant therapeutic limitations on the treatment of infections caused by K. pneumoniae.

  14. A new model for cork weight estimation in Northern Portugal with methodology for construction of confidence intervals

    Treesearch

    Teresa J.F. Fonseca; Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Cork, a unique biological material, is a highly valued non-timber forest product. Portugal is the leading producer of cork with 52 percent of the world production. Tree cork weight models have been developed for Southern Portugal, but there are no representative published models for Northern Portugal. Because cork trees may have a different form between Northern and...

  15. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  16. Students' Perceptions of Assessment: A Comparative Analysis between Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Diana; Niklasson, Laila; Flores, Maria Assunção

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating students' perceptions about assessment, especially the ways in which it is put into practice. Data were collected through questionnaires in different programmes in Portugal and Sweden. In total, 173 students from Portugal and 72 from Sweden participated in the study. Findings showed that students had similar ideas…

  17. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  18. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  19. Students' Perceptions of Assessment: A Comparative Analysis between Portugal and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Diana; Niklasson, Laila; Flores, Maria Assunção

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating students' perceptions about assessment, especially the ways in which it is put into practice. Data were collected through questionnaires in different programmes in Portugal and Sweden. In total, 173 students from Portugal and 72 from Sweden participated in the study. Findings showed that students had similar ideas…

  20. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  1. Enhancing Portugal's Human Capital. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 505

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Stephanie; Larre, Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    The lack of human capital in Portugal has become a key obstacle to higher growth. This paper discusses the performance of education and training services in Portugal and shows that improvements are needed to narrow the significant human capital gap with other OECD countries. Despite progress in the past decades, Portuguese children spend…

  2. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  3. Evaluation of the effect of MPL and delivery route on immunogenicity and protectivity of different formulations of FimH and MrpH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in a UTI mouse model.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are an important cause of morbidity and with the high rate of relapse and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens, pose a significant public health challenge worldwide. Lack of an efficacious commercial vaccine targeting both uropathogens makes development of a combined vaccine highly desirable. In this study the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of FimH of UPEC, MrpH of P. mirabilis and their fusion protein (MrpH.FimH) subcutaneously administered with and without Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant were evaluated. Our data showed that the subcutaneously administered proteins induced both serum and mucosal IgG, which MPL significantly improved developing a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. However, the preparations induced a higher systemic and mucosal IgG and IL-2 levels by this route compared to the intranasal. Immunization of mice with MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL or a mixture of FimH, MrpH and MPL conferred the highest protection of the bladder and kidneys when challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis in a UTI mouse model. Therefore considering these results MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL administered subcutaneously or intranasally could be a promising vaccine candidate for elimination of UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis.

  4. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from north of Portugal and a sample of immigrants from the Eastern Europe living in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lurdes Pontes, M; Pinheiro, M F

    2014-03-01

    The use of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic research has been widely discussed in recent years, mainly because SNPs have important advantages compared to short tandem repeats (STRs). In this study a total of 131 non related individuals from the North of Portugal and 85 immigrant individuals from the Eastern Europe, mainly Ukrainians, equally non related and residing in Portugal, were typed for 52 loci included in the in the SNP for ID 52plex with the SNaPshot™ assay.

  5. Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Heike; Höfer, Dana; Trog, Carmen; Hempel, Rita; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Former coastal estuaries in the Algarve region of South Portugal are used for reconstruction coastal evolution since first marine transgression processes at about 8.000 years before. The sediments of these archives allow high resolution analyses of geochemical and palynological signals. Drillings in different lagoons of the Algarve region contain the sequences from the fluvial sediments during the early Holocene, marine transgression facies during the middle Holocene and the marine/fluvial sediment deposits until present. The results of the sedimentological, geochemical and palynological analyses show that each estuary developed differently, depending on the morphology of the paleovalley, environmental conditions and especially the influence of the sea and the formation of barrier systems. The estuaries were flooded between 7500 and 5500 cal a BP by sea level rise and were almost completely filled by sediment by the beginning of the Roman occupation (226 y BC / 2176 cal a BP). A clear change in sedimentological processes is evident in the estuaries between 5500 and 3000 cal a BP and is interpreted as a result of high energy events such as storms or tsunamis (Schneider et al. 2009, Hilbich et al. 2008 ). Palynological as well as archaeological investigations show distinct anthropogenic influences since 3500 cal. BP by increasing values in maquies, cereals and open land communities. References Hilbich, C., Mügler, I., Daut, G., Frenzel, P., van der Borg, K., Mäusbacher, R. (2008): Reconstruction of the depositional history of the former coastal lagoon of Vilamoura (Algarve, Portugal): A sedimentological, microfaunal and geophysical approach.- Journal of Coastal Research 24(2B), 83-91. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Busch, S., Schneider, M., Baade, J., Daut, G. & R. Mäusbacher (2009): Holocene estuary development in the Algarve Region (Southern Portugal) - A reconstruction of sedimentological and ecological evolution. - Quaternary International (In Press

  6. A review of leptospirosis in farm animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rocha, T

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a review of Leptospira infection in farm animals in Portugal which is based mainly on serological results obtained in the National Veterinary Research Laboratory between January 1987 and December 1993. Serum samples were tested by the microscopic agglutination test, at a minimum dilution of 1:100. Positive titres were obtained in 15.3% of the 9,543 bovine samples examined. Sejroe, Pomona, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Icterohaemorrhagiae were the principal serogroups which reacted in the tests. A total of 3,195 pigs were tested, of which 20.2% showed positive reactions. The main serogroups which reacted were Australis, Pomona, Cynopteri, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Autumnalis. Field observations on outbreaks of leptospirosis in pigs, along with data obtained from an experimental infection with serovar mozdok in pregnant gilts suggest that this serovar, rather than serovar pomona, may be causing Pomona group infections in pigs. Serum samples from 5,298 sheep were tested and 3.3% gave positive results. The predominant serogroups involved were Canicola, Pomona, Cynopteri, Sejroe and Icterohaemorrhagiae. From the 1,631 goats examined serologically, 5.0% gave positive results, mainly to serogroups Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pyrogenes. Only 83 serum samples from horses were obtained, of which 43.4% showed positive titres. Serogroups Australis, Autumnalis, Cynopteri and Pyrogenes were those most commonly found. Serological evidence of leptospirosis in farm animals is widespread in Portugal, particularly in cattle and pigs. Leptospirosis in horses needs to be studied further. In an attempt to provide a general view on the occurrence of leptospirosis in these animal species in Portugal, the present results are compared with results obtained in previous studies and are complemented with both previous and recent bacteriological findings.

  7. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  8. Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Remote sensed information on vegetation and soil moisture, namely the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Water Index (SWI), is employed to monitor the spatial extent, severity and persistence of drought episodes over Continental Portugal, from 1999 to 2006. The severity of a given drought episode is assessed by evaluating the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation. Special attention is given to the drought episodes that have occurred in the last decade, i.e., 1999, 2002 and particularly the major event of 2005. During both the 1999 and 2005 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI are observed over large sectors of Southern Portugal for up to nine months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. On the contrary, the 2002 event was characterized by negative anomalies in the northern half of Portugal and for a shorter period (eight out of eleven months). The impact of soil moisture on vegetation dynamics is evaluated by analyzing monthly anomalies of SWI and by studying the annual cycle of SWI vs. NDVI. While in the case of the drought episode of 1999 the scarcity of water in the soil persisted until spring, in the recent episode of 2005 the deficit in greenness was already apparent at the end of summer. The impact of dry periods on vegetation is clearly observed in both arable land and forest, and it is found that arable land presents a higher sensitivity. From an operational point of view, obtained results reveal the possibility of using the developed methodology to monitor, in quasi real-time, vegetation stress and droughts in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  9. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  10. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  11. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  12. Evolution of upwelling fronts off the coast of Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in the Atlantic Ocean off the Portugal coast using satellite imagery from 1979 to 1986 in conjunction with wind data. The spatial patterns in the imagery show the typical inshore-offshore and east-west gradients, while the temporal patterns show seasonal high winter values and low summer values. In the satellite imagery for the period 1979-1986, stable mesoscale and large scale patterns recurred despite interannual differences in absolute satellite-derived pigment concentrations.

  13. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Pereira, Carlos Manuel Figueiredo Pereira; Almeida, Alexandra Isabel; Nelas, Paula Alexandra Batista; Parreira, Vitória Barros Castro; Amaral, Maria Odete

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  14. Differentiation of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus using flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) metabolic fingerprinting method combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chen, Pei

    2015-03-25

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric metabolic fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics was used to differentiate Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from its counterfeit Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus. Flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints of 9 Aurantii Fructus Immaturus samples and 12 Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus samples were acquired and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The authentic herbs were differentiated from their counterfeits easily. Eight characteristic components which were responsible for the differences between the samples were tentatively identified. Furthermore, three out of the eight components, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, were quantified. The results are useful to help identify the authenticity of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus.

  15. [Relational and reproductive trajectories leading to adolescent pregnancy in Portugal: a national and regional characterization].

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Pereira, Joana; Pedrosa, Anabela Araújo; Bombas, Teresa; Vilar, Duarte; Vicente, Lisa; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Este estudo pretendeu caracterizar as trajetórias relacionais e reprodutivas conducentes à gravidez na adolescência em Portugal, explorando a existência de especificidades regionais.Material e Métodos: O estudo decorreu entre 2008 e 2013 em 42 serviços de saúde públicos. A amostra, nacionalmente representativa, incluiu 459 grávidas com idades entre os 12 e os 19 anos. Os dados foram obtidos por autorrelato, através de uma ficha de caracterização construída para o efeito.Resultados: Independentemente de terem tido um (59,91%) ou múltiplos parceiros sexuais (40,09%), as adolescentes engravidaram de forma mais frequente numa relação de namoro, utilizando contraceção à data da conceção e tendo identificado a falha contracetiva que esteve na origem da gravidez (39,22%). A nível regional, outras trajetórias surgiram com elevada prevalência, refletindo opções como a decisão de engravidar (Alentejo/Açores), a não utilização de contraceção (Centro/Madeira) ou a sua utilização ineficaz sem que a falha contracetiva fosse identificada (Madeira). As relações de namoro revelaram-se maioritariamente duradouras (> 19 meses), com homens mais velhos (> 4 anos) e fora do sistema de ensino (75,16%); estes resultados foram particularmente expressivos quando a gravidez foi planeada.Discussão: O conhecimento gerado por este estudo reflete a necessidade de investir em abordagens preventivas que atendam às necessidades específicas das jovens de cada região e integrem a população masculina de maior risco.Conclusão: Os nossos resultados podem contribuir para o delineamento de políticas de saúde mais eficazes e para uma atuação multidisciplinar mais informada ao nível da educação sexual e do planeamento familiar nas diferentes regiões do país.

  16. [Epidemiological and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Head and Neck Tumours in the Northern Portugal: Impact on Survival].

    PubMed

    Estêvão, Roberto; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Ana; Machado, Anabela; Fernandes, João; Monteiro, Eurico

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal não existem, ainda, estudos epidemiológicos e demográficos realizados em doentes portadores de tumores da cabeça e pescoço. Os objectivos desta análise são descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e demográficos dos doentes portadores de tumores malignos da cabeça e do pescoço, referenciados ao serviço de Otorrinolaringologia de um centro oncológico do norte de Portugal e avaliar o impacto destas características na sobrevivência. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo, dos doentes referenciados entre janeiro de 2011 e dezembro de 2013 ao Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto. Foram incluídos 566 doentes. As variáveis analisadas foram a localização anatómica dos tumores, o estadiamento, o género e a idade dos doentes, o distrito de proveniência, os hábitos etílicos e tabágicos, o nível educacional, a profissão, o estado civil e a estrutura familiar.Resultados: Os 566 doentes estudados correspondem a 498 homens e 68 mulheres, com idade média de 58,1 ± 12,2 anos. A maioria (80,5%) foi referenciada com doença em estadio avançado (III e IV). Verificamos hábitos etílicos moderados a excessivos em 78% dos doentes e 69% eram fumadores. A grande maioria dos doentes (82,3%) tinha apenas o ensino básico. Os doentes com tumores da hipofaringe e com hábitos etílicos excessivos foram referenciados em estadios mais avançados e apresentaram pior sobrevivência (p < 0,001). Os doentes casados foram referenciados em estadios mais precoces (p = 0,020) e os doentes sem apoio familiar apresentaram pior sobrevivência (p = 0,030). Discussão: Os dados epidemiológicos encontrados estão de acordo com a literatura internacional. A elevada taxa de doentes referenciados em estádio avançado pode ser atribuída ao atraso na procura de cuidados médicos ou a factores inerentes ao sistema de referenciação. A vigilância e o suporte familiar têm um papel

  17. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  18. African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme.

    PubMed Central

    Portas, M.; Boinas, F. S.; Oliveira E Sousa, J.; Rawlings, P.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine). PMID:10579455

  19. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  20. Association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic level in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sónia; Furtado, Cláudia; Pereira, João

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in Portugal. Socioeconomic level is known to influence health status but there is scant evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Portugal. To analyze the distribution of cardiovascular disease in the Portuguese population according to socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the fourth National Health Survey on a representative sample of the Portuguese population. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, risk factors and number of medical visits were analyzed using odds ratios according to socioeconomic status (household equivalent income) in the adult population (35-74 years). Comparisons focused on the top and bottom 50% and 10% of household income distribution. Of the 21 807 individuals included, 53.3% were female, and mean age was 54 ± 11 years. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity were associated with lower socioeconomic status, while smoking was associated with higher status; number of medical visits and psychological distress showed no association. When present, inequality was greater at the extremes of income distribution. The results reveal an association between morbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. They also suggest that besides improved access to effective medical intervention, there is a need for a comprehensive strategy for health promotion and disease prevention that takes account of individual, cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and drought in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, D. S.; Raziei, T.; Paulo, A. A.; Pereira, L. S.

    2012-05-01

    The spatial variability of precipitation and drought are investigated for Portugal using monthly precipitation from 74 stations and minimum and maximum temperature from 27 stations, covering the common period of 1941-2006. Seasonal precipitation and the corresponding percentages in the year, as well as the precipitation concentration index (PCI), was computed for all 74 stations and then used as an input matrix for an R-mode principal component analysis to identify the precipitation patterns. The standardized precipitation index at 3 and 12 month time scales were computed for all stations, whereas the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the modified PDSI for Mediterranean conditions (MedPDSI) were computed for the stations with temperature data. The spatial patterns of drought over Portugal were identified by applying the S-mode principal component analysis coupled with varimax rotation to the drought indices matrices. The result revealed two distinct sub-regions in the country relative to both precipitation regimes and drought variability. The analysis of time variability of the PC scores of all drought indices allowed verifying that there is no linear trend indicating drought aggravation or decrease. In addition, the analysis shows that results for SPI-3, SPI-12, PDSI and MedPDSI are coherent among them.

  2. Competition policy for health care provision in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-02-01

    We review the role of competition among healthcare providers in Portugal, which has a public National Health Service (NHS) at the core of the health system. There is little competition among healthcare providers within the NHS. Competition among NHS primary care providers is hindered by excess demand (many residents in Portugal do not have a designated family doctor). Competition among NHS hospitals has been traditionally limited to cases of maximum guaranteed waiting time for surgery being exceeded. The Portuguese Competition Authority enforces competition law. It has focused on mergers between private hospitals and abuse of market power (including cartel cases) by private healthcare providers. The Healthcare Regulation Authority produced several reports on particular areas of activity by private healthcare providers. The main conclusion of these reviews was lack of conditions for effective competition, with the exception of dentistry. Within the NHS, the use of tendering procedures was able to create "competition for the market" in particular areas though it was not problem free. Details in the particular design adopted matter a lot. Overall, the scope for competition policy and for competition among healthcare providers to have a main role in a health system based on a public National Health Service seems limited, with more relevance to "competition for the market" situations than to "competition in the market". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  4. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  5. Large-scale forcing on lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Sousa, J.; Reis, M. A.; Leite, S. M.; Correia, S.; Fraga, H.; Fragoso, M.

