Science.gov

Sample records for em rede ou

  1. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  2. Astronomy, Art and Mythology in a Public Elementary School in Itaocara/rj. (Spanish Title: Astronomía, Arte y Mitologia en el Ensino Fundamental en Una Escuela de la Red Estatal en ITAOCARA/RJ.) Astronomia, Arte e Mitologia no Ensino Fundamental em Escola da Rede Estadual em ITAOCARA/RJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana; Ramos dos Santos, Arleidimar

    2008-12-01

    pelos alunos nas Olimpíadas promovidas na escola e pela OBA (Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia) possibilitaram a verificação de uma crescente aprendizagem e estímulo ao conhecimento de temas científicos, que foi comprovado diante da apropriação dos conceitos de Astronomia adquiridos e apresentados em resultados como avaliações, ou ainda, diante dos relatos obtidos dos mesmos, suas famílias e professores.

  3. Prevendo a atividade solar através de redes neurais nebulosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Atualmente, a integração de redes neurais com técnicas da Matemática Nebulosa (Fuzzy Sets), tem sido usada robustamente para fazer previsões em vários sistemas físicos. Este trabalho representa uma continuidade da contribuição apresentada anteriormente durante a XXVIIa Reunião Anual da SAB, onde exploramos a aplicação de redes neurais para previsões futuras de séries temporais. Para este, enfatizamos o uso da técnica ANFIS (Adaptative Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System), que consiste em uma rede do tipo back-propagation, onde os dados são processados em uma camada intermediária, tendo numa camada de saída, os dados numéricos. Para que a previsão seja feita com sucesso utilizando-se técnicas matemáticas adequadas, é fundamental a existência de uma série razoavelmente longa de modo que a dinâmica contida nesta possa ser melhor extraída pela rede neural. Nesse sentido, foram utilizados novamente os dados históricos das manchas do Sol (1818-2002) afim de verificar o comportamento futuro da atividade solar (Ciclos de Schawbe) a partir da técnica descrita acima. Previsões realizadas para o ciclo anterior (n.22, máximo de 158,5 em julho de 1989), bem como para o atual (n.23, máximo de 153 em setembro de 2000), apontam valores bastante coerentes com os publicados na literatura, levando em consideração, respectivamente, as barras de erros associadas: 166+/-18 e 160+/-14. Para o próximo ciclo de Schawbe (2006-2017), nossa previsão aponta o valor de 172+/-23 como máximo para o primeiro semestre de 2011 (Abril +/- 3 meses). A ANFIS acompanha de maneira satisfatória o movimento das séries estudadas durante o treinamento e durante a verificação (menor dispersão das funções de pertinência), com erro absoluto inferior a 20 por cento.

  4. Como os Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo obtém Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rápido e seguro a todo tipo de informação e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de São Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos básicos de astronomia quanto aos fenômenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná~los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espaço amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola e 59% através da mídia em geral. Neste mesmo espaço amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residência, 5% no trabalho e 43% não utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou também que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentação sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos não obtém na escola seus conhecimentos astronômicos, estes provém de fontes não especificamente didático-pedagógicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que não raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  5. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  6. Developments in REDES: The rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) is being developed at the NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP, a nozzle design program named RAO, a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE, and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES is built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  7. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  8. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  9. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

    2015-04-02

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  10. Results of vitrifying Fernald OU-4 wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A.; Janke, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Three silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4) at the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio, contain residues from the processing of pitchblende ores. Silos 1 and 2, designated as K-65, contain the depleted ore with a BentoGrout cap over the material to reduce radon emanation, while Silo 3 contains calcined residue from processing solutions. The residues in the three silos contain radium, uranium, uranium daughters, and heavy metals (primarily lead). Vitrification tests were carried out on various mixtures of the above materials and the resulting glasses were analyzed. The vitrified residues all tested ``non-hazardous`` by the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) and demonstrated a high degree of durability by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The specific gravity and radon emanation of both the vitrified and non-vitrified residue were measured. Volume reductions ranging from 50 to 68 percent were obtained while the radon emanation rate was reduced by a factor of about 500,000. Radon emanation from the vitrified residue is of the same order of magnitude as emanation from natural building materials such as brick or concrete.

  11. Results of vitrifying Fernald OU-4 wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.A. ); Janke, D.S. )

    1993-02-01

    Three silos in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4) at the Feed Materials Production Center in Fernald, Ohio, contain residues from the processing of pitchblende ores. Silos 1 and 2, designated as K-65, contain the depleted ore with a BentoGrout cap over the material to reduce radon emanation, while Silo 3 contains calcined residue from processing solutions. The residues in the three silos contain radium, uranium, uranium daughters, and heavy metals (primarily lead). Vitrification tests were carried out on various mixtures of the above materials and the resulting glasses were analyzed. The vitrified residues all tested non-hazardous'' by the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) and demonstrated a high degree of durability by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The specific gravity and radon emanation of both the vitrified and non-vitrified residue were measured. Volume reductions ranging from 50 to 68 percent were obtained while the radon emanation rate was reduced by a factor of about 500,000. Radon emanation from the vitrified residue is of the same order of magnitude as emanation from natural building materials such as brick or concrete.

  12. Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with cavities: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Olindo, C.; Sagioro, M. A.; Monken, C. H.; Padua, S.; Delgado, A.

    2006-04-15

    We study the number of coincidences in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer exit whose arms have been supplemented with the addition of one or two optical cavities. The fourth-order correlation function at the beam splitter exit is calculated. In the regime where the cavities lengths are larger than the one-photon coherence length, photon coalescence and anticoalescence interference is observed. Feynman's path diagrams for the indistinguishable processes that lead to quantum interference are presented. The construction of an optical XOR gate is discussed as an application for the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with two cavities.

  13. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  14. Regional Emissions Data Base and Evaluation System (REDES): Technical and system documentation of Version 2. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Rausch, J.V.; Boyd, G.A.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program has solicited proposals from the private sector to demonstrate innovative technologies that allow the clean use of coal as an energy source. To aid in evaluating the potential of these proposed technologies to reduce environmental residuals, DOE and ICCT Source Evaluation Board asked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a series of data bases and a personal-computer-based model. Argonne created version 1.0 of the Regional Emissions Data Base and Evaluation System (REDES) in 1988. Version 1.0 was revised, and Version 2.0 was released in 1989. Version 2.0 of REDES is available to the public through the National Energy Software Center (telephone 708-972-7250). In 1988, Argonne National Laboratory published Regional Emissions Data Base and Evaluation System (REDES), report ANL/EES-TM-351, to document Version 1.0 of the REDES data bases and the computer model. In 1990, Argonne prepared this report to describe the changes and improvements that were made to Version 1.0 of REDES to create Version 2.0. Together with ANL/EES/TM-351, this report provides the user with a complete description of REDES, which is designed to forecast the change in emissions that could result from using a particular clean coal technology. 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  16. Regional emissions data base and evaluation system (REDES): Volume 1, Methodology and user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; VanGroningen, C.; Abel, L.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes an IBM personal-computer (PC) based system designed to aid in the evaluation of proposals to develop and demonstrate new technologies making clean use of coal. It forecasts the emissions that could result from the commercial introduction of a proposed clean coal technology, based on a user-defined market. These emission evaluations for each proposed technology can be saved for future analysis and comparison. The REDES program gives the user a systematic process for entering the characteristics of a particular clean coal technology; it then evaluates and reports on the potential impact that the introduction and commercialization of this proposed technology would have on the environment. In a sense, REDES is like a black box. It will produce evaluations based on any technology characteristics that it receives as input. To help the user of REDES determine the performance that might be expected from these emerging technologies, a set of generic technology characterizations are provided in the data base as a guide (see Vol.3). REDES is written as a run-time module in GURU, an expert system and relational data-base package from Micro Database Systems, Inc. (MDBS) for the IBM PC and compatibles. REDES cannot be executed without the run-time GURU program. This program must be obtained directly from MDBS; it is not available from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  18. RedeR: R/Bioconductor package for representing modular structures, nested networks and multiple levels of hierarchical associations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Visualization and analysis of molecular networks are both central to systems biology. However, there still exists a large technological gap between them, especially when assessing multiple network levels or hierarchies. Here we present RedeR, an R/Bioconductor package combined with a Java core engine for representing modular networks. The functionality of RedeR is demonstrated in two different scenarios: hierarchical and modular organization in gene co-expression networks and nested structures in time-course gene expression subnetworks. Our results demonstrate RedeR as a new framework to deal with the multiple network levels that are inherent to complex biological systems. RedeR is available from http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/RedeR.html. PMID:22531049

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation. PMID:26365761

  20. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.

  1. Phase-unlocked Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy M.; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni

    2013-06-01

    There is a fundamental dimensional mismatch between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer and two-photon (2P) states: while the latter are represented using two temporal (or spectral) dimensions, the HOM interferometer allows access to only one temporal dimension. We introduce a linear 2P interferometer containing two independent delays spanning the 2P state. By “unlocking” the fixed phase relationship between the interfering 2P probability amplitudes in a HOM interferometer, one of these probability amplitudes now serves as a delay-free 2P reference against which the other beats, thereby resolving ambiguities in 2P state identification typical of HOM interferometry and extending its utility to a large family of 2P states.

  2. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  3. Hong Ou Mandel interferometer: A quantum measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borjemscaia, Natalia

    Quantum computing research has been around for several decades, since it was first proposed by Richard Feynman. Many efforts have been made to utilize quantum systems in creation of new computing devices in the recent years. One of the essential tools used for characterization and manipulation of optical quantum systems is a Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) Interferometer. It is used in this work to provide information about propagation, distortion and degree of indistinguishability of single photons. This work provides complete characterization of an optical tunneling effect in dielectric Bragg gratings. Samples with different thin film configurations are examined and their corresponding propagation delay times are calculated with sub-femtosecond precision. It is determined that for specific configurations for dielectric stacks, propagation delays can exhibit superluminal behavior. The distortion due to this effect is also calculated using HOM profiles. HOM interferometer is also used to calculate the degree of coalescence between two dissimilar sources. Single photons generated by quantum dot emission and parametric down conversion are tailored through aggressive filtering techniques to be identical in their spectral, temporal and polarization profiles. The degree of their coalescence is then calculated in an attempt to create quantum interference. This work attempts to provide better understanding of single photon interactions through use of an HOM interferometer.

  4. A phase-unlocked Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnall, Timothy M.; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Di Guiseppe, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    There exists a fundamental dimensional mismatch between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer and two-photon states: while the latter are represented using two temporal (or spectral) dimensions, the HOM interferometer allows access to only one temporal dimension owing to its single delay element. We introduce a linear two-photon interferometer containing two independent delays spanning the two-photon state. By unlocking the fixed phase relationship between the interfering two-photon probability amplitudes in a HOM interferometer, one of these probability amplitudes now serves as a delay-free two-photon reference against which the other beats, thereby resolving ambiguities in two-photon state identification typical of HOM interferometry. We discuss the operation of this phase-unlocked HOM on a variety of input states focusing on instances where this new interferometer outperforms a traditional HOM interferometer: frequency-correlated states and states produced by a pulse doublet pump. Additionally, this interferometer affords the opportunity to synchronize two-photon states in a manner analogous to an HOM interferometer; moreover, it extends that capability to the aforementioned class of states.

  5. Regional emissions data base and evaluation system (REDES): Volume 2, Regional emissions evaluation data base (REED)

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Campbell, A.P.; Davis, M.J.; Veselka, T.D.

    1988-08-01

    A three-volume report has been prepared to document these REDES data bases and computer model. This volume documents the data base for forecasting emissions. This disaggregated forecast data base of energy use and emissions for electric utility and industrial boilers for 1985 through 2010 is called REED (Regional Emissions Evaluation Data Base). The other volumes describe the methodology of the evaluation system and user-driven menu system (Vol. 1) and document the data base that characterizes 21 generic technologies (Vol. 3). All three volumes provide the user with a complete description of REDES, which is designed to forecast the change in emissions that could result from using a particular clean coal technology. The US Department of Energy's Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program has solicited proposals from the private sector to demonstrate innovative technologies that allow the clean use of coal as an energy source. The US Department of Energy and the ICCT Source Evaluation Board requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop two data bases and a personal-computer-based model to aid in evaluating the potential for these proposed technologies to reduce environmental residuals. Version 1.0 of the Regional Emissions Data Base and Evaluation System (REDES) is available to the public through the National Energy Software Center. 41 refs., 16 tabs.

  6. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  7. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  8. The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in the context of few-photon scattering.

    PubMed

    Longo, Paolo; Cole, Jared H; Busch, Kurt

    2012-05-21

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is studied in the context of two-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide with a single scatterer. We numerically investigate the scattering problem within a time-dependent, wave-function-based framework. Depending on the realization of the scatterer and its properties, we calculate the joint probability of finding both photons on either side of the waveguide after scattering. We specifically point out how Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry techniques could be exploited to identify effective photon-photon interactions which are mediated by the scatterer. The Hong-Ou-Mandel dip is discussed in detail for the case of a single two-level atom embedded in the waveguide, and dissipation and dephasing are taken into account by means of a quantum jump approach.

  9. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  10. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  11. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  12. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  13. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  14. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  15. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  16. Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with one and two photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, Olavo; Pádua, S.; Bovino, Fabio A.; Mazzei, A.; Sciarrino, Fabio; de Martini, Francesco

    2008-05-01

    We study the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in the regime of spontaneous parametric down-conversion with high pump beam power at the crystal. In this regime one and two photons from a pump pulsed laser beam generate one and two pairs of photons, respectively. These photons are then directed to the beam splitter of the interferometer and detected at its exit in coincidence. An interesting phenomenon is observed: The reduction of the visibility of the Hong-Ou-Mandel coincidence peak (or dip) with the increase of pump power. We study the relation between the visibility of the fourth-order interference pattern and the power of the pumping laser beam for type I and type II phase-matching crystals. Our theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. High visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel interference via a time-resolved coincidence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Motoki; Ikuta, Rikizo; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Sasaki, Masahide; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-05-01

    We report on the observation of a high visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two heralded photons emitted from a spontaneous parametric down conversion~(SPDC) pumped by continuous-wave~(cw) light. A non-degenerate photon pair at 1541~nm and 1580~nm is generated by cw-pumped SPDC through a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The heralded single photon at 1541~nm is prepared by the detection of the photon at 1580~nm. We performed the experiment of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between heralded single photons in separated time bins and observed a high visibility interference. All detectors we used are superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors and an overall temporal resolution of the photon detection is estimated as 85 ps, which is sufficiently shorter than the coherence time of the heralded photons.

  18. Complete three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference at a three port device.

    PubMed

    Mährlein, Simon; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S

    2015-06-15

    We report the possibility of completely destructive interference of three indistinguishable photons on a three port device providing a generalisation of the well known Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two indistinguishable photons on a two port device. Our analysis is based on the underlying mathematical framework of SU(3) transformations rather than SU(2) transformations. We show the completely destructive three photon interference for a large range of parameters of the three port device and point out the physical origin of such interference in terms of the contributions from different quantum paths. As each output port can deliver zero to three photons the device generates higher dimensional entanglement. In particular, different forms of entangled states of qudits can be generated depending on the device parameters. Our system is different from a symmetric three port beam splitter which does not exhibit a three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  20. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-28

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  1. Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES): A product of a high temporal resolution rainfall data collection in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the (R)USLE model. The R-factor is calculated from a series of single storm events by multiplying the total storm kinetic energy with the measured maximum 30-minutes rainfall intensity. This estimation requests high temporal resolution (e.g. 30 minutes) rainfall data for sufficiently long time periods (i.e. 20 years) which are not readily available at European scale. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre(JRC) in collaboration with national/regional meteorological services and Environmental Institutions made an extensive data collection of high resolution rainfall data in the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Switzerland in order to estimate rainfall erosivity in Europe. This resulted in the Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES) which included 1,541 rainfall stations in 2014 and has been updated with 134 additional stations in 2015. The interpolation of those point R-factor values with a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model has resulted in the first Rainfall Erosivity map of Europe (Science of the Total Environment, 511, 801-815). The intra-annual variability of rainfall erosivity is crucial for modelling soil erosion on a monthly and seasonal basis. The monthly feature of rainfall erosivity has been added in 2015 as an advancement of REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map. Almost 19,000 monthly R-factor values of REDES contributed to the seasonal and monthly assessments of rainfall erosivity in Europe. According to the first results, more than 50% of the total rainfall erosivity in Europe takes place in the period from June to September. The spatial patterns of rainfall erosivity have significant differences between Northern and Southern Europe as summer is the most erosive period in Central and Northern Europe and autumn in the

  2. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  3. Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Spinoni, Jonathan; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-05-01

    The policy requests to develop trends in soil erosion changes can be responded developing modelling scenarios of the two most dynamic factors in soil erosion, i.e. rainfall erosivity and land cover change. The recently developed Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and a statistical approach used to spatially interpolate rainfall erosivity data have the potential to become useful knowledge to predict future rainfall erosivity based on climate scenarios. The use of a thorough statistical modelling approach (Gaussian Process Regression), with the selection of the most appropriate covariates (monthly precipitation, temperature datasets and bioclimatic layers), allowed to predict the rainfall erosivity based on climate change scenarios. The mean rainfall erosivity for the European Union and Switzerland is projected to be 857 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 till 2050 showing a relative increase of 18% compared to baseline data (2010). The changes are heterogeneous in the European continent depending on the future projections of most erosive months (hot period: April-September). The output results report a pan-European projection of future rainfall erosivity taking into account the uncertainties of the climatic models.

  4. Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Spinoni, Jonathan; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-05-01

    The policy requests to develop trends in soil erosion changes can be responded developing modelling scenarios of the two most dynamic factors in soil erosion, i.e. rainfall erosivity and land cover change. The recently developed Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and a statistical approach used to spatially interpolate rainfall erosivity data have the potential to become useful knowledge to predict future rainfall erosivity based on climate scenarios. The use of a thorough statistical modelling approach (Gaussian Process Regression), with the selection of the most appropriate covariates (monthly precipitation, temperature datasets and bioclimatic layers), allowed to predict the rainfall erosivity based on climate change scenarios. The mean rainfall erosivity for the European Union and Switzerland is projected to be 857 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1) till 2050 showing a relative increase of 18% compared to baseline data (2010). The changes are heterogeneous in the European continent depending on the future projections of most erosive months (hot period: April-September). The output results report a pan-European projection of future rainfall erosivity taking into account the uncertainties of the climatic models.

  5. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  6. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between triggered and heralded single photons from separate atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Victor; Kosen, Sandoko; Srivathsan, Bharath; Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Cerè, Alessandro; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-06-01

    We present Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of single photons generated via two different physical processes by two independent atomic systems: scattering by a single atom, and parametric generation via four-wave mixing in a cloud of cold atoms. Without any spectral filtering, we observe a visibility of V =62 ±4 % . After correcting for accidental coincidences, we obtain V =93 ±6 % . The observed interference demonstrates the compatibility of the two sources, forming the basis for an efficient quantum interface between different physical systems.

  7. How nonlinear optical effects degrade Hong-Ou-Mandel like interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    Two-photon interference effects, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect, can be used to characterize to what extent two photons are identical [20]. Furthermore, these interference effects underly linear optics quantum computation. We show here how nonlinear optical effects, such as those mediated by atoms or quantum dots in a cavity, degrade the interference. This implies that, on the one hand, nonlinearities are to be avoided if one wishes to utilize the interference, but on the other hand, one may be able to measure or detect nonlinearities by observing the disappearance of the interference.

  8. Spatial two-photon interference in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Heonoh; Kwon, Osung; Kim, Wonsik; Kim, Taesoo

    2006-02-15

    We report the observation of the cosine modulation in the coincidence rates from a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer. Spatial interference fringes are seen by minute rotations of one mirror about the vertical axis, while the beam splitter is fixed in the center position. The results show that the maximum visibility of the fringe is 0.81, and the photon pairs separated by less than 1.52 mm in the source plane are measured to be indistinguishable. It turns out that it is possible to invert the HOM dips to peaks by the rotation of the mirror.

  9. Tolerance and biomarkers as useful tools for assessing environmental quality in the Oued Souss estuary (Bay of Agadir, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Ait Alla, A; Mouneyrac, C; Durou, C; Moukrim, A; Pellerin, J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess aquatic environmental quality of Oued Souss (Agadir, Morocco). This estuary has been subjected for a long time to large amounts of sewage discharges and industrial effluents. Since November 2002, no waste outlets have been discharged in this site due to their connection to a wastewater purification plant. Firstly, we have compared metal tolerance of the annelid polychaete (Nereis diversicolor) originating from Oued Souss and a relatively clean site (Oualidia, Morocco). Secondly, we have evaluated with a multi-marker approach (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], glutathione-S-transferases [GSTs], catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARs]) responses of worms to the pollution gradient. Results have shown that worms from Oued Souss have acquired tolerance to copper and zinc due to a long-term sub-lethal metal exposure and this metal tolerance was maintained in spite of the end of wastewater discharges in this site. Higher catalase, GSTs and TBARs values have been observed in worms from Oued Souss sampled before implantation of wastewater treatment. The multi-marker approach confirms that these worms have been submitted to various contaminants. In contrast, high inhibition in AChE activities measured in worms from Oued Souss could be explained by the continuous agricultural influence of nearest areas. The level of contamination was probably maintained since biomarker values were generally higher in worms from Oued Souss when compared to Oualidia.

  10. Micro-usinage nanoseconde UV ou femtoseconde: état de l'art et comparaison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, J.; Salin, F.; Hernandez, M.-C.; Faucon, M.

    2003-06-01

    Jusqu'ici les applications liées au micro-usinage étaient principalement réservées aux sources de types Nd :YAG, pour les matériaux métalliques, ou Excimère, pour les polymères. Les avancées récentes dans le domaine des lasers à impulsions ultra-brèves (<10 ps), en terme de performances, fiabilité et coût, permettent aujourd'hui d'envisager des applications industrielles dans le domaine du niicro-usinage. Ces applications tirent profit de la possibilité d'usiner tout type matériau sans diffusion de chaleur hors du volume irradié. Après avoir rappeler les spécificités des interactions avec ces différents types de laser, nous présenterons quelques exemples de réalisations par rayonnement laser UV ou fenitoseconde.

  11. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  12. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  13. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Prabhakar, Shashi; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.

  14. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  15. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  16. Effects of interactions on the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertjerenken, B.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    We numerically investigate the influence of interactions on the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect for bosonic particles in a (quasi-)one-dimensional set-up with weak harmonic confinement and show results for the cases of N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 bosons interacting with a beam splitter, whose role is played by a δ-barrier. In particular, we focus on the effect of attractive interactions and compare the results with the repulsive case, as well as with the analytically available results for the non-interacting case (that we use as a benchmark). We observe a fermionization effect both for growing repulsive and attractive interactions, i.e., the dip in the HOM coincidence count is progressively smeared out, for increasing interaction strengths. The role of input asymmetries is also explored.

  17. Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Peter J.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2010-04-10

    We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.

  18. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625

  20. Interactions and Charge Fractionalization in an Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jérôme; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We consider an electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, where two single electrons travel along opposite chiral edge states and collide at a quantum point contact. Studying the current noise, we show that because of interactions between copropagating edge states, the degree of indistinguishability between the two electron wave packets is dramatically reduced, leading to reduced contrast for the HOM signal. This decoherence phenomenon strongly depends on the energy resolution of the packets. Insofar as interactions cause charge fractionalization, we show that charge and neutral modes interfere with each other, leading to satellite dips or peaks in the current noise. Our calculations explain recent experimental results [E. Bocquillon, et al., Science 339, 1054 (2013)] where an electronic HOM signal with reduced contrast was observed.

  1. Two-dimensional fermionic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with massless Dirac fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a two-dimensional Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) type interference experiment for massless Dirac fermions in graphene and 3D topological insulators. Since massless Dirac fermions exhibit linear dispersion, similar to photons in vacuum, they can be used to obtain the HOM interference intensity pattern as a function of the delay time between two massless Dirac fermions. We show that while the Coulomb interaction leads to a significant change in the angle dependence of the tunneling of two identical massless Dirac fermions incident from opposite sides of a potential barrier, it does not affect the HOM interference pattern. We apply our formalism to develop a massless Dirac fermion beam splitter (BS) for controlling the transmission and reflection coefficients. We calculate the resulting time-resolved correlation function for two identical massless Dirac fermions scattering off the BS.

  2. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization.

    PubMed

    Freulon, V; Marguerite, A; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Fève, G

    2015-04-21

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes.

  3. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-04-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes.

  4. Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through Hong-Ou-Mandel coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; de Martini, Francesco; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Piccirillo, Bruno; Karimi, Ebrahim; Santamato, Enrico

    2009-12-01

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, associated with a helical structure of the wavefunction, has great potential in quantum photonics, as it allows a higher dimensional quantum space to be attached to each photon. Hitherto, however, the use of OAM has been hindered by difficulties in its manipulation. Here, by making use of the recently demonstrated spin-OAM information transfer tools, we report the first observation of the Hong-Ou-Mandel coalescence of two incoming photons having non-zero OAM into the same outgoing mode of a beamsplitter. The coalescence can be switched on and off by varying the input OAM state of the photons. Such an effect has then been used to carry out the 1 --> 2 universal optimal quantum cloning of OAM-encoded qubits, using the symmetrization technique already developed for polarization. These results are shown to be scalable to quantum spaces of arbitrary dimensions, even combining different degrees of freedom of the photons.

  5. Spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Gerrits, Thomas; Fujiwara, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between independent photon sources (HOMI-IPS) is the fundamental block for quantum information processing, such as quantum gate, Shor's algorithm, Boson sampling, etc. All the previous HOMI-IPS experiments were carried out in time-domain, however, the spectral information during the interference was lost, due to technical difficulties. Here, we investigate the HOMI-IPS in spectral domain using the recently developed fast fiber spectrometer, and demonstrate the spectral distribution during the HOM interference between two heralded single-photon sources, and two thermal sources. This experiment can not only deepen our understanding of HOMI-IPS in the spectral domain, but also be utilized to improve the visibility by post-processing spectral filtering.

  6. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-05

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  8. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  9. EMS -- Error Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes the Error Message Service, EMS, and its use in system software. The purpose of EMS is to provide facilities for constructing and storing error messages for future delivery to the user -- usually via the Starlink Error Reporting System, ERR (see SUN/104). EMS can be regarded as a simplified version of ERR without the binding to any software environment (e.g., for message output or access to the parameter and data systems). The routines in this library conform to the error reporting conventions described in SUN/104. A knowledge of these conventions, and of the ADAM system (see SG/4), is assumed in what follows. This document is intended for Starlink systems programmers and can safely be ignored by applications programmers and users.

  10. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  11. X-ray diving in the center of Sh2-129: looking for the driving source of Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    The outflow phenomenon is associated both with the early and the last phase of the stellar evolution. Recently, a unique bipolar outflow with an angular size of 1.2 degrees was discovered in the blister HII region Sh2-129. Ou4, nicknamed "The Giant Squid", is to our knowledge the bipolar outflow with the largest angular size ever found. We propose joint XMM-Newton/EPIC (35 ks) and Chandra/HRC-I (16 ks) observations to look for the driving source of Ou4 and to clarify the nature of this object.