    2012-04-01

    An overview of the large-scale atmospheric forcing on the occurrence of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Portugal is presented here. A dataset generated by a network of nine sensors, maintained by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (four sensors) and by Spanish Meteorological Agency (five sensors), with available data over the 2003-2009 time period (7 years) is used for this purpose. For the same time period, a state-of-the-art high-resolution reanalysis dataset in a 1.0° latitude × 1.0° longitude grid (Modern Era Retrospective - Analysis for Research and Applications; MERRA300) is also considered in order to assess the atmospheric large-scale features over the target region. Three lightning regimes of the atmospheric general circulation within the Euro-Atlantic sector can be clearly detected. These regimes are characterized according to their underlying dynamical conditions (sea surface pressure, 500 hPa geopotential height and air temperature, streamlines of the 10 m wind vectors, and best 4-layer lifted index at 500 hPa). The spatial distribution of lighting activity in Portugal (patterns of the density of the atmospheric electrical discharges) is also analyzed for each regime separately. Considerations regarding seasonality, flash polarity and daily cycles in the lighting activity are also given for each lightning regime.

  6. Upper-air balloon-borne observations in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Luis F.; Henriques, Diamantino; Carvalho, Renato; Prior, Vitor

    2001-08-01

    The Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM), operates regular and non-regular programmes of upper-air observations using balloons and radiosondes for measuring meteorological variables and atmospheric ozone concentration. The regular programmes consists in daily observations of upper-air pressure, temperature, humidity and wind using balloons and electronic radiosondes, carried out at 3 fixed stations in Portugal, which reach more than 30 km of altitude. IM has also 2 portable systems that are occasionally used for temporary observations during field campaigns, which have been taken several times in different regions of Portugal. The radiosondes used include electrical sensors for the PTU measurements and GPS-module for balloon tracking, which signals are used for wind computation at the ground station. Except for the Azores station, where helium is used, the balloons at all other sites are filled with hydrogen. There are also non-regular programmes that have been carried out weekly for the observation of the vertical profile of ozone up to about 35 km of altitude, using 1200 grams balloons and "Brewer-Mast" ozonesondes.

  7. Air Liquide builds H{sub 2} plant in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-19

    Air Liquide will spend $18 million to build a naphtha steam reforming unit in Estarreja, Portugal that will produce 3,700 cu meters/hour of hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The new plant will raise Air Liquide`s H{sub 2} capacity at the site to 8,000 cu meters/hour. The company supplies Anilina de Portugal with H{sub 2}. In addition, Air Liquide supplies Dow Chemical with carbon monoxide used in its methylene di-para-phenylene isocyanate plant at the site. Anilina is spending Esc1.8 billion ($11.3 million) to expand aniline capacity from 60,000 m.t./year to 95,000 m.t./year by the end of 1997 and nitrobenzene from 100,000 m.t./year to 170,000 m.t./year. This year Dow will buy more than 50,000 m.t./year of aniline from the Portuguese firm for its MDI production.

  8. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  9. Teaching and research on Developmental Biology in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Crespo, Eduardo G

    2009-01-01

    Developmental Biology has established itself as a solid field of teaching and research in Portugal. Its history is recent, generally considered to have started with the pioneering work of Augusto Celestino da Costa at the beginning of the 20th century. However, research groups were very few and, until the early 1990s, teaching beyond morphological and comparative embryology was uncommon. In 1994, the first university course dedicated to Developmental Biology as a separate field from Embryology was created at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon and a course on Plant Differentiation and Morphogenesis was also initiated. A Masters programme in Developmental Biology followed at the Lusofona University in 1996. Subsequently, modules of Developmental Biology were included in many Embryology courses and eventually more Developmental Biology courses were created. From 1999 onwards, the number of research groups working in Developmental Biology started to increase, many of which were initiated by researchers who had had the opportunity to pursue their PhD and/or post-doc studies abroad. The Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia (Gulbenkian Institute of Science) became the first home of most of these groups, but several later spread to other institutions. This increased activity in turn has stimulated teaching of Developmental Biology and more students have been getting interested in the field. This positive feedback loop makes it a nice time to be teaching and working in Developmental Biology in Portugal.

  10. DNA typing of Diptera collected from human corpses in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cainé, Laura M; Real, Francisco Corte; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; de Pancorbo, M Martínez; Lima, Gabiela; Magalhães, Teresa; Pinheiro, Fátima

    2009-01-30

    Medico-legal entomology, one area in the broad field of entomology, is routinely used in forensic applications. Insects are often collected from a corpse during criminal information related to the body, but requires the fast and accurate identification of the species attracted to the remains. The local entomofauna in most cases is important for explaining entomological evidence. The survey of the local entomofauna has become a fundamental first step in forensic entomological studies, because different geographical distributions, seasonal and environmental factors may influence the decomposition process and the occurrence of different species on corpses. A morphological and DNA-based methods for species identification were used in this study. Thirty-two cases are reported from indoors and outdoors conditions. Specimens were collected from corpses during autopsy procedures in the National Institute of Legal Medicine, Portugal, and cases were summarized by sex, death local, month of discovery, probable cause of death, species found and number of analyzed specimens. Just eight species, mainly Calliphoridae together with one Sarcophagidae were reported from corpses. The DNA sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial encoded subunit I of the cytochrome oxidase gene. The aim of this work was the beginning of a database of the cadaveric entomofauna in Portugal.

  11. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zêzere, José Luis; Vaz, Teresa; Pereira, Susana; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Marques, Rui; Garcia, Ricardo A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is the most important physical process responsible for the landslide triggering in Portugal. Following the work of Zêzere et al. (2014), we present the state of the art concerning the proposition of empirical rainfall thresholds in Portugal for different types of landslides observed in different zones of the country: the Lisbon region, the Douro Valley and the NW Mountains, and the Povoação Municipality in São Miguel Island (Azores). The empirical thresholds applied in Portugal are based on the identification of 120 landslide events and include (i) the computation of antecedent rainfall threshold defined by linear regression, (ii) the normalization of rainfall by the mean annual precipitation, (iii) the definition of combined rainfall thresholds, which integrates the rainfall event and the antecedent rainfall for different time periods, and (iv) the definition of lower limit and upper limit rainfall thresholds. The intensity-duration (ID) threshold is the empirical rainfall threshold more used worldwide. In mainland Portugal, the highest ID rainfall threshold is registered in the NW Mountains, which is the rainiest zone of the country. The Lisbon Region typically receives less rain per year and the corresponding ID threshold is lower than that obtained in the north part of the country. The Povoação study area evidence a contrasting situation, which is associated to the highest value of the negative exponential of the threshold (-0.66). As a consequence, for short duration (< 10 h) this threshold is only exceeded in the NW Mountains, while for long durations (>1,000 h) it is below the remaining thresholds. The normalization of the ID threshold by the mean annual precipitation (MAP) has showed that, in relative terms: (i) the ID threshold is highest in Lisbon Region for duration less than 50 h; (ii) in the north of the country, the ID threshold is more exigent in the Douro Valley than in the NW Mountains and (iii) the ID threshold in Povoa

  12. Trends in food availability in Portugal in 1966-2003: comparison with other Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoqiao; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    Dietary intake has changed considerably in South European countries, but whether those changes were similar between countries is currently unknown. To assess the trends in food availability in Portugal and four other Mediterranean countries from 1966 to 2003. Food and Agricultural Organization food balance sheets from Portugal, France, Italy, Greece and Spain. Trends were assessed by linear regression. The per capita availability of calories has increased in Portugal, France, Greece, Italy and Spain in the past 40 years. Portugal presented the most rapid growth with an annual increase of 28.5 +/- 2.2 kcal (slope +/- standard error), or +1000 kcal overall. In animal products, Portugal had an annual increase of 20.7 +/- 0.9 kcal, much higher than the other four countries. Conversely, the availabilities of vegetable and fruit only showed a slight growth of 1.0 +/- 0.1 kcal/year and 2.5 +/- 0.4 kcal/year, respectively, thus increasing the ration of animal to vegetable products. Olive oil availability increased in all countries with the notable exception of Portugal, where a significant decrease was noted. Wine supply decreased in all five countries; in contrast, beer supply started to take up more alcohol share. Percentage of total calories from fat increased from nearly 25% to almost 35% in Portugal during the study period, mainly at the expenses of calories from carbohydrates, whereas the share of protein showed just a slight increase. Furthermore, fat and protein were increasingly provided by animal products. Portugal is gradually moving away from the traditional Mediterranean diet to a more Westernized diet as well as France, Greece, Italy and Spain. Noticeably, the trends of diet transition were observed relatively faster in Portugal than in the other four Mediterranean countries.

  13. Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal, 2014.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Fernando; Mesquita, João R; Vala, Helena; Abreu-Silva, Joana; van der Poel, Wim H M; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2016-01-01

    Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen(®) Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics, Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.

  14. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Introdução: As infeções sexualmente transmissíveis são um problema de saúde pública, sendo mais frequentes em jovens. Este estudo teve como principal objetivo avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentos associados à aquisição de infeções sexualmente transmissíveis e o conhecimento sobre infeção por Chlamydia trachomatis em estudantes estrangeiros em intercâmbio universitário em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Os fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentos de risco foram estudados por aplicação de um questionário a estudantes em intercâmbio universitário em Portugal, inscritos nos anos letivos de 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 338 questionários: 58,3% participantes do sexo feminino e 40,8% do sexo masculino (17 aos 30 anos). A idade média apontada para o início da vida sexual foi de 17,5 anos e a média de parceiros sexuais de 6,9. Relativamente às questões inquiridas foi referido: 9,5% negaram atividade sexual oral; 29% com atividade sexual anal; 11,8% com atividade sexual com parceiros do mesmo género; 82,1% refere consumo de álcool/estupefacientes; 42,3% desconhecimento sobre a infeção por Chlamydia trachomatis e 21% sobre o risco de transmissão de infeção por via oral. Discussão: Apesar das infeções sexualmente transmissíveis poderem afetar indivíduos de todas as idades, raças e orientações sexuais, vários fatores demográficos, sociais e comportamentais têm revelado influência nas taxas de prevalência deste tipo de infeções.Conclusões: Nesta população os fatores de risco associados a uma maior prevalência de infeções sexualmente transmissíveis continuam a existir, nomeadamente início precoce da atividade sexual, parceiros sexuais múltiplos e ausência de medidas de proteção durante as relações sexuais.

  15. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D

  16. Using cellular automata to simulate forest fire propagation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Joana; daCamara, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in the Mediterranean region have severe damaging effects mainly due to large fire events [1, 2]. When restricting to Portugal, wildfires have burned over 1:4 million ha in the last decade. Considering the increasing tendency in the extent and severity of wildfires [1, 2], the availability of modeling tools of fire episodes is of crucial importance. Two main types of mathematical models are generally available, namely deterministic and stochastic models. Deterministic models attempt a description of fires, fuel and atmosphere as multiphase continua prescribing mass, momentum and energy conservation, which typically leads to systems of coupled PDEs to be solved numerically on a grid. Simpler descriptions, such as FARSITE, neglect the interaction with atmosphere and propagate the fire front using wave techniques. One of the most important stochastic models are Cellular Automata (CA), in which space is discretized into cells, and physical quantities take on a finite set of values at each cell. The cells evolve in discrete time according to a set of transition rules, and the states of the neighboring cells. In the present work, we implement and then improve a simple and fast CA model designed to operationally simulate wildfires in Portugal. The reference CA model chosen [3] has the advantage of having been applied successfully in other Mediterranean ecosystems, namely to historical fires in Greece. The model is defined on a square grid with propagation to 8 nearest and next-nearest neighbors, where each cell is characterized by 4 possible discrete states, corresponding to burning, not-yet burned, fuel-free and completely burned cells, with 4 possible rules of evolution which take into account fuel properties, meteorological conditions, and topography. As a CA model, it offers the possibility to run a very high number of simulations in order to verify and apply the model, and is easily modified by implementing additional variables and different rules for the

  17. Anisotropic Tomography of Portugal (West Iberia) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Stutzmann, Éléonore; Schimmel, Martin; Dias, Nuno; Kiselev, Sergey; Custódio, Susana; Dundar, Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Located on the western Iberian Peninsula, Portugal constitutes a key area for accretionary terrane and basin research, providing the best opportunity to probe a crustal formation shaped by the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny followed by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensions. The geology of Portugal documents a protracted history from Paleozoic basement formation to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The inheritance of such complex geologic history is yet to be fully determined, playing an important role in the current geodynamic framework influencing, for example, the observed regional seismicity. The physical properties of its crust have largely remained undetermined so far, with unevenly distributed knowledge on the spatial distributions of a detailed crustal structure. Also, the deep seismic reflection/refraction surveys conducted in Western Iberia do not provide a clear picture of the regional characteristics of the crust. Using Seismic Broad Band observations from a dense temporary deployment, conducted between 2010 and 2012 in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire Portuguese mainland, we computed a 3D anisotropic model from ambient seismic noise. The dispersion measurements were computed for each station pair using empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. After dispersion analysis, group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D anisotropic tomographic images. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave anisotropic model, using a bayesian approach. A simulated annealing method, in which the number of splines that describes the model, is adapted within the inversion. The models are jointly interpreted with the models gathered from Ps receiver functions as well as with the regional seismicity, enabling to obtain a more detailed picture of the crustal

  18. [Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history, the physical examination and all the diagnostic auxiliary exams. Consequences may range from mild to fatal, encompassing the child's psychological, cognitive, physical and sensory-motor development, on a short or long term basis. Nevertheless, from a global perspective, its prognosis is almost always poor. So, education and prevention assume primary importance in order to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality of the SBS. Countries like the U.S.A, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Estonia and Japan have long been interested in studying this syndrome's trauma mechanism and incidence, as well as in the development of

  19. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (< 20 % porosity) were mainly used for masonry, paving and production of lime. The royal Palace of Buçaco is a remarkable masonry building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones

  20. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  1. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS.

  2. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated for the fi...

  3. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for quality assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated fo...