  12. National EMS Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sayre, M R; White, L J; Brown, L H; McHenry, S D

    2002-01-01

    Now, more than ever before, the spirit of the emergency services professional is recognized by people everywhere. Individuals from every walk of life comprehend the reality of the job these professionals do each day. Placing the safety of others above their own is their acknowledged responsibility. Rescue and treatment of ill and injured patients are their purpose as well as their gratification. The men and women who provide prehospital care are well aware of the unpredictable nature of emergency medical services (EMS). Prehospital care is given when and where it is needed: in urban settings with vertical challenges and gridlock; in rural settings with limited access; in confined spaces; within entrapments; or simply in the street, exposed to the elements. Despite the challenges, EMS professionals rise to the occasion to do their best with the resources available. Despite more than 30 years of dedicated service by thousands of EMS professionals, academic researchers, and public policy makers, the nation's EMS system is treating victims of illness and injury with little or no evidence that the care they provide is optimal. A national investment in the EMS research infrastructure is necessary to overcome obstacles currently impeding the accumulation of essential evidence of the effectiveness of EMS practice. Funding is required to train new researchers and to help them establish their careers. Financial backing is needed to support the development of effective prehospital treatments for the diseases that drive the design of the EMS system, including injury and sudden cardiac arrest. Innovative strategies to make EMS research easier to accomplish in emergency situations must be implemented. Researchers must have access to patient outcome information in order to evaluate and improve prehospital care. New biomedical and technical advances must be evaluated using scientific methodology. Research is the key to maintaining focus on improving the overall health of the

  13. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  14. Landslide susceptibility modelling using Fuzzy Logic in the oued Larbaa basin (Oriental Rif, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezere, J. L.; Sadiki, A.; Faleh, A.; Elkoulali, E.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Oliveira, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    Together with flash floods and soil erosion, landslides are relevant natural hazards that affect marly slopes in the oued Larbaa basin, located in the Oriental Rif, Morocco. Landslides have been generated important economic, social and ecological effects, by the destruction of farming lands, and by the collapse and interruption of roads and other human infrastructures (e.g., houses). The reduction of socio-economic losses due to landslide activity needs to be accomplished through the implementation of a comprehensive mitigation landslide risk program. The first task of this program is the definition of landslide susceptible areas based on the study of relationships between spatial distribution of past landslides and the cartographic set of landslide predisposing factors. Therefore, the major aim of this work is to create a landslide susceptibility map for the study area. The oued Larbaa basin, located northwards the Taza city, has an area of 245 km2 and the elevation ranges between 450 m and 1300 m. Morphology is characterized by rounded hills cutting marly formations essentially of Cretaceous age. Land use is dominated by cereal cultures and a few sparse tree plantations. Natural vegetation shows a very high level of degradation and usually appears as shrub tufts. The inventory of instability events has been made for the study area and it includes both rainfall-triggered rotational and shallow translational slides. These landslides were included into a GIS database that comprises also the following landslide predisposing factors: slope angle, aspect and curvature, inverse wetness index, lithology and land use. The susceptibility assessment was carried out for each type of landslide (rotational slides and shallow translational slides) under the assumption that future landslides will occur under the same environmental patterns that generated landslides in the past. The modelling of landslide susceptibility was made using the Fuzzy Logic method (Fuzzy Algebraic

  15. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  16. Diversity of Soil Microbial Communities from an Iron Mining Area (Oued Zem, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Nouri; Abdelmajid, Haddioui

    2017-03-01

    Microbial communities in the soil were collected from 20 samples of an iron mining area (Ait Ammar, Oued Zem, Morocco), and unaffected samples were analysed to identify the effects of metal concentrations on functional diversity (Biolog® EcoPlates), and structural diversity (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA). Aliivibrio fischeri is mainly used for evaluating polluted soil. The functional diversity was assessed by using such indices as area under substrate utilisation curve, richness, Shannon- Weaver and evenness indices. The analysis of similarities and the non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses of DGGE profiles showed that metals in the soil do not have a significant influence on bacteria. Principal component analysis of Biolog data revealed the similarity in the metabolic profiles of mining samples. These results suggest that the direction and the distance from the iron mine tailings do not have significant effects on the metabolic and structural diversity of the soil bacterial population. The toxicity of metals in soils heavily contaminated with Fe and P did not affect the quantities of microbial populations and did not significantly change the microbial diversity of contaminated soils.

  17. High visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel interference via a time-resolved coincidence measurement.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Motoki; Ikuta, Rikizo; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Sasaki, Masahide; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-05-29

    A high visibility Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independently prepared photons plays an important role in various photonic quantum information processing. In a standard HOM experiment using photons generated by pulse-pumped spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), larger detection time windows than the coherence time of photons have been employed for measuring the HOM visibility and/or drawing the HOM dip. If large amounts of stray photons continuously exist within the detection time windows, employing small detection time windows is favorable for reducing the effect of background noises. Especially, such a setup is helpful for the HOM experiment using continuous wave (cw)-pumped SPDC and the time-resolved coincidence measurement. Here we argue that the method for determining the HOM visibility used in the previous cw experiments tends to suffer from distortion arising from biased contribution of the background noises. We then present a new method with unbiased treatment of the cw backgrounds. By using this method, we experimentally demonstrate a high visibility HOM interference of two heralded telecom photons independently generated by SPDC with employing cw pump light. An observed HOM visibility is 0.87 ± 0.04, which is as high as those observed by using pulse-pumped SPDC photons.

  18. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Atomic Many-Body States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference experiments are a powerful probe for the indistinguishability and underlying quantum statistics of particles. In the classic HOM experiment, a pair of identical photons incident on different input ports of a beamsplitter exits via the same output port. Using the precise control and readout afforded by our quantum gas microscope, we present an implementation of this classic experiment using massive bosons in a doublewell optical potential. Identical states are prepared on each site of the doublewell and by lowering the tunnel coupling between the sites for specific times, we drive a beam splitter operation between the sites. For single-atom Fock input states, we have realized a high fidelity beamsplitter operation and observed an HOM interference contrast of >90%. By generalizing to more complex initial states on the input ports, we have been able to establish HOM experiment protocols as a robust approach towards studying the indistinguishability of many-body states as well as probe interaction-induced effects. These techniques open a path towards the measurement of purity in a quantum system and entanglement entropy in many-body states.

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference Between Triggered And Heralded Single Photons From Separate Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cere, Alessandro; Leong, Victor; Kaur Gulati, Gurpreet; Srivathsan, Bharath; Kosen, Sandoko; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The realization of quantum networks and long distance quantum communication rely on the capability of generating entanglement between separated nodes. We demonstrate the compatibility of two different sources of single photons: a single atom and four-wave mixing in a cold cloud of atoms. The four-wave mixing process in a cloud of cold 87Rb generates photon pairs. The cascade level scheme used ensures the generation of heralded single photons with exponentially decaying temporal envelope. The temporal shape of the heralding photons matches the shape of photons emitted by spontaneous decay but for the shorter coherence time A single 87Rb atom is trapped in an far-off-resonance optical dipole trap and can be excited with high probability using a short (~3 ns) intense pulse of resonant light, emitting a single photon by spontaneous decay. A large numerical aperture lens collects ~4% of the total fluorescence. The heralded and the triggered photons are launched into a Houng-Ou-Mandel interferometer: a symmetrical beam-splitter with outputs connected to single photon detectors. Scanning the relative delay between the two sources we observe the HOM dip with a maximum visibility of 70 +/-4%.

  20. Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.

    2014-02-01

    The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.

  1. Prise en Charge du Syndrome de Lyell ou Necrolyse Epidermique Toxique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Baite, A.; Bakkali, H.; Atmani, M.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  2. Salt wedge determination using electrical sounding method in the region of Oued Nador (Tipaza, Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amine Bechkit, Mohamed; Benaïssa, Zahia; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali; Deghmoum, Feriel

    2017-04-01

    The marine intrusion of freshwater aquifers by salt water results in soil degradation due to their salinization. The present survey aims to study the position of the fresh water - salt water interface using electric sounding method in the region of Oued Nador (Tipaza, Algeria). It is important to know the position of this interface for the continuation of the aquifer exploitation. For this, we conducted, in this zone, seven electric soundings oriented north-west south-east, with Schlumberger electrodes configuration. The inversion of the apparent resistivity data via the IP2Win software allowed us to recover the true values of electrical resistivity. The exploitation of obtained data requires the implementation of a geo-electric section, and for the interpretation, the results of a standard electrical sounding, acquired near the study area, are used. The results of this geophysical study allowed us to locate the freshwater - salt water contact with resistivity values that can reach 50 ohm m for freshwater formation, and less than 10 ohm m for saturated saltwater formation. The depth of the contact between fresh water and salt water increases gradually from 38 m to 40 m near the coast, and this over a distance of 0 m to 500 m, and then rises abruptly beyond a distance of 500 m at the borehole N°3 where it reaches the maximum depth of 97 m. Key words: Electrical survey - Salt wedge - Electrical resistivity - Aquifer - Intrusion.

  3. The 'ouR-HOPE' approach for ethics and communication about neonatal neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Farlow, Barbara; Miller, Steven; Payot, Antoine; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Shevell, Michael I; Thomson, Donna; Wintermark, Pia

    2017-02-01

    Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians. Additionally, the evaluation or appreciation of living with disability can differ, including the well-known disability paradox where patients self-report a good quality of life in spite of severe disability. Herein, we put forward a set of five practice principles captured in the "ouR-HOPE" approach (Reflection, Humility, Open-mindedness, Partnership, and Engagement) and related questions to encourage clinicians to self-assess their practice and engage with others in responding to these challenges. We hope that this proposal paves the way to greater discussion and attention to ethical aspects of communicating prognosis in the context of neonatal brain injury.

  4. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  5. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  6. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  7. Percepção Astronômica de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Embora a astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, principalmente nesta época de alta globalização do conhecimento por intermédio de eficientes meios de comunicação e de obtenção da informação, notadamente através da internet, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos de Ensino Médio da rede estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná-los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: quais são os astros que se encontram mais próximos do planeta Terra, o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, um ano-luz, uma estrela cadente, a estrela de Bélem e o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias da semana, que apenas 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano, que apenas 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, em contraposição 67,6% sabiam classificar corretamente o Sol como estrela, 55,9% relacionavam o Big Bang à origem do universo, apenas 20,6% identificavam um ano-luz como unidade de distância, 32,4% reconheciam uma estrela cadente como meteoro, 41,2% consideravam a estrela de Belém como um cometa e 50,0% explicaram corretamente a extinção dos dinossauros. A presente análise será expandida para as demais classes de primeiro colegial, não somente do período noturno, mas também do diurno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi, bem como o formulário será devidamente ampliado. Já nesta primeira fase nota-se claramente o pequeno discernimento

  8. Intercomparison of Groundwater Flow Monitoring Technologies at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F; Jantos, J; Pedler, W H; Mandell, W A

    2005-09-20

    This report presents an intercomparison of three groundwater flow monitoring technologies at a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County, California. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) as part of firefighter training from 1962 and 1985. Cont Contamination is believed to be restricted to the unconfined A-aquifer, where water is reached at a depth of approximately 60 to 80 feet below the ground surface; the aquifer is from 15 to 20 feet in thickness, and is bounded below by a dense clay layer, the Salinas Valley Aquitard. Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late 1980s. Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with two additional flow monitoring devices that could be deployed in existing monitoring wells, in an effort to better understand their performance in a nearly ideal, homogeneous sand aquifer, that we expected would exhibit laminar groundwater flow owing to the site's relatively simple hydrogeology. The three flow monitoring tools were the Hydrotechnics{reg_sign} In In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS), the RAS Integrated Subsurface Evaluation Hydrophysical Logging tool (HPL), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Scanning Colloidal Borescope Flow Meter (SCBFM). All three devices produce groundwater flow

  9. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  10. Indochinamon ou (Crustacea: Potamidae) as a new second intermediate host for Paragonimus harinasutai in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Min, Duk-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Daluny; Banouvong, Virasack

    2009-03-01

    Paragonimus harinasutai metacercariae were found in a species of freshwater crab, Indochinamon ou, collected in a small stream of Namback District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Adult flukes were recovered after experimental infection of the metacercariae to dogs. Metacercariae were round or slightly elliptical, 0.666 x 0.626 mm in average size, and had a thin cyst wall of about 20 microm in thickness, a black excretory bladder, convoluted ceca, and some pinkish materials in the body. Adults were somewhat elongated, 95.2 x 36.5 mm in average size, covered with single-tipped tegumental spines, had a smaller oral sucker than the ventral sucker, a moderately branched ovary, and 5-6 lobulated testes. Eggs were ovoid and bilaterally symmetrical in shape, 79 x 45 microm in average size, and had a uniformly thickened shell. By the present study, it has been confirmed that I. ou is a new second intermediate host for P. harinasutai.

  11. Implementation of Enhanced Attenuation at the DOE Mound Site OU-1 Landfill: Accelerating Progress and Reducing Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, Gwendolyn; Cato, Rebecca; Looney, Brian

    2016-03-06

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Legacy Management, Mound, Ohio, Site, chlorinated organic contaminants (cVOCs) originating from the former solid-waste landfill have impacted groundwater in Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The baseline groundwater remedy was groundwater pump and treat (P&T). Since the source materials have been removed from the landfill, the Mound core team, which consists of DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio EPA, and other stakeholders, is assessing the feasibility of switching from the active P&T remedy to a passive attenuation-based remedy. Toward this end, an enhanced attenuation (EA) strategy based on the creation of structured geochemical zones was developed. This EA strategy addresses the residual areas of elevated cVOCs in soil and groundwater while minimizing the rebound of groundwater concentrations above regulatory targets (e.g., maximum contaminant levels [MCLs]) and avoiding plume expansion while the P&T system is turned off. The EA strategy has improved confidence and reduced risk on the OU-1 groundwater transition path to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To better evaluate the EA strategy, DOE is conducting a field demonstration to evaluate the use of edible oils to enhance the natural attenuation processes. The field demonstration is designed to determine whether structured geochemical zones can be established that expedite the attenuation of cVOCs in the OU-1 groundwater. The EA approach at OU-1 was designed based on “structured geochemical zones” and relies on groundwater flow through a succession of anaerobic and aerobic zones. The anaerobic zones stimulate relatively rapid degradation of the original solvent source compounds (e.g., cVOCs such as tetrachloroethene [PCE] and trichloroethene [TCE]). The surrounding aerobic areas encourage relatively rapid degradation of daughter products (such as dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC]) as well as enhanced cometabolism of TCE resulting from

  12. Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals Leave EMS?

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to determine why Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics leave the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce. Data were collected through annual surveys of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics from 1999 to 2008. Survey items dealing with satisfaction with the EMS profession, likelihood of leaving the profession, and likelihood of leaving their EMS job were assessed for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics, along with reasons for leaving the profession. Individuals whose responses indicated that they were not working in EMS were mailed a special exit survey to determine the reasons for leaving EMS. The likelihood of leaving the profession in the next year was low for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Although overall satisfaction levels with the profession were high, EMT-Basics were significantly more satisfied than Paramedics. The most important reasons for leaving the profession were choosing to pursue further education and moving to a new location. A desire for better pay and benefits was a significantly more important reason for EMT-Paramedics' exit decisions than for EMT-Basics. Given the anticipated increased demand for EMS professionals in the next decade, continued study of issues associated with retention is strongly recommended. Some specific recommendations and suggestions for promoting retention are provided. Blau G , Chapman SA . Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals leave EMS? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s105-s111.

  13. Market memory and fat tail consequences in option pricing on the expOU stochastic volatility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-08-01

    The expOU stochastic volatility model is capable of reproducing fairly well most important statistical properties of financial markets daily data. Among them, the presence of multiple time scales in the volatility autocorrelation is perhaps the most relevant which makes appear fat tails in the return distributions. This paper wants to go further on with the expOU model we have studied in Ref. [J. Masoliver, J. Perelló, Quant. Finance 6 (2006) 423] by exploring an aspect of practical interest. Having as a benchmark the parameters estimated from the Dow Jones daily data, we want to compute the price for the European option. This is actually done by Monte Carlo, running a large number of simulations. Our main interest is to “see” the effects of a long-range market memory from our expOU model in its subsequent European call option. We pay attention to the effects of the existence of a broad range of time scales in the volatility. We find that a richer set of time scales brings the price of the option higher. This appears in clear contrast to the presence of memory in the price itself which makes the price of the option cheaper.

  14. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  15. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  16. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  17. Differences in the Anaphylactic Response between C3H/HeOuJ and BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Marco-Martín, Guadalupe; La Rotta Hernández, Alejandro; Vázquez de la Torre, María; Higaki, Yoko; Zubeldia, José Manuel; Baeza, María Luisa

    2017-08-30

    Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially lethal allergic reaction whose incidence is increasing. Murine models can elucidate the underlying mechanisms and pave the way for appropriate therapeutic options. However, differences in strains and protocols hamper comparisons of data between researchers. We performed a parallel study of clinical and immune responses with 2 strains of mice, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, in an allergen-induced systemic anaphylaxis protocol. Both strains have been widely used in allergy models, although they have not been compared in an intraperitoneal systemic model. Groups of 5-week-old female BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with peanut in the presence of adjuvants. Specific immunoglobulin (sIg) G1, sIgG2a, sIgE, total IgE, histamine release, and specific stimulated splenocyte cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-γ, were assessed. At week 6, mice were intraperitoneally challenged with peanut. Anaphylaxis was evaluated by recognition of clinical symptoms and changes in body temperature. All peanut-sensitized mice induced sIg and developed anaphylactic symptoms upon challenge. Nonetheless, the C3H/HeOuJ strain demonstrated earlier and persistently higher sIgG1 and sIgG2a production, elevated sIgE, and more severe clinical symptoms and histamine release than the BALB/c strain. In contrast, BALB/c exhibited higher release of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ. Both models are suitable for studying anaphylaxis. Consequently, they could be used in research on the pathogenesis and therapy of anaphylaxis. However, according to the type of study performed, differences in the specific clinical, humoral, and cellular responses to antigens have to be considered. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  19. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  20. Emissão de hidrogênio molecular e [FeII] em núcleos Seyfert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Viegas, S.

    2003-08-01

    Um dos problemas fundamentais em núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN) é determinar os mecanismos de excitação dominantes do gás emissor de linhas estreitas, seja este excitado por mecanismos não-estelares (fotoionização por uma fonte central ou choques produzidos por um jato rádio no gás circumnuclear) ou estelares (fotoionização por estrelas OB ou choques originados por um remanescente de supernova em expansão). Essa ambiguedade se faz mais evidente ao intepretar o espectro de espécies tais como H2 e [FeII]. Na primeira, fluorescência UV, processos térmicos (choques e/ou aquecimento por fótons) ou illuminação por raios-x, podem ser responsáveis pelo espectro observado enquanto que na segunda, os dois últimos mechanismos seriam relevantes. Neste trabalho, utilizando espectroscópia JHK de média resolução para uma amostra de AGN encontramos que o H2 observado é gerado principalmente por processos térmicos associados à presença de episódios de formação estelar circumnuclear. No entanto, em galáxias tais como NGC4151 as observações mostram que o hidrogênio molecular origina-se, principalmente, da interação entre o jato radio e o gás da NLR. Esses resultados baseiam-se nos valores das razões de linhas H2 2.24/2.12 mm e H2 2.03/2.22 mm. H2 2.24/2.12 separa claramente processos não-térmicos dos térmicos enquanto H2 2.03/2.22 serve como indicador de temperatura da componente térmica, e portanto, discrimina entre choques e associações OB. Já para o [FeII], as observações são compatíveis com excitação produzida diretamente pela fonte central ou choques associados com o jato rádio. A comparação da largura dos perfis de linhas observados permite concluir que não há correlação entre a emissão de H2 e [FeII]. Em praticamente todos os casos analisados, os perfis das linhas de H2 são não-resolvidos, enquanto que os perfis de [FeII] indicam, em alguns casos, velocidades de até 600 km/s.

  1. Percepção astronómica de um grupo de alunos do ensino médio de uma escola da rede estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveria, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    Sendo a Astronomia uma das cièncias mais antigas da humanidade, e considerando sua importáncia histórica e cultural, é de extrema releváncia que tópicos relacionados a ela sejam tratados nas escolas. Embora os Parámetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as Orientaçiacute;es Complementares aos Parámetros (PCN+) apontem a importáncia de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à Astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano e sejam alvos da curiosidade natural dos jovens. Da observação dessa curiosidade em alunos de uma escola pública paulista, na cidade de Suzano, surgiu o interesse em investigar os conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia dos alunos do Ensino Médio desta escola, constituindo-se este como principal objetivo desta pesquisa. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado inicialmente a 34 alunos do primeiro ano e, posteriormente, a mais 310, distribuídos entre as très séries do Ensino Médio dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que 73,9% dos estudantes identificaram o Sol como sendo uma estrela, 67,1% mostraram compreender a sucessão entre dia e noite e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Em contrapartida, apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estaçíes do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influència gravitacional simultánea da Lua e do Sol como responsável pelo fenòmeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distáncia e 34,2% reconheceram as estrelas cadentes como meteoros, evidenciando-se assim o pequeno discernimento dos estudantes quanto aos fenòmenos e termos astronòmicos do cotidiano. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alun! os de diferentes s

  2. Measurement of arterial input function of 17O water tracer in rat carotid artery by using a region-defined (REDE) implanted vascular RF coil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Tian, Runxia; Zhang, Yi; Merkle, Hellmut; Chen, Wei

    2003-07-01

    A method of determining arterial input function (AIF) by continuously detecting the (17)O MR signal changes of (17)O-labeled water tracer in the rat carotid artery using a region-defined (REDE) implanted vascular RF coil at 9.4 Tesla is reported. This coil has a compact physical size of 1 mm inner diameter, 3 mm outer diameter and 11 mm in length. It can be readily implanted into the rat neck and wrapped around the rat carotid artery for achieving adequate MR detection sensitivity for determining AIF with minimal surgical trauma. Water phantom and in vivo MR experiments were conducted for validating the coil's performance. A signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 20:1 was achieved for the (17)O signal acquired from naturally abundant H(2)(17)O in a small amount of blood (approximately 7 microl) inside the rat carotid artery with an acquisition time of 11 s. The REDE RF coil design electromagnetically isolates the rat carotid artery from surrounding tissues and ensures that the MR signal detected by the RF coil is only attributable to the artery blood. It also minimizes the electromagnetic coupling between the implanted RF coil and a head surface coil tuned at the same operating frequency (two-coil configuration). This configuration allowed simultaneous measurements of dynamic changes of (17)O MR signal of the H(2)(17)O tracer in both rat carotid artery and brain. Compared to most contemporary MR approaches, the REDE implanted RF provides a simple, accurate, and promising solution for determination of AIF in small experimental animals.

  3. [National Post Hospital Care Project and length of hospitalization of patients with stroke 2010-2011].

    PubMed

    Canha, Catarina; Massano, Ana; Esperto, Hélder; Rato, Joana; Ferreira, Teresa; Geraldo, Argemiro

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados surgiu para proporcionar a continuação de cuidados após internamento ou para pessoas funcionalmente dependentes. Actualmente há uma grande dificuldade na integração dos doentes no domicílio ou em estruturas de retaguarda. Pretende-se comparar o impacto da referenciação para a Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados versus alta para domicílio, no tempo de internamento dos doentes com Acidente Vascular Cerebral, entre 2010 e 2011.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo os doentes internados na Neurologia A e Unidade de Acidente Vascular Cerebral dos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, naquele anos. Analisaram-se 1 209 processos, incluídos 819, caracterizados demograficamente, tempo de internamento, Score de Rankin modificado e destino pós-alta. Compararam-se os dados, relativamente ao tempo de internamento dos doentes com Acidente Vascular Cerebral, referenciados para a Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados e os com alta para domicílio, atendendo ao Score de Rankin final.Resultados: Em 2011, aumentaram os doentes referenciados para a Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados, 23,5% comparativamente 21,4%. Em 2011 o tempo de internamento, para um mesmo Score de Rankin, da população referenciada manteve-se superior: para um Rankin de 1: 11 dias para domicílio, 26 dias para os doentes referenciados; para um Rankin de 2: 13 dias para domicílio, 29 dias para a rede; para Rankin de 3: 13 dias para domicílio, 23 dias para referenciados; para um Rankin de 4: 17 dias para domicílio, 33 dias para Rede; e para um Rankin de 5: 27 dias para domicílio, 39 dias para Rede. Comparando com os tempos de internamento da população com alta para domicílio, estima-se que tenha representado mais 1 718 dias de internamento, em 2010 e1 198 dias, em 2011.Conclusão: A Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados é incapaz de responder às necessidades actuais

  4. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  5. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  6. Indochinamon ou (Crustacea: Potamidae) as a New Second Intermediate Host for Paragonimus harinasutai in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Bouakhasith, Daluny; Banouvong, Virasack

    2009-01-01

    Paragonimus harinasutai metacercariae were found in a species of freshwater crab, Indochinamon ou, collected in a small stream of Namback District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. Adult flukes were recovered after experimental infection of the metacercariae to dogs. Metacercariae were round or slightly elliptical, 0.666 × 0.626 mm in average size, and had a thin cyst wall of about 20 µm in thickness, a black excretory bladder, convoluted ceca, and some pinkish materials in the body. Adults were somewhat elongated, 95.2 × 36.5 mm in average size, covered with single-tipped tegumental spines, had a smaller oral sucker than the ventral sucker, a moderately branched ovary, and 5-6 lobulated testes. Eggs were ovoid and bilaterally symmetrical in shape, 79 × 45 µm in average size, and had a uniformly thickened shell. By the present study, it has been confirmed that I. ou is a new second intermediate host for P. harinasutai. PMID:19290088

  7. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  8. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  9. Health care networks implementation and regional governance challenges in the Legal Amazon Region: an analysis of the QualiSUS-Rede Project.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Angela Oliveira; Cruz, Marly Marques; Giovanella, Ligia; Alves, Glaydes Dos Reis; Cardoso, Gisela Cordeiro Pereira

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential, limits and challenges of regional governance in the implementation process of health care networks in three Brazilian regions: Alto Solimões (Amazonas), Belém (Pará) and an interstate region comprising Tocantins, Pará and Maranhão states (Topama). The study is based on the evaluation study on the implementation of the Quality Health Care Network Development and Improvement Project (QualiSUS-Rede). This is a qualitative multiple case study with the analysis of official documents and use of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders conducted from July to December 2014. Governance review encompassed three components: stakeholders involved, especially local steering groups and their regional coordination capacity; strategies used for strengthening regional governance, anchored on the intervention's modeling; and implementation of local health care networks. Results point that the regional managing commissions were the main governance strategy and that the QualiSUS-Rede Project strengthened regional governance and integration differently in every case, depending on stakeholders' administration and consensus capacity on regional and political priorities.

  10. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

    PubMed

    Ulanov, Alexander E; Fedorov, Ilya A; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-06-21

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  11. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference mediated by the magnetic plasmon waves in a three-dimensional optical metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Wang, S M; Mu, S Y; Zhu, C; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Liu, H; Li, T; Zhu, S N; Zhang, X

    2012-02-27

    We studied the quantum properties of magnetic plasmon waves in a three-dimensional coupled metamaterial. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip of two-photon interference with a visibility of 86 ± 6.0% was explicitly observed, when the sample was inserted into one of the two arms of the interferometer. This meant that the quantum interference property survived in such a magnetic plasmon wave-mediated transmission process, thus testifying the magnetic plasmon waves owned a quantum nature. A full quantum model was utilized to describe our experimental results. The results showed that the metamaterials could not only steer the classical light but also the non-classical light and they might have potential application in the future quantum information.