  4. Spatio-temporal evolution of forest fires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mário G.; Parente, Joana

    2017-04-01

    A key issue in fire management is the ability to explore and try to predict where and when fires are more likely to occur. This information can be useful to understand the triggering factors of ignitions and for planning strategies to reduce forest fires, to manage the sources of ignition and to identify areas and frame period at risk. Therefore, producing maps displaying forest fires location and their occurrence in time can be of great help for accurately forecasting these hazardous events. In a fire prone country as Portugal, where thousands of events occurs each year, it is involved to drive information about fires over densities and recurrences just by looking at the original arrangement of the mapped ignition points or burnt areas. In this respect, statistical methods originally developed for spatio-temporal stochastic point processes can be employed to find a structure within these large datasets. In the present study, the authors propose an approach to analyze and visualize the evolution in space and in time of forest fires occurred in Portugal during a long frame period (1990 - 2013). Data came from the Portuguese mapped burnt areas official geodatabase (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests), which is the result of interpreted satellite measurements. The following statistical analyses were performed: the geographically-weighted summary statistics, to analyze the local variability of the average burned area; the space-time Kernel density, to elaborate smoothed density surfaces representing over densities of fires classed by size and on North vs South region. Finally, we emploied the volume rendering thecnique to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of these events into a unique map: this representation allows visually inspecting areas and time-step more affected from a high aggregation of forest fires. It results that during the whole investigated period over densities are mainly located in the northern regions, while in the

  5. Conservation and sustainability in freshwater ecosystems in Tavira (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Fonseca, José; Lopes, Luís; João Costa, Maria; Cunha, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This interdisciplinary project carried out with 8th and 9th grade students involved five teachers from three different subjects (Physics and Chemistry, Natural Science and Geography). Framed in the Water Framework Directive, it aimed at verifying the ecological quality of water in two rivers in the municipality of Tavira (South Portugal). The development of this project has been structured in accordance with the following objectives: evaluate the quality of freshwater ecosystems through the existence of certain living organisms; present proposals on ways to preserve water resources in a sustainable perspective; sensitize students to the importance of their participation in collective action by volunteering for ecological protection. This is an innovative educational experience that allowed students an integrated approach to content and procedures applied to real problems in their local environment.

  6. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  7. General review of tick species present in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Caeiro, V

    1999-09-01

    At present, 24 species are known to occur in Portugal: Argas vespertilionis, Ornithodoros maritimus and Ornithodoros erraticus in Argasidae; Ixodes acuminatus, Ixodes bivari, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes simplex simplex, Ixodes ventalloi, Ixodes vespertilionis, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor pictus', Haemaphysalis hispanica, Haemaphysalis inermis, Haemaphysalis punctata, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus pusillus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Boophilus annulatus in Ixodidae. The more relevant diseases transmitted to cattle by ticks, particulary in Ribatejo and Alentejo regions, are the babesiosis due to Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis, the theileriosis by Theileria annulata and the anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma marginale; the theileriosis by Theileria mutans2 may not be considered significant. The sheep and goats parasitoses transmitted by ticks are of less importance than the cattle diseases. However the babesiosis due to Babesia motasi and Babesia ovis and also theileriosis by Theileria hirci3 are present in some districts of the country.

  8. Study of organic honey from the Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-06-27

    Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING WITH PASSIVE DETECTORS AT CTN IN PORTUGAL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M F; Pereira, J; Rangel, S; Saraiva, M; Santos, L M; Cardoso, J V; Alves, J G

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to present the methods in use for environmental dose assessment with passive detectors at Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN) of Instituto Superior Técnico, in Portugal. The methods are based on LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) detectors inserted in Harshaw holders placed at four locations and exchanged on a quarterly basis. An initial group of measurements allowed the estimation of the time interval necessary to attain a stable value, the determination of a fading factor, as well as the calculation method for the assessment of the ambient dose equivalent rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Family Health Reform in Portugal: analysis of its implementation].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paulo de Medeiros; de Sá, Armando Brito

    2011-06-01

    Primary healthcare in Portugal is undergoing a major reform, of which family health units (FHU) are one of the more visible results. This study aimed to evaluate the FHU implementation process from 2006 onwards. Methods from a previous study of primary healthcare implementation in Brazil were used. Dimensions studied included comprehensiveness of care, organization of care, and the political-institutional perspective. The main improvements identified included better availability of care, team work, technical quality of care, innovative management practices, sustainability of the model, working conditions and infrastructure improvements. Main challenges remaining include integration with hospital care, political and institutional gray areas, need for better information systems, integration within health centers and workflow organization. These data may be useful for management decision-makers when making adjustments and corrections in the reform process.

  11. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  12. Healthcare-seeking patterns among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Cortes, Maria; de Sousa, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Equity of access to health services is a major concern as it is an important precondition for positive health outcomes. However, inequities in use of health services among immigrant populations persist. Despite the increasing research in the field, patterns of healthcare seeking among immigrant populations and its associated factors are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate healthcare-seeking patterns among immigrants in Portugal and identify factors associated with utilisation of health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009 with a sample of 1,375 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire applied by trained interviewers. Two stepwise logistic regressions were conducted to identify which factors were associated with utilisation of the National Health Service (NHS) and with healthcare seeking for the first time in Portugal at the Primary Health Care service, estimated by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among participants, around 77% reported having used the NHS; 50% sought health-care for the first time at the Primary Health Care service and 33% at the emergency room. Lower odds of having used the NHS were associated with being male, Brazilian or eastern European compared with being African, and undocumented. Lower odds of having sought health-care for the first time at the Primary Health Care service were associated with being male and undocumented. These results suggest that further efforts are needed to tackle inequalities in access to care and promote the utilisation of health services, particularly among the more vulnerable immigrant groups. Increasing appropriate utilisation of health services, including the primary and preventive care services, may lead to better health outcomes. Immigrants' involvement and participation should be incorporated into the development of health strategies to improve access and utilisation of

  13. Assimilation Studies Off Cape Sao Vicente (southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, J.; Monteiro, M.

    In April 2001 the Portuguese Navy conducted a naval exercise (Swordfish 2001) in the area off Cape Sao Vicente, in the southwest tip of Portugal. The operational environ- mental assessment (OEA) component of this exercise, conducted by Instituto Hidro- grafico, intended to provide forecasts of the oceanographic conditions to the naval forces. A program of observations, which included CTD casts to maximum depth of 2500m and AXBTs casts to maximum depth 1000m, was conducted in the area be- tween 35zN and 39zN and from 7zW to 12.5zW. Forecasts of the oceanographic con- ditions were produced using the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS) with as- similation of the hydrographic data. The period covered by the exercise was character- ized by predominant southerly winds, forcing upwelling conditions along the western Portuguese coast. These conditions promote the development of a large cold upwelling filament that extended a few hundreds of kilometers southwards Cape Sao Vicente. In this communication we present several results obtained for the period between 18 to 28 April 2001, marked by an event of two days of inversion of the upwelling favor- able. The numerical runs were obtained using two nested domains, one covering the global area of observations and the second one covering the shelf and slope area off Cape Sao Vicente. Double-sigma coordinates were used in both domains, with a total of 20 sigma levels. The surface forcing used the wind fields generated by ALADIN- Portugal, a limited area model (12.7-km grid resolution) nested on a global model (ARPEGE).

  14. Grandparents in multigenerational households: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Paula C

    2011-09-01

    Population ageing has paved the way for important and lasting multigenerational bonds, particularly between grandparents and grandchildren. Proximity is a powerful enhancer of relations, and co-residence, by involving continual proximity and long-term commitment, is particularly facilitative of significant linkages between generations. Although co-residence has generally been decreasing in Western societies, in the last decades of the millennium, a trend reversal was identified in the proportion of multigenerational households in the USA. Using data drawn from the European Community Household Panel, 1994-2001, some descriptive insights are provided that were considered to be missing in regard to the socio-demographic composition of extended households with grandparents in Portugal. Additionally, this study finds a rising trend in the proportion of multigenerational households, specifically those that include both grandparents and grandchildren. Portugal is possibly the European country that has the highest probability of exhibiting this pattern of evolution, because of the combination of its being a welfare state with limited resources, its historical reliance on family solidarity and its high level of participation of women in the labor market. Co-residence is a type of intergenerational transfer that can benefit any of the generations involved, but the direction of its net flow is still open to debate. A breakdown is made of its trend into age, period and cohort effects, in order to contribute to the discussion of the relative importance of the different generations in the shared living arrangement. Our findings suggest a mixture of interests, as well as a predominant influence of contemporary circumstances in the observed trend. These contemporary circumstances may be persistent or transient, but co-residence with grandparents is certainly an enduring mechanism, which households use in order to meet their needs.

  15. Linguistic isolates in Portugal: insights from the mitochondrial DNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Quim; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Marina; Marques, Sofia L; Ramos, Amanda; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Miranda do Douro, located in the northeastern region of Portugal, has notable characteristics not only from a geographic or naturalistic point of view, but also from a cultural perspective. A remarkable one is the coexistence of two different languages: Portuguese and Mirandese, the second being an Astur-Leonese dialect. The current persistence of the Astur-Leonese dialect in this population falls on the singularity of the region: relative isolation, implying difficulties to communicate with other Portuguese regions, while the same location facilitated the establishment of social and commercial relationships with adjacent Spanish territories, origin of the Astur-Leonese language. The objective of this study was to characterize the population from Miranda through the analysis of maternal lineages in order to evaluate whether its mitochondrial DNA diversity fitted the patterns previously reported for other populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Viewing that, the entire control region of mitochondrial DNA from 121 individuals was examined. Miranda showed a haplogroup composition usual for a Western European population, in the sense that as high as 63.6% of sequences belonged to macro-haplogroup R0. Lineages ascribed to have an African (L2a and L1b) origin, were detected, but reaching an amount commonly found in Portugal. Miranda also presented a few haplogroups typically found in Jewish populations, while rarely observed in other Iberian populations. The finding can be explained by gene flow with crypto-Jew communities that since long are known to be established in the region where Miranda is located. In Miranda, both genetic and nucleotide diversities presented low values (0.9292 ± 0.0180 and 0.01101 ± 0.00614 respectively) when compared to populations from its micro-geographical framework, which constitute a sign of population isolation that certainly provided conditions for the survival of the Astur-Leonese dialect in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  16. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  17. Managerialism and professional strategies: a case from nurses in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There have been profound changes in the Portuguese national health system (NHS), instigated under the influence of managerialism and the new public management (NPM) "philosophy". These changes have been in line with what has happened in other developed countries. At the beginning of the new century, important reforms that emphasised the efficient use of scarce resources were implemented. The objective of this study is to understand how nurses are adapting to a more managerial environment, one in which economic rationalism and market-driven initiatives are the key principles behind the health reforms. A qualitative study was developed, based on semi-structured interviews with 83 nurses with managerial duties in ten hospitals in Portugal. All interviews were tape-recorded and each interviewee's discourses were subjected to content analysis. Data analysis led to the conclusion that under the new logic of the market and managerialism, these professionals have tried to (re)define their professionalisation route by emphasising the importance of care but also by trying to incorporate management as their dominant role in the social division of work. In reconfiguring their notion of professionalism, nurses were incorporating new practices in their day-to-day activities. This empirical study confirms that professionalism can also be conceptualised as a technology of self-control being able to discipline professionals at the micro level. This research is an empirical study based on the effects of managerialism on nurses with managerial duties in Portugal. This study contributes to a better understanding of the complex process of the professionalisation of nurses in a context of institutional change.

  18. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  19. [Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-03-01

    Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P=.01), jugular vein central catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.03), and sepsis (P<.001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P<.001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P=.02), femoral vein catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P=.006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P<.001). Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Gomes, J; Cristóvão, J; Nunes, M; Martins, A; Rebêlo, E; Campino, L

    2010-12-15

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the role played by cats in Leishmania epidemiology, in an endemic focus of zoonotic leishmaniasis, the Lisbon metropolitan area, Portugal. L. infantum DNA was detected in peripheral blood of 28 out of 138 cats (20.3%). The result of PCR in blood of cats was not closely associated with the level of specific circulating antibodies in their sera. Positive serology was observed only in one cat out of 76. In the same geographic region and time period the indirect immunofluorescent test revealed 20.4% (31/152) of dogs with antibodies and PCR detected Leismania DNA on 34.9% (53/152) animals. Despite the fact that specific antibodies have been validated for diagnosis of CanL, their detection does not seem to be sensitive enough to predict Leishmania infection in cats. On the other hand, the presence of parasite DNA in cat's peripheral blood during the transmission season and out of the season suggests that these animals living in endemic areas are frequently exposed or infected with the parasite. Although dogs have been universally regarded as the major domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts, the present data allow us to hypothesize that cats can act as an alternative reservoir host of L. infantum, rather than an accidental host. However, in order to evaluate the existence of a transmission cycle with cats sustaining and spreading zoonotic leishmaniasis is necessary to prove that these animals can transmit the parasite to the vector in nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  2. Prevalence of asthma in Portugal - The Portuguese National Asthma Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a frequent chronic respiratory disease in both children and adults. However, few data on asthma prevalence are available in Portugal. The Portuguese National Asthma Survey is the first nationwide study that uses standardized methods. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of current asthma in the Portuguese population and to assess the association between ‘Current asthma’ and comorbidities such as upper airways disease. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based, telephone interview survey including all municipalities of Portugal was undertaken. Participants were randomly selected to answer a questionnaire based on the Portuguese version of the GA2LEN survey. ‘Current asthma’ was defined as self-reported lifetime asthma and at least one of 3 symptoms in the last 12 months: wheezing, waking with breathlessness or having an asthma attack. Results Data were obtained for 6 003 respondents, with mean age of 38.9 (95%CI 38.2-39.6) years and 57.3% females. In the Portuguese population, the prevalence of ‘Current asthma’ was 6.8% (95%CI 6.0-7.7) and of ‘Lifetime asthma’ was 10.5% (95%CI 9.5-11.6) Using GA2LEN definition for asthma, our prevalence estimate was 7.8% (95%CI 7.0-8.8). Rhinitis had a strong association with asthma (Adjusted OR 3.87, 95%CI 2.90-5.18) and the association between upper airway diseases and asthma was stronger in patients with both rhinitis and sinusitis (Adjusted OR 13.93, 95%CI 6.60-29.44). Conclusions Current asthma affects 695 000 Portuguese, with a prevalence of 6.8%. People who reported both rhinitis and sinusitis had the highest risk of having asthma. PMID:22931550

  3. Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical-dynamical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. F. S.; Pires, C. A. L.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric forecasting and predictability are important to promote adaption and mitigation measures in order to minimize drought impacts. This study estimates hybrid (statistical-dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6 months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is performed, in which both forecasted and observed 500 hPa geopotential height fields are subjected to a PCA in order to use forecasted PCs and persistent PCs as predictors. A second hybridization step consists on a statistical/hybrid downscaling to the regional SPI, based on regression techniques, after the pre-selection of the statistically significant predictors. The SPI forecasts and the added value of combining dynamical and statistical methods are evaluated in cross-validation mode, using the R2 and binary event scores. Results are obtained for the four seasons and it was found that winter is the most predictable season, and that most of the predictive power is on the large-scale fields from past observations. The hybridization improves the downscaling based on the forecasted PCs, since they provide complementary information (though modest) beyond that of persistent PCs. These findings provide clues about the predictability of the SPI, particularly in Portugal, and may contribute to the predictability of crops yields and to some guidance on users (such as farmers) decision making process.

  4. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  5. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  7. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  8. [Cerebrovascular mortality in Portugal: are we overemphasizing hypertension and neglecting atrial fibrillation?].

    PubMed

    Providência, Rui; Gonçalves, Lino; Ferreira, Maria João

    2013-11-01

    Cerebrovascular disease has long been the leading cause of death in Portugal. Despite improvements in the treatment of hypertension and the resulting decrease in associated mortality, the progressive aging of the population and increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation have prevented the incidence of stroke from falling as much as desired. The authors review the evidence on the situation in Portugal and propose an intervention plan.

  9. Fatal case of imported human rabies in Amadora, Portugal, August 2011.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Cale, E; Dacheux, L; Bourhy, H; Gouveia, J; Vasconcelos, P

    2012-03-22

    We report on a case of imported human rabies in Portugal, in July 2011 in a woman who presented initially complaining of back pain, without relating exposure to animal bites. She had travelled from Portugal to Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in April where she had been bitten by a dog on 1 May. She was diagnosed with rabies on 26 July and died two weeks later in spite of being treated following the Milwaukee protocol.

  10. Inhibition and Reversal of Microbial Attachment by an Antibody with Parasteric Activity against the FimH Adhesin of Uropathogenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Della; Jalan, Aachal; Gupta, Shivani; Interlandi, Gianluca; Liu, Yan; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Rodriguez, Victoria B.; Sumida, John P.; Strong, Roland K.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Thomas, Wendy E.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment proteins from the surface of eukaryotic cells, bacteria and viruses are critical receptors in cell adhesion or signaling and are primary targets for the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. It is proposed that the ligand-binding pocket in receptor proteins can shift between inactive and active conformations with weak and strong ligand-binding capability, respectively. Here, using monoclonal antibodies against a vaccine target protein - fimbrial adhesin FimH of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that unusually strong receptor inhibition can be achieved by antibody that binds within the binding pocket and displaces the ligand in a non-competitive way. The non-competitive antibody binds to a loop that interacts with the ligand in the active conformation of the pocket but is shifted away from ligand in the inactive conformation. We refer to this as a parasteric inhibition, where the inhibitor binds adjacent to the ligand in the binding pocket. We showed that the receptor-blocking mechanism of parasteric antibody differs from that of orthosteric inhibition, where the inhibitor replaces the ligand or allosteric inhibition where the inhibitor binds at a site distant from the ligand, and is very potent in blocking bacterial adhesion, dissolving surface-adherent biofilms and protecting mice from urinary bladder infection. PMID:25974133

  11. Mumps Outbreak among Highly Vaccinated Teenagers and Children in the Central Region of Portugal, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Eugénio; Ferreira, Muriel; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Palminha, Paula; Vinagre, Elsa; Pimentel, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A vacina contra o sarampo, parotidite epidémica e rubéola foi introduzida no Programa Nacional de Vacinação em 1987, atingindo rapidamente uma cobertura vacinal > 92% para duas doses, com redução importante da incidência anual da doença. Reportamos um surto de parotidite na Região Centro de Portugal ocorrido entre outubro de 2012 e março de 2013. Material e Métodos: Foram investigados os casos de tumefação de glândulas salivares e sintomas compatíveis com parotidite. Para cada caso foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais e vacinais. Resultados: Ao longo de seis meses foram notificados 148 casos: 87,8% ocorreram em três dos 16 concelhos afetados e 78,4% tinham uma relação epidemiológica conhecida. A idade mediana foi de 14,5 anos (2-62) e 70,3% tinham entre 11 e 20 anos; 61,5% eram do sexo masculino. Na maioria dos casos a doença foi ligeira, com uma duração média de sete dias (2-20). A febre ocorreu em 80,4% e a glândula parótida apresentou envolvimento unilateral em 55,4%; sete casos tiveram orquite, um ooforite e uma nefrite. Dois doentes foram internados. A transmissão da doença ocorreu predominantemente em ambiente escolar, com taxas de ataque < 30%. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em indivíduos vacinados (92%), dos quais 86,8% com duas doses. Em 17,7% foi identificada uma dosede vacina contendo a estirpe Rubini. Foi identificado o genótipo G do vírus da parotidite em quatro casos. Discussão: Este surto de parotidite numa população com coberturas vacinais elevadas, atingindo principalmente adolescentes em meio escolar, poderá dever-se à efetividade parcial da vacina contra a doença (especialmente no grupo vacinado com a estirpe Rubini), à perda de imunidade ao longo do tempo ou ainda à discordância entre os genótipos vacinal e circulante causador de doença. Conclusões: O relato deste surto releva a importância da discussão sobre a necessidade de mais doses de reforço da vacina atual

  12. Frequency of rheumatic diseases in Portugal: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Monjardino, Teresa; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    To describe the frequency of rheuma­tic diseases in Portugal through a systematic review of published literature, critically appraising available information and identifying data collection gaps. We systematically reviewed the literature to retrieve data on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases in Portugal through MEDLINE and Índex das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas searches, PhD theses, and national health surveys reports. Original articles in English or Portuguese published between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 were included. We retrieved information for the prevalence of rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis, back pain, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and other systemic rheumatic diseases and for the incidence of back pain, osteoporotic fracture and other systemic rheumatic diseases. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases ranged from 16.0% to 24.0% and the prevalence of osteoarthritis was 11.1% (95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 9.4-13.1) in the knee and 5.5% (95%CI: 4.3-7.0) in the hip. Regarding back pain, period prevalence ranged from 8.0% (95%CI: 6.1-10.1) to 29.5% (95%CI: 23.4-36.2) in children and from 12.3% (95%CI: 10.5-14.3) to 51.3% (95%CI: 48.6-53.9) in adults. The prevalence of WRMDs ranged from 5.9% to 84.2% (95%CI: 80.8-87.3). The yearly incidence of osteoporotic fracture (per 100 000) ranged from 93.3 to 481 (95%CI: 407-564) in women and from 31.9 to 154 (95%CI: 106-218) in men. The prevalence of osteoporosis in women ranged from 11.0% to 15.4% (95%CI: 13.4-17.6) and in men from 1.1% to 16.8% (95%CI: 12.2-22.3). The prevalence of fibromyalgia ranged from 3.6% (95%CI: 2.0-5.2) to 3.7% (95%CI: 2.0-5.4). The prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis and of spondyloarthritis were 0.6% and 1.6% (95%CI: 0.8-2.7), respectively. The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus was estimated in 0.2% (95%CI: 0.1-0.8). There is a broad spectrum of information available

  13. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from Southern Portugal and from a sample of immigrants from Guinea-Bissau residing in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dario, Paulo; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Teresa; Porto, Maria João; Dias, Deodália; Corte Real, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been comprehensively investigated in forensic research due to their usefulness in certain circumstances in complementing short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis, or even for use on their own when analysis of STRs fails. However, as with STRs, in order to properly use SNP markers in forensic casuistic we need to understand the population and forensic parameters in question. As a result of Portugal's colonial history during the time of empire, and the subsequent process of decolonization, some African individuals migrated to Portugal, giving rise to large African and African-descendent communities. One of these groups is the community originating from Guinea-Bissau, that in 2014, was enumerated to consist of more than 17,700 individuals with official residency status, more than the third major city of Guinea-Bissau. In order to study the population and forensic parameters mentioned above for the two populations important to our casuistic, a total of 142 unrelated individuals from the South of Portugal and 90 immigrants from Guinea-Bissau (equally non related and all residing in Portugal) were typed with SNaPshot™ assay for all 52 loci included in the SNPforID 52plex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with HIV testing among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the uptake of HIV testing and its associated factors among a sample of immigrants in Portugal. A questionnaire was completed by 1,513 immigrants at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon. The magnitude of the association between ever been HIV tested and socio-demographic variables was estimated by means of crude and adjusted odds ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals, using logistic regression. Approximately half of the participants reported having ever been HIV tested. Age, sex, educational level, region of origin, immigration status and knowing someone infected were independently associated with the HIV test uptake. Almost 90% of participants reported knowing where to obtain support on HIV-related issues. Most declared preferring doctors to get HIV information. However, only 9.2% had sought HIV information at the National Health Service. Our results suggest differences between migrant groups regarding HIV testing. Adopting more innovative approaches to HIV testing could improve the efficacy of HIV prevention strategies, especially among vulnerable groups within immigrant population as male and undocumented.

  15. Local fractality: The case of forest fires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanevski, Mikhail; Pereira, Mário G.

    2017-08-01

    The research deals with a study of local fractality in spatial distribution of forest fires in Portugal using the sandbox method. The general procedure is the following: (a) define a circle centred in each and all events with increasing radius R; (b) count the number of other events located within the circle of radius R, N(R) ; (c) plot the growth curve which is the functional dependence of N(R) versus R; and (d) estimate the local fractal dimension as the slope on log[ N(R) ] versus log[ R]. The computation is carried out by using the location of every fire event as a centre but without the final averaging over all the fires for a given R, which is usually performed to get a global fractal dimension and to estimate global clustering. Sandbox method is widely used in many applications in physics and other subjects. The local procedure has the ability to provide the most complete information regarding the spatial distribution of clustering and avoiding non-homogeneity and non-stationarity problems. Most of the analysis was performed using the National Mapping Burnt Area (NMBA) database which accounts for 32 156 fires during the 1975-2013 period. The results of local analysis are compared with a randomly generated pattern in forest zones (validity domain). The results demonstrate interesting local spatial patterns of clustering. Some results on global measures are reported as well.

  16. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  17. Marine macrostomorpha (platyhelminthes, rhabditophora) from the algarve (southern portugal).

    PubMed

    Schockaert, Ernest R

    2014-10-13

    Ten species of Macrostomorpha were found in marine environments of the Algarve (Portugal). Six of them were found in the Ria Formosa, a vast intertidal euryhaline lagoon system that dominates the most Eastern coast of the Algarve: two unidentified species of Microstomum Schmidt, 1848, Macrostomum cf. rubrocinctum Ax, 1951 and two unidentified species of Macrostomum Schmidt, 1848, Paromalostomum dubium (de Beauchamps, 1927), Paromalostomum minutum Rieger, 1971 and Cylindromacrostomum faroensis n.sp.. Comparison of this species with C. mediterraneum (Ax, 1955) and the species from Venice, considered to be C. mediterraneum by Rieger (1977), leads to the conclusion that the individuals studied by Rieger are in fact representatives of a separate species, C. riegeri n.sp.. Acanthomacrostomum spiculiferum Papi & Swedmark, 1959 was found in the Atlantic, 10-15 m deep, near the western coast of the Algarve. Haplopharynx papii n. sp. occurs on the beach exposed to the Atlantic as well as in the Ria Formosa. All identified and previously known (marine) species found in the Algarve had been found before, either in the Atlantic or in the Mediterranean basin. 

  18. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  19. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information.

  20. New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Daura, Joan; Sanz, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Quam, Rolf M.; Ortega, María Cruz; Santos, Elena; Gómez, Sandra; Rubio, Angel; Villaescusa, Lucía; Souto, Pedro; Mauricio, João; Rodrigues, Filipa; Ferreira, Artur; Godinho, Paulo; Trinkaus, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400–500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11–12). The Atapuerca (SH) fossils and the Swanscombe cranium belong to the Neandertal clade, whereas the Arago hominins have been attributed to an incipient stage of Neandertal evolution, to Homo heidelbergensis, or to a subspecies of Homo erectus. A recently discovered cranium (Aroeira 3) from the Gruta da Aroeira (Almonda karst system, Portugal) dating to 390–436 ka provides important evidence on the earliest European Acheulean-bearing hominins. This cranium is represented by most of the right half of a calvarium (with the exception of the missing occipital bone) and a fragmentary right maxilla preserving part of the nasal floor and two fragmentary molars. The combination of traits in the Aroeira 3 cranium augments the previously documented diversity in the European Middle Pleistocene fossil record. PMID:28289213

  1. New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Daura, Joan; Sanz, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Hoffmann, Dirk L; Quam, Rolf M; Ortega, María Cruz; Santos, Elena; Gómez, Sandra; Rubio, Angel; Villaescusa, Lucía; Souto, Pedro; Mauricio, João; Rodrigues, Filipa; Ferreira, Artur; Godinho, Paulo; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2017-03-28

    The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400-500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11-12). The Atapuerca (SH) fossils and the Swanscombe cranium belong to the Neandertal clade, whereas the Arago hominins have been attributed to an incipient stage of Neandertal evolution, to Homo heidelbergensis, or to a subspecies of Homo erectus A recently discovered cranium (Aroeira 3) from the Gruta da Aroeira (Almonda karst system, Portugal) dating to 390-436 ka provides important evidence on the earliest European Acheulean-bearing hominins. This cranium is represented by most of the right half of a calvarium (with the exception of the missing occipital bone) and a fragmentary right maxilla preserving part of the nasal floor and two fragmentary molars. The combination of traits in the Aroeira 3 cranium augments the previously documented diversity in the European Middle Pleistocene fossil record.

  2. Evaluation of compliance with national legislation on emissions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João F P

    2005-04-01

    More than 13 years after publication of the first air quality laws in Portugal and more than 10 years after the publication of the respective emission limits, it seems appropriate to analyze the degree of compliance by the Portuguese manufacturing industry. Using the data from emission measurements made regularly by the Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade, the only officially accredited laboratory according to standard ISO 17025, I analyzed a set of approximately 400 sources in terms of compliance with the emission limits regarding total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. I evaluated compliance through a nondimensional parameter and plotted it versus the emission flow rate to derive conclusions: the results indicate that emission limits are generally met regarding sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides but not for the other pollutants considered in this study. However, noncompliance occurs mainly for very low emission flow rates, which suggests some alterations in the emission limits, which are being revised at the moment. These alterations will include the exemption of measurements in minor sources.

  3. Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) in ruminants in the Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C; Santos, V M; Dinis, J; Peleteiro, M C; Fitzgerald, J M; Hawkes, A D; Smith, B L

    2005-12-17

    Outbreaks of pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema), a hepatogenous photosensitisation caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin, have affected ruminants in the Azores Islands of Portugal after warm, humid periods during late summer and autumn. Twenty-two outbreaks were recorded in cattle between 1999 and 2001, affecting 11.4 per cent of the animals in the affected herds, and in 2000 there was an outbreak in one sheep flock in which more than 20 per cent of the sheep died. The clinical signs included decreases in milk production, weight loss, photosensitisation and its sequelae, including death. The animals had high activities of gamma glutamyltransferase in their serum, and icterus and severe liver disease, including biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis, were found postmortem. The characteristic spores of the toxigenic saprophytic fungus Pithomyces chartarum were found on grass; all 381 isolates of the fungus were toxigenic for sporidesmin by elisa, and the results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Cattle from farms at greatest risk of pithomycotoxicosis were protected by supplementing their concentrate feed with zinc oxide, or using a slow-release intraruminal zinc bolus.

  4. Trends, seasonality and forecasts of pulmonary tuberculosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bras, A L; Gomes, D; Filipe, P A; de Sousa, B; Nunes, C

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health concern. Surveillance programmes present invaluable epidemiological information regarding its temporal evolution, particularly for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), the most common form of TB and the one that presents the greatest challenge in public health. To characterise, model and predict monthly incidence rates for PTB in Portugal disaggregated by high/low-incidence areas, sex and age groups. PTB monthly incidence rates were estimated based on PTB cases diagnosed in 2000-2010, disaggregated by population and geographic characteristics. Seasonal-trend LOESS (STL) decomposition was employed to model trend and seasonality. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were fit to characterise series behaviour and forecast PTB monthly incidence rates. Overall, the time series showed a downward trend in and seasonality of PTB diagnosis, with a peak in March and a trough in December. The mean seasonal amplitude was consistently higher in high-incidence areas, in males and in adults aged 25-54 years. SARIMA models were found to adequately fit and forecast the time series, thus predicting trend and seasonal persistence. STL and SARIMA findings concurred and were accurate. Endemic PTB seems to be slowly declining and case diagnosis is likely seasonal, which can be expected to persist if past conditions continue.