  12. Performing Hong-Ou-Mandel-type numerical experiments with repulsive condensates: The case of dark and dark-bright solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Krüger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment leads indistinguishable photons simultaneously reaching a 50:50 beam splitter to emerge on the same port through a two-photon interference. Motivated by this phenomenon, we consider numerical experiments of the same flavor for classical wave objects in the setting of repulsive condensates. We examine dark solitons interacting with a repulsive barrier, a case in which we find no significant asymmetries in the emerging waves after the collision, presumably due to their topological nature. We also consider case examples of two-component systems, where the dark solitons trap a bright structure in the second component (dark-bright solitary waves). For these, pronounced asymmetries upon collision are possible for the nontopological bright component. We also show an example of a similar phenomenology for ring dark-bright structures in two dimensions.

  13. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states--entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations--which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  14. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  15. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  16. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  17. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  18. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  19. Stratigraphic and structural characterization of the OU-1 area at the former George Air Force Base, Adelanto, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The former George Air Force Base (GAFB), now known as the Southern California Logistics Airport (SCLA), is located in the town of Adelanto, approximately 100 km northeast of Los Angeles, California (Fig. 1). In this report, we present acquisition parameters, data, and interpretations of seismic images that were acquired in the OU-1 area of GAFB during July 1999 (Fig. 2). GAFB is scheduled for conversion to civilian use, however, during its years as an Air Force base, trichlorethylene (TCE) was apparently introduced into the subsurface as a result of spills during normal aircraft maintenance operations. To comply with congressional directives, TCE contaminant removal has been ongoing since the early-tomid 1990s. However, only a small percentage of the TCE believed to have been introduced into the subsurface has been recovered, due largely to difficulty in locating the TCE within the subsurface. Because TCE migrates within the subsurface by ground water movement, attempts to locate the TCE contaminants in the subsurface have employed an array of ground-water monitoring and extraction wells. These wells primarily sample within a shallow-depth (~40 m) aquifer system. Cores obtained from the monitoring and extraction wells indicate that the aquifer, which is composed of sand and gravel channels, is bounded by aquitards composed largely of clay and other fine-grained sediments. Based on well logs, the aquifer is about 3 to 5 m thick along the seismic profiles. A more thorough understanding of the lateral variations in the depth and thickness of the aquifer system may be a key to finding and removing the remaining TCE. However, due to its complex depositional and tectonic history, the structural and stratigraphic sequences are not easily characterized. An indication of the complex nature of the structure and stratigraphy is the appreciable variation in stratigraphic sequences observed in some monitoring wells that are only a few tens of meters apart. To better

  20. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$\

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; Mishra, Sanjib; Bhuyan, Bipul

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EM shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.

  1. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  2. Correlation of the NBME advanced clinical examination in EM and the national EM M4 exams.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearson's correlation and random effects linear regression. 305 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (281 and 24, respectively) [corrected].The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.9 (SD-9.82), V1 83.0 (SD-6.39), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70) [corrected]. Pearson's correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.53 (0.43 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.58 (0.41 scaled) [corrected]. The coefficient of determination for V1/ EM-ACE was 0.73 and for V2/EM-ACE 0.71 (0.65 and .49 for scaled scores) [ERRATUM]. The R-squared values were 0.28 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13 scaled), respectively [corrected]. There was significant cluster effect by institution. There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams.

  3. Clearer visibility of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with a correlation function based on rates rather than intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosołek, Krzysztof; Kostrzewa, Kamil; Dutta, Arijit; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek

    2017-04-01

    We test ideas put forward, e.g., by Żukowski et al. [M. Żukowski et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 042113 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.042113], which suggest that using rates in quantum optics can lead to better indicators of nonclassicality for states of quantum optical fields with undefined photon numbers. By rate we mean the ratio of registered photons in a given detector to the total number of detected photons in all detectors in a run of the experiment. For the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect for parametric down-conversion fields, we show that by using two detector correlation functions, which are defined in terms of averages of products of measured rates, rather than usual intensities, one can observe nonclassical visibilities beyond 1 /2 for significantly higher pump rates. At such rates we already have the partially stimulated emission, which leads to significant amplitudes for multiple pairs production, still the approach allows us to clearly see the nonclassical dip. We consider both the perfect and imperfect detection efficiency.

  4. Spatial assessment and source identification of trace metal pollution in stream sediments of Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ayari, J; Agnan, Y; Charef, A

    2016-07-01

    An extensive spatial survey was conducted on trace metal content in stream sediments from Oued El Maadene basin, northern Tunisia. Our objectives were to evaluate the level of trace metal pollution and associated ecological risk and identify the major sources of metal pollution. A total of 116 stream sediment samples were collected and analysed for total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, and Zr concentrations. The results showed that concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, and Zr were close to natural levels. In contrast, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn had elevated concentrations and enrichment factors compared to other contaminated regions in northern Tunisia. Ecological risk to aquatic ecosystems was highlighted in most areas. Principal component analysis showed that Cr, Ni, V, and Zr mainly derived from local soil and bedrock weathering, whilst As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originated from mining wastes. Trace metals could be dispersed downstream of tailings, possibly due to surface runoff during the short rainy season. Surprisingly, Cu, and to a lesser extent As, originated from agricultural activities, related to application of Cu-based fungicides in former vineyards and orchards. This study showed that, despite the complete cessation of mining activities several decades ago, metal pollution still impacts the local environment. This large pollution, however, did not mask other additional sources, such as local agricultural applications of fungicides.

  5. Laser-cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    In this thesis, I describe the development of and scientific results from a new platform for creating ultracold atoms via single-atom control. We employ Raman-sideband cooling to isolated bosonic 87Rb atoms confined within sub-micron optical tweezers, yielding single particle three- dimensional ground-state fractions of 90%. We create multiple, independent, mobile optical tweezers, which simultaneously allows multi-particle studies with single-atom microscopy and highly tunable length-scales. We employ this toolset in both of the main experiments discussed in this thesis. In one experiment, we observe Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two bosonic atoms, each of which is independently prepared in spatially separated optical tweezers. The interference we observe is a direct consequence of the purity of the single particle quantum states produced, and the indistinguishability of the atoms. In a second experiment, we introduce a spin-degree of freedom and exploit spin-exchange dynamics, driven by the quantum-statistics of the particles, to create a spin-entangled pair of spatially separated atoms.

  6. The planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (Ou5): insights into common-envelope dynamical and chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, R. L. M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Jones, D.; García-Rojas, J.; Mampaso, A.; García-Alvarez, D.; Pursimo, T.; Eenmäe, T.; Liimets, T.; Miszalski, B.

    2014-07-01

    While analysing the images of the IPHAS (INT/WFC Photometric Hα Survey of the northern Galactic plane) survey, we noticed that the central star of the candidate planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (also named Ou5) was clearly variable. This is generally considered as an indication of binarity. To confirm it, we performed a photometric monitoring of the central star, and obtained images and spectra of the nebula. The nebular spectrum confirms that IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 is a planetary nebula of moderately high excitation. It has a remarkable morphology with two nested pairs of bipolar lobes and other unusual features. The light curve of the central star reveals that it is an eclipsing binary system with an orbital period of 8.74 h. It also displays a strong irradiation effect with an amplitude of 1.5 mag. The presence of multiple bipolar outflows adds constraints to the formation of these nebulae, suggesting the occurrence of discrete ejection events during, or immediately before, the common-envelope phase. IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 also adds evidence to the hypothesis that a significant fraction of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars have a peculiar nebular chemistry and a relatively low nebular mass. This may point to low-mass, low-metallicity progenitors, with additional effects related to the binary evolution. We also suggest that these objects may be relevant to understand the abundance discrepancy problem in planetary nebulae.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment of two independent heralded single photon sources in an optical fiber with birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan; Feng, Zhenming

    2012-11-01

    Single photon sources (SPSs) play important roles in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in optical fibers provides a promising way to realize practical heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), since it is compatible with current techniques of optical communications. In this paper, two independent HSPSs at 1.5μm band are realized in one polarization maintaining dispersion shifted fiber (PM-DSF) utilizing its large birefringence. When pulsed pump light passes through an optical fiber, two kinds of SFWM will take place simultaneously. One is scalar processes, in which two annihilated pump photons and generated photon pair are all polarized along the same fiber polarization axis. The other is vector processes, in which two annihilated pump photons are polarized along different fiber polarization axes, either for the two photons of the generated pair. In the PM-DSF, the large birefringence generates obvious walk-off effect on the two pump polarization components, which leads to an effective suppression of the vector processes. Hence, by proper pump polarization, correlated photon pairs (CPPs) with different polarization directions can be generated independently by the two scalar processes, which can be used to realize two independent HSPSs. The indistinguishability of the heralded photons generated by the two independent sources is demonstrated by an experiment of Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. Using a fiber coupler as the beam splitter, a visibility of HOM dip of 76% is achieved, showing their potential on quantum information.

  8. Geo-environmental risk in the upper valley of the Oued Sebou (Fès, Central Morocco): a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, J.; Di Gregorio, F.; El Wartiti, M.; Fadli, D.; Follesa, R.; Marini, A.; Melis, M. T.

    2004-06-01

    In the framework of several projects sustained by the Regional Sardinian Government Laws no. 43 (28/09/1990) and no. 19 (11/04/1996), research groups of the University of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) and of the University Mohamed V-Agdal of Rabat (Morocco) have started a series of preliminary geo-environmental studies in the basin of the Oued Sebou. An area of almost 1000 square km around the famous city of Fès has been studied, using satellite images and two ground surveying campaigns. These surveys aim to define the geological and structural settings, the vegetation and land use, in order to define the landscape units and to select the areas of major hydrogeological and geo-environmental risk. The satellite data used are the LANDSAT TM5 images taken on the 9th of October 1997. These images have been analysed to obtain the different bases for further thematic mapping, resulting in the geo-environmental map of the area around Fès that constitutes an up-to-date representation of the geological and environmental state of the territory and a useful instrument for further risk assessment and urban and territorial planning.

  9. Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snetsinger, Thomas J.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Herrmann, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The ‘Ö‘ü and the Läna‘i Hookbill are plump, predominantly olive green, thick-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers. The ‘Ö‘ü is now very rare and restricted to remote, high-elevation native forest, and the Läna‘i Hookbill is extinct. They are closely related species, belonging to a specialized tribe, Psittirostrini, consisting of nine historically known Hawaiian species with heavy, finchlike to parrotlike bills. Because of their taxonomic affinity and the paucity of information on the Läna‘i Hookbill, we are treating the two species in a single account.

  10. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  11. Complaints against an EMS system.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  12. Cosmic muon induced EM showers in NO$$\

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, Nitin; Duyang, Hongyue; Shanahan, Peter; ...

    2016-11-15

    Here, the NuMI Off-Axis ve Appearance (NOvA) experiment is a ne appearance neutrino oscillation experiment at Fermilab. It identifies the ne signal from the electromagnetic (EM) showers induced by the electrons in the final state of neutrino interactions. Cosmic muon induced EM showers, dominated by bremsstrahlung, are abundant in NOvA far detector. We use the Cosmic Muon- Removal technique to get pure EM shower sample from bremsstrahlung muons in data. We also use Cosmic muon decay in flight EM showers which are highly pure EM showers.The large Cosmic-EM sample can be used, as data driven method, to characterize the EMmore » shower signature and provides valuable checks of the simulation, reconstruction, particle identification algorithm, and calibration across the NOvA detector.« less

  13. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  14. The Empathic Operating System (emOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-15

    The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical research equipment...Report: The Empathic Operating System ( emOS ) Report Title Physiological measurements have typically been limited to expensive and cumbersome clinical...C-0043 Proposal number: 62850-LS-DRP Project title: “The Empathic Operating System ( emOS )” Contract performance period: January 1, 2016 – April 7

  15. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  16. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  17. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  18. Antibody Production, Anaphylactic Signs, and T-Cell Responses Induced by Oral Sensitization With Ovalbumin in BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ Mice.

    PubMed

    Pablos-Tanarro, Alba; López-Expósito, Ivan; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Molina, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Two mouse strains, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, broadly used in the field of food allergy, were compared for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of ovalbumin (OVA). Sensitization was made by administering 2 different OVA doses (1 and 5 mg), with cholera toxin as Th2-polarizing adjuvant. Antibody levels, severity of anaphylaxis, and Th1 and Th2 responses induced by the allergen were assessed. In addition, because the mice selected had functional toll-like receptor 4, the influence of contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the immunostimulating capacity of OVA on spleen cells was also evaluated. Both strains exhibited similar susceptibility to OVA sensitization. The 2 protein doses generated similar OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in both strains, whereas C3H/HeOuJ mice produced significantly more IgG2a. Oral challenge provoked more severe manifestations in C3H/HeOuJ mice as indicated by the drop in body temperature and the severity of the anaphylactic scores. Stimulation of splenocytes with OVA led to significantly higher levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in BALB/c, and these were less affected by protein contamination with LPS. The antibody and cytokine levels induced by OVA in BALB/c mice and the observation that BALB/c spleen cell cultures were more resistant than those of C3H/HeOuJ mice to the stimulus of LPS make this strain prone to exhibit Th2-mediated food allergic reactions and very adequate for the study of the features of OVA that make it allergenic.

  19. Antibody Production, Anaphylactic Signs, and T-Cell Responses Induced by Oral Sensitization With Ovalbumin in BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pablos-Tanarro, Alba; López-Expósito, Ivan; Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; López-Fandiño, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Two mouse strains, BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ, broadly used in the field of food allergy, were compared for the evaluation of the allergenic potential of ovalbumin (OVA). Methods Sensitization was made by administering 2 different OVA doses (1 and 5 mg), with cholera toxin as Th2-polarizing adjuvant. Antibody levels, severity of anaphylaxis, and Th1 and Th2 responses induced by the allergen were assessed. In addition, because the mice selected had functional toll-like receptor 4, the influence of contamination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the immunostimulating capacity of OVA on spleen cells was also evaluated. Results Both strains exhibited similar susceptibility to OVA sensitization. The 2 protein doses generated similar OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in both strains, whereas C3H/HeOuJ mice produced significantly more IgG2a. Oral challenge provoked more severe manifestations in C3H/HeOuJ mice as indicated by the drop in body temperature and the severity of the anaphylactic scores. Stimulation of splenocytes with OVA led to significantly higher levels of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in BALB/c, and these were less affected by protein contamination with LPS. Conclusions The antibody and cytokine levels induced by OVA in BALB/c mice and the observation that BALB/c spleen cell cultures were more resistant than those of C3H/HeOuJ mice to the stimulus of LPS make this strain prone to exhibit Th2-mediated food allergic reactions and very adequate for the study of the features of OVA that make it allergenic. PMID:26922934

  20. Calcification and Silicification: Fossilization Potential of Cyanobacteria from Stromatolites of Niuafo‘ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and Implications for the Early Fossil Record

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo‘ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si‘i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo‘ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains. Key Words: Stromatolites—Cyanobacteria—Calcification—Silicification—Niuafo‘ou (Tonga)—Archean. Astrobiology 12, 535–548. PMID:22794297

  1. Le syndrome du canal d’Alcock ou névralgie pudendale : un diagnostic à ne pas méconnaître

    PubMed Central

    Ziouziou, Imad; Bennani, Hassan; Zizi, Mohamed; Karmouni, Tarik; Khader, Khalid El; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Le syndrome du canal d’Alcock – ou névralgie pudendale – est lié à la compression chronique du nerf pudendal dans la fossette ischiorectale ou au niveau du ligament sacroépineux. Le diagnostic du syndrome d’Alcock est surtout clinique. Les examens complémentaires sont dominés par les explorations électrophysiologiques et le test de bloc anesthésique. Le diagnostic repose sur des critères bien précis, soit les critères de Nantes. La prise en charge doit être globale, comprenant un traitement médicamenteux, des infiltrations, des techniques de neuromodulation, et dans les cas graves ou résistants, un traitement chirurgical qui consiste à libérer le nerf pudendal. Les névralgies pudendales peuvent être rencontrées après traitement d’une incontinence urinaire d’effort par bande-lettes sous-urétrales (TVT). Ce syndrome motive des consultations en urologie, car la douleur intéresse le territoire du périnée et des organes génitaux. Des signes urinaires peuvent aussi accompagner cette douleur. Il est donc judicieux de connaître cette pathologie. PMID:23914265

  2. Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

  3. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  4. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  5. EM Cep: The Be Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, N.; Kochiashvili, I.; Natsvlishvili, R.; Vardosanidze, M.; Beradze, S.

    2017-07-01

    On the basis of UBVR photometric data, obtained in the Abastumani Observatory during 1991-1999, very interesting and unusual flare of EM Cep has been revealed. Duration of the flare was over two hours. We estimated the percentage of brightness increase during the flare and brightness decrease of the corresponding anti- flare and the minimum amount of the lost mass during this event. We have solved the light curves of the star using the Wilson-Devinney code. But the resulting fraction of calculated brightness of the companion star was not in accordance with spectral data. Then we decided to check the idea of a pulsating single star using new spectral data. Together with our Buyrakan colleagues we obtained and analyzed spectra of the star. We could not find spectral lines of a companion star or any traces of the radial velocities using this data. Hence, we concluded that we need the higher resolution spectra for final resolution of the matter. On the basis of the latest spectral data of Bulgarian astronomers they concluded that EM Cep is a single star. This makes it possible to suggest, that the question of stellar pulsation could be solved using additional photometric observations.

  6. The EM algorithm in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kay, J

    1997-03-01

    This article outlines the statistical developments that have taken place in the use of the EM algorithm in emission and transmission tomography during the past decade or so. We discuss the statistical aspects of the modelling of the projection data for both the emission and transmission cases and define the relevant probability models. This leads to the use of the method of maximum likelihood as a means of estimating the relevant unknown parameters within a given region of a patient's body and to the use of the EM algorithm to compute the reconstruction. Various different types of EM algorithm are discussed, including the SAGE algorithms of Fessler and Hero. The limitations of the EM algorithm, per se, are covered and the need for regularization is stressed. A number of different methods for penalizing the likelihood are described and a number of algorithms for the computation of the penalized EM reconstruction are discussed.

  7. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  8. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir la maladie pulmonaire chronique chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les corticoïdes sont administrés pendant la période postnatale pour prévenir et traiter la maladie pulmonaire chronique néonatale (MPC) (qu’on appelle aussi dysplasie bronchopulmonaire), une cause importante de mortalité et de morbidité chez les nourrissons prématurés. Puisque l’administration de dexaméthasone ou d’hydrocortisone pendant les sept premiers jours de vie s’associe à un plus grand risque d’infirmité motrice cérébrale, il n’est pas recommandé d’amorcer rapidement une corticothérapie pour prévenir la MPC pendant la période postnatale. Après sept jours de vie, il a été établi que la dexaméthasone réduit le taux de MPC à 36 semaines d’âge postmenstruel et a moins de répercussions sur les issues neurodéveloppementales. Aucun essai n’a évalué si les bienfaits des corticoïdes sont supérieurs à leurs effets indésirables chez les nourrissons à haut risque de MPC ou atteints d’une grave MPC. Il n’est pas recommandé d’administrer systématiquement de la dexaméthasone à tous les enfants sous respirateur, mais les cliniciens peuvent envisager un court traitement à l’aide de faibles doses de dexaméthasone à des nourrissons sélectionnés à haut risque de MPC ou atteints d’une grave MPC. Aucune donnée probante n’indique que l’hydrocortisone est une solution efficace ou sécuritaire pour remplacer la dexaméthasone, et peu de données probantes appuient l’utilisation systématique de corticoïdes en aérosol dans le cadre de la prévention ou du traitement. On peut envisager la corticothérapie en aérosol pour remplacer la dexaméthasone dans le traitement de nourrissons sélectionnés atteints d’une grave MPC. La présente révision remplace le document de principes publié conjointement avec l’American Academy of Pediatrics en 2002.

  9. Evolução química em galáxias compactas azuis (BCGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, a formação estelar e evolução quí mica em galáxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas através da comparação de previsões de modelos de evolução quí mica a várias razões de abundância quí mica observadas nestas galáxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleossí ntese e que levam em consideração o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evolução galáctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evolução de vários elementos quí micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo é caracterizado pelas prescrições adotadas para a formação estelar, a qual ocorre em vários surtos de atividade separados por longos perí odos quiescentes. Após ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previsões destes modelos foram comparadas também a razões de abundância observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primária ou secundária) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos são: i) as razões de abundância observadas nas BCGs são reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formação estelar com eficiência entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galáxias são um resultado natural de uma formação estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primário produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicação para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

  10. [Strategies for integration of health care practices and sanitary surveillance in the context of the implementation of Rede Cegonha - a Brazilian mother and infant health care network].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia

    2014-11-01

    Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.

  11. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  12. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  13. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  14. Un Theorem de Probabilite Zero ou un Dans Groupe Measurable or Topologique Quelconque (O-1 Theorem of Probability in a Measurable or Topological Group).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    tribu cylindrique engendree panles coordonn~es xt . ou de la tribu bore" ienne pour une topologie &’ plus fine que celle, ainduite par RrT Dans ce...2] Clairement le probleme concerne d’abird le groupe quotient X/G x G , qui, Si X est muni de la topologie e mais G non fermneO, nest pas separe pour...la topologie quotient (on ne sait rien sur la tribu 2 induite par 2 dans G) et le probl’eme peut etre pose dans (X, 2) groupe measurable (x x x’ -a

  15. Late Quaternary crustal shortening rates across thrust systems beneath the Ou Ranges in the NE Japan arc inferred from fluvial terrace deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsu'ura, Tabito; Sugaya, Katsunori

    2017-06-01

    We documented the existence of a blind thrust along the volcanic front in northeast Japan and calculated the crustal shortening rate across the Ou Ranges. We detected broad anticlinal deformation of the longitudinal profiles of fluvial terraces dated by using tephro- and cryptotephrostratigraphy. We inferred that the Daizaki flexure, located along the southern extension of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake (IMEQ) fault, indicated the presence of an underlying thrust (Daizaki fault, newly named) there. Therefore, we inferred the existence of a west-dipping thrust system along the volcanic front at the eastern edge of the Ou Ranges consisting from north to south of the Kitakami Teichi Seien Fault Zone, the 2008 IMEQ fault and the Daizaki fault. To estimate rates of crustal deformation due to this thrust, we determined the uplift rate distribution from a pair of accumulation terrace surfaces, one formed during the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6-5 glacial-to-interglacial transition and the other during the MIS 2-1 transition. Because the overall uplift-rate distribution includes crustal deformation at both regional and local scales, we calculated the fault-related deformation area by subtracting the regional uplift rate (0.15-0.18 m ky-1, obtained from a pair of fluvial terraces on the stable footwall) from the total uplift-rate distribution across the fault. A mass balance calculation of the fault-related deformation area showed the crustal shortening rate across the 2008 IMEQ fault to be 0.50 ± 0.19-0.59 ± 0.22 m ky-1. An east-dipping thrust system along the western edge of the Ou Ranges (eastern part of the Shinjo Basin Fault Zone) has also contributed to crustal shortening during the late Quaternary at a previously estimated rate of 0.65-1.42 m ky-1. Therefore, the shortening rates of the eastern and western thrust systems individually account for about 0.6-0.7% and 0.7-1.6%, respectively (total, 1.3-2.3%), of the convergence between the Pacific and Eurasian

  16. NEIC Environmental Management System (EMS) Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) Environmental Management System (EMS) Policy. Identification and management of actual and potential environmental impacts of operations and decisions for the purpose of continual improvement of performance

  17. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  18. How good can cryo-EM become?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, Robert M.

    2015-12-30

    The suddenness with which single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged as a method for determining high-resolution structures of biological macromolecules invites the questions, how much better can this technology get, and how fast is that likely to happen? While we can rightly celebrate the maturation of cryo-EM as a high-resolution structure-determination tool, I believe there still are many developments to look forward to.

  19. Reassessing training levels for prehospital EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Briese, G L

    1983-01-01

    One of the major questions confronting prehospital care services today concerns determining the appropriate level of training for EMS personnel that will provide the most cost effective systems. Unfortunately there are no studies which assess this problem. Various communities have modified or expanded the roles of prehospital personnel beyond the traditional training of EMTs and paramedics. Continuing education and skills maintenance are ongoing problems faced by all EMS systems, which have been addressed in various ways by individual locales.

  20. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three “composite” total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit.The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides.The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids]:Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 MMBO 2,341 BCFG 110 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 MMBO 4,887 BCFG 269 MMBNGLTanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 MMBO 12,035 BCFG 908 MMBNGL

  1. Total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya; the Tanezzuft-Oued Mya, Tanezzuft-Melrhir, and Tanezzuft-Ghadames

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province (2054) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Trias/Ghadames Province is in eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and westernmost Libya. The province and its total petroleum systems generally coincide with the Triassic Basin. The province includes the Oued Mya Basin, Melrhir Basin, and Ghadames (Berkine) Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within each of these basins, only three ?composite? total petroleum systems were identified. Each total petroleum system occurs in a separate basin, and each comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. Maturation history and the major migration pathways from source to reservoir are unique to each basin. The total petroleum systems were named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in total petroleum systems of the Trias/Ghadames Province are as follows: [MMBO, million barrels of oil; BCFG, billion cubic feet of gas; MMBNGL, million barrels of natural gas liquids] Total Petroleum System MMBO BCFG MMBNGL Tanezzuft-Oued Mya 830 2,341 110 Tanezzuft-Melrhir 1,875 4,887 269 Tanezzuft-Ghadames 4,461 12,035 908

  2. Calcification and silicification: fossilization potential of cyanobacteria from stromatolites of Niuafo'ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and implications for the early fossil record.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Barbara; Kazmierczak, Józef; Lukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo'ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo'ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains.

  3. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sinibrama macrops from Ou River and Ling River based on mtDNA D-loop region analysis, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liangjie; Chenoweth, Erica L; Liu, Qigen

    2017-01-27

    In order to understand the influence of human activities such as habitat fragmentation on freshwater fish population evolution, we investigated and compared the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Sinibrama macrops populations in the Oujiang River and Ling River. Mitochondrial control region sequences (D-loop region) of 131 specimens from six populations were obtained and analyzed. The diversity of main stream in the Ou River was lower than that in Ling River. Changtan population showed the lowest diversity (H = 0.646 ± 0.077; π = 0.00060 ± 0.00820). Pairwise FST, gene flow (Nm), and genetic distance (Da) indicated that Longquan and Changtan significantly differentiate from other populations. Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) showed some clades and total cladogram experienced isolation by distance. In conclusion, the populations from severely fragmented Ou River have the lower diversity and more intense differentiation than that from the mainstream of Ling River, Changtan population present the lowest diversity and were isolated by the dam construction.

  4. An update on the Kevorkian-Reding 93 physician-assisted deaths in Michigan: is Kevorkian a savior, serial-killer or suicidal martyr?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, K J; O'Dell, J; Dragovic, L J; McKeon, M C; Bentley, E; Telmet, K L

    This report presents an update of the Kevorkian-Reding physician-assisted (or physician-aided) deaths to include the ninety-three publicly acknowledged cases as of November 25, 1998. These deaths are divided into ten distinct time phases. The following trends emerge. Over two-thirds of the decedents are women, the ratio of females to males varying widely with phase. The proportion of women seems to be the highest when Kevorkian is free to act as he wants and lowest when he seems to be acting under legal or political restraints. Based on autopsy results, only 29.0 percent of the cases are terminal, this percentage being higher among men (37.9%) than among women (25.4%). However, 66.7% of the decedents were disabled, no significant difference emerging between men and women. Further, five out of the six decedents showing no apparent anatomical sign of disease at autopsy were women. Over 80 percent of the physician-assisted deaths are cremated, approximately twice as high a proportion as that emerging for suicides in Michigan and four times as high as cremations occurring with regard to overall deaths. Finally, death by carbon monoxide decreases dramatically with time phase while the use of the contraption dubbed the "suicide machine" increases, suggesting an increasing routinization over time. Finally, during the ninth and tenth phases, Kevorkian's aims and his own suicidality emerge more clearly involving 1) harvesting organs and 2) threat of starving himself in prison if he is convicted. Phase 10 can be seen as an escalation from assisted death to overt euthanasia, repeating the same need for a demonstration (Thomas Youk) that was first exhibited in Phase I (Janet Adkins).