  5. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation: tsunami management in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A

    2017-10-01

    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates that approaches, measurement instruments, and research procedures for evaluating vulnerability are influenced by institutional preferences, lines of communication, or lack thereof, between stakeholder groups, and available technical expertise. The institutional setting and the pattern of stakeholder interactions form a filter, resulting in a particular conceptualisation of vulnerability, affecting its operationalisation via existing methods and technologies and its institutional embedding. The Portuguese case reveals a conceptualisation that is aligned with perceptions prevalent in national government bureaucracies and the exclusion of local stakeholders owing to selected methodologies and assessment procedures. The decisions taken by actors involved in these areas affect how vulnerability is assessed, and ultimately which vulnerability reduction policies will be recommended in the appraisal. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  6. The prevalence of acne in the north of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Amado, J M; Matos, M E; Abreu, A M; Loureiro, L; Oliveira, J; Verde, A; Massa, A

    2006-11-01

    Acne is a disease that affects almost all teenagers (60-90%), and it is the pathology exhibiting the highest morbidity in the 10-24 year-olds age group. There are no consistent data at national level by which we can evaluate the preponderance of this pathology in the Portuguese population. To estimate the prevalence of acne in teenage school students (10-12 year-olds). A study was carried out involving all 8 regions in the north of Portugal. One school per region was selected at random. As expected, the figure we obtained for the prevalence of this pathology was high (82.4%) with males being the most affected. Nevertheless, only 44% of the affected treated their acne, although the face is the part of the body most affected. In the females high androgenization (which is manifested by the presence of hair on the upper lip and on the side of the face) doubles the median of the degree of acne registered. Regional asymmetry was found in relation to information about the disorder. The degrees of acne are higher in schools in the interior. In the more rural areas, the pharmacist still plays an important role in prescribing treatment. As a rule, individuals are correctly informed about acne, confirming that the search for treatment and awareness of its value are generally helping to gradually eliminate some of the stigmas from the past.

  7. Molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rúben; Amador, Paula; Oliveira, Carla; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) prevalence was studied in the north of Portugal, among 193 clinical isolates belonging to citizens in a district in the boundaries between this country and Spain from a total of 7529 clinical strains. In the present study we recovered some members of Enterobacteriaceae family, producing ESBL enzymes, including Escherichia coli (67.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (0.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (0.5%), and Citrobacter freundii (0.5%). β -lactamases genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approaches. TEM enzymes were among the most prevalent types (40.9%) followed by CTX-M (37.3%) and SHV (23.3%). Among our sample of 193 ESBL-producing strains 99.0% were resistant to the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime. Of the 193 isolates 81.3% presented transferable plasmids harboring bla ESBL genes. Clonal studies were performed by PCR for the enterobacterial repetitive intragenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. This study reports a high diversity of genetic patterns. Ten clusters were found for E. coli isolates and five clusters for K. pneumoniae strains by means of ERIC analysis. In conclusion, in this country, the most prevalent type is still the TEM-type, but CTX-M is growing rapidly.

  8. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  9. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart E Silva, João D; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  10. Treatment planning systems dosimetry auditing project in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M C; Cavaco, A; Jacob, K; Madureira, L; Germano, S; Faustino, S; Lencart, J; Trindade, M; Vale, J; Batel, V; Sousa, M; Bernardo, A; Brás, S; Macedo, S; Pimparel, D; Ponte, F; Diaz, E; Martins, A; Pinheiro, A; Marques, F; Batista, C; Silva, L; Rodrigues, M; Carita, L; Gershkevitsh, E; Izewska, J

    2014-02-01

    The Medical Physics Division of the Portuguese Physics Society (DFM_SPF) in collaboration with the IAEA, carried out a national auditing project in radiotherapy, between September 2011 and April 2012. The objective of this audit was to ensure the optimal usage of treatment planning systems. The national results are presented in this paper. The audit methodology simulated all steps of external beam radiotherapy workflow, from image acquisition to treatment planning and dose delivery. A thorax CIRS phantom lend by IAEA was used in 8 planning test-cases for photon beams corresponding to 15 measuring points (33 point dose results, including individual fields in multi-field test cases and 5 sum results) in different phantom materials covering a set of typical clinical delivery techniques in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy. All 24 radiotherapy centers in Portugal have participated. 50 photon beams with energies 4-18 MV have been audited using 25 linear accelerators and 32 calculation algorithms. In general a very good consistency was observed for the same type of algorithm in all centres and for each beam quality. The overall results confirmed that the national status of TPS calculations and dose delivery for 3D conformal radiotherapy is generally acceptable with no major causes for concern. This project contributed to the strengthening of the cooperation between the centres and professionals, paving the way to further national collaborations. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  12. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  13. User involvement in assisted reproductive technologies: England and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Samorinha, Catarina; Lichon, Mateusz; Silva, Susana; Dent, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare user involvement in the case of assisted reproductive technologies in England and Portugal through the concepts of voice, choice and co-production, assessing the implications for user empowerment. This qualitative study draws primarily on policy review and uses exploratory semi-structured interviews with key informants as a way of illustrating points. Data on the following themes was compared: voice (users' representativeness on licensing bodies and channels of communication between users and doctors); choice (funding and accessibility criteria; choice of fertility centres, doctors and level of care); and co-production (criteria through which users actively engage with health professionals in planning the treatment). Inter- and intra-healthcare systems variations between the two countries on choice and co-production were identified. Differences between funding and accessibility, regions, public and private sectors and attitudes towards doctor-patient relationship (paternalistic/partnership) were the key issues. Although consumer choice and indicators of co-production are evident in treatment pathways in both countries, user empowerment is not. This is limited by inequalities in accessibility criteria, dependence on doctors' individual perspectives and lack of genuine and formal hearing of citizens' voice. Enhancing users' involvement claims for individual and organizational cultures reflecting user-centred values. Effective ways to incorporate users' knowledge in shared decision making and co-design are needed to empower patients and to improve the delivery of care.

  14. Molecular Characterization of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Paula; Oliveira, Carla; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) prevalence was studied in the north of Portugal, among 193 clinical isolates belonging to citizens in a district in the boundaries between this country and Spain from a total of 7529 clinical strains. In the present study we recovered some members of Enterobacteriaceae family, producing ESBL enzymes, including Escherichia coli (67.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (30.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (0.5%), Enterobacter aerogenes (0.5%), and Citrobacter freundii (0.5%). β-lactamases genes blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approaches. TEM enzymes were among the most prevalent types (40.9%) followed by CTX-M (37.3%) and SHV (23.3%). Among our sample of 193 ESBL-producing strains 99.0% were resistant to the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime. Of the 193 isolates 81.3% presented transferable plasmids harboring bla ESBL genes. Clonal studies were performed by PCR for the enterobacterial repetitive intragenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. This study reports a high diversity of genetic patterns. Ten clusters were found for E. coli isolates and five clusters for K. pneumoniae strains by means of ERIC analysis. In conclusion, in this country, the most prevalent type is still the TEM-type, but CTX-M is growing rapidly. PMID:24701189

  15. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  16. Monitoring exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Bordado, João Carlos Moura; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the assessment of exposure levels of ultrafine particles (UFP) in the urban environment of Lisbon, Portugal, due to automobile traffic, by monitoring lung-deposited alveolar surface area (resulting from exposure to UFP) in a major avenue leading to the town centre during late Spring, as well as in indoor buildings facing it. This study revealed differentiated patterns for week days and weekends, consistent with PM(2.5) and PM(10) patterns currently monitored by air quality stations in Lisbon. The observed ultrafine particulate levels could be directly related with the fluxes of automobile traffic. During a typical week, UFP alveolar deposited surface area varied between 35.0 and 89.2 µm(2)/cm(3), which is comparable with levels reported for other towns such in Germany and United States. The measured values allowed the determination of the number of UFP per cm(3), which are comparable to levels reported for Madrid and Brisbane. In what concerns outdoor/indoor levels, we observed higher levels (32-63%) outdoor, which is somewhat lower than levels observed in houses in Ontario.

  17. Human cysticercosis in Portugal: long gone or still contemporary?

    PubMed

    Vilhena, M; Fonseca, A G; Dias, S; Marques DA Silva, J; Torgal, J

    2017-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a leading cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries, has been controlled or eradicated in industrialized countries. This paradigm has recently been challenged, with human neurocysticercosis (NCC) being increasingly diagnosed in these countries. In order to assess the NCC burden in Portugal, a retrospective study on NCC hospitalizations (2006-2013) was conducted based on the national database on hospital morbidity: 357 hospitalized cases were detected. NCC was most frequent in the following age groups: 20-64 years (n = 197, 55·2%) >64 years (n = 111, 31·1%), and <20 years (n = 49, 13·7%). In the Norte and Centro regions cases tended to be older than in the Lisboa and Vale do Tejo Region. The results raise concerns for imported and autochthonous disease, suggesting the Lisboa and Vale do Tejo Region, due to its higher frequency of cases at younger ages, as a priority for research and intervention, and further suggest that NCC should be under surveillance (notifiable). The National Observatory of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis has been established and will define NCC cases as well as monitoring and surveillance.

  18. Practice of biopsychosocial medicine in Portugal: perspectives of professionals involved.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Graça; Fachada, Alfonso Alonso; Smith, Thomas Edward

    2009-05-01

    Although, recently, the biopsychosocial approach has been emphasized in the practice of family medicine, how psychologists and physicians interact in collaborative family health care practice is still emerging in Portugal. This article describes a qualitative study that focused on the understanding of psychologists and family physicians' perceptions of their role and the collaborative approach in health care. A questionnaire gathered information regarding collaboration, referral, training and the practice of biopsychosocial medicine. A content analysis on respondents' discourse was performed. Results show that both physicians and psychologists agree on the importance of the biopsychosocial model and interdisciplinary collaboration. However, they also mentioned several difficulties that have to do with the lack of psychologists working full time in health care centers, lack of communication and different expectancies regarding each other roles in health care delivery. Both physicians and psychologists acknowledge the lack of academic training and consider the need for multidisciplinary teams in their training and practice to improve collaboration and integrative care. Implications for future research and for the practice of biopsychosocial medicine are addressed.

  19. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality.

  20. Exploratory study of air quality in elementary schools, Coimbra, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Conceição; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. PMID:24626544

  1. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  2. Health Inequalities in Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension: A Parish Level Study in the Northern Region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Leao, Teresa; Perelman, Julian; Felício, Manuela; Machado, Vasco; Lima, Graça

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: A diabetes mellitus e a hipertensão arterial são problemas de saúde de elevada prevalência em Portugal. A sua distribuição geográfica e social é pouco conhecida, comprometendo o desenho e implementação de políticas de saúde. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a existência das desigualdades socioeconómicas na prevalência de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e hipertensão arterial, na população residente na região Norte de Portugal, no ano de 2013. Material e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico que analisou as 2 028 freguesias da região Norte. Os dados foram obtidos através do Sistema de Informação das Administrações Regionais de Saúde e do Censos 2011. A associação entre indicadores socioeconómicos e prevalência destas doenças foi medida pela diferença de prevalências, risco atribuível populacional, índice relativo de desigualdades e coeficiente de regressão. Resultados: A prevalência de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e hipertensão arterial foi de 6,16% e de 19,35%, respetivamente, e variou entre freguesias. A prevalência de ambas as doenças associou-se significativamente com o baixo nível educacional, baixa atividade no sector terciário, desemprego e baixo rendimento (diferença de prevalências entre decis opostos até 1,3% e 5,3%). Os determinantes socioeconómicos foram responsáveis até 20% da prevalência na população. Discussão: Este tipo de estudo não permitiu a análise de causalidade e poderá ter subestimado as desigualdades socioeconómicas. Contudo, os resultados obtidos alinham-se com a evidência científica internacional. Conclusão: Estes resultados demonstram a existência de uma distribuição socioeconómica e geográfica heterogénea e a necessidade de criação de políticas de saúde que atuem nas freguesias menos favorecidas.

  3. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  4. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  5. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  6. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p<0.001) with moderate effect sizes (>0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001), while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001). To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in

  7. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  8. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal.

  9. Predictors of loneliness among students and nuns in Angola and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix; Barros, José

    2003-07-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies to examine the relationship between loneliness and psychosocial variables among people from Angola and Portugal. In the 1st study, the participants were 129 college students from Angola and 122 from Portugal, and in the 2nd study participants were 105 nuns from Angola and 74 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all participants in both studies: the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). Ethnic differences were found in loneliness. The Angolan participants recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the Portuguese participants. For both samples the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life.

  10. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  11. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    : CS 53 Mpa, FS 16.3 MPa, AD 25220 kg/m3 , OP 9.3%, WA 1,2 % AR 26.0mm and RTS resistant. For settling the recommended applications, European standards for natural stone products were considered. Considering the technical specifications that exist in some European countries, "Eucisia schist" can be applied on rustic masonary units, on colums, on paving (low traffic, mainly indoors) and on cladding (mainly indoors). This work was performed under the project PTDC/CTE-GIN/70704/2006, "SCHISTRESOURCE funded by FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation). SFRH/BD/86641/2012 a FCT grant financially supports Silvia Aires. [1] A.Ribeiro, E. Pereira and R. Dias, in Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia edited by R.D. Dallmeyer and E. Martinez-Garcia, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (1990). [2] E. Pereira, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006) [3] E. Pereira, A. Ribeiro, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006).

  12. Forest fires caused by lightning activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Benali, Akli; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe have been causing in the last decades extensive economic and ecological losses and, even human casualties (e.g. Pereira et al., 2011). According to statistics provided by the EC-JRC European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) for Europe, the years of 2003 and 2007 represent the most dramatic fire seasons since the beginning of the millennium, followed by the years 2005 and 2012. These extreme years registered total annual burned areas for Europe of over 600.000 ha, reaching 800.000 ha in 2003. Over Iberia and France, the exceptional fire seasons registered in 2003 and 2005 were coincident respectively with one of the most severe heatwaves (Bastos et al., 2014) and droughts of the 20th century (Gouveia et al., 2009). On the other hand, the year 2007 was very peculiar as the area of the Peloponnese was struck by a severe winter drought followed by a subsequent wet spring, being also stricken by three heat heaves during summer and played a major role increasing the susceptibility of the region to wildfires (Gouveia et al., 2016). Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by natural factors such as lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia. In contrast, Mediterranean countries such as Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant uncertainties remain for the triggering mechanism for the majority of fires registered in the catalog, since they were cataloged without a likely cause. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2002-2009, with the original data provided by the National forestry Authority; 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Portuguese Institute for Sea

  13. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  14. Determinants of health care utilization by immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia F; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2008-10-07

    The increasing diversity of population in European Countries poses new challenges to national health systems. There is a lack of data on accessibility and use of health care services by migrants, appropriateness of the care provided, client satisfaction and problems experienced when confronting the health care system. This limits knowledge about the multiple determinants of the utilization of health services. The aim of this study was to describe the access of migrants to health care and its determinants in Portugal. The study sample included 1513 immigrants (53% men), interviewed at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon. Data were collected using questionnaires. The magnitude of associations between use of National Health Service and socio-demographic variables was estimated by means of odds ratios (OR) at 95% confidence intervals, calculated using logistic regression. Among participants, 3.6% stated not knowing where to go if facing a health problem. Approximately 20% of the respondents reported that they had never used the National Health Service, men more than women. Among National Health Service users, 35.6% attended Health Centres, 12% used Hospital services, and 54.4% used both. Among the participants that ever used the health services, 22.4% reported to be unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. After adjusting for all variables, utilization of health services, among immigrant men, remained significantly associated with length of stay, legal status, and country of origin. Among immigrant women, the use of health services was significantly associated with length of stay and country of origin. There is a clear need to better understand how to ensure access to health care services and to deliver appropriate care to immigrants, and that special consideration must be given to recent and undocumented migrants. To increase health services use, and the uptake of prevention programs, barriers must be identified and approaches to remove them developed, through

  15. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  16. Survey of caffeine levels in retail beverages in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pena, A; Lino, C; Silveira, M I N

    2005-02-01

    The caffeine content of 85 retail beverage samples purchased from local supermarkets between 1995 and 2004 was determined. The potential intake of caffeine through the consumption of these beverages (but excluding coffee) was estimated for students of the University of Coimbra, Portugal. The caffeine content of the beverages ranged from 47.5 to 282.5 mg l(-1) for teas, from 20.1 to 47.2 mg l(-1) for tea extracts samples, and from 80.7 to 168.7 mg l(-1) for cola soft drinks. Caffeine was not completely absent from caffeine-free colas, and energy drinks had a far greater caffeine content than regular drinks, ranging from 21 to 2175 mg l(-1). Soft drinks were consumed by 72% of the individuals, although 14% of the survey participants did not drink any of the different types of the beverages studied. Contrary to expectations for this age group, no consumptions of energy drinks was reported. Daily caffeine intake was estimated to range from 4.7 to 200 mg day(-1), but with only 5% reporting a daily intake around 200 mg caffeine. Cola-type beverages were an important dietary source of caffeine for the population studied. Statistical differences in the caffeine intake between the male and female populations were found, with p = 0.014, being higher for the male population. Of the beverages studied, cola-type drinks showed statistical differences for the male population, p = 0.03, and tea showed statistical differences for female population p = 0.013, respectively.

  17. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  18. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  19. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  20. Y chromosome diversity in a linguistic isolate (Mirandese, NE Portugal).

    PubMed

    Marques, Sofia L; Gusmão, Leonor; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-09-10

    The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize the male lineages of people who speak Mirandese, an interesting case of a linguistic relict that can still be found in the municipality of Miranda do Douro, NE Portugal. This region lies within the area of the Leonese dialects, which are remnants of the Romance dialects spoken in the Kingdom of Leon currently grouped in the Astur-Leonese linguistic continuum. We intended to disclose affinities with surrounding populations, namely from Spain where the Astur-Leonese is also spoken. Eighty-eight unrelated males (58 from Miranda and 30 from Bragança, the broad Portuguese region where Miranda is located) were genotyped with the combined use of 17 Y chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and a high resolution Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNPs) strategy. Moreover, 236 males from Miranda and neighboring regions, previously classified as R-M269, were also genotyped. R-P312 was the most frequent haplogroup in the Mirandese, followed by J-12f2.1 and T-M70. The male lineages J-12f2.1 and T-M70 were also well represented, and both were shared with descendants of Sephardic Jews. No signs of diversity reduction were detected. Mirandese speakers display a Y chromosome gene pool that shows a subtle differentiation from neighboring populations, mainly attributable to the assimilation of lineages ascribed to be of Jewish ancestry. Although not revealing signs of geographic/linguistic isolation, no clear affinities with other Astur-Leonese populations were detected. The results suggest that in Miranda language sharing is not accompanied by significant gene flow between populations from both sides of the political border. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:671-680, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources.

  2. Phosphorus fractionation in volcanic lake sediments (Azores - Portugal).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, D C; Martins, G; Nogueira, R; Cruz, J V; Brito, A G

    2008-01-01

    The phosphorus distribution in volcanic sediments of three lakes that are under different anthropogenic pressures in São Miguel island (Azores - Portugal) was evaluated using a sequential extraction scheme. The P-fractionation scheme employs sequential extractions of sediment with NH4Cl, bicarbonate-dithionite (BD), NaOH (at room temperature), HCl and NaOH (at 85 degrees C) to obtain five P-fractions. The P-fractionation shows that in lakes with higher trophic status (Lake Furnas and Lake Sete Cidades), the NaOH extracted P is the dominant fraction, that contribute with more than 50% to total sedimentary phosphorus. The rank order of P-fractionation for these two lakes was NaOH>NaOH (85 degrees C)>HCl>BD>NH4Cl for Furnas lake and NaOH>HCl>NaOH (85 degrees C)>NH4Cl>BD for Sete Cidades lake. On the other hand, the trend of P contribution in the oligotrophic lake Fogo shows that the most inert P pools have the higher concentrations, with more than 50% of the P contribution from the last extraction step with NaOH at 85 degrees C. For this lake, the rank order of P-fractionation was NH4Cl>BD>NaOH>HCl>NaOH (85 degrees C). The Phosphorus Maximum Solubilization Potential (P-MSP) was also calculated and the results show that for the more bio-available P-fractions (first and second extraction step), the P-MSP values for Furnas and Sete Cidades lakes are sensibly higher than the results obtained in Fogo lake, an indication of the non-point diffuse load discharged in the first ones.

  3. Perspectives on access to in vitro fertilization in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Barros, H

    2012-04-01

    To analyze users' reasons for choosing in vitro fertilization treatment in public or private services and to identify their suggestions for improving fertility treatment. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach was conducted. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment (nine women, one man and five couples) at home or at their workplace in the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto and Lisbon, Portugal, between July 2005 and February 2006. Users evaluated access to in vitro fertilization treatment in public and private services based mainly on their individual experiences and called for more access to less costly, faster and friendlier care with suitable facilities, appropriate time management and caring medical providers. These perceptions were also associated with views on the need for fighting stigmatization of infertility, protecting children's rights and guaranteeing sustainability of health care system. Interviewees sought to balance reduced waiting time and more attentive care with costs involved. The choice of services depended on the users' purchase power and place of residence and availability of attentive care. Current national policies on in vitro fertilization treatment meet user's demands of promoting access to, and quality, availability and affordability of in vitro fertilization treatment. However, their focus on legal regulation and technical-scientific aspects contrasts with the users' emphasis on reimbursement, insurance coverage and focus on emotional aspects of the treatment. The study showed these policies should ensure insurance coverage, participation of user representatives in the National Council for Assisted Reproductive Technology, promotion of infertility research and certification of fertility laboratories.

  4. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  5. [The present situation and development of acupuncture and moxibustion in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Jun; Huang, Jun; Zhu, An-Ning

    2013-08-01

    The development courses of acupuncture and moxibustion as well as the present situation, education and legislation in Portugal were reviewed in this article. Acupuncture and Moxibustion has been developed in Portugal since 1980's. The first acupuncture school appeared in the year of 1992. Until now, courses on Chinese medicine and acupuncture has already been set up in about six universities. Acupuncture legislation started in the year 2003. At present, professional levels of acupuncture practitioners vary a lot. There are over 50 indications currently. And acupuncture treatment is basically at one's own expense.

  6. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 309 adult nonpatients from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pires, António Abel

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred and nine nonpatient adults, evenly distributed according to sex, age, educational level, and residence, took part in the Rorschach test study carried out in Portugal. The sample was drawn from selected regions of the country and was balanced for population density in urban and rural areas. Test administration was controlled through the services of psychologists familiar with the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1993). Results indicate that, in Portugal (Pires, 2000), level of education is the variable that seems to have the largest effect on Rorschach responding.

  7. Hydro-geomorphologic events in Portugal and its association with Circulation weather types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Rebelo, Luís; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Zêzere, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Floods and landslides correspond to the most hazardous weather driven natural disasters in Portugal. A recent improvement on their characterization has been achieved with the gathering of basic information on past floods and landslides that caused social consequences in Portugal for the period 1865-2015 through the DISASTER database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database was built under the assumption that strong social impacts of floods and landslides are sufficient relevant to be reported consistently by national and regional newspapers. The DISASTER database contains detailed information on the location, date of occurrence and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of each individual hydro-geomorphologic case (1677 flood cases and 292 landslide cases). These hydro-geomorphologic disaster cases are grouped in a restrict number of DISASTER events that were selected according to the following criteria: a set of at least 3 DISASTER cases sharing the same trigger in time (with no more than 3 days without cases), which have a widespread spatial extension related to the triggering mechanism and a certain magnitude. In total, the DISASTER database includes 134 events (3.7 average days of duration) that generated high social impacts in Portugal (962 fatalities and 40878 homeless people). Each DISASTER event was characterized with the following attributes: hydro-geomorphologic event type (e.g landslides, floods, flash floods, urban floods); date of occurrence (year, month and days); duration in days; spatial location in GIS; number of fatalities, injured, evacuated and homeless people; and weather type responsible for triggering the event. The atmospheric forcing at different time scales is the main trigger for the hydro-meteorological DISASTER events occurred in Portugal. In this regard there is an urge for a more systematic assessment of the weather types associated to flood and landslide damaging events to correctly

  8. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  9. [Pulmonary Embolism in Portugal: Epidemiology and In-Hospital Mortality].

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Miguel; Pinheiro, Luís; Costa, João; Borges, Margarida

    2016-08-01

    In Portugal, the epidemiology of acute pulmonary embolism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to characterize the pulmonary embolism from the hospital data and evaluate its in-hospital mortality and respective prognostic factors. The study used diagnostic related groups data from National Health System hospitals from 2003 to 2013 and National Statistics Institute population data to establish the evolution of admissions with the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, their inhospital mortality rates and the population incidence rates. Diagnosis-related group microdata were used in a logit regression modeling in-hospital mortality as a function of individual characteristics and context variables. Between 2003 and 2013 there were 35,200 episodes of hospitalization in patients with 18 or more years in which one of the diagnoses was pulmonary embolism (primary diagnosis in 67% of cases). The estimated incidence rate in 2013 was 35/100,000 population (≥ 18 years). Between 2003 and 2013, the annual number of episodes kept increasing, but the in-hospital mortality rate decreased (from 31.8% to 17% for all cases and from 25% to 11.2% when pulmonary embolism was the main diagnosis). The probability of death decreases when there is a computerized tomography scan registry or when patients are females and increases with age and the presence of co-morbidities. In the last decade there was an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism likely related to an increased number of dependents and bedridden. However, there was a in-hospital mortality reduction of such size that the actual mortality in the general population was reduced. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in episodes of pulmonary embolism with incrementally lower levels of severity, due to the greater capacity of diagnosis of less severe cases. Another possible explanation is greater effectiveness of hospital care. According to the logistic regression analysis, improvements in hospital care

  10. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2011-05-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 yr (1998-2009), at 1 × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In what respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus Pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  11. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998-2009), at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  12. Implementation of a Seismic Early Warning System in Portugal Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Guilherme; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Portugal mainland is located near the border between the Eurasian and Nubian plates, whose interaction is the main responsible for a significant seismic activity in the area, with historical occurrence of several catastrophic events (e.g. Lisbon 1755 earthquake [Mag 8.7]), most of which haviguilhng epicenter rise in submerged area, located in the Cadiz Gulf and Southwest of San Vincent Cape. Early Warning Systems (EEWS) is presently a very effective concept to be applied in the mitigation of the effects caused by large earthquakes. For the mentioned area a feasibility study of a EEWS was made in the ALERT-ES project. It was found that the system could be effective to protect cities and infrastructures located at larger distances (ex: Lisbon) from the areas, located south and southwest of PT mainland, where the larger earthquakes are expected to be originated. Considering the use of a new strong-motion network recently implemented in the south of PT mainland, we concluded that the lead-times could be improved. We opted by the implementation of the well known computational platform PRESTO. In the adaptation of the mentioned platform to the local reality one of the challenges was the computation of fast moment magnitude estimates, because regional attenuation must be properly considered, and a specific study was made on this issue. The several simulations that were performed showed a reasonably good performance of the system, both on magnitude evaluation and epicentre location. However we also noted that the problems in the acquisition instruments are a very important source of disturbance in the performance of the EEWS, pointing to a need of a very accurate quality control of the strong-motion network. Considering end-users, we are also developing specific software for intensity estimation at the target places and to trigger visual and audio alerts in accordance to the expected level of shaking. This work is supported by the EU project TSUMAPS-NEAM, Agreement Number

  13. Physically-Based Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping, NW of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Two physically-based models - Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and Safety Factor (SF) - are applied in Serra da Peneda (northwest of Portugal) to evaluate shallow landslide susceptibility in Tibo drainage basin. This small basin is located in an area of granitic and metasedimentary substrate, covered by different types of surficial formations (weathering mantles and slope deposits). The application of the selected models requires the determination of a set of mechanical and hydrological parameters, and the use of high resolution topographic information to create an accurate DTM. To fulfill this goal we have applied the Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and the SF (Safety Factor) models. The shallow landslide area was inventoried on the field. The cohesion was assessed by back analysis and the other mechanical and hydrological soil parameters were assessed on the field survey. Several susceptibility scenarios were tested with SHALSTAB model. The best SHALSTAB scenario used to assess the susceptibility is achieved using the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) = 1,2 m, internal friction (?)=32o and soil weight (?s)=14,7 KN/m3. Shallow landslide susceptibility mapping using the SF model, was based on the cartography of the factors registered on the field survey and used the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 - 6000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) =1,2 m, internal friction (?)=30 - 40o; soil volumic weight (?m) = 13,7 - 15,7 KN/m3 and Hydraulic conductivity = 0 - 3,9-03 kfs. SHALSTAB scenarios were validated by overlaying the shallow landslide area (scar concentration) and selected the better susceptibility modeling. The parameters used on the SF model applied spatially variable values registered in the field survey (using the superficial formation cartography). To validate the SF model we used the AUC (Area Under the Curve) method. The two models were compared by the scar concentration and landslide potential

  14. Statistical-dynamical modeling of the cloud-to-ground lightning activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, J. F.; Fragoso, M.; Mendes, S.; Corte-Real, J.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The present study employs a dataset of cloud-to-ground discharges over Portugal, collected by the Portuguese lightning detection network in the period of 2003-2009, to identify dynamically coherent lightning regimes in Portugal and to implement a statistical-dynamical modeling of the daily discharges over the country. For this purpose, the high-resolution MERRA reanalysis is used. Three lightning regimes are then identified for Portugal: WREG, WREM and SREG. WREG is a typical cold-core cut-off low. WREM is connected to strong frontal systems driven by remote low pressure systems at higher latitudes over the North Atlantic. SREG is a combination of an inverted trough and a mid-tropospheric cold-core nearby Portugal. The statistical-dynamical modeling is based on logistic regressions (statistical component) developed for each regime separately (dynamical component). It is shown that the strength of the lightning activity (either strong or weak) for each regime is consistently modeled by a set of suitable dynamical predictors (65-70% of efficiency). The difference of the equivalent potential temperature in the 700-500 hPa layer is the best predictor for the three regimes, while the best 4-layer lifted index is still important for all regimes, but with much weaker significance. Six other predictors are more suitable for a specific regime. For the purpose of validating the modeling approach, a regional-scale climate model simulation is carried out under a very intense lightning episode.