  5. SOFIS FTS EM test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucy, Marc-Andre A.; Levesque, Luc E.; Tanii, Jun; Kawashima, Takahiro; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Occultation FTS for Inclined-orbit Satellite (SOFIS) is a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer developed by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) in Japan for the Global Change Observation Mission-A1 (GCOM-A1) satellite. GCOM-A1 will be placed in a 650 km non-sun-synchronous orbit, with an inclination angle of 69 degrees. ABB-Bomem is a sub-contractor of NTSpace (NEC-Toshiba Space) for the design and manufacturing of the FTS Engineering Model of SOFIS. SOFIS measures the vertical profile of the atmospheric constituents with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution for the spectral range covering 3-13 μm. The atmospheric vertical resolution of SOFIS is 1 km. The target of SOFIS measurements is a global distribution of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, CO2, CFC-11, CFC-12, ClONO2, aerosol extinction, atmospheric pressure and temperature. NTSpace in Japan is the prime contractor of SOFIS. The spectrometer is an adapted version of the classical Michelson interferometer using an optimized optical layout and moving retro-reflectors. A solid-state laser diode operating at 1550 nm is used as metrology source of the interferometer. Its highly folded optical design results in a high performance instrument with a compact size. SOFIS FTS implements high performance control techniques to achieve outstanding speed stability of the moving mechanism. This paper describes the test activities of the SOFIS-FTS Engineering Model (EM) and preliminary results. The performances of the FTS are presented in terms of key parameters like signal-to-noise ratio, modulation efficiency and stability. Spectra acquired are shown and test methodology and analyses are presented. Lessons learned during assembly, integration and testing are described as well as improvements planned to be implemented in the Flight Model.

  6. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  7. Filter banks and the EM algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Mair, B.A.; Carroll, R.B.; Anderson, J.M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based modification of the ML-EM algorithm for reconstructing positron emission tomography images. By using the filter bank implementation of the wavelet transform, this algorithm has the flexibility to incorporate a priori information, while maintaining the same computational complexity as the standard ML-EM algorithm. Thus, it has a significant computational advantage over usual Bayesian methods. It differs from recent wavelet-based Bayesian methods as it achieves {open_quotes}regularization{close_quotes} by an adaptive, wavelet-based method of thresholding which minimizes Stein`s Unbiased Estimate of Risk. The basic method consists of applying Donoho and Johnstone`s SureShrink wavelet denoising of the Poisson data, and then applying the standard ML-EM algorithm to the denoised data. A more elaborate method is discussed in which a wavelet denoising step is inserted after each EM iteration. This technique differs from previous smoothing techniques applied to the ML-EM algorithm since it is able to recover edges in discontinuous images.

  8. La prévention et le traitement des infections bactériennes chez les enfants aspléniques ou hypospléniques

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    L’asplénie, qu’elle soit fonctionnelle ou anatomique, s’associe à un accroissement du risque d’infection potentiellement fatale ou constituant un danger de septicémie postsplénectomie (SPS). En raison du risque accru de bactériémie par des bactéries encapsulées chez les enfants aspléniques, la vaccination visant à prévenir une infection au Streptococcus pneumoniae, à l’Haemophilus influenzae de type b (Hib) et au Neiserria meningitidis est recommandée. Malgré la prévalence croissante de S pneumoniae pénicillinorésistant, on recommande aussi l’usage de pénicilline prophylactique chez les enfants aspléniques de moins de cinq ans, et pendant au moins un an après une splénectomie. La poursuite de la prophylaxie antibiotique après cette période dépend de la situation clinique de chaque enfant et de la prévalence de S pneumoniae pénicillinorésistant au sein de la collectivité. Lorsque des enfants aspléniques font de la fièvre ou présentent des symptômes non spécifiques, ils devraient faire l’objet d’une évaluation immédiate. Si on présume la présence de septicémie bactérienne, il faut procéder à une analyse du sang et des autres liquides organiques pertinents et entreprendre sur-le-champ une antibiothérapie à large spectre par voie parentérale, laquelle doit agir également contre les souches de S pneumoniae présentes dans la collectivité. Chez les enfants aspléniques souffrant d’une septicémie foudroyante à S pneumoniae, le taux de mortalité est élevé, malgré l’utilisation rapide d’une antibiothérapie convenable, d’où l’importance des mesures préventives.

  9. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... workshop and a test. (c) Objective. The basic objective of this training program is to keep State and... kit, will be used for the EM loan training meetings, and any subsequent EM loan training...

  11. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... workshop and a test. (c) Objective. The basic objective of this training program is to keep State and... kit, will be used for the EM loan training meetings, and any subsequent EM loan training...

  12. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  15. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  16. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  17. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52 ...

  18. Determination of heavy metals in suspended waste water collected from Oued El Harrach Algiers River by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2013-12-01

    A preliminary study of the atmospheric pollution in the centre of Algiers is one of the important fields of applications in the environmental science. Nowadays, we need to evaluate the level of the contamination which has an unfavourable effect on physicochemical properties of soils and plants and namely also on human health. In the present work, water samples collected from Oued El-Harrach Algiers River, have been filtered in 0.45 μm Millipore filters to be analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique using 109Cd radioisotope source. Concentrations of the toxic elements like heavy metals are determined and compared with the published ones values by Yoshida [1] and those obtained using PIXE and NAA techniques [6].

  19. Le fibromatosis colli ou torticolis congénital: son diagnostic et sa prise en charge à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Pegbessou, Plaodezina Essobozou; Sonhaye, Lantam; Ahouanssou, Patricia Yékpé; Amadou, Abdoulatif; Kolou, Beresa; Kama, Lidi Bessi; Garba, Nouhou Mahamadou; Koussema, Lama Kegdigoma Agoda; N'dakéna, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Le fibromatosis colli (FC) est pseudotumeur rare du muscle sterno-cléido-mastoïdien (SCM), à l'origine d'un torticolis dit congénital chez le nouveau-né ou le nourrisson. Le mécanisme étio-pathogénique de sa survenue est sujet à controverse. Son diagnostic fait appel à l’échographie qui permet de mettre en évidence un épaississement caractéristique du muscle. Nous rapportons deux cas diagnostiqués par l’échographie avec pour un cas une notion de malposition intra-utérine et pour l'autre cas une absence totale de malposition et de traumatisme obstétrical qui pourtant est évoqué comme élément du mécanisme de survenue du FC. PMID:26834927

  20. What Feynman could not yet use: the generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to improve the QED explanation of the Pauli exclusion principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in ‘QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter’ and improve it by discussing with students modern experimental evidence from the famous Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with indistinguishable photons and its generalised version using electrons. The experiments can be analysed in a rather simple way using Feynman’s method of ‘arrow multiplication’ for treating processes involving more than one quantum object. The approach described is especially relevant in the formation of high school physics teachers to the basics of modern physics.

  1. Sur les anomalies structurales de l'anticlinal de l'oued Bahloul de Tunisie : héritage tectonique et plissement cisaillant de couverture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadi, Ahmed; Boukadi, Noureddine; Gaaya, Ali

    2006-07-01

    The Oued Bahloul structure exists in the central Atlas of Tunisia. This structure is oriented N70 and it shows a very particular geometry characterized by: ( i) an important disharmony between the northern and the southern flanks; ( ii) a dissymmetry between the east and the west parts of the structure; ( iii) several gaps and progressive unconformities present in the Cretaceous and Eocene series. Three major tectonic directions characterize this structure: ( i) the N120 appears in the western part of the anticline; ( ii) some north-south faults distinguish the oriental part; ( iii) the strike fault, which is confirmed by seismic data, affects the central part of this anticline. To cite this article: A. Saadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  2. Ore deposits and epithermal evidences associated with intra-magmatic faults at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif ring structure (NW of Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Wiem Ben; Aissa, Lassaâd Ben; Amara, Abdesslem Ben Haj; Tlig, Said; Alouani, Rabah

    2017-03-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif location are classified as epithermal deposits type. The ore bodies are hosted by upper Turonian (8-9 M.y) volcanic rhyodacitic complex. Polymetallic sulfide orebodies are mainly concentrated within intra-magmatic faults. Petrographic, XRD, and TEM-STEM investigations revealed that ore minerals are essentially, arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite and magnetite with Au, Ag and Pt trace metals. Gangue minerals are mainly adularia, quartz, sericite, alunite, tridymite, chlorite, phlogopite and smectite. Epithermal alteration is well zoned with four successive characteristic zones: (1) zone of quartz-adularia-sericite and rare alunite; (2) zone of kaolinite and plagioclase albitization; (3) intermediate zone of illite-sericite; (4) sapropelic alteration type zone of chlorite-smectite and rare illite. This can be interpreted as a telescoping of two different acidity epithermal phases; low sulfidation (adularia-sericite) and high sulfidation (quartz-alunite), separated in time or due to a gradual increase of fluids acidity and oxicity within the same mineralization phase. Brecciated macroscopic facies with fragments hosting quartz-adularia-sericite minerals (low-sulfidation phase) without alunite, support the last hypothesis. Geodynamic context and mineral alteration patterns are closely similar to those of Maria Josefa gold mine at SE of Spain which exhibit a volcanic-hosted epithermal ore deposit in a similar vein system, within rhyolitic ignimbrites, altered to an argillic assemblage (illite-sericite abundant and subordinate kaolinite) that grades outwards into propylitic alteration (Sanger-von Oepen et al. (1990)). Mineralogical and lithologic study undertaken in the volcanic host rock at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif reveals a typical epithermal low-sulfidation and high-sulfidation ore deposits with dominance of low-sulfidation. Host rocks in these systems range from silicic to

  3. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  4. Structural Composites With Tuned EM Chirality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0018 STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES WITH TUNED EM CHIRALITY Siavouche Nemat Nasser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/23...REPORT Grant/Contract  Title:        STRUCTURAL  COMPOSITES  WITH  TUNED  EM   CHIRALITY     Grant  No.:  FA9550-­‐09-­‐1...structural   composites  with   tunable   chiral   elements   has   produced   some   impressive   results   in   the

  5. Lessons Learned: Integrating EMS and Environmental Compliance Auditing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-06

    audit an EMS against the – ISO 14001 :2004 Standard – Installation’s own commitments and procedures established under their EMS (i.e. are they doing...what they said they would do?) – Army Policy • Findings are documented in a Word report (external audits) • ISO 14001 conformance is determined by...regulatory requirements • EMS Findings – Conformance: management system conforms to ISO 14001 standard – Major Nonconformance: EMS is missing element

  6. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU UP-1 Wells 299-W19-48, 699-30-66, and 699-36-70B

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-15

    This report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress-level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) UP-1 wells: 299-W19-48 (C4300/Well K), 699-30-66 (C4298/Well R), and 699-36-70B (C4299/Well P). These wells are located within, adjacent to, and to the southeast of the Hanford Site 200-West Area. The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU UP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  7. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W11-43, 299-W15-50, and 299-W18-16

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-21

    The following report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 wells: 299-W11-43 (C4694/Well H), 299-W15-50 (C4302/Well E), and 299-W18-16 (C4303/Well D). These wells are located within south-central region of the Hanford Site 200-West Area (Figure 1.1). The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU ZP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  8. A reference region for the Ordovician-Silurian boundary: the Oued In Djerane, Algerian SaharaUne région de référence pour la limite Ordovicien-Silurien : l'Oued In Djerane, Sahara algérien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    The melting chronology of the Latest Ordovician inlandsis takes on a particular importance in northern Gondwana. A continuous sequence of Diplograptid range zones has been defined from outcrops in the Oued In Djerane, but its comparison with the sequence observed in the stratotype of the Silurian-Ordovician boundary is problematic because of the endemic character of the Saharan species. Moreover, some difficulties are linked to the definition of the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, which, in the Algerian Sahara, probably lies in the Pseudorthograptus (?) kiliani zone. A definite regional diachronism in the melting of the ice-cap has also been confirmed.

  9. Do earthquakes generate EM signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

    2010-05-01

    study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

  10. EMS response to an airliner crash.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shuvra; French, Simone; Williams-Johnson, Jean; Hutson, Rhonda; Hart, Nicole; Wong, Mark; Williams, Eric; Espinosa, Kurdell; Maycock, Celeste; Edwards, Romayne; McCartney, Trevor; Cawich, Shamir; Crandon, Ivor

    2012-06-01

    This report of an aircraft crash at a major airport in Kingston, Jamaica examines the response of the local Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Factors that impacted the response are discussed, and the need for more disaster simulation exercises is highlighted. The objective of this case report was to document the response of EMS personnel to the crash of American Airlines Flight 331, and to utilize the information to examine and improve the present protocol. While multiple errors can occur during a mass-casualty event, these can be reduced by frequent simulation exercises during which various personnel practice and learn designated roles. Efficient triage, proper communication, and knowledge of the roles are important in ensuring the best possible outcome. While the triage system and response of the EMS personnel were effective for this magnitude of catastrophe, more work is needed in order to meet predetermined standards. Ways in which this can be overcome include: (1) hosting more disaster simulation exercises; (2) encouraging more involvement with first responders; and (3) strengthening the links in the local EMS system. Vigorous public education must be instituted and maintained.

  11. Navigating 3D electron microscopy maps with EM-SURFER.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Xiong, Yi; Han, Xusi; Guang, Shuomeng; Christoffer, Charles; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-05-30

    The Electron Microscopy DataBank (EMDB) is growing rapidly, accumulating biological structural data obtained mainly by electron microscopy and tomography, which are emerging techniques for determining large biomolecular complex and subcellular structures. Together with the Protein Data Bank (PDB), EMDB is becoming a fundamental resource of the tertiary structures of biological macromolecules. To take full advantage of this indispensable resource, the ability to search the database by structural similarity is essential. However, unlike high-resolution structures stored in PDB, methods for comparing low-resolution electron microscopy (EM) density maps in EMDB are not well established. We developed a computational method for efficiently searching low-resolution EM maps. The method uses a compact fingerprint representation of EM maps based on the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is derived from a mathematical series expansion for EM maps that are considered as 3D functions. The method is implemented in a web server named EM-SURFER, which allows users to search against the entire EMDB in real-time. EM-SURFER compares the global shapes of EM maps. Examples of search results from different types of query structures are discussed. We developed EM-SURFER, which retrieves structurally relevant matches for query EM maps from EMDB within seconds. The unique capability of EM-SURFER to detect 3D shape similarity of low-resolution EM maps should prove invaluable in structural biology.

  12. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Wang, Henry E; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Patterson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in emergency medical services (EMS) workplace safety culture across agencies. To determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, emergency medical technicians and paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past three months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 89% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on five of the six domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for four of the six domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for five of the six domains. Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.

  13. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes. PMID:21950463

  14. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their

  15. Gradiente radial de [Mg/Fe] em duas galáxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Capelato, H.

    2003-08-01

    Basicamente, são propostos dois cenários de evolução quí mio-dinâmico para os sistemas esferoidais: (i) o hierárquico através da fusão e/ou acresção de sub-sistemas com ou sem surtos de formação estelar, e (ii) o colapso monolí tico dissipativo com formação estelar interrompida por um vento galáctico. Ambos, dentro de certos limites, conseguem explicar os gradientes internos de metalicidade estelar presentes nas galáxias elí pticas bem como a relação observada entre a metalicidade central e a massa (Mg20 vs. log sv0). No entanto, nenhum prevê uma variação interna para a razão de abundâncias Mg/Fe que indiretamente define a escala temporal da formação estelar. Empregamos a espectroscopia óptica de fenda longa com a finalidade de recuperar as histórias de formação estelar, de enriquecimento quí mico e da dinâmica dentro de determinadas regiões das galáxias. Os espectros de média resolução (FWHM = 7,1 Å) e escala angular de 1,092 arcsec/pixel foram coletados com o telescópio 1,60m do OPD/LNA. Comparamos nossas medidas de linhas de absorção com resultados espectrofotométricos de modelos de populações estelares simples - mais especificamente os í ndices do Sistema Lick como Mg2, Mg b, < Fe > e Hb - a fim de se investigar as variações internas de [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe] e idade. Para duas galáxias elí pticas, NGC 1052 e NGC 7796, pertencentes a ambientes de baixa densidade, encontramos uma variação radial da razão Mg/Fe decrescente do centro para fora em regiões de 0,6 e 1 raio efetivo respectivamente. Discutimos alguns cenários de enriquecimento quí mico para estas duas galáxias.

  16. Détention provisoire des jeunes femmes accusées d'avortement clandestin ou d'infanticide au Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Pemba, Liliane Flore

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L'activité sexuelle chez les jeunes les expose à un accroissement du risque de contracter des grossesses non désirées. Le recours à l'avortement clandestin avec son corollaire de complications peut entrainer le décès de la jeune femme. Avortement et infanticide sont interdits et sanctionnés par la loi sénégalaise. Comment ces jeunes femmes vivent-elles leur détention? Existe-il des alternatives à la détention pour éviter leur désocialisation? Méthodes Cette étude rétrospective portait sur la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar située à Liberté 6, un quartier de Dakar. Nous avons procédé à des entretiens avec des femmes détenues à la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar et suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement clandestin. Résultats Les femmes de notre échantillon ont une moyenne d’âge inférieure à 25 ans avec parmi elles une fille mineure de 16 ans. Nous avons trouvé 18,51% de femmes suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement. Dans notre étude 50% des femmes sont originaires de la périphérie et de la banlieue de Dakar et presque 44% proviennent des autres régions du pays. La durée moyenne de détention provisoire est de neuf mois. Conclusion Malgré leur qualification distincte dans le code pénal: l'infanticide est un crime et l'avortement un délit, les femmes suspectées d'avoir commis ces actes sont soumises à de longues détentions préventives. PMID:22937189

  17. What Do They Want from Us? A Survey of EM Program Directors on EM Application Criteria

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Kass, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although a relatively young specialty, emergency medicine (EM) is popular among medical students and is one of the most competitive large specialties. Consequently, students increasingly seek more opportunity to differentiate themselves from their colleagues by pursuing more clerkships at the cost of taking out additional loans: this despite the fact that those who match in EM typically do so in their top three choices. We sought to ascertain what factors EM program directors seek in their typical candidate. Methods We recruited EM program directors via the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors email listserv to participate in an anonymous survey regarding the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), the number of standardized letters of evaluation (SLOE), and the number of EM rotations during the fourth year. Results 135 respondents completed the anonymous survey: 59% of respondents stated their program did not have a minimum USMLE Step 1 score, but 39% reported a minimum score of 210 or higher; 95% of programs do not require Step 2 to grant an interview, but 46% require it to place the student on the rank list; 80% require only one EM rotation to grant an interview and none require more than two; 95% of programs will accept two SLOEs for both application and rank list placement. Conclusion For the typical EM applicant, there is likely little benefit to performing more than two rotations and obtaining more than two SLOEs. Students can defer USMLE Step 2 but must complete it by the time rank lists are due. Our study was limited by the anonymity of the survey, and comments by the respondents revealed the questions did not account for some nuances programs apply to their application review process. PMID:28116023

  18. The Rough and the Smooth--Students' Experiences of O.U. Study. Open-Ended Feedback from the Student Opinion Survey. The "Pete Davey Survey." Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robin; Morgan, Alistair

    The Student Opinion Survey was sent to a random sample of 2,600 Open University (OU) students who had gained at least two credits and were studying during 1984. The response rate was 84 percent. Responses to open-ended questions on about one-third of those questionnaires were analyzed to determine the significant phenomena in students' experiences…

  19. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J Sunil

    2015-04-04

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains.

  20. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  1. Activite locomotrice de souris isolees, de deux lignees consanguines, dans un environnement semi-naturel ou en cages d'elevage.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, G; Lassalle, J M

    1979-10-01

    Des enregistrements continus d'activité locomotrice ont été effectués sur des souris mâles isolées des lignées Balb/c et C57bl/6, vivant en cages d'élevage ou en milieu semi- naturel. Les résultats montrent que les différences entre ces deux situations ne sont pas perçues de la même façon par les animaux des deux lign'ees: alors qu'en cages d'élevage les souris des deux lignées experiment la même quantité totale d'activaté, en milieu semi-naturel les souris Balb/c sont plus actives que les C57bl/6. En outre, l≐s différences observées entre les lignées pour la repartition de l'activité au cours du nycthèmere s'inversent lorsque l'on passe d'une situation à l'autre. L'étude de la variabilité fait aparaître une dispersion plus grande des performances dans la lignée C57bl/6 en cages d'élevage, alors qu'en milieu semi-naturel la dispersion est plus chez Bal/c. Copyright © 1979. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Jurassic-Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of the Oued El-Abid syncline (High Atlas, Morocco): Physical volcanology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Mata, João; Madeira, José; Martins, Línia; El Hachimi, Hind; Bertrand, Hervé; Marzoli, Andrea; Bellieni, Giuliano; Doblas, Miguel; Font, Eric; Medina, Fida; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Beraâouz, El Hassane; Miranda, Rui; Verati, Chrystèle; De Min, Angelo; Ben Abbou, Mohamed; Zayane, Rachid

    2013-05-01

    Basaltic lava flows, dykes and sills, interbedded within red clastic continental sedimentary sequences (the so called "Couches Rouges") are widespread in the Oued El-Abid syncline. They represent the best candidates to study the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism in the Moroccan High Atlas. The volcanic successions were formed during two pulses of volcanic activity, represented by the Middle to Upper Jurassic basaltic sequence B1 (1-4 eruptions) and the Lower Cretaceous basaltic sequence B2 (three eruptions). Whether belonging to the B1 or B2, the lava flows present morphology and internal structures typical of inflated pahoehoe. Our geochemical data show that, at least for Jurassic magmatism, the dykes, and sills cannot be considered as strictly representing the feeders of the sampled lava flows. The Middle to Upper Jurassic pulse is moderately alkaline in character, while the Lower Cretaceous one is transitional. Crustal contamination plays a minor role in the petrogenesis of these magmas, which were generated by variable partial melting degrees of a garnet-bearing mantle source. Magmatism location was controlled by pre-existing Hercynian fault systems reactivated during a Middle to Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous rifting event. The associated lithospheric stretching induced melting, by adiabatic decompression, of enriched low-solidus infra-lithospheric domains.

  3. Improvement and Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for the Ouémé River Basin (Bénin), West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GABA, C. O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water resources is still an important issue especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we propose a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action. A first version of a Least Action based model, in its deterministic version has already given very good results on simulating the Bétérou catchment in the Ouémé basin, Benin. The paper presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODYPMA was applied on 22 subcatchments in Africa, in Bénin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia; in Europe, and in the USA. Its performance was compared to two well known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model could be successfully calibrated and validated; it shows a good performance for a range of scales but a limited applicability to catchments smaller than 500 km2 . The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. The parameter uncertainty was analysed using the GLUE methodology. It is concluded that model uncertainty is higher during high flows and that uncertainty analysis should include the uncertainty of the discharge data. Finally, some aspects that further research must address are brought out.

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Chemical Composition in Phyllostachy pubescens Forests at Two Altitudes in Jian-ou City, China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Zhong, Zheke

    2015-01-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens forests play an important role in soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the estimation and mechanism of SOC sequestration by P. pubescens forests remain unclear. In this study, the effect of P. pubescens forest distribution with elevation was investigated at two altitude sites in Jian-ou City, Southeast China. SOC storage was estimated and its chemical composition was obtained via 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical classification, and spectral analysis. Results showed that the SOC contents and stocks were significantly higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site in the entire soil profile (0-60 cm). The C contents of the three combined humus forms exhibited similar responses to the elevation change, and all of these forms were higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site regardless of soil layer. However, the proportions of the three combined humus C showed no significant differences between the two altitudes. The results of 13C-NMR showed that the SOC chemical composition did not significantly vary with elevation as well. This finding was consistent with the E465/E665 of the loosely combined humus. Overall, the results suggested that altitude should be considered during regional SOC estimation and that altitude affected the quantity rather than the quality of the SOC under the same P. pubescens vegetation.

  5. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  6. Coupling of spin and orbital degrees of freedom in tunable Hong-Ou-Mandel interference involving photons in hybrid spin-orbit modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, Cody C.; Lankford, Maggie; Sundarraman, Deepika

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the connection between biphoton states involving photons in product modes of their spin and orbital degrees of freedom and those involving photons in hybrid spin-orbit modes, as mediated by Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) in an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We predict that two input photons in balanced superposition states of both their spin and orbital degrees of freedom will exhibit HOMI while undergoing a simultaneous mode conversion from product spin-orbit input modes to hybrid output modes bearing orbital angular momentum. These hybrid outputs contain a spatially varying polarization structure which may be controllably rotated about the photonic beam axis by varying the relative phase between the vertical and horizontal components of each input photon's polarization. Additionally, a type of coupling of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom is exhibited in this system: the transverse spatial profile of the output photons may be continuously manipulated by tuning the polarization parameters of the input photons, in such a way that the HOMI between the photons remains stable. An interesting corollary to this work is the possibility of demonstrating in a simple experimental system that HOMI may occur between distinguishable input modes.

  7. Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Chemical Composition in Phyllostachy pubescens Forests at Two Altitudes in Jian-ou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haibao; Zhuang, Shunyao; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Zhong, Zheke

    2015-01-01

    Phyllostachys pubescens forests play an important role in soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the estimation and mechanism of SOC sequestration by P. pubescens forests remain unclear. In this study, the effect of P. pubescens forest distribution with elevation was investigated at two altitude sites in Jian-ou City, Southeast China. SOC storage was estimated and its chemical composition was obtained via 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical classification, and spectral analysis. Results showed that the SOC contents and stocks were significantly higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site in the entire soil profile (0–60 cm). The C contents of the three combined humus forms exhibited similar responses to the elevation change, and all of these forms were higher at the high-altitude site than at the low-altitude site regardless of soil layer. However, the proportions of the three combined humus C showed no significant differences between the two altitudes. The results of 13C-NMR showed that the SOC chemical composition did not significantly vary with elevation as well. This finding was consistent with the E465/E665 of the loosely combined humus. Overall, the results suggested that altitude should be considered during regional SOC estimation and that altitude affected the quantity rather than the quality of the SOC under the same P. pubescens vegetation. PMID:26716688

  8. Formes hémorragiques de Dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    La dengue est une arbovirose ré émergente dans les pays tropicaux. Sa forme hémorragique peut s'accompagner d'une défaillance circulatoire pouvant conduire à un choc hypovolémique, souvent fatal. Nous rapportons une série de trois cas de formes hémorragiques de dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou dont l'objectif est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques et évolutives. Les cas étaient des jeunes de sexe féminin dont l’âge variait entre 27 ans et 43 ans, résidant dans la ville de Ouagadougou. Malgré de multiples transfusions de concentrées plaquettaires et un traitement symptomatique, nous déplorons un cas de décès. Le développement d'antiviraux et la mise au point de nouveaux vaccins constituent une lueur d'espoir pour prévenir la létalité due à cette maladie. PMID:27303584

  9. Petrophysical behaviour and durability of the Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia (Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina Roman site)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghlami, K.; Gómez-Gras, D.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryIn the present work, the relationship between intrinsic factors, mechanical properties and durability of Miocene sandstones used in the architectural heritage of Tunisia, specifically in the Roman aqueduct of Oued Miliane and Uthina site, are studied. The petrographic study and the characterisation of porous network have been carried out using optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and laser scanner confocal microscopy (LSCM). The hygric behaviour has also been determined from water absorption under vacuum, drying, capillary water absorption and water vapour permeability. The mechanical properties have been assessed from compressive strength and abrasion tests. Rock durability has been evaluated from salt crystallization (sodium sulphate) accelerated aging tests. The results show good hygric behaviour characterised by a high evaporation rate and almost no retention of water; due to the macroporous character of the rock and the good connectivity of the pore network. Because of the poor lithification, the stone has a very low mechanical strength which makes it very vulnerable to the salt crystallization effects. The absence of chemically unstable minerals preserves the rock from chemical alteration. The durability of the building stone is mainly conditioned by salt loading of the monument.

  10. Applying Recursive EM to Scene Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Alexander

    In this paper a novel approach for the interdependent task of multiple object tracking and scene segmentation is presented. The method partitions a stereo image sequence of a dynamic 3-dimensional (3D) scene into its most prominent moving groups with similar 3D motion. The unknown set of motion parameters is recursively estimated using an iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) which will be derived from the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM formulation is used to incorporate a probabilistic data association measure into the tracking process. In a subsequent segregation step, each image point is assigned to the object hypothesis with maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability. Within the association process, which is implemented as labeling problem, a Markov Random Field (MRF) is used to express our expectations on spatial continuity of objects.

  11. Intense EM filamentation in relativistic hot plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2017-03-01

    Through 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that the nature of filamentation of a high intensity electromagnetic (EM) pulse propagating in an underdense plasma, is profoundly affected at relativistically high temperatures. The "relativistic" filaments are sharper, are dramatically extended (along the direction of propagation), and live much longer than their lower temperature counterparts. The thermally boosted electron inertia is invoked to understand this very interesting and powerful phenomenon.

  12. Cryo-EM: Spinning the Micelles Away.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Sigworth, Fred J

    2015-09-01

    Structural characterization of integral membrane proteins (MPs) demands that the samples be pure, monodisperse, and stable. Detergents are required to extract MPs from the lipid bilayer in which they reside and to stabilize them for downstream biophysical analyses. Some of the best MP-stabilizing detergents pose problems for cryo-EM studies, but in this issue of Structure, Hauer et al. (2015) now offer a solution called GraDeR.

  13. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  14. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bénilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bézard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefière, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Küppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Menor Salvan, C.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Nna Mvondo, D.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Ruiz Bermejo, M.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Tomasko, M. G.; Toublanc, D.; Vali, H.; Vardavas, I.; Vuitton, V.; West, R. A.; Yelle, R.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  15. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  16. The US DOE EM international program

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Roach, Jay A.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into the remainder of FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  17. Uma Comparação entre Técnicas de Propagação de Erros em Astrofísica: Monte Carlo x Bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabot, Alexandre; Baptista, Raymundo

    2005-07-01

    Neste trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo entre dois algoritmos numéricos usados para propagação de erros em dados experimentais. Um deles é conhecido por Método de Monte carlo e o outro por Método de Bootstrap. Recentemente, Dhullon & Watson argüiram que a aplicação do método de Monte Carlo introduz ruído nos dados, e propuseram então a utilização do Bootstrap como alternativa capaz de produzir resultados superiores. O objetivo deste trabalho é testar a validade dessa afirmação. As duas técnicas foram aplicadas a três problemas diferentes: o ajsute de modelos de emissão LTE simples e atmosfera estelar a espectros estelares observados e o ajuste de curvas de luz de eclipses de Variáveis Cataclísmicas para a detemrinação da distribuição radial de brilho dos seus discos de acréscimo. Os métodos foram testados quanto à sua robusteza, ou seja, a capacidade de prover resultados coerentes enre si. Além disso, as soluções dos métodos foram comparadas. Os resultados indicam que não existe evidência de superioridade de um métodos em relação ao outro.

  18. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  19. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-02-23

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury.

  20. Amorçage d'une décharge dans le vide entre deux electrodes d'argent ou des alliages argent-nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouache, N.; Lefort, A.

    1997-03-01

    Comparison of the characteristics of an electric are breakdown in vacuum between two silver or silver-nickel alloy electrodes prompted us to study the evolution of the breakdown voltage with electrode separation, with resistance value placed between the anode and the high voltage supply used for the breakdown, and with the effect of conditionning by heating in vacuum. The measurement of the commutation time and delay time, and the observations by a metallographic microscope of the electrodes surfaces after one breakdown, enabled us to evidence the origin of the electric arc for each of the studied materials. La comparaison des caractéristiques de l'amorçage d'un arc électrique dans le vide entre deux électrodes bombées de 8mm de diamètre et de rayon de courbure en surface de 16mm, constituées d'argent ou de son alliage avec le nickel, nous a amené à étudier l'évolution de la tension d'amorçage avec plusieurs paramètres : la distance inter-électrodes, les valeurs de la résistance intercalée entre la source haute tension servant au claquage et les électrodes et le conditionnement par chauffage sous vide des électrodes. La mesure du temps de commutation, du temps de retard et les observations au microscope métallographique de la surface des électrodes après un amorçage donnent des informations sur l'origine de l'arc électrique concernant chaque matériau étudié.

  1. [Effects of saline-alkali stress on electrical impedance spectroscopy parameters and ion contents in shoots of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jia, Zhi-Guo; Ma, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2014-11-01

    To study the adaptability to salt-alkaline stress of Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut, 'Liaozhen 3' shoots which were treated with three types of stress neutral NaCl, alkaline Na2CO3, and mixed salt-alkali, and the changes in electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) parameters and mineral ion contents were subsequently determined. The correlations between the EIS parameters and mineral ion contents were analyzed. The results showed that with the increasing level of NaCl, specific high- frequency resistance (r), specific low-frequency resistance ( r(l)), specific intracellular resistance (r(i)) and specific extracellular resistance (r(e)) of shoots decreased firstly, then increased, and finally decreased again. However, these parameters increased gradually with the increasing level of Na2CO3, while r(l) and r(e) decreased slowly in the mixed salt-alkali treatments. The Na+ contents of shoots increased significantly under the three salt-alkali stresses with the order of NaCl stress > mixed salt-alkali stress > Na2CO3 stress. Furthermore, Na2CO3 stress resulted in the decreases in the contents of three elements Zn, B and Ca. The significant negative correlation was found between the sum of five cations and four EIS parameters r(l), r(e), relaxation time (τ) , and distribution coefficient of relaxation time (ψ). The shoots of 'Liaozhen 3' might be tolerant of Na2CO3 stress of 200 mmol · L(-1), while they could be resistant to NaCl stress of 100-150 mmol · L(-1).

  2. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  3. Lateral seismic velocity heterogeneity along the fault system controlling the endpoints of earthquake rupture inferred from a 3D seismic tomography in the Ou Backbone Range, Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Y.; Kimura, H.; Abe, S.

    2016-12-01

    The multideformed axial zone of the Ou backbone range provides a great opportunity to explore the influence of pre-existing cross-structures on the segmentation of active seismogenic reverse faults. Detailed 3D seismic velocity structure acquired by a tomography using a dense temporal network data clearly shows a strong lateral heterogeneity and its correlation to the hypocenter locations. Most ( 80%) of the hypocenters including aftershocks of the 2008 Iwate-Miyage Nairiku Earthquake (M7.2) are located in the bodies of high Vp ( 5.7-6.2 km/s) and low Vp/Vs ( 1.61-1.74). In contrast, few hypocenters are located in the other bodies of lower Vp and the higher Vp/Vs (>1.85). The estimated Poisson's ratios are 0.25 and 0.4, respectively in the seismogenic layer and in the aseismic layer. Such velocity contrasts in lateral are frequently recognized at the both sides of WNW-ESE boundaries across the N-S trending active fault system. Some of them are consistent with the known pre-existing cross-structures originally formed by the clockwise rotation of the NE Japan arc (Japan Sea opening) during the Miocene epoch. As the velocity boundaries continue also to the depth in the upper crust, the thicknesses of the seismogenic layer differ at the boundaries. Some of the rupture endpoints of the recent large earthquakes ( M7) are consistent with such boundaries decreasing seismogenic layer thickness from the source area to the adjacent area. It indicates that the lateral heterogeneity along the fault system is certainly an important factor in determining a segment boundary.

  4. Les fractures de jambe à fibula intact: traitement orthopédique ou enclouage centromédullaire? (étude comparative à propos de 60 cas)

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Fadili, Assia; Belmoubarik, Amine; EL Andaloussi, Yassir; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    La fracture de jambe à fibula intact (FJFI) est caractérisée par un potentiel de déplacement minime ainsi le pronostic semble bon, souvent associées à des difficultés de réduction de consolidation ou de cal vicieux. Notre but est de comparer les résultats du traitement orthopédique et de l'enclouage centromédullaire (ECM). Entre janvier 2006 et janvier 2011, on a traité 60 fractures de jambe à fibula intact. 31 patients ont bénéficié d'un ECM, dont 14 fois était statique, 16 fois dynamique et simple une fois, avec un appui compris entre le 2eme jour (pour la plupart des patients) et la sixième semaine. 29 patients ont bénéficiés d'un traitement orthopédique après réduction par plâtre cruro-pédieux avec libération du genou après 4 semaines avec appui total chez la plupart des patients. La durée de consolidation été de 4 mois en moyenne pour les patients traites par ECM et de 6 mois pour les patients traites orthopédiquement. On a noté 3 cas de pseudarthrose dans notre série d’étude soit 5%: 2 observées chez le groupe de l'ECM soit 6,4% et un cas pour le groupe du traitement orthopédique soit 3,8%. 6 cas de déplacement secondaires ont été note chez les patients traites orhtopédiquement à j15 du traitement, pour 5 patients le déplacement été jugé tolérable et pour un seul patient (trouble angulaire supérieur à 10°) ayant nécessité un ECM. 13 cas soit 54% de cal vicieux angulaire supérieur à 10 dans notre série tous traités orthopédiquement versus aucun cas de cal vicieux chez les patients du groupe du traitement par ECM. Cliniquement: tous les patients traités par ECM ont présenté une mobilité du genou et de la cheville normale. Les patients traités orthopédiquement ont tous bénéficié d'une rééducation du genou libération du genou et confection d'un plâtre type Sarmiento et celle de la cheville après son ablation définitive, ainsi aucun de nos patients n'a gardé une raideur après avoir termin

  5. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  6. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  7. Improving Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in the United States Through Improved and Centralized Federal Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    other emergencies. 4 • Public Awareness of the EMS Discipline. The public at large is not aware of the EMS structure in its community or at a higher...regard for its imperative role in community service. For this reason, placing EMS under the USFA at the federal level would cause EMS to still be...service to include EMS is appropriate, and in some cases, it is not. Not all communities have a dedicated fire service, which can make EMS provision

  8. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  9. Association between EMS Question Bank Completion and Passing Rates on the EMS Certification Examination.

    PubMed

    Clemency, Brian; Martin-Gill, Christian; Rall, Nicole; May, Paul; Lubin, Jeffrey; Cooley, Craig; Van Dillen, Christine; Silvestri, Salvatore; Portela, Roberto; Cooney, Derek; Knutsen, Christian; March, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A board review question bank was created to assist candidates in their preparation for the 2015 EMS certification examination. We aimed to describe the development of this question bank and evaluate its successes in preparing candidates to obtain EMS subspecialty board certification. An online question bank was developed by 13 subject matter experts who participated as item writers, representing eight different EMS fellowship programs. The online question bank consisted of four practice tests, with each of the tests comprised of 100 questions. The number of candidates who participated in and completed the question bank was calculated. The passing rate among candidates who completed the question bank was calculated and compared to the publicly reported statistics for all candidates. The relationship between candidates' performance on the question bank and subspecialty exam pass rates was determined. A total of 252 candidates took at least one practice test and, of those, 225 candidates completed all four 100-question practice tests. The pass rate on the 2015 EMS certification exam was 79% (95%CI 74-85%) among candidates who completed the question bank, which is 12% higher than the overall pass rate (p = 0.003). Candidates' performance on the question bank was positively associated with overall success on the exam (X(2) = 75.8, p < 0.0001). Achieving a score of ≥ 70% on the question bank was associated with a higher likelihood of passing the exam (OR = 17.8; 95% CI: 8.0-39.6). Completing the question bank program was associated with improved pass rates on the EMS certification exam. Strong performance on the question bank correlated with success on the exam.

  10. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  11. Light curve analysis of southern eclipsing binary EM Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçek, C.; Bulut, I.; Bulut, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ASAS light curve of the eclipsing binary EM Car (Sp = O8V, P = 3.4 days) has been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney method. The light curve analyses have found that EM Car is a detached eclipsing binary system with small eccentric orbit

  12. Genetic-based EM algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Bouchaffra, Djamel

    2005-08-01

    We propose a genetic-based expectation-maximization (GA-EM) algorithm for learning Gaussian mixture models from multivariate data. This algorithm is capable of selecting the number of components of the model using the minimum description length (MDL) criterion. Our approach benefits from the properties of Genetic algorithms (GA) and the EM algorithm by combination of both into a single procedure. The population-based stochastic search of the GA explores the search space more thoroughly than the EM method. Therefore, our algorithm enables escaping from local optimal solutions since the algorithm becomes less sensitive to its initialization. The GA-EM algorithm is elitist which maintains the monotonic convergence property of the EM algorithm. The experiments on simulated and real data show that the GA-EM outperforms the EM method since: 1) We have obtained a better MDL score while using exactly the same termination condition for both algorithms. 2) Our approach identifies the number of components which were used to generate the underlying data more often than the EM algorithm.

  13. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  14. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... natural disaster has occurred in a county, resulting in severe physical losses. If the FSA Administrator determines that such a natural disaster has occurred, then EM can be made available to eligible farmers for... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DISASTER DESIGNATIONS AND NOTIFICATIONS § 759.6 EM to be made available. (a)...

  16. Électrooxydation du mésoérythritol sur platine, modifié ou non par des adatomes, en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherqaoui, A.; Chbihi, M. El M.; Takky, D.; Kokoh, K. B.; Leger, J.-M.; Lamy, C.

    1999-03-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of meso-erythritol has been studied in 0.1 M HClO4 on platinum and on adatoms modified platinum. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that erythritol was not reactive on a Pt electrode. Underpotential deposition of lead or thallium adatoms at platinum allowed to increase significantly the current densities. Long-time electrolyses were carried out using a three potential plateau program with different values of the oxidation potentials. Chromatographic analyses showed that the oxidation of erythritol led mainly to erythrose, erythrulose and to erythronic acid. Otherwise, electrolysis of erythritol on a Pt-Tl modified electrode orientated selectively the distribution of the reaction products towards the formation of erythrulose. L'oxydation électrocatalytique du mésoérythrytol a été étudiée en milieu acide HClO4 0,1 M sur le platine modifié ou non par des adatomes métalliques. Les études préliminaires réalisées par voltammétrie cyclique montrent que l'érythritol est très peu réactif sur le platine seul. La modification de la surface de l'électrode par dépôt en sous-tension d'adatomes de plomb et de thallium permet d'augmenter les densités de courant. Les électrolyses prolongées sont réalisées à l'aide d'un programme à trois paliers de potentiel et pour différentes valeurs de potentiel d'oxydation. Les analyses chromatographiques montrent que les produits d'oxydation sont l'érythrose, l'érythrulose et l'acide érythronique. D'autre part l'oxydation de l'érythritol sur le platine modifié par des adatomes de thallium conduit à une production sélective d'érythrulose.

  17. Complications du diverticule de Meckel (DM) chez l'adulte: à propos de 11 cas au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouangré, Edgar; Zida, Maurice; Bazongo, Moussa; Sanou, Adama; Bonkoungou, Gilbert Patindé; Doamba, Rodrigue Namékinsba; Sawadogo, Elie Yamba; Ouédraogo, Sidziguin; Zongo, Nayi; Traore, Si Simon

    2015-01-01

    Le diverticule de Meckel (DM) est la persistance partielle du canal omphalomésentérique. Ses complications sont rares. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent per opératoire. L'objectif a été de décrire les complications du diverticule de Meckel chez l'adulte dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive sur 10 ans (janvier 2004-décembre 2013) portant sur les dossiers des patients âgés de plus de 15 ans ayant présenté un DM compliqué. Durant la période d’étude, 11 cas ont été colligés. L'incidence annuelle a été de 11 cas. Nous avons noté une prédominance masculine avec un sex-ratio de 4,5. L’âge moyen des patients était de 29,8 ans. Le diagnostic préopératoire a été dans huit cas une occlusion intestinale aiguë, une appendicite aiguë dans deux cas, une péritonite aiguë généralisée dans un cas. Il a été diagnostiqué en peropératoire une occlusion intestinale dans neuf cas; une diverticulite dans un cas et un cas de perforation du DM. Tous les DM avaient été réséqués dont huit résections segmentaires iléales emportant le DM et trois résections cunéiformes. Tous les DM étaient situés à moins d'un mètre de la jonction iléo-caecale. L'histologie réalisée dans deux cas avait conclu à une diverticulite. Les suites opératoires ont été simples dans neuf cas, compliquées dans deux cas dont une éventration et un décès. Les complications du diverticule de Meckel sont rares. Le diagnostic préopératoire est difficile. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. PMID:26958137

  18. Social and behavior change communication in the fight against malaria in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison

    2017-03-23

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique. RESUMO As redes mosquiteiras impregnadas com insecticidade de longa duração e/ou pulverização intra-domiciliária, associada ao manejo de casos são intervenções-chave no controlo da malária em África. O objetivo deste estudo foi comentar o papel da comunicação para a mudança social e de comportamento como intervenção potencialmente chave no controlo da malária em Moçambique.

  19. The Post-LBV Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Chornock, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Li, W.; Panagia, N.; Pooley, D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    The supernova (SN) 2001em in UGC 11794 was classified early as Type Ib/c, i.e., as one arising from a hydrogen-stripped star. As part of a radio survey with the Very Large Array of SNe Ib/c at late times (Stockdale et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1346), SN 2001em was detected as a highly luminous radio source ˜2 years after explosion. The SN was also subsequently discovered with Chandra to be a very luminous X-ray source. The properties of both the radio and X-ray emission are more characteristic of the Type II-narrow (IIn) SNe, where the SN shock is interacting with dense, massive circumstellar matter, resulting in bright radio synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung from the interaction region. In fact, SN 2001em has shown to have spectroscopically transformed to a SN IIn. The premise that this might indicate an off-axis gamma-ray burst has been presented (Granot & Ramirez-Ruiz 2004, ApJ, 609, L9) and later, rather convincingly, refuted (e.g., Schinzel et al. 2009, ApJ, 691, 1380). Chugai & Chevalier (2006, ApJ, 641, 1051) have interpreted the spectral transformation and radio/X-ray emission as the SN shock overtaking the detached hydrogen envelope of the progenitor star, which was shed in a superwind episode many years prior to explosion. Chevalier (2007, RMxAC, 30, 41) has further pointed to the required mass-loss rate in the event being equivalent to what would occur in the eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV). The optical (ground-based and HST) and radio/X-ray data, together with mid-infrared Spitzer observations, tend to support this scenario of a very massive star that experienced a powerful LBV outburst prior to explosion. Such an event may not be unique, with possible parallels in the cases of SNe 2005bf and 2006jc, and may provide valuable new information about massive stellar evolution.

  20. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  2. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  3. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  5. EMS incident management: emergency medical logistics.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, P M; Christen, H T

    1999-01-01

    If you had to get x amount of supplies to point A or point B, or both, in 10 minutes, how would you do it? The answer lies in the following steps: 1. Develop a logistics plan. 2. Use emergency management as a partner agency for developing your logistics plan. 3. Implement a push logistics system by determining what supplies/medications and equipment are important. 4. Place mass casualty/disaster caches at key locations for rapid deployment. Have medication/fluid caches available at local hospitals. 5. Develop and implement command caches for key supervisors and managers. 6. Anticipate the logistics requirements of a terrorism/tactical violence event based on a community threat assessment. 7. Educate the public about preparing a BLS family disaster kit. 8. Test logistics capabilities at disaster exercises. 9. Budget for logistics needs. 10. Never underestimate the importance of logistics. When logistics support fails, the EMS system fails.

  6. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokcheon

    2017-03-01

    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  7. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  8. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  9. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  10. Best Practices for Managing Large CryoEM Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Alewijnse, Bart; Ashton, Alun W.; Chambers, Melissa G.; Chen, Songye; Cheng, Anchi; Ebrahim, Mark; Eng, Edward; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Koster, Abraham J.; López, Claudia S.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Ortega, Joaquin; Renault, Ludovic; Reyntjens, Steve; Rice, William J.; Scapin, Giovanna; Schrijver, Raymond; Siebert, Alistair; Stagg, Scott M.; Grum-Tokars, Valerie; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Shenping; Yu, Zhiheng; Zhou, Z. Hong; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the discussion and presentations from the Workshop on the Management of Large CryoEM Facilities held at the New York Structural Biology Center, New York, NY on February 6–7, 2017. A major objective of the workshop was to discuss best practices for managing cryoEM facilities. The discussions were largely focused on supporting single-particle methods for cryoEM and topics included: user access, assessing projects, workflow, sample handling, microscopy, data management and processing, and user training. PMID:28827185

  11. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  12. Transforming EMS Compliance at the Utah National Guard with an Automated Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    14001 & EMS 16 ISO 14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 Requirement Condition WebEMIS™ 4.1 General Requirements None Uploads and stores EO 13423, EO...top level management with metrics and performance measures based on media WebEMIS vs. ISO 14001 & EMS 17 ISO 14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 ...14001 EMS Requirements ISO14001 Requirement Condition WebEMIS 4.4 Implementation and Operation 4.4.1 Resources, Roles, Responsibility and Authority

  13. Recent developments in the CCP-EM software suite

    PubMed Central

    Burnley, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As part of its remit to provide computational support to the cryo-EM community, the Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has produced a software framework which enables easy access to a range of programs and utilities. The resulting software suite incorporates contributions from different collaborators by encapsulating them in Python task wrappers, which are then made accessible via a user-friendly graphical user interface as well as a command-line interface suitable for scripting. The framework includes tools for project and data management. An overview of the design of the framework is given, together with a survey of the functionality at different levels. The current CCP-EM suite has particular strength in the building and refinement of atomic models into cryo-EM reconstructions, which is described in detail. PMID:28580908

  14. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  15. Recent developments in the CCP-EM software suite.

    PubMed

    Burnley, Tom; Palmer, Colin M; Winn, Martyn

    2017-06-01

    As part of its remit to provide computational support to the cryo-EM community, the Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has produced a software framework which enables easy access to a range of programs and utilities. The resulting software suite incorporates contributions from different collaborators by encapsulating them in Python task wrappers, which are then made accessible via a user-friendly graphical user interface as well as a command-line interface suitable for scripting. The framework includes tools for project and data management. An overview of the design of the framework is given, together with a survey of the functionality at different levels. The current CCP-EM suite has particular strength in the building and refinement of atomic models into cryo-EM reconstructions, which is described in detail.

  16. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-09-20

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  17. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  18. EMS: A framework for data acquisition and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogiec, J. M.; Sim, J.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.

    2001-08-01

    The Extensible Measurement System (EMS) is a universal Java framework for building data analysis and test systems. The objective of the EMS project is to replace a multitude of different existing systems with a single expandable system, capable of accommodating various test and analysis scenarios and varying algorithms. The EMS framework is based on component technology, graphical assembly of systems, introspection and flexibility to accommodate various data processing and data acquisition components. Core system components, common to many application domains, have been identified and designed together with the domain-specific components for the measurement of accelerator magnets. The EMS employs several modern technologies and the result is a highly portable, configurable, and potentially distributed system, with the capability of parallel signal data processing, parameterized test scripting, and run-time reconfiguration.

  19. EmPOWER Maryland - Leveraging relationships and experience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DHCD has gained a deep understanding of the needs of Maryland’s low-income residents and therefore was well-positioned to implement the low-income components of the broader EmPOWER Maryland energy efficiency initiative.

  20. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  1. Classification of ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersier, David

    2017-04-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the candidate supernova ASASSN-17em/AT2017cts (ATEL #10241), using the SPRAT spectrograph mounted on the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory (La Palma).

  2. Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory Test Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory test data: final report J. Bradley Nelson Date: September 2016 Contract #: NICOP - N62909-15...From - To) 09/01/2016 Technical Report #2 July 2015 - September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Analysis of NSWC Ocean EM Observatory...distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT NSWC-Carderock is leading a defense/academia group to instrument the South Florida Ocean

  3. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  4. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-31

    The right hand aft skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket has been refurbished and painted and is in a drying cell in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of the SLS for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  5. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    A technician with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, preps a section of the right hand aft skirt for primer and paint in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of NASA's SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  6. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-29

    The right hand aft skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket has been painted and is in a drying cell in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of NASA's Space Launch System rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  7. Comparison of Identify-Friend-Foe and Blue-Force Tracking Decision Support for Combat Identification (Comparaison des Systemes d’aide a la Decision Identification ami ou Ennemi et Suivi des Forces Bleues pour l’Identification au Combat)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    disposition de chaque soldat à pied. Deux expériences ont permis d’examiner l’efficacité des systèmes d’aide à la décision Identification ami ou ennemi (IAE...chaque fois qu’ils sont ciblés par une transmission donnée (infrarouge, radar, etc.). Les soldats munis du générateur et récepteur de signaux...rapidement et pourraient éventuellement être mises à la disposition de chaque soldat à pied. Deux expériences ont permis d’examiner l’efficacité des

  8. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W10-33 and 299-W11-48

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2007-09-30

    Slug-test results obtained from single and multiple, stress-level slug tests conducted during drilling and borehole advancement provide detailed hydraulic conductivity information at two Hanford Site Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 test well locations. The individual test/depth intervals were generally sited to provide hydraulic-property information within the upper ~10 m of the unconfined aquifer (i.e., Ringold Formation, Unit 5). These characterization results complement previous and ongoing drill-and-test characterization programs at surrounding 200-West and -East Area locations (see Figure S.1).

  9. Un exemple de volcanisme calco-alcalin de type orogénique mis en place en contexte de rifting (Cambrien de l'oued Rhebar, Meseta occidentale, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Simancas Cabrera, Fernando; González Lodeiro, Francisco; Azor Pérez, Antonio; Jesús Martínez Poyatos, David

    2006-03-01

    The Middle Cambrian calc-alkaline Oued Rhebar volcanic complex (western Meseta, Morocco) compares with rocks originated in orogenic contexts. The La/Nb ratios are relatively high (5.2), suggesting a lithospheric mantle origin. The La/Ta ratios, higher than 26, and the negative Nb anomaly indicate a lithospheric source contaminated by the continental crust. These rocks were generated in the Mesetian Mid-Cambrian rift and would have inherited their orogenic signature from the partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  10. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  11. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-10-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms.

  12. STEME: efficient EM to find motifs in large data sets

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John E.; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    MEME and many other popular motif finders use the expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize their parameters. Unfortunately, the running time of EM is linear in the length of the input sequences. This can prohibit its application to data sets of the size commonly generated by high-throughput biological techniques. A suffix tree is a data structure that can efficiently index a set of sequences. We describe an algorithm, Suffix Tree EM for Motif Elicitation (STEME), that approximates EM using suffix trees. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of suffix trees to EM. We provide an analysis of the expected running time of the algorithm and demonstrate that STEME runs an order of magnitude more quickly than the implementation of EM used by MEME. We give theoretical bounds for the quality of the approximation and show that, in practice, the approximation has a negligible effect on the outcome. We provide an open source implementation of the algorithm that we hope will be used to speed up existing and future motif search algorithms. PMID:21785132

  13. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  14. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating.