  15. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  16. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other…

  17. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  18. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  19. The Education Charter for the Future: A Strategic Tool for Education Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Ana

    2006-01-01

    For over a century and a half, Portugal invested very little in education, which explains why it found itself in such a different situation from that of the developed countries of the Protestant industrialized North, or even from that of the Catholic Latin countries of southern Europe. In 1995, when elections were won by the Socialist party which…

  20. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  1. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  2. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  3. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  4. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  5. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  6. The Democratisation of Access and Success in Higher Education: The Case of Portugal and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Marinho-Araujo, Claisy; Almeida, Leandro; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Given that higher education systems everywhere have opened to the masses, this paper analyses to what extent this phenomenon has really been accompanied by an effective democratisation of access and success in Portugal and Brazil. It looks at the expansion of higher education and discusses how the political system and higher education institutions…

  7. First Impressions of the Reorganisation of the School Network in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Jorge Miguel Fonseca Pinto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a retrospective on the reorganisation of the school network in Portugal between 2005 and 2007. Underlying measures predicted the closure of approximately 2000 primary schools, mainly situated in rural areas. This is a current topic of considerable controversy considering the reform which is being implemented and…

  8. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  10. Education and Child Poverty in Times of Austerity in Portugal: Implications for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Ferreira, Fernando Ilídio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years Portugal has experienced a severe financial and economic crisis, with implications for all sectors of society, particularly education. Salary cuts, high rates of unemployment, high taxation and worsening career progression are just some ways in which the teaching profession has been affected. Recent policy changes have also…

  11. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organization. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria Joao; Lopes, Helena

    The impact of changes in work organization on development of Portugese workers' skills was examined. At the macro level, a national study was conducted to identify current and possible future relationships among initial training, continuing training, the labor market, and industrial relations in Portugal. At the micro level, cases studies of three…

  12. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  13. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  14. Preserving Plurilingualism: A Case Study of Emerging Language Policy in a Small Polytechnic Institute in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arau Ribeiro, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Some policy is first created then implemented. Other policy has a way of making itself known through the back door. This article describes the implementation of a slowly emerging language policy at the Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, Portugal, starting before the Bologna Process led to curricular reform and a restructured social balance in higher…

  15. Seroprevalence of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and parasite-specific antibodies in dogs from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Schnyder, Manuela; Schaper, Roland; Meireles, José; Belo, Silvana; Deplazes, Peter; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-07-01

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic dogs and wild canids. It is increasingly being reported in several European countries and North America. This parasite induces inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. In some instances, coagulopathies, neurological signs and even death may occur. Scant data are available regarding the occurrence of A. vasorum in Portugal. Therefore, sera of 906 shelter dogs from North to South mainland Portugal were collected. ELISAs to detect A. vasorum circulating antigen and specific antibodies against this parasite were performed. A total of six dogs [0.66 %, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.43] were positive for both A. vasorum antigen and antibody detection, indicating an active infection, and 12 dogs (1.32 %, CI 0.68-2.30) were A. vasorum antibody-positive only. Regions with antigen- and antibody-positive animals overlapped and were distributed over nearly all sampled areas in the country. This is the first large-scale ELISA-based serological survey for A. vasorum in dogs from Portugal. The endemic occurrence of A. vasorum in dogs from different geographical areas of Portugal is therefore confirmed.

  16. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  17. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  18. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  20. Comparing Higher Education Reforms in Finland and Portugal: Different Contexts, Same Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Diogo, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of recent governance reforms in both Finnish and Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs), following the OECD's recent reviews of both countries' tertiary education systems. While in the case of Finland the major problem was identified as being a lack of entrepreneurialism, Portugal was…

  1. Genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Legionella pneumophila clinical isolates, Portugal, 1987 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Chasqueira, M J; Rodrigues, L; Nascimento, M; Ramos, M; Marques, T

    2014-11-20

    The genetic diversity of 89 clinical Legionella isolates, collected between 1987 and 2012, in 22 hospitals from the five regions of Portugal, was analysed in this study using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the Dresden panel and the sequence-based typing (SBT) protocol. The eBURST algorithm was used to infer levels of relatedness between isolates. All isolates collected were Legionella pneumophila, which were further characterised into four subgroups by MAbs, and 30 sequence types (STs) by SBT. Twelve of the STs were unique to Portugal; one of them (ST100) was represented by 32 epidemiologically related isolates. The ST44 was the profile with the highest number of epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The eBURST analyses indicate that, within the group formed by the 30 STs identified in this study, 17 STs were genetically close to at least another ST in the group. The comparison between the eBURST diagrams obtained with the STs from this study and the entire SBT database of the European Working Group for Legionella, showed that 24 (seven of them unique to Portugal) of our 30 STs were related with STs identified in others countries. These results suggest that the population of L. pneumophila clinical strains in Portugal includes both worldwide and local strains.

  2. Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…

  3. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  4. Internal Quality Assurance Systems in Portugal: What Their Strengths and Weaknesses Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter touch accreditation and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions…

  5. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  6. A Numerical Study of Wind Forcing in the Eastern Boundary Current System Off Portugal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Batteen, I hesis Advisor C. S. Nelsop, Second Reader Curtis A. Collins, Chairman, Department of Oceanography ABSTRACT A high resolution, multi-level...Academia das Ci~ncias, 126 1200 Lisboa Portugal 30. Dr Pedro Re Scqo Biologia \\Iaritirma da Faculdade de Ci~ncias Universidade de Lisboa, Bloco C2

  7. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  8. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  9. Relational Capabilities to Leverage New Knowledge: Managing Directors' Perceptions in UK and Portugal Old Industrial Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on the specific context of two European old industrial regions--South Yorkshire (UK) and North Region of Portugal--this paper aims to identify and conceptualise a set of relational capabilities that business leaders perceive to play a key role in industrial rejuvenation. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research design…

  10. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  12. Stomach cancer incidence in Southern Portugal 1998-2006: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Papoila, Ana L; Riebler, Andrea; Amaral-Turkman, Antónia; São-João, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Conceição; Geraldes, Carlos; Miranda, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Stomach cancer belongs to the most common malignant tumors in Portugal. Main causal factors are age, dietary habits, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infections. As these factors do not only operate on different time dimensions, such as age, period, or birth cohort, but may also vary along space, it is of utmost interest to model temporal and spatial trends jointly. In this paper, we analyze incidence of stomach cancer in Southern Portugal between 1998 and 2006 for females and males jointly using a spatial multivariate age-period-cohort model. Thus, we avoid age aggregation and allow the exploration of heterogeneous time trends between males and females across age, period, birth cohort, and space. Model estimation is performed within a Bayesian setting assuming (gender specific) smoothing priors. Our results show that the posterior expected rate of stomach cancer is decreasing for all counties in Southern Portugal and that males around 70 have a two times higher risk of getting stomach cancer compared with their female counterparts. We further found that, except for some few counties, the spatial influence is almost constant over time and negligible in the southern counties of Southern Portugal.

  13. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written…

  14. SNP typing reveals similarity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity between Portugal and Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joao S; Marques, Isabel; Soares, Patricia; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Costa, Joao; Miranda, Anabela; Duarte, Raquel; Alves, Adriana; Macedo, Rita; Duarte, Tonya A; Barbosa, Theolis; Oliveira, Martha; Nery, Joilda S; Boechat, Neio; Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pereira-Leal, Jose; Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda; Penha-Goncalves, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Human tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Although spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR are standard methodologies in MTBC genetic epidemiology, recent studies suggest that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are advantageous in phylogenetics and strain group/lineages identification. In this work we use a set of 79 SNPs to characterize 1987 MTBC isolates from Portugal and 141 from Northeast Brazil. All Brazilian samples were further characterized using spolygotyping. Phylogenetic analysis against a reference set revealed that about 95% of the isolates in both populations are singly attributed to bacterial lineage 4. Within this lineage, the most frequent strain groups in both Portugal and Brazil are LAM, followed by Haarlem and X. Contrary to these groups, strain group T showed a very different prevalence between Portugal (10%) and Brazil (1.5%). Spoligotype identification shows about 10% of mis-matches compared to the use of SNPs and a little more than 1% of strains unidentifiability. The mis-matches are observed in the most represented groups of our sample set (i.e., LAM and Haarlem) in almost the same proportion. Besides being more accurate in identifying strain groups/lineages, SNP-typing can also provide phylogenetic relationships between strain groups/lineages and, thus, indicate cases showing phylogenetic incongruence. Overall, the use of SNP-typing revealed striking similarities between MTBC populations from Portugal and Brazil.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Sylvatic and Captive Wild Boar from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Oliveira, R M S; Coelho, C; Vieira-Pinto, M; Nascimento, M S J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent today considered a major Public Health issue in industrialized countries. HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine, being today considered important reservoirs for human disease. Unlike in swine, only scarce data are available on the circulation of HEV in wild boar. This study describes the detection and molecular characterization of HEV in livers from sylvatic wild boar hunted in Portugal and destined for consumption. Additionally, the detection of HEV in stools of a confined wild boar population also destined for consumption is also described. A total of 80 liver samples collected during the hunting season of 2011/2012 and 40 stools collected in February 2012 from a wild boar breeding farm in Portugal were tested by a nested broad-spectrum RT-PCR assay targeting open reading frame (ORF) 1. Twenty livers (25.0%) and 4 stools (10%) were positive for HEV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all strains clustered with sequences classified as HEV genotype 3 subgenotype e. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence and molecular analysis of HEV in sylvatic and captive wild boar destined for human consumption in Portugal. This report demonstrates for the first time the circulation of HEV in wildlife reservoirs of Portugal adding knowledge to the epidemiology of HEV in wild boar populations.

  16. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  17. Echinococcus granulosus in Portugal: the first report of the G7 genotype in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beato, Sílvia; Parreira, Ricardo; Roque, Cláudio; Gonçalves, Matilde; Silva, Liliana; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Grácio, Maria Amélia

    2013-11-15

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a recognized public health problem in Portugal, molecular data regarding the types and prevalence of infecting strains of its etiological agent (Echinococcus granulosus) are still scarce. Over the last years we have been evaluating the prevalence of CE in the country, and in this report we determined the parasite genotypes infecting sheep, goats, cattle and human in Portugal, based on 209 hydatid cysts recovered from liver (n=96), lung (n=95), pancreas (n=17) and kidney (n=1) samples obtained between 2008 and 2011. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and a part of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was amplified by PCR. Overall, the results confirm the overall dominance of the G1-G3 cluster of strains, which are particularly prevalent in southern Portugal in livestock ruminants. Unexpectedly, one parasite sequence with cattle origin was found to correspond to E. granulosus G7 genotype (also known as E. intermedius), here reported for the first time in bovine, in Portugal.

  18. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  19. Education and Child Poverty in Times of Austerity in Portugal: Implications for Teachers and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assunção; Ferreira, Fernando Ilídio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years Portugal has experienced a severe financial and economic crisis, with implications for all sectors of society, particularly education. Salary cuts, high rates of unemployment, high taxation and worsening career progression are just some ways in which the teaching profession has been affected. Recent policy changes have also…

  20. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  1. Curriculum Policy in Portugal (1995-2007): Global Agendas and Regional and National Reconfigurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodoro, Antonio; Estrela, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critical analysis of recent education and curriculum policies in Portugal, focusing on the relationship between globalization, international agencies, and the curriculum. It aims to highlight not only changes in the organization of schools, but also the setting of a agenda structured at a global level for education in which…

  2. The Culex pipiens complex in continental Portugal: distribution and genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruno; Parreira, Ricardo; Sousa, Carla A; Novo, Maria T; Almeida, António P G; Donnelly, Martin J; Pinto, João

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is a southern European country that displays favorable ecological conditions for the establishment of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles. Competent mosquito vector species are present throughout the country. Among the species with reported cases of WNV isolation in Portugal, Culex pipiens is the most ubiquitous and abundant mosquito. This species exhibits two biological forms with differences in host preferences. The molestus form has a greater tendency to feed upon humans and other mammals whereas the pipiens form prefers avian hosts. In northern latitudes, both forms are physically separated, with molestus occupying underground habitats and pipiens being found aboveground. However, the warmer climatic conditions of southern regions such as Portugal may favor the sympatric occurrence of both forms hence promoting interform hybridization. Genetic introgression between molestus and pipiens forms may result in a higher propensity for admixed populations to serve as bridge-vectors of WNV between humans and birds. Here we revise our present knowledge on the distribution, role in WNV transmission and genetic structure of the Cx. pipiens complex in continental Portugal. We focus on recent findings of sympatric molestus and pipiens populations that display considerable levels of hybridization and discuss the epidemiological repercussions of this occurrence.

  3. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  4. Comparing Higher Education Reforms in Finland and Portugal: Different Contexts, Same Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Diogo, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of recent governance reforms in both Finnish and Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs), following the OECD's recent reviews of both countries' tertiary education systems. While in the case of Finland the major problem was identified as being a lack of entrepreneurialism, Portugal was…

  5. Assessment for Learning in Norway and Portugal: The Case of Primary School Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nortvedt, Guri A.; Santos, Leonor; Pinto, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the forces driving assessment for learning (AfL) in primary school teaching. By applying a case study design, including the two cases of Norway and Portugal and using mathematics teaching as an example, available policy documents and research reports are analysed to identify the differences and similarities that…

  6. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  7. The Effects of Parental Involvement in Homework on Student Achievement in Portugal and Luxembourg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villas-Boas, Adelina

    1998-01-01

    Details a study investigating the effect of well-designed homework activities on 6-7 and 11-12 year-old students' second-language acquisition and literacy skills in Portugal and Luxembourg, and whether parental involvement in these homework activities enhances students' learning. Highlights findings that strongly suggest this is so. Includes…

  8. Preserving Plurilingualism: A Case Study of Emerging Language Policy in a Small Polytechnic Institute in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arau Ribeiro, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Some policy is first created then implemented. Other policy has a way of making itself known through the back door. This article describes the implementation of a slowly emerging language policy at the Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, Portugal, starting before the Bologna Process led to curricular reform and a restructured social balance in higher…

  9. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  10. Internal Quality Assurance Systems in Portugal: What Their Strengths and Weaknesses Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter touch accreditation and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions…

  11. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  12. Relational Capabilities to Leverage New Knowledge: Managing Directors' Perceptions in UK and Portugal Old Industrial Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Focusing on the specific context of two European old industrial regions--South Yorkshire (UK) and North Region of Portugal--this paper aims to identify and conceptualise a set of relational capabilities that business leaders perceive to play a key role in industrial rejuvenation. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research design…

  13. Experiments in Popular Education in Portugal, 1974-1976. Education Studies and Documents, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Alberto; Benavente, Ana

    The first in a series of studies of lifelong learning, this paper discusses educational activities undertaken in Portugal after the fall of the dictatorship in 1974 and through 1976. Intended for educational planners and for those working in popular education, the study emphasizes original strategies and experiments, particulary those encouraging…

  14. [Scientific Research Policy for Health in Portugal: II - Facts and Suggestions].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Cátia Sá; Hartz, Zulmira; Sambo, Luís; Conceição, Cláudia; Dussault, Gilles; Russo, Giuliano; Viveiros, Miguel; Silveira, Henrique; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2017-03-31

    After more than 40 years of democracy and 30 years of European integration, Portugal has bridged the research gap it had previously. However, when compared to global and European research policies, Portugal still has a long way go regarding investment in research and development. Health Research in Portugal has been managed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and the National Health Institute Doctor Ricardo Jorge, and it has not been a political priority, emphasized by the absence of a national scientific research plan for health, resulting in a weak coordination of actors in the field. The strategic guidelines of the 2004 - 2010 National Health Plan are what comes closest to a health research policy, but these were not implemented by the institutions responsible for scientific research for the health sector. Trusting that adopting a strategy of incentives to stimulate health research is an added-value for the Portuguese health system, the authors present five strategic proposals for research in health in Portugal.