  15. Airborne EM for mine infrastructure planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijns, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys with near-surface vertical resolution provide rapid and comprehensive coverage of a mine site ahead of infrastructure planning. In environments of sufficient electrical conductivity contrast, the data will map variations in the depth to bedrock, providing guidance for expected excavation depths for solid building foundations, or mine pre-strip volumes. Continuous coverage overcomes the severe areal limitation of relying only on drilling and test pits. An AEM survey in northern Finland illustrates the success of this approach for guiding the placement of a mine crusher and related infrastructure. The cost of the EM data collection and interpretation is insignificant in comparison to the US$300 million capital cost of the mine infrastructure. This environment of shallow glacial cover challenges the limits of AEM resolution, yet analysis of subsequently collected three-dimensional (3D) surface seismic data and actual pre-strip excavation depths reinforces the predictive, but qualitative, mapping capability of the AEM. It also highlights the need to tune the modelling via petrophysics for the specific goal of the investigation, and exposes the limitations of visual drill core logging.

  16. Databases and archiving for cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryo-EM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives – EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualising and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  17. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  18. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  19. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  20. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  1. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  2. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  3. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  4. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  5. Resource Document: Coordination of Pediatric Emergency Care in EMS Systems.

    PubMed

    Remick, Katherine; Gross, Toni; Adelgais, Kathleen; Shah, Manish I; Leonard, Julie C; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum. The search strategy was developed by the investigators in consultation with a medical librarian and conducted in OVID, Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases from January 1, 1983 to January 1, 2016. All research articles that measured a patient-related or system-related outcome associated with pediatric coordination in the setting of emergency care, trauma, or disaster were included. Opinion articles, commentaries, and letters to the editors were excluded. Three investigators independently screened citations in a hierarchical manner and abstracted data. Of 149 identified titles, nine were included in the systematic review. The nine articles included one interventional study, five surveys, and three consensus documents. All articles favored the presence of pediatric coordination. The interventional study demonstrated improved documentation, clinical management, and staff awareness of high priority pediatric areas. The current literature supports the identification of pediatric coordination to facilitate the optimal care of children within EMS systems. In order for EMS systems to provide high quality care to children, pediatric components must be integrated into all aspects of care including day-to-day operations, policies, protocols, available equipment and medications, quality improvement efforts, and disaster planning. This systematic

  6. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  7. Evaluation of dose reduction versus standard dosing for maintenance of remission in patients with spondyloarthritis and clinical remission with anti-TNF (REDES-TNF): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Caridad; Gratacós, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Avendaño, Cristina; Sanz, Jesús; Vallano, Antoni; Juanola, Xavier; de Miguel, Eugenio; Sanmartí, Raimon; Calvo, Gonzalo

    2015-08-20

    Dose reduction schedules of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) as maintenance therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis are used empirically in clinical practice, despite the lack of clinical trials providing evidence for this practice. To address this issue the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) and Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology (SEFC) designed a 3-year multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial (2 years for inclusion and 1 year of follow-up). The study is expected to include 190 patients with axial spondyloarthritis on stable maintenance treatment (≥4 months) with any anti-TNF agent at doses recommended in the summary of product characteristics. Patients will be randomized to either a dose reduction arm or maintenance of the dosing regimen as per the official labelling recommendations. Randomization will be stratified according to the anti-TNF agent received before study inclusion. Patient follow-up, visit schedule, and examinations will be maintained as per normal clinical practice recommendations according to SER guidelines. The study aims to test the hypothesis of noninferiority of the dose reduction strategy compared with standard treatment. The first patients were recruited in July 2012, and study completion is scheduled for the end of April 2015. The REDES-TNF study is a pragmatic clinical trial that aims to provide evidence to support a medical decision now made empirically. The study results may help inform clinical decisions relevant to both patients and healthcare decision makers. EudraCT 2011-005871-18 (21 December 2011).

  8. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  10. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  11. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  12. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

    1992-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm.

  13. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to <em>P. acnesem> Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F

    2016-06-01

    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring <em>P. acnesem>- generated inflammation. <em>P. acnesem> biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by <em>P. acnesem>. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the <em>P. acnesem> bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285).

    <em>J Drugs Dermatol. em>2016;15(6):677-683.

  14. Where There is No EMS: Lay Providers in Emergency Medical Services Care - EMS as a Public Health Priority.

    PubMed

    Debenham, Sierra; Fuller, Matthew; Stewart, Matthew; Price, Raymond R

    2017-08-11

    By 2030, road traffic accidents are projected to be the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, with 90% of these deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While high-quality, prehospital trauma care is crucial to reduce the number of trauma-related deaths, effective Emergency Medical Systems (EMS) are limited or absent in many LMICs. Although lay providers have long been recognized as the front lines of informal trauma care in countries without formal EMS, few efforts have been made to capitalize on these networks. We suggest that lay providers can become a strong foundation for nascent EMS through a four-fold approach: strengthening and expanding existing lay provider training programs; incentivizing lay providers; strengthening locally available first aid supply chains; and using technology to link lay provider networks. Debenham S , Fuller M , Stewart M , Price RR . Where there is no EMS: lay providers in Emergency Medical Services care - EMS as a public health priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):1-3.

  15. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  16. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  17. Pirmasis lietuvi\\vskas Suvalkijos žemėlapis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkus, Romualdas; Lukoševičius, Viktoras

    2009-01-01

    Po ilgo paie\\vskos laikotarpio, dr. N. Lietuvninkaitei padedant, KTU bibliotekos Retų knygų skyriaus kartografiniame archyve aptiktas 1915 m. JAV išleistas B. K. Balučio M 1:252 000 Suvalkijos žemėlapis. Lietuvių išeivijos instituto B. K. Balučio fonde žemėlapio sudarymo medžiagos nerasta. Paie\\vska atrodė bevilti\\vska dėl tarpukario Lietuvi\\vskosios enciklopedijos klaidinančios informacijos, kad prasidėjus Pirmajam pasauliniam karui žemėlapis nebuvo išleistas, tad aprašomas ir publikuojamas pirmą kartą.

  18. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  19. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  20. Lietuvos Teritorijos Gravimetrinio Žemėlapio Tikslumo Vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birvydienė, Rosita; Krikštaponis, Boleslovas; Obuchovski, Romuald; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Petroškevičius, Petras; Šlikas, Dominykas

    2010-01-01

    Remiantis matavimų, atliktų Lietuvos gravimetrinio tinklo punktuose, duomenimis, įvertintas Lietuvos teritorijos 1:200 000 mastelio Bouguer anomalijų gravimetrinio žemėlapio tikslumas. Vertinimui naudota 686 gravimetrinių punktų sunkio pagreičio reikšmės, kurių vidutinė kvadratinė paklaida neviršija 9 μGal. Nustatytos teritorijos, kuriose sunkio pagreitis, apskaičiuotas pagal žemėlapį, turi sistemingąsias paklaidas. Gautas vidutinis skirtumas tarp žemėlapyje taikomos Potsdamo sunkio sistemos ir IGSN 71 sistemos, apibrėžtos Lietuvos gravimetriniame tinkle atliktais absoliučiaisiais gravimetriniais matavimais.

  1. Longitudinal information and radiation damage in EM calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1993-02-05

    The SCC radiation field is higher than that encountered by previous hadron collider detectors. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter compartment sees the highest radiation dose. Since an EM calorimeter also makes the most precise energy measurement, special care must be lavished on this part of a calorimeter. Previous studies have concentrated on Monte Carlo examinations of 2 longitudinal compartments within the EM which can alleviate radiation damage. Recently, it was realized that a ``shower maximum`` detector, such as exists in CDF, also contains information of the conversion point of an electromagnetic shower. As such, it can potentially be used in a fashion analogous to the longitudinal compartments, although it is not designed to be optimized for this role.

  2. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-08-22

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor

  3. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  4. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  5. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-09-01

    The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children's hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The locations of intubations were

  6. A constrained EM algorithm for independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Welling, M; Weber, M

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel way of performing independent component analysis using a constrained version of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The source distributions are modeled as D one-dimensional mixtures of gaussians. The observed data are modeled as linear mixtures of the sources with additive, isotropic noise. This generative model is fit to the data using constrained EM. The simpler "soft-switching" approach is introduced, which uses only one parameter to decide on the sub- or supergaussian nature of the sources. We explain how our approach relates to independent factor analysis.

  7. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  8. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  9. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    A paint technician with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, uses an air gun to apply paint to the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS rocket inside a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced to prepare it for primer and paint. The aft skirt will be used on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the journey to Mars.

  10. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Technicians with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, prepare the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS rocket for primer and painting inside a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced and will be primed and painted for use on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the journey to Mars.

  11. Orion EM-1 Booster Preps - Aft Skirt Preps/Painting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Technicians with Orbital ATK, prime contractor for the Space Launch System (SLS) Booster, prepare a paint mixture for the right hand aft skirt for NASA’s SLS in a support building at the Hangar AF facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The space shuttle-era aft skirt, was inspected and resurfaced, and will be primed and painted for use on the right hand booster of the SLS rocket for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). NASA is preparing for EM-1, deep-space missions, and the Journey to Mars.

  12. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  13. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  14. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is in a clean room with protective walls secured around it. The adapter will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  15. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) toward a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  16. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a Lockheed Martin technician secures a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  17. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) is being moved to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  18. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a protective cover is installed around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  19. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  20. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians are preparing the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for the move into a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  1. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians secure a protective cover around the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) for its move to a clean. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  2. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Adapter Move to Clean Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    Inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Lockheed Martin technicians begin to move the Orion crew module adapter (CMA) for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to a clean room. The CMA will undergo propellant and environmental control and life support system tube installation and welding. The adapter will connect the Orion crew module to the European Space Agency-provided service module. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission, in late 2018.

  3. Etude de l'effet de la température de dépôt ou de recuit sur la formation de l'interface Au/GaSb(100) par diffraction d'électrons lents et spectroscopies d'électrons Auger ou de pertes d'énergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouanet, M.; Oueini, W.; Nouaoura, M.; Bertru, N.; Bonnet, J.; Lassabatere, L.

    1995-05-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) are used to precise the interaction of gold with GaSb(100) surfaces grown on GaSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). After the growth, the GaSb layers, produced in the laboratory, were transferred by the mean of an ultra vacuum lock chamber, into an other ultra vacuum devoted to the deposit of gold and to the physical studies. Measurements were first performed on the clean surfaces and then on surfaces covered by increasing amounts of gold (6 × 10^{13} 1.8 × 10^{16} atoms cm^{-2}) deposited on substrates brought at room temperature or at low temperature (220 K). The samples were then studied during the annealing up to 520 K. The results show, at the beginning of the deposition, gold was adsorbed on the MBE GaSb(100) surface. When the gold coverage increases and becomes higher than 10^{15} atomes cm^{-2}, Au diffuses into the bulk and forms alloys. Nous étudions par spectroscopie d'électrons Auger (SEA), spectroscopie de pertes d'énergies d'électrons lents (SPEEL) et diffraction d'électrons lents (DEL), l'adsorption de l'or sur des surfaces (100) de couches de GaSb obtenues au laboratoire par épitaxie par jets moléculaires (EJM) sur des substrats de GaSb, puis transférées pour dépôt et étude dans l'enceinte à ultravvide de dépôt métallique par l'intermédiaire d'un sas sous ultravide. Les mesures sont effectuées avant et après dépôts d'or (6 × 10^{13} 1,8 × 10^{16} atomes cm^{-2}) réalisés sur un substrat à la température ambiante ou refroidi à 220 K. Les échantillons sont ensuite étudiés pendant lerecuit jusqu'à 520 K. Les résultats obtenues montrent que l'or, dans un premier temps s'adsorbe sur la surface, puis, lorsque le dépôt augmente, diffuse dans le volume du matériau. cette diffusion, qui peut s'acompagner de la formation d'alliages, n'est cependant notable dans la gamme de température utilis

  4. Item Parameter Estimation via Marginal Maximum Likelihood and an EM Algorithm: A Didactic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Bock and Aitkin Marginal Maximum Likelihood/EM (MML/EM) approach to item parameter estimation is an alternative to the classical joint maximum likelihood procedure of item response theory. This paper provides the essential mathematical details of a MML/EM solution and shows its use in obtaining consistent item parameter estimates. (TJH)

  5. An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dynamic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...2006- 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W91 2HQ-06-C-0050...239.18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  6. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  7. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  8. Noise properties of the EM algorithm: II. Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D W; Tsui, B M; Barrett, H H

    1994-05-01

    In an earlier paper we derived a theoretical formulation for estimating the statistical properties of images reconstructed using the iterative ML-EM algorithm. To gain insight into this complex problem, two levels of approximation were considered in the theory. These techniques revealed the dependence of the variance and covariance of the reconstructed image noise on the source distribution, imaging system transfer function, and iteration number. In this paper a Monte Carlo approach was taken to study the noise properties of the ML-EM algorithm and to test the predictions of the theory. The study also served to evaluate the approximations used in the theory. Simulated data from phantoms were used in the Monte Carlo experiments. The ML-EM statistical properties were calculated from sample averages of a large number of images with different noise realizations. The agreement between the more exact form of the theoretical formulation and the Monte Carlo formulation was better than 10% in most cases examined, and for many situations the agreement was within the expected error of the Monte Carlo experiments. Results from the studies provide valuable information about the noise characteristics of ML-EM reconstructed images. Furthermore, the studies demonstrate the power of the theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches for investigating noise properties of statistical reconstruction algorithms.

  9. EMS-generated Rhizoctonia resistance in an adapted wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the first genetic resistance in wheat to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae, the causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and pre-emergence damping-off. Rhizoctonia resistance was generated in the spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Resistant plants, named Scarlet-Rz1, d...

  10. Functionalized Anatomical Models for EM-Neuron Interaction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in-vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions. PMID:27224508

  11. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a method’s success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  12. Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

  13. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  14. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  15. DOE-EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Rimando, Rodrigo; Watts, Alex; Bobbitt, John; McLaughlin, Doug; Quigley, Morgan; Gladwell, Scott; McLoughlin, Mike; Kinnamon, Tony; Garcia, Joe; Ansari, Alex; Voyles, Richard; Chambers, David; Pryor, Mitch; Workman, Theresa; Mehling, Joshua; Browning, Kimberly; Deuel, Jake; Profitt, Bryan; Reibold, Marty

    2016-10-19

    During the week of August 22nd, 2016, over 150 technologists, stakeholders, and Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management workers, met at DOE’s Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Ohio, for the EM Science of Safety Robotics Challenge.

  16. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  17. High school allied health students and their exposure to the profession of EMS.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Joshua B; Hubble, Michael W

    2012-06-01

    Ensuring a stable Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce is a growing concern, and effective recruiting strategies are needed to expose young adults to the EMS profession. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of high school allied health students to EMS as a career option, as well as measure their attitudes and beliefs about the EMS profession. Hypothesis Few high school allied health students are exposed to EMS educational and career opportunities. A convenience sample of allied health students in a rural high school system was surveyed about exposure to EMS, career intentions, factors impacting career decisions, and attitudes and beliefs about EMS. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and intention to pursue an EMS career was modeled using logistic regression. Of 171 students enrolled in allied health courses across six high schools, 135 (78.9%) agreed to participate; 85.2% were female. Almost all (92.6%) respondents intended to pursue a health career, but only 43.0% reported that their allied health course exposed them to EMS as a profession. Few participants (37.7%) were knowledgeable about EMS associate degree or baccalaureate degree (27.4%) programs. Only 20.7% of the respondents intended to pursue EMS as a career, although 46.0% wanted to learn more about the profession. Most (68.2%) students expressed interest in an emergency medical technician (EMT) course if one were offered, and 80.0% were interested in a ride-along program. Independent predictors of pursuing an EMS career included exposure to EMS outside of high school (OR = 7.4, 95% CI = 1.7-30.4); media influence on career choice (OR = 9.6, 95% CI = 1.8-50.1); and the belief that EMS was mentally challenging (OR = 15.9, 95% CI = 1.1-216.6). Negative predictors included the beliefs that an EMS career was stimulating (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.00-0.53) and physically challenging (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.00-0.63); as well as prior exposure to an EMS job advertisement (OR = 0.14, 0

  18. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    PubMed

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  19. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  20. Correlates of suicidality in firefighter/EMS personnel.

    PubMed

    Martin, Colleen E; Tran, Jana K; Buser, Sam J

    2017-01-15

    Firefighter and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel experience higher rates of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts than the general population and other protective service professions. Several correlates of suicidality (alcohol use, depression, posttraumatic stress) have been identified in the literature as applicable to firefighter/EMS populations; however, few studies to date have examined the specific correlates of suicidality (lifetime suicidal ideation and/or attempts) in a firefighter/EMS sample. Participants (N=3036) from a large, urban fire department completed demographic and self-report measures of alcohol dependence, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts. Participants in this sample performed both firefighter and EMS duties, were predominately male (97%), White (61.6%), and 25-34 years old (32.1%). Through hierarchical linear regressions, depression (β=.22, p<.05) and PTSD symptom severity (β=.21, p<.05) were significantly associated with lifetime suicidal ideation (R(2) =17.5). Depression (β=.15, p<.001), and PTSD symptom severity (β=.07, p<.01) were significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts (R(2)=5.1). Several limitations are addressed in the current study. The survey was a self-report pre-existing dataset and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts were measured using sum scores. Additionally, the disproportionately large sample of males and large, urban setting, may not generalize to female firefighters and members of rural community fire departments. The current study highlights the importance of targeting depression and PTSD symptom severity in efforts to reduce suicidality in firefighter/EMS personnel. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. ATTRACT-EM: A New Method for the Computational Assembly of Large Molecular Machines Using Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Many of the most important functions in the cell are carried out by proteins organized in large molecular machines. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly being used to obtain low resolution density maps of these large assemblies. A new method, ATTRACT-EM, for the computational assembly of molecular assemblies from their components has been developed. Based on concepts from the protein-protein docking field, it utilizes cryo-EM density maps to assemble molecular subunits at near atomic detail, starting from millions of initial subunit configurations. The search efficiency was further enhanced by recombining partial solutions, the inclusion of symmetry information, and refinement using a molecular force field. The approach was tested on the GroES-GroEL system, using an experimental cryo-EM map at 23.5 Å resolution, and on several smaller complexes. Inclusion of experimental information on the symmetry of the systems and the application of a new gradient vector matching algorithm allowed the efficient identification of docked assemblies in close agreement with experiment. Application to the GroES-GroEL complex resulted in a top ranked model with a deviation of 4.6 Å (and a 2.8 Å model within the top 10) from the GroES-GroEL crystal structure, a significant improvement over existing methods. PMID:23251350

  2. DeepEM3D: approaching human-level performance on 3D anisotropic EM image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Wu, Bian; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-08-15

    Progress in 3D electron microscopy (EM) imaging has greatly facilitated neuroscience research in high-throughput data acquisition. Correspondingly, high-throughput automated image analysis methods are necessary to work on par with the speed of data being produced. One such example is the need for automated EM image segmentation for neurite reconstruction. However, the efficiency and reliability of current methods are still lagging far behind human performance. Here, we propose DeepEM3D, a deep learning method for segmenting 3D anisotropic brain electron microscopy images. In this method, the deep learning model can efficiently build feature representation and incorporate sufficient multi-scale contextual information. We propose employing a combination of novel boundary map generation methods with optimized model ensembles to address the inherent challenges of segmenting anisotropic images. We evaluated our method by participating in the 3D segmentation of neurites in EM images (SNEMI3D) challenge. Our submission is ranked #1 on the current leaderboard as of Oct 15, 2016. More importantly, our result was very close to human-level performance in terms of the challenge evaluation metric: namely, a Rand error of 0.06015 versus the human value of 0.05998. The code is available at https://github.com/divelab/deepem3d/. sji@eecs.wsu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  4. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  5. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  6. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress.

  7. Nonlinear Smoothing and the EM Algorithm for Positive Integral Equations of the First Kind

    SciTech Connect

    Eggermont, P. P. B.

    1999-01-15

    We study a modification of the EMS algorithm in which each step of the EMS algorithm is preceded by a nonlinear smoothing step of the form Nf-exp(S*log f) , where S is the smoothing operator of the EMS algorithm. In the context of positive integral equations (a la positron emission tomography) the resulting algorithm is related to a convex minimization problem which always admits a unique smooth solution, in contrast to the unmodified maximum likelihood setup. The new algorithm has slightly stronger monotonicity properties than the original EM algorithm. This suggests that the modified EMS algorithm is actually an EM algorithm for the modified problem. The existence of a smooth solution to the modified maximum likelihood problem and the monotonicity together imply the strong convergence of the new algorithm. We also present some simulation results for the integral equation of stereology, which suggests that the new algorithm behaves roughly like the EMS algorithm.

  8. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  9. An economic toolkit for identifying the cost of emergency medical services (EMS) systems: detailed methodology of the EMS Cost Analysis Project (EMSCAP).

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Garrison, Herbert G; Nichol, Graham; Maio, Ronald F; Lookman, Hunaid A; Sheahan, William D; Franz, Timothy R; Austad, James D; Ginster, Aaron M; Spaite, Daniel W

    2012-02-01

    Calculating the cost of an emergency medical services (EMS) system using a standardized method is important for determining the value of EMS. This article describes the development of a methodology for calculating the cost of an EMS system to its community. This includes a tool for calculating the cost of EMS (the "cost workbook") and detailed directions for determining cost (the "cost guide"). The 12-step process that was developed is consistent with current theories of health economics, applicable to prehospital care, flexible enough to be used in varying sizes and types of EMS systems, and comprehensive enough to provide meaningful conclusions. It was developed by an expert panel (the EMS Cost Analysis Project [EMSCAP] investigator team) in an iterative process that included pilot testing the process in three diverse communities. The iterative process allowed ongoing modification of the toolkit during the development phase, based upon direct, practical, ongoing interaction with the EMS systems that were using the toolkit. The resulting methodology estimates EMS system costs within a user-defined community, allowing either the number of patients treated or the estimated number of lives saved by EMS to be assessed in light of the cost of those efforts. Much controversy exists about the cost of EMS and whether the resources spent for this purpose are justified. However, the existence of a validated toolkit that provides a standardized process will allow meaningful assessments and comparisons to be made and will supply objective information to inform EMS and community officials who are tasked with determining the utilization of scarce societal resources.

  10. Compassionate Options for Pediatric EMS (COPE): Addressing Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Aaron W; Sutton, Erica R H; Barbee, Anita P; McClure, Beth; Bohnert, Carrie; Forest, Richard; Taillac, Peter; Fallat, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Each year, 16,000 children suffer cardiopulmonary arrest, and in one urban study, 2% of pediatric EMS calls were attributed to pediatric arrests. This indicates a need for enhanced educational options for prehospital providers that address how to communicate to families in these difficult situations. In response, our team developed a cellular phone digital application (app) designed to assist EMS providers in self-debriefing these events, thereby improving their communication skills. The goal of this study was to pilot the app using a simulation-based investigative methodology. Video and didactic app content was generated using themes developed from a series of EMS focus groups and evaluated using volunteer EMS providers assessed during two identical nonaccidental trauma simulations. Intervention groups interacted with the app as a team between assessments, and control groups debriefed during that period as they normally would. Communication performance and gap analyses were measured using the Gap-Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. A total of 148 subjects divided into 38 subject groups (18 intervention groups and 20 control groups) were assessed. Comparison of initial intervention group and control group scores showed no statistically significant difference in performance (2.9/5 vs. 3.0/5; p = 0.33). Comparisons made during the second assessment revealed a statistically significant improvement in the intervention group scores, with a moderate to large effect size (3.1/5 control vs. 4.0/5 intervention; p < 0.001, r = 0.69, absolute value). Gap analysis data showed a similar pattern, with gaps of -0.6 and -0.5 (values suggesting team self-over-appraisal of communication abilities) present in both control and intervention groups (p = 0.515) at the initial assessment. This gap persisted in the control group at the time of the second assessment (-0.8), but was significantly reduced (0.04) in the intervention group (p = 0.013, r = 0.41, absolute value

  11. Portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system.

    PubMed

    Risavi, Brian L; Sabotchick, K J; Heile, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Portable suction units used by EMS personnel are utilized infrequently and often are powered by batteries. Lack of use and inspection often results in failure of the device when it is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system and to identify the reasons for failures. A convenience sample was obtained through both random inspections by the staff of a regional EMS council and data from twice monthly checks reported by respective EMS agencies following a standard protocol for each unit. A standard protocol was used, including checking the vacuum level on each suction unit and inspecting the tubing, canister, and battery. Each inspector assessed whether the unit was capable of achieving 300 mmHg of suction within four seconds. Also, the unit was inspected for any signs of misalignment or dry rot of the gasket, kinking of suction hose, damage to the suction canister, weak/dead battery, or defective pump. Findings were recorded. Over a two-year period, 9,631 suction unit inspections were completed. There were 233 failures (2.4%) noted. The majority (126, 54.1%) were due to battery failure. Seventy-three units failed due to other reasons (not recorded, switch failure, battery not seated). Ten inspections failed due to incorrect assembly. Nineteen inspections failed due to defects with the suction canister. Five inspections failed due to kinked/disconnected suction tubing. Only a relatively small percentage of inspections of suction units revealed failures (4.6% Advanced Life Support, 8.6% Basic Life Support) using the above-stated criteria. However, given the importance of airway management and potential complications associated with airway compromise, including aspiration pneumonia, hypoxia, and hemodynamic instability, this is of concern relative to the morbidity and mortality that could be related to airway failure. Due to the relative infrequency of use and the nature of portable suction units

  12. Etude numérique et expérimentale de l'evaporation d'une ou plusieurs gouttes de mélange de carburants dans un écoulement chauffé

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daïf, A.; Ali Chérif, A.; Bresson, J.; Sarh, B.

    1995-10-01

    The vaporization of one or two multi-component fuel droplets in hot air-stream is presented. A thermal wind tunnel with experimental channel has been designed to develop an experimental process. Firstly, the comparison between experimental results and numerical data is presented for the case of an isolated multi-component droplet. The numerical method is based on the resolution of heat and mass transfer equations between the droplet and the gas stream. This model includes the effect of Stephan flow, the effect of variable thermophysical properties of the components, and the non-unitary Lewis number in the gas film. The experimental results show the micro-explosion phenomenon observed in the liquid phase of multi-component droplet at low temperature. The experimental case of two pure or multi-component droplets in interaction is also presented. On présente un article de synthèse sur l'évaporation d'une ou deux gouttes de carburants à plusieurs composants dans un écoulement d'air chaud. Un dispositif expérimental constitué d'une soufflerie thermique, avec veine d'expérimentation, est réalisé pour permettre cette étude. Pour le cas d'une goutte isolée, une comparaison expérience-calcul est entreprise. Le principe de la méthode numerique consiste en la résolution des équations de transfert de masse et de chaleur entre la goutte et l'écoulement. Ce modèle prend en compte les effets de l'écoulement de Stephan, les variations des propriétés thermophysiques des composants dans les deux phases et la valeur du nombre de Lewis différente de l'unité dans le film de vapeur. Outre l'analyse plus approfondie qu'apporte la confrontation entre le calcul et l'expérience, les résultats expérimentaux montrent le phénomène de micro-explosion observé à l'intérieur de la goutte liquide. Le cas expérimental de deux gouttes en interaction est abordé qu'il s'agisse de gouttes de carburant pur ou de mélange.

  13. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide.

  14. Orion EM-1 Heat Shield Offload, Transport, and Lift

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    Technicians with Jacobs on the Test and Operations Support Contract have positioned a platform close to NASA’s Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility, managed and operated by Space Florida, at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, for offloading of the shipping container carrying the Orion heat shield for Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). The heat shield will be offloaded and transported to the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay for processing. The heat shield arrived from Lockheed Martin’s manufacturing facility near Denver. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, an uncrewed test flight, in 2018.

  15. Event reconstruction in NEXT using the ML-EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón, A.; Ferrario, P.; Izmaylov, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The NEXT collaboration aims to find the neutrinoless double beta decay in 136Xe. The rareness of this decay demands an exceptional background rejection. This can be obtained with an excellent energy resolution, which has been already demonstrated in the NEXT prototypes. In addition to this, the ββ 0 ν decay in gas produces a characteristic topological signal which could be an extremely useful extra handle to avoid background events. The need for a satisfactory topology reconstruction has led the NEXT Collaboration to implement the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization method (ML-EM) in the data processing scheme. ML-EM is a generic iterative algorithm for many kinds of inverse problems. Although this method is well known in medical imaging and has been used widely in Positron Emission Tomography, it has never been applied to a time projection chamber. First results and studies of the performance of the method will be presented in this poster.

  16. EM susceptibility studies and measurements on electro explosive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, G. K.; Mukherjee, M.

    Electroexplosive devices (EEDs) are susceptible to stray electromagnetic (EM) fields near high-power communications and radar transmitters. Experiments have been carried out to measure the exact susceptibility of EED resistive squibs in pulsed and continuous EM environments, respectively. The susceptibility test procedure consisted of individual measurements of direct current sensitivity (mA); impulse sensitivity; RF impedance measurements; and safety margin calculations. A stray energy monitor was used to evaluate the safe performance of a hybrid weapons system. It is found that the RF sensitivity of the squib was influenced by the transmission characteristics of the transmission line connected to it. RF absorption peaks were observed above the EED sensitivity threshold of 120 MHz. Methods of EMI control are discussed, including: low-pass pin filters; lossy line filters for all dc power line interconnections; and twisting and shielding of the wires.

  17. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  18. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  19. A constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    We propose a constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis (PCA) using a coupled probability model derived from single-standard factor analysis models with isotropic noise structure. The single probabilistic PCA, especially for the case where there is no noise, can find only a vector set that is a linear superposition of principal components and requires postprocessing, such as diagonalization of symmetric matrices. By contrast, the proposed algorithm finds the actual principal components, which are sorted in descending order of eigenvalue size and require no additional calculation or postprocessing. The method is easily applied to kernel PCA. It is also shown that the new EM algorithm is derived from a generalized least-squares formulation.

  20. Observação do abrilhantamento de limbo solar e de estruturas filamentares em 48 ghz utilizando a técnica de regularização adaptativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, W. R. S.; Mascarenhas, N.; Costa, J. E. R.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    O radiotelescópio do Itapetinga tem sido utilizado em campanhas de observações de explosões solares gerando um grande número de mapas diários em 48 GHz como sub-produto destas observações. A resolução espacial do telescópio de 14m do Itapetinga nesta freqüência é de aproximadamente dois minutos de arco. Estruturas de interesse para análise da atmosfera solar quiescente tais como os filamentos e o anel de abrilhantamento do limbo são de dimensão angular moderada da ordem ou ligeiramente menores que a resolução do telescópio. É conhecido que a convolução da função de espalhamento do telescópio, PSF (padrão de ganho do feixe) borra as estruturas de dimensão angular abaixo do HPBW (largura a meia potência do feixe) e portanto é comum a busca por técnicas de restauração que eliminem pelo menos em parte este borramento. Estudamos a restauração destas radioimagens usando a técnica de regularização adaptativa e os resultados ressaltam estas estruturas espaciais de pequeno contraste. O algoritmo da regularização adaptativa faz uso de k imagens, chamadas protótipos, obtidas através da variação de parâmetros de um filtro de regularização. Para controle da qualidade da restauração utilizamos uma imagem de alta resolução espacial obtida na linha H-a e a PSF do Itapetinga para borrá-la. Pequenos desvios, entre a PSF utilizada para o borramento e a PSF utilizada na restauração, produziram alguns desvios notáveis na imagem restaurada porém a adição de ruído nas simulações de restauração foram mais influentes no cálculo da rugosidade da imagem e portanto mais limitante para a restauração. Apresentamos como nosso primeiro resultado uma imagem em 48 GHz com a presença clara do abrilhantamento de limbo que não estava evidente na imagem original e traços de estruturas filamentares, porém ainda sem grande evidência.

  1. Correlação de longo alcance em sistemas binários de raios-x usando remoção de flutuações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Moret, M. A.; Zebende, G. F.; Nogueira, E., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é proposta uma metodologia de analise de series temporais de fontes astrofísicas, baseada no método proposto por Peng et al. (1994) e Liu et al. (1999), o qual consiste na idéia de que uma série temporal correlacionada pode ser mapeada por um processo de busca de auto-similaridades em diversas escalas de tempo n. Removendo as eventuais tendências e integrando o sinal observado, é obtida uma medida do desvio médio quadrático das flutuações do sinal integrado F(n)~na, onde a representa o fator de escala associado com a auto-similaridade da correlação de longo alcance do sinal. Baseado nos valores obtidos de a, é possível distinguir entre os casos de sinais não-correlacionados, tipo ruído branco (a = 0,5), sinal anti-persistentes (a < 0,5) e sinal persistente (a > 0,5). Usando esta metodologia, foram analisadas 129 curvas de luz de sistemas binários de raios-X, provenientes do banco de dados públicos de observações feitas pelo instrumento All Sky Monitor, a bordo do satélite Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (ASM-RXTE). Foram identificadas a presença de a'0,5 em mais de 90% dos sistemas estudados, implicando em dizer que as flutuações de intensidade observadas apresentam correlação de auto-similaridade, sem entretanto, indícios de apresentarem uma escala de tempo característica das flutuações de intensidade. Sistemas onde são observadas erupções (flares), apresentam sistematicamente a > 0,5, característica esta, possivelmente associada com persistência das flutuações de densidade de disco ou taxa de acréscimo de massa. Os sistemas com curvas de luz onde nao são observadas as erupções apresentam uma distribuição normal centrada em a~0,62+/-0,10. Referências ¾ Peng, C.-K., Buldyrev, S.V., Havlin, S., Simons, M., Stanley, H.E., e Goldberg, A.L., Phys. Rev. E, (49), 1685 (1994). ¾ Liu, Y., Gopikrishnan, P., Cizeau, P., Meyer, M., Peng,C.-K., e Stanley, H.E., Phys. Rev. E, (60), 1390 (1999).

  2. Hybrid polymer composite membrane for an electromagnetic (EM) valveless micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Muzalifah Mohd; Yunas, Jumril; Bais, Badariah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a hybrid membrane used as an actuator in an electromagnetically driven valveless micropump developed using MEMS processes. The membrane structure consists of the combination of a magnetic polymer composite membrane and an attached bulk permanent magnet which is expected to have a compact structure and a strong magnetic force with maintained membrane flexibility. A soft polymeric material made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is initially mixed with neodymium magnetic particles (NdFeB) to form a magnetic polymer composite membrane. The membrane is then bonded with the PDMS based microfluidic part, developed using soft lithography process. The developed micropump was tested in terms of the actuator membrane deflection capability and the fluidic flow of the injected fluid sample through the microfluidic channel. The experimental results show that the magnetic composite actuator membrane with an attached bulk permanent magnet is capable of producing a maximum membrane deflection of up to 106 µm. The functionality test of the electromagnetic (EM) actuator for fluid pumping purposes was done by supplying an AC voltage with various amplitudes, signal waves and frequencies. A wide range of sample injection rates from a few µl min-1 to tens of nl min-1 was achieved with a maximum flow rate of 6.6 µl min-1. The injection flow rate of the EM micropump can be controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and frequency supplied to the EM coil, to control the membrane deflection in the pump chamber. The designed valveless EM micropump has a very high potential to enhance the drug delivery system capability in biomedical applications.

  3. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  4. EMS mutagenesis in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-04-16

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant.

  5. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  6. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  7. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules.

  8. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  9. Night Vision Goggles in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    participated in a flight test program to assess the use of NVG’s in EMS operations. Information produced by other government agencies with extensive NVG...recommendations of this document. information produced by other government agencies, with extensive experience with NVGs, was reviewed for use in this...as possible without touching eyelashes or spectacles (see figure 35). 5. Evaluate the picture. The NVG should be correctly aligned. There should be no

  10. Color a bright energy picture with EMS controls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    After 80 years in the crayon-manufacturing business, Binney and Smith found that more than 50% of their staggering annual utility costs were being generated by non-production loads. To curtail waste, they installed an expandable EMS which controls energy in the company's two separate, multi-building facilities from one central location. The system selected was an AI2100/MAX System manufactured by American Auto-Matrix, Export, PA.

  11. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  12. Modeling to Optimize Hospital Evacuation Planning in EMS Systems.

    PubMed

    Bish, Douglas R; Tarhini, Hussein; Amara, Roel; Zoraster, Richard; Bosson, Nichole; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    To develop optimal hospital evacuation plans within a large urban EMS system using a novel evacuation planning model and a realistic hospital evacuation scenario, and to illustrate the ways in which a decision support model may be useful in evacuation planning. An optimization model was used to produce detailed evacuation plans given the number and type of patients in the evacuating hospital, resource levels (teams to move patients, vehicles, and beds at other hospitals), and evacuation rules. Optimal evacuation plans under various resource levels and rules were developed and high-level metrics were calculated, including evacuation duration and the utilization of resources. Using this model we were able to determine the limiting resources and demonstrate how strategically augmenting the resource levels can improve the performance of the evacuation plan. The model allowed the planner to test various evacuation conditions and resource levels to demonstrate the effect on performance of the evacuation plan. We present a hospital evacuation planning analysis for a hospital in a large urban EMS system using an optimization model. This model can be used by EMS administrators and medical directors to guide planning decisions and provide a better understanding of various resource allocation decisions and rules that govern a hospital evacuation.

  13. Essential ethics for EMS: cardinal virtues and core principles.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond Logan

    2002-11-01

    Dutiful attention to virtue, teamwork, beneficence, justice, and respect for patient autonomy provides a coherent approach to addressing many ethical dilemmas in the out-of-hospital setting. Most of the great risks of EMS--abandonment, competence, and safe-driving skills--lie at the ethike or character of those who ply the prehospital art. Proactively fostering the personal and professional virtue of team members may be a kind of moral vaccination against the ethical pitfalls inherent in emergency medical service provision. Future training, education, disaster preparedness drills, and related exercises must include opportunities for character and team building before optimal performance and accountability can be assured. In the steady, almost glacial, maturation of the specialty of EMS medicine, truly the character of those who serve in the "line of fire" of evaluation, management, and transport in the out-of-hospital arena must be girded with more than the armor and shields of technology. Since September 11, 2001, it has become increasingly clear that EMS workers must strengthen their ability to bear the "slings and arrows of outrageous fortune," armed with swords of discipline, virtue, and character to provide the breadth of care that only a well orchestrated team can deliver. Ultimately, humans perform best when they share themselves unselfconsciously, surrendering to an enterprise and cause far greater than themselves. Our citizens, patients, and heroic colleagues deserve no less.

  14. Marine EM: The Past, The Present, and The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, S.

    2016-12-01

    The high cost of deepwater exploration motivated the development of commercial marine magnetotelluric (MT) exploration in 1995, but it wasn't until marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods burst upon the industry scene with the formation of three new contractors in 2002 that things got really exciting. Now the bubble has burst and the excitement has diminished, but marine EM remains an important tool for offshore exploration. Early mistakes were made as a result of poor instrumentation and a lack of good interpretation tools - unlike seismics, EM relies heavily on inversion to produce useful results - but both equipment and inversion codes have improved significantly. Still, there are mistakes that can be made. Rock anisotropy and seawater conductivity have to be handled appropriately. A strong galvanic response means that there is a resistivity/thickness ambiguity when imaging reservoirs, but the inductive nature of the data means that multi-frequency inversions are very much better than using single frequencies. Resolution will never be as good as for seismic methods, but is much better than for potential field methods and conductivity may often be a more diagnostic property than acoustic impedance. EM images resistivity, not hydrocarbon content, and false positives occasionally occur, but false negatives are rare. That is, without a CSEM signature there is little chance of discovering economical hydrocarbons. This should bode well for the future of the method.

  15. Forward Genetics by Sequencing EMS Variation-Induced Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Addo-Quaye, Charles; Buescher, Elizabeth; Best, Norman; Chaikam, Vijay; Baxter, Ivan; Dilkes, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to leverage novel sequencing techniques for cloning genes in eukaryotic organisms with complex genomes, the false positive rate of variant discovery must be controlled for by experimental design and informatics. We sequenced five lines from three pedigrees of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Sorghum bicolor, including a pedigree segregating a recessive dwarf mutant. Comparing the sequences of the lines, we were able to identify and eliminate error-prone positions. One genomic region contained EMS mutant alleles in dwarfs that were homozygous reference sequences in wild-type siblings and heterozygous in segregating families. This region contained a single nonsynonymous change that cosegregated with dwarfism in a validation population and caused a premature stop codon in the Sorghum ortholog encoding the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene oxidase. Application of exogenous GA rescued the mutant phenotype. Our method for mapping did not require outcrossing and introduced no segregation variance. This enables work when line crossing is complicated by life history, permitting gene discovery outside of genetic models. This inverts the historical approach of first using recombination to define a locus and then sequencing genes. Our formally identical approach first sequences all the genes and then seeks cosegregation with the trait. Mutagenized lines lacking obvious phenotypic alterations are available for an extension of this approach: mapping with a known marker set in a line that is phenotypically identical to starting material for EMS mutant generation. PMID:28040779

  16. A study on characteristics of EM radiation from stripline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayano, Yoshiki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, effective methods for predicting and suppressing electromagnetic interference over a broad band are required. In this paper, we focus on the prediction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from a stripline structure with a ground thin wire by an equivalent circuit model. First, frequency responses of common-mode (CM) current on the printed circuit board and EM radiation are studied with finite difference time domain modeling. Secondly, an equivalent circuit model for predicting CM current is proposed. The equivalent circuit model for prediction is based on the concepts of CM antenna impedance, distributed constant circuit, and electric coupling between the power plane and the thin ground wire. Good agreement between the predicted and full-wave analysis results indicates the validity of the proposed equivalent circuit model. The frequency response of EM radiation from the stripline structure can be identified using our proposed model. In addition, the equivalent circuit model provides enough flexibility for different geometric parameters and can be used to develop physical insights and design guidelines.

  17. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  18. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S. N.; Wilson, D.

    2005-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano near Grenada is the most active volcanic center in the Lesser Antilles arc. Multibeam surveys of the volcano by NOAA in 2002 revealed an arcuate fault scarp east of the active cone, suggesting flank collapse. More extensive NOAA surveys in 2003 demonstrated the presence of an associated debris avalanche deposit, judging from their surface morphologic expression on the sea floor, extending at least 15 km and possibly as much as 30 km from the volcano, into the Grenada Basin to the west. Seismic air-gun profiles of the region show that these are lobate deposits, that range in thickness from tens to hundreds of meters. The debris avalanche deposit is contained within two marginal levees, that extend symmetrically from the volcano to the west. A conservative estimate of the volume of the smaller debris avalanche deposit is about 10 km3. Age dating of the deposits and the flank failure events is in progress, by analysis of gravity cores collected during the 2003 survey. Reconstruction of the pre-collapse volcanic edifice suggests that the ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano might have been at or above sea level. Kick'em Jenny is dominantly supplied by basalt to basaltic andesite magmas, that are extruded now as submarine pillow lavas and domes or ejected as tephra in relatively minor phreatomagmatic explosions. Geochemical evolution of this volcano has not, however, reached the stage of generation of volatile-rich silicic magmas that might form highly explosive eruptions.

  19. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  20. Bayesian Modeling of Biomolecular Assemblies with Cryo-EM Maps

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A growing array of experimental techniques allows us to characterize the three-dimensional structure of large biological assemblies at increasingly higher resolution. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance in solution, new structure determination methods such cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), crosslinking/mass spectrometry and solid-state NMR have emerged. Often it is not sufficient to use a single experimental method, but complementary data need to be collected by using multiple techniques. The integration of all datasets can only be achieved by computational means. This article describes Inferential structure determination, a Bayesian approach to integrative modeling of biomolecular complexes with hybrid structural data. I will introduce probabilistic models for cryo-EM maps and outline Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling model structures from the posterior distribution. I will focus on rigid and flexible modeling with cryo-EM data and discuss some of the computational challenges of Bayesian inference in the context of biomolecular modeling. PMID:28382301

  1. Retrospectively exploring the importance of items in the decision to leave the emergency medical services (EMS) profession and their relationships to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and likelihood of returning to EMS.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    An exit survey was returned by a sample of 127 respondents in fully compensated positions who left the EMS profession, most within 12 months prior to filling out the exit survey. A very high percentage continued to work after leaving EMS. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each of 17 items in affecting their decision to leave EMS. A higher than anticipated response to a "not applicable" response choice affected the usability of 8 of these items. Nine of the 17 items had at least 65 useable responses and were used for further analysis. Within these 9, stress/burnout and lack of job challenges had the highest importance in affecting the decision to leave EMS, while desire for better pay and benefits had the lowest importance. Desire for career change was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and negatively related to likelihood of returning to EMS. Stress/burnout was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS. Study limitations and future research issues are briefly discussed.

  2. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  3. Hernie inguinale ou vésicale ?

    PubMed Central

    El Anzaoui, Jihad; El Harrech, Y.; Abbaka, N.; Touiti, D.; Lahkim, M.; Fihri, J. Fassi; Bakzaza, W.; Majdane, M.; Achour, A.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Si la hernie inguinale est une pathologie fréquente en chirurgie digestive, elle touche rarement la vessie. La hernie vésicale ne se manifeste généralement par aucun signe particulier, et son diagnostic est le plus souvent peropératoire, parfois même postopératoire lors de l’apparition de complications. Le traitement est chirurgical ; il consiste à réintégrer la partie herniée et à réaliser une pariétorraphie. Le présent article fait état de l’observation médicale d’un patient présentant une hernie vésicale de découverte peropératoire. PMID:24475009

  4. Culture ou Intercultures (Culture or Intercultural).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ross

    1996-01-01

    While planet Earth endeavors to transmit information instantaneously, cultural misunderstanding interferes with communication more than any language barrier. The article urges teachers of French to be cognizant of their role as cultural mediators. (Author/CK)

  5. Investigation of Electromagnetic Signatures of a FPGA Using an APREL EM-ISIGHT System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM THESIS...States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-D-035 INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM THESIS Presented...ENV-MS-15-D-035 INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF A FPGA USING AN APREL EM-ISIGHT SYSTEM Karynn A. Sutherlin, Civilian, DAF

  6. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  7. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas using Microstructure EM APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Research and Technology). Our engineers have updated the EM-APEX float software and prepared test floats . Monsoon wind forcing, and thereby upper ocean...Microstructure EM-APEX Floats Ren-Chieh Lien Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington 98105...modulation of sea surface temperature and air–sea fluxes. APPROACH Two microstructure EM-APEX floats will be deployed in Indonesian Seas. The

  8. EM absorption reduction in wireless mobile antenna using printed paper-based metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Touhidul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin; Cho, Mengu; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a printed negative index metamaterial for electromagnetic (EM) absorption reduction in portable wireless antenna. The perceptible novelty exhibited in this paper is that EM absorption reduction toward the human head with paper-based metamaterial attachment. This research has been performed using human head phantom integrated in the commercially available CST Microwave Studio software package. The EM absorption has been reduced by 13.2 and 6% at 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively.

  9. An EM-IMM based abrupt change detector for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Vijayaraghavan; Leung, Henry

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an expectation maximization (EM) trained interacting multiple model (IMM) abrupt change detector for land mine detection applications. The proposed EM algorithm learns the parameters of the different models in real time without requiring a priori information on either the number of models or the model parameters. Using the real ground penetrating radar (GPR) data, the learning performance of the EM-IMM technique is analyzed and commented upon. Numerical receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and detected images indicate that the proposed EM-IMM based abrupt change detector has a better detection and imaging performance than the conventional Kalman filter for land mine detection applications.

  10. USMC’s Environmental Management Portal for EMS Implementation Service-wide Rollout and Future Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    at MCB Camp Lejeune in 2004 – EMS implementation efforts resulted in the need for a web -based system for: communicating with EMS stakeholders Up AND...Si:e m Edit Page EM flortal HOMC Fnwnnm1~nt. Welcome to the E~l : xecJtive Order (:O) 13148, m~lemented at all aplicable Le9dership h Ewironmnt91...sharing environmental information • managing EMS-related data and documentation – Additional linkage to other USMC web -based applications – Migration to

  11. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  12. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  13. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  14. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  16. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  17. The HOME Team: Evaluating the Effect of an EMS-based Outreach Team to Decrease the Frequency of 911 Use Among High Utilizers of EMS.

    PubMed

    Tangherlini, Niels; Villar, Julian; Brown, John; Rodriguez, Robert M; Yeh, Clement; Friedman, Benjamin T; Wada, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Fire Department's (SFFD; San Francisco, California USA) Homeless Outreach and Medical Emergency (HOME) Team is the United States' first Emergency Medical Services (EMS)-based outreach effort using a specially trained paramedic to redirect frequent users of EMS to other types of services. The effectiveness of this program at reducing repeat use of emergency services during the first seven months of the team's existence was examined. A retrospective analysis of EMS use frequency and demographic characteristics of frequent users was conducted. Clients that used emergency services at least four times per month from March 2004 through May 2005 were contacted for intervention. Patterns for each frequent user before and after intervention were analyzed. Changes in EMS use during the 15-month study interval was the primary outcome measurement. A total of 59 clients were included. The target population had a median age of 55.1 years and was 68% male. Additionally, 38.0% of the target population was homeless, 43.4% had no primary care, 88.9% had a substance abuse disorder at time of contact, and 83.0% had a history of psychiatric disorder. The HOME Team undertook 320 distinct contacts with 65 frequent users during the study period. The average EMS use prior to HOME Team contact was 18.72 responses per month (SD=19.40), and after the first contact with the HOME Team, use dropped to 8.61 (SD=10.84), P<.001. Frequent users of EMS suffer from disproportionate comorbidities, particularly substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This population responds well to the intervention of a specially trained paramedic as measured by EMS usage. Tangherlini N , Villar J , Brown J , Rodriguez RM , Yeh C , Friedman BT , Wada P . The HOME Team: evaluating the effect of an EMS-based outreach team to decrease the frequency of 911 use among high utilizers of EMS. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):603-607.

  18. Utilisation de la post-décharge d'un plasma micro-ondes d'air ou d'azote pour valoriser le méthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumghar, A.; Legrand, J. C.; Diamy, A. M.; Turillon, N.; Ben-Aïm, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    Valorization of methane is obtained by means of the reaction with a plasma. The plasma is produced in a quartz tube (30 mm in diameter) crossing a wave guide. The energy is supplied by a generator (Thomson CSF, 2 450 MHz, 15 to 1 500 W). Directional couplers followed by an attenuator and thermistor detectors enable forward Pi_i and reflected Pi_r power to be measured. Methane is introduced in the post-discharge zone through five tubes symmetrically arranged around the reactor. Methane consumption α, selectivity SX and yield RX are measured as a function of the following parameters : β methane/air ratio, F gaz flow, d distance where methane is introduced in the plasma, P pressure, Pi microwave power absorbed by air or nitrogen. It appears that acetylene is the major hydrocarbon obtained. The corresponding selectivity is increased when Pi and P are increased or when d and F are decreased. The optimum value of β is 4/5. If the best experimental conditions are selected, selectivity of total C2 reaches 44 % with a conversion ratio of 80 %. By decreasing methane/air ratio, carbon monoxide yield is increased. The ratio acetylene/ethylene can by varied without changing the conversion ratio, by introducing a catalyst in the post reaction zone. La valorisation du méthane est réalisée dans la post-décharge d'un plasma microondes (2 450 MHz) d'air ou d'azote. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'azote, les principaux produits dosés sont l'acétylène, l'éthylène, l'éthane et l'hydrogène. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'air, on dose en outre le monoxyde de carbone. Le taux de conversion du méthane ainsi que la sélectivité des produits ont été déterminés en fonction des paramètres expérimentaux suivants : proportion méthane/gaz plasmagène, flux gazeux, distance d'introduction du méthane dans la post-décharge, pression et puissance micro-ondes. Le procédé expérimenté permet d'obtenir des rendements chimiques importants et d'éviter la

  19. Emergency Medical Services Utilization in EMS Priority Conditions in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Mazen; Tamim, Hani; Chehadeh, Ahel Al-Hajj; Kazzi, Amin A

    2016-12-01

    Early activation and use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are associated with improved patient outcomes in EMS priority conditions in developed EMS systems. This study describes patterns of EMS use and identifies predictors of EMS utilization in EMS priority conditions in Lebanon METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of a random sample of adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care center in Beirut with the following EMS priority conditions: chest pain, major trauma, respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and airway obstruction. Patient/proxy survey (20 questions) and chart review were completed. The responses to survey questions were "disagree," "neutral," or "agree" and were scored as one, two, or three with three corresponding to higher likelihood of EMS use. A total scale score ranging from 20 to 60 was created and transformed from 0% to 100%. Data were analyzed based on mode of presentation (EMS vs other). Among the 481 patients enrolled, only 112 (23.3%) used EMS. Mean age for study population was 63.7 years (SD=18.8 years) with 56.5% males. Mean clinical severity score (Emergency Severity Index [ESI]) was 2.5 (SD=0.7) and mean pain score was 3.1 (SD=3.5) at ED presentation. Over one-half (58.8%) needed admission to hospital with 21.8% to an intensive care unit care level and with a mortality rate of 7.3%. Significant associations were found between EMS use and the following variables: severity of illness, degree of pain, familiarity with EMS activation, previous EMS use, perceived EMS benefit, availability of EMS services, trust in EMS response times and treatment, advice from family, and unavailability of immediate private mode of transport (P≤.05). Functional screening, or requiring full assistance (OR=4.77; 95% CI, 1.85-12.29); acute symptoms onset ≤ one hour (OR=2.14; 95% CI, 1.08-4.26); and higher scale scores (OR=2.99; 95% CI, 2.20-4.07) were significant predictors of EMS use. Patients

  20. Assessment of the current and future water balance of the Ouémé catchment (Benin) for an integrated water resource management by using the WEAP water planning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giertz, Simone; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Höllermann, Britta

    2010-05-01

    Today, fresh water has already become a critically scarce resource in many regions of the world. In many developing countries insufficient water supply infrastructure aggravates this problem. With the ongoing global change and population growth water security will become one of the major problems in the 21st century. Regarding the annual water balance the West African Country Benin is not suffering from physical water scarcity. Nevertheless, investigations show that water scarcity occurs at the local scale, especially at the end of the dry season. This is caused by reduced water availability in this period and particularly by the inadequate water supply infrastructure. Facing the impacts of climate and socio-economic change, an assessment of the national water resources is an important step to assure a sustainable water resource management and to satisfy the raising water demand of Benin in the future. In the presented study the WEAP water planning model was used to analyse the current and future water balance of Benin's largest catchment Ouémé. To take into account the possible impacts of climate and socio-economic change, two IPCC scenarios (A1B and B1) and three socio-economic scenarios were simulated for the time period 2002-2025. The results show that the pressure on Benin's water resources will increase, due to population growth and changing socio-economic conditions. This leads to a greater competition for surface water especially during the dry season. Improving the access to groundwater is an alternative; however, financial and institutional constraints hinder such a development. Furthermore, declining catchment inflows and groundwater recharge aggravate the situation and require an adapted groundwater management. Beside the scenario results the presentation will also examine the uncertainties of the modelling process with WEAP. Furthermore, the suitability of the model in supporting a sustainable and integrated water resources management in developing

  1. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  2. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  3. Timely bystander CPR improves outcomes despite longer EMS times.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwan Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyung Won; Ahn, Ki Ok; Lee, Eui Jung; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of bystander CPR on clinical outcomes in patients with increasing response time from collapse to EMS response. A population-based observational study was conducted in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2014. The time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers was categorized into quartile groups: fastest group (<4min), fast group (4 to <8min), late group (8 to <15min), and latest group (15 to <30min). The primary outcome was hospital discharge and the secondary outcome was survival with good neurological outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the interaction between bystander CPR and the time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers. A total of 15,354 OHCAs were analyzed. Bystander CPR was performed in 8591 (56.0%). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 1632 (10.6%) and favorable neurological outcome in 996 (6.5%). In an interaction model of bystander CPR, compared to the fastest group, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.89 (0.66-1.20) in the fast group, 0.76 (0.57-1.02) in the late group, and 0.52 (0.37-0.73) in the latest group. For favorable neurological outcome, AORs were 1.12 (0.77-1.62) in the fast group, 0.90 (0.62-1.30) in the late group, 0.59 (0.38-0.91) in the latest group. The survival from OHCA decreases as the ambulance response time increases. The increase in mortality and worsening neurologic outcomes appear to be mitigated in those patients who receive bystander CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  5. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|ΔLKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |ΔLKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |ΔLKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = −208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |ΔLKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  6. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care.

  7. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL∗ Patrick Godon1,4, Edward M. Sion1, Paul E. Barrett2, and Albert P. Linnell3 1...However, more recent full three-dimensional hydrodynami- cal simulations, e.g., (Blondin 1998; Kunze et al. 2001; Bisikalo et al. 2003), have followed...deflection is believed to cause X-ray absorption in CVs (and LMXBs) around orbital phase 0.7, if the inclination is at least 65◦ ( Kunze et al. 2001

  8. EMS Bill of Rights: what every patient deserves.

    PubMed

    Meador, Steven R; Slovis, Corey M; Wrenn, Keith D

    2003-03-01

    Every EMT, paramedic, supervisor and EMS medical director must stress that our job is to treat every patient the way we'd like to be treated or the way we'd want one of our family members treated. Those charged with supervision must ensure that EMTs and paramedics receive the support and training necessary to allow adherence to the 10 objectives outlined in this article. Quality-assurance reviews, quality-improvement programs, provider comments and complaints from the public must all be used to improve the care we deliver. Prehospital care should be constantly improving the delivery of excellent, life-saving care.

  9. A compulsator driven rapid-fire EM-gun

    SciTech Connect

    Pratap, S.B.; Bird, W.L.

    1984-03-01

    A compulsator-driven railgun is an attractive alternative to the homopolar generator-inductor-switch configuration, especially for repetitive duty. A conceptual design of a rapid-fire EM-gun system is presented. The generator is sized to accelerate a 0.08-kg projectile to 2 to 3 km/s at a 60 pulse-per-second repetition rate. Initial design parameters are discussed, and example current and velocity waveforms are given. The generator is discharged at the proper phase angle to provide a current zero just as the projectile exits the muzzle of the railgun.

  10. Unravelling the structures of biological macromolecules by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Understanding how proteins and other biological macromolecules perform their complicated tasks in the living cell is often aided by knowledge of their three-dimensional structures. Because many tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterisation at the atomic level is most useful. Recent developments in electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-EM) have provided unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of new information about biological processes that were impossible to characterize with previously existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  11. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  12. EMS response at a hazardous material incident: some basic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Plante, D M; Walker, J S

    1989-01-01

    Emergency medical response to a scene where hazardous materials are potentially involved is becoming more commonplace. Following routine response procedures could result in the incapacitation of the rescue crew. Unique to this paper are some suggestions from the fire fighting literature on how to deal with these incidents. As with any type of potential disaster, it has been found that response is much more effective if potential problems are examined beforehand and protocols developed. Emergency physicians in their role as on-site emergency medical services (EMS) medical controllers should play a leading part in the development and implementation of these protocols.

  13. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  14. Demonstrate a Leap-Ahead EM Gun Armament System that Proves the Maturity of the Technology for Future Combat Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-26

    This report, comprised of viewgraphs, discusses the Army EM program and the challenges it faces. Topics include pulsed power, hypervelocity lethality plans, systems and technology integration , and the army EM gun program.

  15. EMS Attitudes Towards Geriatric Prehospital Care And Continuing Medical Education in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Hettinger, Aaron Z.; Shah, Manish N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To understand the opinions of emergency medical service (EMS) providers regarding their ability to care for older adults, the domains of geriatric medicine in which they need more training, and the modality through which continuing education could be best delivered. Design Qualitative study using key informant interviews. Setting Prehospital EMS system in Rochester, New York. Participants EMS providers, EMS instructors and administrators, emergency physicians, and geriatricians. Outcome Measures Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide that addressed the following domains: 1)knowledge and skill deficiencies; 2)recommendations for improvement of geriatrics continuing education; 3)delivery methods of education. Results Participant responses were generally congruous despite the diverse backgrounds, and redundancy was achieved rapidly. All participants perceived a deficit in EMS education on the care of older adults, particularly related to communications with patients and skilled nursing facility staff. All desired more geriatric continuing education for EMS providers, especially in communications and psychosocial issues. Education was desired in various modalities. Conclusion Further geriatrics continuing education for EMS providers is needed. Some specific topics relate to medical issues, but a large proportion involve communications and psychosocial issues. Education should be delivered in a variety of modalities to meet the needs of the EMS community. Emerging online video technologies may bridge the gap between learners preferring classroom based modailities and those preferring self-study modules. PMID:19170777

  16. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  17. Broadband EM radiation amplification by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that a two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) (laser) field can amplify EM radiation waves of much lower frequency.

  18. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  19. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal…

  20. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  1. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  2. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-13

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.

  3. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Digital EMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    38 11.1.3 Physician Map and Navigation Interface................................................... 38 11.1.4 Physician Run Record Copy...42 11.2.4 Map & Navigation Interface ................................................................ 42...must be developed for use by the Digital EMS system. 0 Mapping and Navigation Location and route values must be maintained for each Digital EMS emergency

  4. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a…

  5. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  6. Improvement of coverage and utilization of EmOC services in southwestern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Hossain, M M; Islam, M A; Haque, Y A

    2005-12-01

    The Government of Bangladesh has implemented safe motherhood programs throughout the country supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) aimed at reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the interventions on the UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) process indicators in Khulna division, Bangladesh. Of the 71 government health facilities in Khulna division, 32 were providing comprehensive and 20 were providing basic EmOC services. Another 4 facilities were providing comprehensive or basic EmOC services during the first three-quarters but became non-functional during the last quarter. EmOC data, from January to December 2002, were collected from all these 56 facilities to determine the levels of EmOC process indicators relative to the UN guidelines and compared with baseline data from 1998 to 1999. There were 1.04 and 0.64 comprehensive and basic EmOC facilities respectively per 500,000 population. When compared with the baseline data, the coverage of comprehensive EmOC services was substantially increased from 0.23 to 1.04 per 500,000 population, which achieves the minimum UN standards but the coverage of basic EmOC services remained the same. The data also showed that, compared with the baseline survey, the proportion of births at the EmOC facilities increased 119% from 5.3% to 11.7% (p<0.001), met need increased 141% from 11.1% to 26.6% (p<0.001), and cesarean section as a proportion of all expected births, increased 151% from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.001), while the overall case fatality rate (CFR) decreased by 51% (p<0.001). With the exception of coverage of basic EmOC after the interventions, there was significant improvement in all the EmOC process indicators in Khulna division. However, most of the process indicators are still far from the minimum recommended UN standards. Efforts should continue to keep the EmOC facilities functional 24/7 while increasing

  7. Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

  8. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  9. Viewing Direction Estimation in Cryo-EM Using Synchronization*

    PubMed Central

    Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2013-01-01

    A central task in recovering the structure of a macromolecule from cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images is to determine a three-dimensional model of the macromolecule given many of its two-dimensional projection images. The direction from each image taken the images which was is unknown, and are small and extremely noisy. The goal is to determine the direction from which each image was taken and then to combine the images into a three-dimensional model of the molecule. We present an algorithm for determining the viewing direction of all cryo-EM images at once, which is robust to high levels of noise. The algorithm is based on formulating the problem as a synchronization problem; that is, we estimate the relative spatial configuration of pairs of images and then estimate a global assignment of orientations that maximizes the number of satisfied pairwise relations. Information about the spatial relation between pairs of images is extracted from common lines between triplets of images. These noisy pairwise relations are combined into a single consistent assignment of orientations by constructing a matrix whose entries encode the pairwise relations. This matrix is shown to have rank 3, and its nontrivial eigenspace is shown to reveal the projection orientation of each image. In particular, we show that the nontrivial eigenvectors encode the rotation matrix that corresponds to each image. PMID:24363820

  10. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  11. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  12. Surgical treatment of moyamoya disease in children: which is more effective procedure, EDAS or EMS?

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S

    1986-01-01

    At present, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) and encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS) are the treatments of choice for moyamoya disease in children, but no attempts have been made to determine which is the more effective procedure, for the ischemic lesions in moyamoya disease. Ten patients (seven children and three adults) underwent EDAS and/or EMS: three patients EDAS on both sides; seven patients EDAS on one side and EMS on the other. These ten patients were followed up with a neurological examination and r-CBF and angiographic studies. Postoperative angiograms and r-CBF studies demonstrated more revascularization from the external carotid artery in sides treated with EDAS than with sides treated with EMS. From these results, it is concluded that the EDAS surgical procedure is superior to that of EMS for moyamoya disease.

  13. The EM/MPM algorithm for segmentation of textured images: analysis and further experimental results.

    PubMed

    Comer, M L; Delp, E J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present new results relative to the "expectation-maximization/maximization of the posterior marginals" (EM/MPM) algorithm for simultaneous parameter estimation and segmentation of textured images. The EM/MPM algorithm uses a Markov random field model for the pixel class labels and alternately approximates the MPM estimate of the pixel class labels and estimates parameters of the observed image model. The goal of the EM/MPM algorithm is to minimize the expected value of the number of misclassified pixels. We present new theoretical results in this paper which show that the algorithm can be expected to achieve this goal, to the extent that the EM estimates of the model parameters are close to the true values of the model parameters. We also present new experimental results demonstrating the performance of the EM/MPM algorithm.

  14. High-Resolution Cryo-EM Maps and Models: A Crystallographer's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2017-08-10

    The appearance of ten high-resolution cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps of proteins, ribosomes, and viruses was compared with the experimentally phased crystallographic electron density maps of four proteins. We found that maps calculated at a similar resolution by the two techniques are quite comparable in their appearance, although cryo-EM maps, even when sharpened, seem to be a little less detailed. An analysis of models fitted to the cryo-EM maps indicated the presence of significant problems in almost all of them, including incorrect geometry, clashes between atoms, and discrepancies between the map density and the fitted models. In particular, the treatment of the atomic displacement (B) factors was meaningless in almost all analyzed cryo-EM models. Stricter cryo-EM structure deposition standards and their better enforcement are needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Correlates of perceived care comfort with an EMS professional having a legal conviction.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Gibson, Gregory

    2012-08-01

    The first objective was to examine the outcome of how comfortable a potential EMS-caller would be receiving care from an out-of-hospital-care EMS professional who might have a legal conviction. A second objective was to test for correlates that would explain this outcome. In the autumn of 2010, a structured phone survey was conducted. To maximize geographical representation across the contiguous United States, a clustered, stratified sampling strategy was used based upon US Postal Service zip codes. Of the 2,443 phone calls made, 1,051 (43%) full survey responses were obtained. Data cleaning efforts reduced the total to 929 in the final model regression analysis. Results revealed significant public discomfort in receiving care from EMS professionals who may have such a conviction. In addition, respondents who are less educated and older more strongly (1) agree that EMS professionals should have their licenses revoked for wrong doing; (2) agree EMS professionals should be screened before being hired; (3) perceive EMS credentials to be important; (4) support a lawsuit for improper care; and (5) are collectively less comfortable with being cared for by an EMS professional who may have a legal conviction. Reliable scales were found for future research use. There is significant public discomfort in receiving care from EMS professionals who may have a legal conviction. The results of this study provide increased impetus for the careful screening of EMS professionals before they are hired or allowed to be volunteers. Beyond this due diligence, the results serve as a reminder for increased EMS provider awareness of the importance of exhibiting professionalism when dealing with the public.

  16. Time of Day and Day of Week Trends in EMS Demand.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Kate; Morgans, Amee; Smith, Karen; Livingston, Michael; Spelman, Tim; Dietze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We examined temporal variations in overall Emergency Medical Services (EMS) demand, as well as medical and trauma cases separately. We analyzed cases according to time of day and day of week to determine whether population level demand demonstrates temporal patterns that will increase baseline knowledge for EMS planning. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Ambulance Victoria data warehouse covering the period 2008-2011. We included all cases of EMS attendance which resulted in 1,203,803 cases for review. Data elements comprised age, gender, date and time of call to the EMS emergency number along with the clinical condition of the patient. We employed Poisson regression to analyze case numbers and trigonometric regression to quantify distribution patterns. EMS demand exhibited a bimodal distribution with the highest peak at 10:00 and a second smaller peak at 19:00. The highest number of cases occurred on Fridays, and the lowest on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. However, the distribution of cases throughout the day differed by day of week. Distribution patterns on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays differed significantly from the rest of the week (p < 0.001). When categorized into medical or trauma cases, medical cases were more frequent during working hours and involved patients of higher mean age (57 years vs. 49 years for trauma, p < 0.001). Trauma cases peaked on Friday and Saturday nights around midnight. Day of week EMS demand distribution patterns reveal differences that can be masked in aggregate data. Day of week EMS demand distribution patterns showed not only which days have differences in demand but the times of day at which the demand changes. Patterns differed by case type as well. These differences in distribution are important for EMS demand planning. Increased understanding of EMS demand patterns is imperative in a climate of ever-increasing demand and fiscal constraints. Further research is needed into the effect of age and case type on EMS

  17. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  18. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ODV-E56 envelope protein is required for oral infectivity and can be substituted functionally by Rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ODV-E56.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Sparks, Wendy O; Bonning, Bryony C

    2010-05-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) odv-e56 gene encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, ODV-E56. In a previous analysis, the odv-e56 gene was found to be under positive selection pressure, suggesting that it may be a determinant of virus host range. To assess the role of ODV-E56 in oral infectivity and host range, we constructed recombinant AcMNPV clones (Ac69GFP-e56lacZ and AcIEGFP-e56lacZ) in which ODV-E56 protein synthesis was eliminated by inserting a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) expression cassette into the odv-e56 open reading frame. We also constructed a recombinant virus, Ac69GFP-Roe56, in which the native AcMNPV odv-e56 coding sequence was replaced with that of Rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (RoMNPV), a closely related virus that is significantly more virulent towards some host species than AcMNPV. The odv-e56 recombinant viruses exhibited no alterations in polyhedron production and morphogenesis or in the production of infectious budded virus in cell culture. In bioassays using three lepidopteran host species, the oral infectivities of the odv-e56 mutant viruses Ac69GFP-e56lacZ and AcIEGFP-e56lacZ were profoundly impaired compared with those of wild-type and control recombinant viruses. Oral infectivity was restored fully by marker rescue of the odv-e56 mutant viruses with either the AcMNPV or the RoMNPV odv-e56 gene. In bioassays using two host species that are more susceptible to RoMNPV than to AcMNPV, Ac69GFP-Roe56 killed larvae with LC50 values similar to those of recombinant viruses expressing AcMNPV ODV-E56. This result indicated that replacement of the AcMNPV odv-e56 gene with the RoMNPV orthologue did not increase virulence against these two species.

  19. Sensibilité à la détonation de divers mélanges gazeux explosifs : hydrazine, hydrogène et hydrocarbures/air ou oxygène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, G.; Lee, J. H.; Knystautas, R.; Péraldi, O.

    A number of experiments have been carried out in the framework of an informal cooperation between a french laboratory belonging to C.N.R.S. and McGill University at Montreal, with the aim of studying the propagation and the stability of a detonation wave in various gaseous explosive mixtures including hydrazine, hydrogen and some hydrocarbons with air or oxygen, in relation with the nature of the confinement, the chemical kinetics and the detonation structure. These studies point out the necessity of the presence of transverse waves or, in other words, of a tridimensional structure in the detonation front to allow a detonation to propagate. They give a measure and a comparison of the respective sensitivities to detonation of the explosive mixtures studied. This is of major importance for industrial safety. The sensitivity to detonation is evaluated from a "fundamental dynamic parameter" that is the detonation cell size. On décrit brièvement un certain nombre d'expériences effectuées dans le cadre d'une coopération informelle entre un laboratoire français du C.N.R.S. et l'Université McGill de Montréal, sur la propagation et la stabilité des détonations dans divers mélanges gazeux explosifs (hydrazine, hydrogène et divers hydrocarbures en mélange avec l'air ou l'oxygène), en relation avec la nature du confinement, la cinétique chimique et la structure de l'onde de détonation. Ces travaux mettent en évidence la nécessité de la présence d'ondes transversales, donc d'une structure tridimensionnelle dans le front de détonation pour en assurer la propagation. Ils visent aussi à connaître et à comparer entre eux la sensibilité à la détonation de ces gaz explosifs, à des fins de sécurité industrielle. Cette sensibilité peut être estimée grâce à un "paramètre dynamique fondamental" qui est la "largeur" de la cellule de détonation.

  20. How well do land surface models reproduce the water and energy cycles in the West African monsoon system ? Evaluation over the Upper Ouémé basin, Benin (ALMIP2 project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peugeot, C.; Boone, A. A.; Demarty, J.; manuela, G.; Laurent, K.; Cappelaere, B.; Awessou, B.; Cohard, J.; Galle, S.; Gascon, T.; Getirana, A.; Hector, B.; Mamadou, O.; Richard, A.; Seghieri, J.; Séguis, L.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used in environmental and climate sciences to simulate matter (water, carbon) and energy exchanges between the continental surface and the atmosphere. They are also increasingly used in a wide range of applications such as impact studies on land use management or climate change. The AMMA project and the associated observation campaigns provided unique data-sets to drive land surface models and to evaluate their results over the West African region, where such high added-value information has been lacking. In the framework of the ALMIP2 project (AMMA Land surface Model Inter-comparison Project - phase 2), simulations from about 20 LSMs were done on three contrasted meso-scale domains in Mali, Niger and Benin, over the period 2005-2008 using the same forcing data sets at 0.05 degree and 30 minutes space-time resolution. This talk analyses the simulated water and energy budget components on the sub-humid upper Ouémé basin (10,000 km2, Benin site), where the high-quality rainfall and runoff datasets allow a detailed and original hydrological evaluation of these meso-scale simulations. As expected, the model inter-comparison shows large differences in the water and energy partitioning, either at the annual (see figure) or intra-seasonal time scale. Most of them do not reproduce the observed runoff, with annual biases ranging from -100% to 200 %. The multi-model mean Evapotranspiration (ET) correctly matches the observations, specially in the rainy season, with contrasted simulations of evaporation vs. transpiration from one model to the other. The identification of the more realistic water and energy partitioning is a key issue addressed by the ALMIP2 project. Previous studies performed in the AMMA framework on the Oueme basin highlighted the key role of below-ground water dynamics in the hydrological cycle (lateral transfer to rivers, groundwater seasonal recharge-discharge, ...). Moreover, field evidences suggested that

  1. Epidémiologie et prise en charge des infections du per-partum à la maternité du centre hospitalier départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Saizonou, Jacques; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Paraiso, Moussiliou Noël; Ayélo, Paul; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Daraté, René; Traoré, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude avait pour objectif de mesurer l'ampleur des infections du per-partum à la maternité du Centre Hospitalier Départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau d'analyser les conditions de survenue et de prise en charge dans la perspective de l'amélioration des soins et services maternels et néonataux. Méthodes Une étude descriptive et analytique a été conduite de Août 2009 à Février 2010 et a impliqué 110 mères victimes d'infections du per-partum; elles ont été soumises à un questionnaire durant tout leur séjour hospitalier; des observations des pratiques de prise en charge des prestataires de soins ont été menées et des registres et autres supports de données sanitaires ont été exploités. L'analyse des données a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel Epi Info 6.4 dans sa version française. Résultats L'incidence des infections du per-partum était de 5,9 pour 100 accouchements (110/ 1875); les types d'infections les plus incriminés étaient les endométrites (27,3%), les chorioamniotites (18,2%), les infections du site opératoire (12,7%) et les infections urinaires (2,7%). Les examens cliniques ont été relativement acceptables. En revanche, les examens biologiques ont été très insuffisants expliquant l'imprécision importante au niveau des diagnostics. L'antibiothérapie a été instaurée systématiquement. Le taux de mortinaissance était de 25,6% et les enfants de petit poids représentaient 23,2%. Conclusion L'incidence des infections du per-partum dans la présente étude était assez élevée. Des efforts de préventions et de dépistage de ces infections sont nécessaire afin d'améliorer la qualité des soins PMID:25120854

  2. Les manifestations oculaires au cours de la pré-éclampsie sévère ou l’éclampsie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sourô Sanou de Bobo Dioulasso

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Méda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonré, Ahgbatouhabéba; Ouattara, Souleymane; Yanogo, Armande; Tougouma, Somnoma Jean Baptiste; Somé, Der; Sanou, Jérôme; Dolo, Mariam

    2015-01-01

    La pré-éclampsie sévère est un problème de santé publique. L'atteinte oculaire est une de ses nombreuses complications. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les atteintes oculaires chez les patientes présentant une pré-éclampsie et/ou éclampsie afin de contribuer à leur meilleure prise en charge. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er novembre 2013 au 31 juillet 2014, chez les patientes ayant souffert de pré-éclampsie sévère/éclampsie. Nous avons inclus 127 patientes dans notre étude. La moyenne d’âge des patientes de notre étude était de 26,37 ans (ET= 6,8 ans), avec des extrêmes de 15 et 40 ans. Les tranches d’âge les plus représentées étaient celles de 26 à 30 ans avec 29,1% des cas et celle des 15 à 20 ans avec 25,2%. Le diagnostic de pré-éclampsie sévère a été retenu dans 69,3% des cas. Les primigestes représentaient 40,9% de la population. Les troubles visuels à type de phosphènes ont été observés chez 33,1% des patientes. Nous avons noté un courant granulaire conjonctival dans 41,7%, des lésions du segment postérieur chez 32,3% des patientes. Ces résultats ont été discutés par rapport à la littérature, et nous notons plus de cas d'atteinte rétinienne. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de lien statistiquement significatif entre la tension artérielle à l'admission et le stade de la rétinopathie hypertensive. Les complications oculaires de la pré-éclampsie sévère sont très fréquentes et souvent ignorées. Les atteintes rétiniennes sont fréquentes mais de bon pronostic. PMID:26405485

  3. Patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus: préfèrent-ils traiter le diabète ou l'hypertension artérielle?

    PubMed Central

    Aassri, Hind El; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2014-01-01

    Les diabétologues sont confrontés à des diabétiques le plus souvent hypertendus et polypathologiques, les rendant peu observants des différentes thérapeutiques prescrites. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer l'observance au traitement chez les patients diabétiques hypertendus. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective transversale. La population est faite de patients diabétiques de type 2 hypertendus vus aux urgences, à la consultation ou hospitalisés au service d'Endocrinologie. L’échantillon est non probabiliste. La population est faite de 61 patients, d'un âge moyen de 48,9 ans avec une hypertension (HTA) de type systolique dans 59%, diastolique dans 16% et systolo-diastolique dans 25% des cas. Les patients sont équilibrés sur le plan glycémique dans 65% des cas, alors que l’équilibre tensionnel n'est atteint que dans 41% des cas. En ce qui concerne l'observance thérapeutique, 24% des patients sont observant totalement au traitement prescrit, 33% ne sont pas observant au traitement et 43% ont une observance partielle au traitement dont 73.68% préfèrent le traitement destiné au diabète et 26,32% prennent le traitement anti hypertenseur. Les facteurs altérant l'observance au traitement médicamenteux sont un surcoût du traitement un nombre élevé de médicaments prescrits, un nombre important de prises quotidiennes de médicaments, une intolérance au traitement et une mauvaise information du patient sur la justification du traitement. Enfin, les patients diabétiques hypertendus sont classés comme patients à haut risque cardiovasculaire ce qui impose l'application de stratégies thérapeutiques parfois lourdes. Cette polymédication entrave la qualité de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ayant une pathologie chronique dont la compliance au traitement constitue la pierre angulaire de la prise en charge, et ce pour plusieurs raisons en particulier d'ordre économique. PMID:25396019

  4. EMS Provider assessment of vehicle damage compared with assessment by a professional crash reconstructionist.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard D; Shah, Manish N; Swor, Robert A; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of emergency medical services (EMS) provider assessments of motor vehicle damage when compared with measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon emergency department arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle's owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess the vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external automobile deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test, correlation, and kappa were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator-derived values. Ninety-one vehicles were enrolled; of these, 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. Six vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared with the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% were admitted to hospital, and 1% died. The mean EMS-estimated deformity was 18 inches and the mean measured deformity was 14 inches. The mean EMS-estimated intrusion was 5 inches and the mean measured intrusion was 4 inches. The EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 68% agreement for determination of external automobile deformity (kappa 0.26) and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 American College of Surgeons Field Triage Decision Scheme criteria were applied. The mean (± standard deviation) EMS-estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 ± 13 mph and the mean reconstructionist-estimated change in velocity was 18 ± 12 mph (correlation -0.45). The EMS providers determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over, whereas the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases, EMS and the investigator agreed on seat belt use; for

  5. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  6. EMS Dispatches during Hurricanes Irene and Sandy in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Joshua; McCoy, Jonathan; Donovan, Colleen; Patel, Snehal; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Dewan, Asa

    2017-08-31

    Hurricanes Irene and Sandy heavily impacted New Jersey. Investigating EMS dispatch trends during these storms may allow us to prepare for future disasters. Our objectives to characterize the types of EMS dispatches immediately before, during, and after landfall compared to a control period. This retrospective study was conducted at a large EMS dispatch center that provides first responders, Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Life Support (ALS), and critical care transport services to an area with approximately 20 receiving hospitals including a Level I Trauma Center. At peak staffing, there are 8-10 ALS vehicles, 25 BLS vehicles, and 3 critical care transport vehicles deployed. We included of the day of landfall and seven days before and after. We compared dispatch data to a control period in 2010 that mirrored Hurricane Sandy the dates of. Descriptive statistics and two way ANOVA were used to assess dispatch, gender and age differences. We found Hurricane Sandy dispatches peaked 2 days after landfall. Both ALS and BLS had an increase in age in the post-Sandy period compared to the pre-Sandy (ALS 58.5 to 64.2, p = 0.005, ANOVA p = 0.078; BLS 47.4 to 56.3, p < 0.001, ANOVA p = 0.001). There were 17 "hurricane related" (loss of power related issues, oxygen supply depleted, evacuation) and 15 carbon monoxide dispatches in the post-Sandy period and none in the others, including peri-Irene. The average age of cardiac arrest dispatches was lower in the post-Irene group compared to pre-Irene (74.3 to 47.8, p = 0.023). There were no critical