  15. Master's in Autonomous Systems: An Overview of the Robotics Curriculum and Outcomes at ISEP, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, E.; Almeida, J.; Martins, A.; Baptista, J. P.; Campos Neves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics research in Portugal is increasing every year, but few students embrace it as one of their first choices for study. Until recently, job offers for engineers were plentiful, and those looking for a degree in science and technology would avoid areas considered to be demanding, like robotics. At the undergraduate level, robotics programs are…

  16. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Portugal 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Isabel Susana

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Portugal's arts and cultural education. The Ministry of Education (ME) is fundamentally responsible for establishing aims to develop the cultural and creative aspects of education, in accordance with the following aims defined for the whole curriculum. At the level of compulsory education, the Portuguese education system,…

  17. Portugal and United States Cooperative Energy Assessment reference reports. Vol. 3, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    During fiscal years 1980 and 1981, the United States in cooperation with the Government of Portugal conducted a comprehensive assessment of Portugal's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies for meeting projected energy requirements. This assessment was a collaborative effort by a team of US and Portuguese experts in energy resources and technologies, development economics, and energy systems planning and analysis. The US Department of Energy managed the United States' component of the assessment with the overall policy guidance of the US Department of State and with primary technical management by Argonne National Laboratory. The reports in this part of Volume III of the Portugal/United States Cooperative Energy Assessment report were prepared by corporations under contract to the Office of International Energy Development Programs (IEP) of Argonne National Laboratory. These contractors provided IEP with a pool of qualified individuals with experience in specified disciplines and backgrounds to supplement its ability to meet program and schedule requirements set forth by the US Department of Energy. The contractors gathered information in Portugal and prepared the reports to support the resou

  18. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  19. Curriculum Policy in Portugal (1995-2007): Global Agendas and Regional and National Reconfigurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodoro, Antonio; Estrela, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critical analysis of recent education and curriculum policies in Portugal, focusing on the relationship between globalization, international agencies, and the curriculum. It aims to highlight not only changes in the organization of schools, but also the setting of a agenda structured at a global level for education in which…

  20. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Portugal Vs. Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Mainar, I.; Montuenga-Gomez, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns to education in two Southern EU countries, Portugal and Spain, both characterized by a relatively high self-employment rate. The impact of education on both wage earners and the self-employed is analyzed by using a comparable data set coming from the European Community Household Panel during the period…

  1. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  2. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other…

  3. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  4. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  5. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infection in dogs, Greece and Portugal, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Giannelli, Alessio; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Papadopoulos, Elias; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder

    2013-12-01

    Onchocerca lupi infection is reported primarily in symptomatic dogs. We aimed to determine the infection in dogs from areas of Greece and Portugal with reported cases. Of 107 dogs, 9 (8%) were skin snip-positive for the parasite. DNA sequences of parasites in specimens from distinct dog populations differed genetically from those in GenBank.

  6. Master's in Autonomous Systems: An Overview of the Robotics Curriculum and Outcomes at ISEP, Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, E.; Almeida, J.; Martins, A.; Baptista, J. P.; Campos Neves, B.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics research in Portugal is increasing every year, but few students embrace it as one of their first choices for study. Until recently, job offers for engineers were plentiful, and those looking for a degree in science and technology would avoid areas considered to be demanding, like robotics. At the undergraduate level, robotics programs are…

  7. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal: trends, projections and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Pina, Francisco; Castro, Clara; Ferro, Ana; Bento, Maria J; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    There is a large geographical variability in prostate cancer incidence and mortality trends, mostly because of heterogeneity in control efforts across regions. We aimed to describe the time trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal, overall and by region, and to estimate the number of incident cases and deaths in 2020. The number of cases and incidence rates in 1998-2009 were collected from the Regional Cancer Registries. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2013) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1991-2013 by region). JoinPoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Incidence and mortality predictions for 2020 were performed using Poisson regression models and population projections provided by Statistics Portugal. In Portugal, prostate cancer incidence has been increasing since 1998 (1.8%/year), with the exception of the North Region, with a decrease since 2006 (-3.2%/year). An overall mortality decline has been observed since 1997 (-2.2%/year), although there were two patterns of mortality variation at the regional level: one with an inflection point or significant variation in the rates and the other without significant variation. If these trends are maintained, ∼8600 incident cases and 1700 deaths may be expected to occur in Portugal in 2020. Despite the overall increasing incidence and decreasing mortality, there is a large heterogeneity across regions. Future studies should address regional differences in the trends of prostate specific antigen screening and in the effective management of prostate cancer.

  8. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  9. Disability-adjusted life years lost due to ischemic heart disease in mainland Portugal, 2013.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ana; Araújo, Carla; Viana, Marta; Laszczynska, Olga; Pereira, Marta; Bennett, Kathleen; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of the burden of ischemic heart disease (IHD), including geographic differences, should support health policy decisions. We set out to estimate the burden of IHD in mainland Portugal in 2013 by calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and to compare this burden between five regions. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying the number of IHD deaths in 2013 (Statistics Portugal) by the life expectancy at the age at which death occurred. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were computed as the number of cases of acute coronary syndrome, stable angina and ischemic heart failure multiplied by an average disability weight. Crude and age-standardized DALYs (direct method, Standard European Population) were calculated for mainland Portugal and for the Northern, Central, Lisbon, Alentejo and Algarve regions. In 2013, 95413 DALYs were lost in mainland Portugal due to IHD. YLLs accounted for 88.3% of the disease burden. Age-standardized DALY rates per 1000 population were higher in men than in women, across the entire country (8.9 in men; 3.4 in women) and within each region, ranging from 7.3 in the Northern and Central regions to 11.8 in the Algarve in men, and from 2.6 in the Northern region to 4.6 in Lisbon in women. Nearly 100000 DALYs were lost to IHD in Portugal, mostly through early mortality. This study enables accurate comparisons with other countries and between regions; however, it highlights the need for population-based studies to obtain specific data on morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  11. A First Crustal Model beneath Portugal from Teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Accurate seismic crustal models are important for interpreting seismicity and tectonics and predicting strong ground motion. These interpretations and predictions are particularly important in regions prone to significant seismic hazard such as Portugal, where considerable destruction has taken place from large on- and offshore earthquakes (e.g. 1755 M 8 Lisbon and 1909 Benavente M 6.0 earthquakes). The lack of high quality countrywide broadband data in the past has hindered quantitative characterization of regional Earth structure in Portugal. Due to a significant expansion of the Portuguese seismic network, however, a large volume of data is accumulating since 2006. We used this new high quality dataset to measure multi-period Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE), which we inverted to build the first seismic crustal model beneath Portugal. RWE is defined by the Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) amplitude ratio at a given seismic station, and theoretical studies demonstrate it to be strongly sensitive to the structure immediately beneath that particular station. We measured teleseismic RWE between 15 s and 60 s from 33 permanent and temporary stations in Portugal and inverted it for shear wave velocity (Vs) structure of the crust using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Our results show that both RWE and Vs are spatially correlated with surface geology. Notably, sedimentary basins produced by Mesozoic rifting (e.g. Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB)) are correlated with higher RWE (lower Vs). Similar high RWE values are observed in the interior of Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is an older metamorphic belt. We interpret this to be the signature of an extensional episode that the CIZ has undergone possibly simultaneous to the Mesozoic rift event. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ)- a Paleozoic metamorphic belt - in Northern Portugal exhibits the lowest RWE (highest Vs), whereas other metamorphic terrains have RWE intermediate to Basins and

  12. The Atlantic divide in coronary heart disease: Epidemiology and patient care in the US and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Mariana F; Azzone, Vanessa; Resnic, Frederic S; Melica, Bruno; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Freitas, Alberto; Nisa, Cláudia; Bacelar-Nicolau, Leonor; Rocha-Gonçalves, Francisco Nuno; Pereira-Miguel, José; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Normand, Sharon-Lise

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare access to new health technologies to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) in the health systems of Portugal and the US, characterizing the needs of the populations and the resources available. We reviewed data for 2000 and 2010 on epidemiologic profiles of CHD and on health care available to patients. Thirty health technologies (16 medical devices and 14 drugs) introduced during the period 1980-2015 were identified by interventional cardiologists. Approval and marketing dates were compared between countries. Relative to the US, Portugal has lower risk profiles and less than half the hospitalizations per capita, but fewer centers per capita provide catheterization and cardiothoracic surgery services. More than 70% of drugs were available sooner in the US, whereas 12 out of 16 medical devices were approved earlier in Portugal. Nevertheless, at least five of these devices were adopted first or diffused faster in the US. Mortality due to CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) was lower in Portugal (CHD: 72.8 vs. 168 and MI: 48.7 vs. 54.1 in Portugal and the US, respectively; age- and gender-adjusted deaths per 100000 population, 2010); but only CHD deaths exhibited a statistically significant difference between the countries. Differences in regulatory mechanisms and price regulations have a significant impact on the types of health technologies available in the two countries. However, other factors may influence their adoption and diffusion, and this appears to have a greater impact on mortality, due to acute conditions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Vegetation stress and summer fire activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, DaCamara; Sílvia, Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Fire activity in Mediterranean Europe is closely related to the climatological background where the occurrence of rainy and mild winters, followed by warm and dry summers, may induce high levels of vegetation stress over the different regions making them prone to the occurrence of fire events. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether years of very high or very low levels of fire activity over forests in Portugal are linked to contrasting vegetation cycles associated to high and low degrees of vegetation stress during the summer season. The present study relies on time series of yearly amounts of burned areas provided by Instituto de Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas (ICNF), the national authority for forests as well as on monthly values of NDVI and of brightness temperature as obtained from the Mediterranean Extended Daily One Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) product provided by the Free University of Berlin. Both datasets cover the 16-year period from 1990 to 2005. The area of forest is first identified by means of a k-means cluster analysis that is performed on climatological yearly means of NDVI and brightness temperature. Monthly means of NDVI and of brightness temperature are then evaluated over the area of forest and composites are made for severe and mild years of fire activity defined as those with yearly burned areas respectively above the third quartile and below the first quartile. The composite of severe years presents a brightness temperature cycle with values above average during spring and summer together with values of NDVI below average during summer, the behavior of both parameters providing an indication of vegetation stress. In contrast, the composite of mild years of fire activity presents an NDVI cycle with values well below average during spring, an indication of lack of biomass, and a brightness temperature cycle with values below average during spring and summer, an indication that vegetation is not under stress. Results

  14. Bedforms and sediment distribution in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    Here are presented preliminary results of the MINHO09 cruise, carried out within the scope of the paleoclimatic research task of the MINHO project (PROYECTO 0234_NATURA_MIÑO_MINHO). Bed features and sediment distribution were mapped in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal) using a dual frequency sidescan sonar mosaic (EdgeTech 4200-MP), and bottom sediment texture data from 71 sites sampled with a winch operated sediment grab (Van Veen type). The survey was done within 5 days, in low flow energy conditions of summer dry weather and neap tides, close to optimal conditions for correlating the acoustic imagery with the bottom sediment data. A DGPS (Omnistar 8200HP) was used to determine the horizontal position of the acoustic imagery and the sediment sample sites with sub-meter accuracy. Uncorrected water depths were determined with a depth echo-sounder (Odom HYDROTRAC echo sounder), and the water depths referred to the local datum was later determined using data from a tidal gauge (Valeport model 740) deployed specifically for this survey. Overall the sampled sediments were mostly poorly calibrated, with grain sizes ranging from gravel to mud coexisting in the same sample, probably reflecting the great seasonal contrast in flow conditions in the Minho River. The predominantly muddy sediments were observed along the river margins (frequently charged with gas) and, locally, along relatively deeper portions of the channel bed. The bedforms observed in the sidescan sonar data are dominated by 2D and 3D dunes and ripples. There are several locations were the bedforms suddenly change from larger dunes (wave lengths greater than 5m) to smaller ripples (wave lengths smaller than 1m). These changes may be related to the occurrence of supercritical flow conditions (Froude number > 1): hydraulic jumps in places were there is a sudden change in depth without any change in channel width, or chutes and pools in places were there is a sudden change in channel width; future work is

  15. Graphite Black shale of Vendas de Ceira, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Silva, Daniela; Coelho, Nuno; Gomes, Ruben; Santos, Ana; Piedade, Aldina

    2017-04-01

    The graphite black shale of Vendas de Ceira located in south of Coimbra (Portugal), caused serious instability problems in recent road excavation slopes. The problems increased with the rain, transforming shales into a dark mud that acquires a metallic hue when dried. The black shales are attributed to the Devonian or eventually, to the Silurian. At the base of the slope is observed graphite black shale and on the topbrown schist. Samples were collected during the slope excavation works. Undisturbed and less altered materials were selected. Further, sampling was made difficult as the graphite shale was covered by a thick layer of reinforced concrete, which was used to stabilize the excavated surfaces. The mineralogy is mainly constituted by quartz, muscovite, ilite, ilmenite and feldspar without the presence of expansive minerals. The organic matter content is 0.3 to 0.4%. The durability evaluated by the Slake Durability Test varies from very low (Id2 of 6% for sample A) to high (98% for sample C). The grain size distribution of the shale particles, was determined after disaggregation with water, which allowed verifying that sample A has 37% of fines (5% of clay and 32% of silt) and 63% of sand, while sample C has only 14% of fines (2% clay and 12% silt) and 86% sand, showing that the decrease in particle size contributes to reduce durability. The unconfined linear expansion confirms the higher expandability (13.4%) for sample A, reducing to 12.1% for sample B and 10.5% for sample C. Due the shale material degradated with water, mercury porosimetry was used. While the dry weight of the three samples does not change significantly, around 26 kN/m3, the porosity is much higher in sample A with 7.9% of pores, reducing to 1.4% in sample C. The pores size vary between 0.06 to 0.26 microns, does not seem to have any significant influence in the shale behaviour. In order to have a comparison term, a porosity test was carried out on the low weatherable brown shale, which is

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  17. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) along the north coast of Portugal: distribution model versus field observations.

    PubMed

    Veiga, P; Torres, A C; Rubal, M; Troncoso, J; Sousa-Pinto, I

    2014-07-15

    After the first report of Undaria pinnatifida in north Portugal (between 1999 and 2007), a rapid spread of this species could be expected due to the presence of a stable population and the favourable environmental conditions proposed by distribution models. However, field surveys showed that U. pinnatifida was not present in most of the rocky shores in north Portugal. It seems that U. pinnatifida cannot outcompete native species outside of marinas in north Portugal. The only population in natural rocky shores was found in Buarcos, where this species was frequent. This study provides density data of U. pinnatifida that will be useful in the future to monitor changes on its abundance and distribution in the centre and south of Portugal.

  18. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  19. An overview of the RAIDEN project: a study of lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; Leite, Solange; Sousa, João; Correia, Sandra; Reis, Margarida; Santos, João Andrade

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric lightning is an important atmospheric hazard, as cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) can affect people, can lead to severe damages in buildings, equipment, and can trigger forest fires. The potential damages directly linked to CGD have been increasing as society develops (e.g. due to greater use of electronic equipment). However, an adequate risk assessment requires an analysis in depth of the CGD spatial-temporal distributions. Further, the climate change impacts on the lightning activity still present many uncertainties. Nevertheless, there is a wide agreement in the scientific community that climate change in Europe is likely to impact on frequency, severity and location of extreme events. The Portuguese meteorological office (IPMA) maintains a lightning detection network (LDN) over mainland Portugal since June 2002. Due to the recent and short time period of available data, there are only few studies using this dataset. The RAIDEN project (contract number PTDC/CTE-ATM/101931/2008) - Lightning activity in Portugal: variability patterns and socioeconomic impacts - aims (1) to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of the lightning activity over mainland Portugal and (2) to assess its corresponding risks and socioeconomic impacts. This study is based on data provided by the Portuguese LDN and follows a multidisciplinary approach. As such, the project is focused on a 7-year period (2003-2009) of CGD data and the research program started studying the main climatological aspects of lightning activity, regarding the spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences, as well as their temporal variability at different time scales (inter-annual, seasonal and daily variability). The spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences over Portugal have also been categorized taking into account their spatial spread and strength using a clustering methodology. Furthermore, the dynamical mechanisms underlying the CGD occurrences, including the identification of the main lightning

  20. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside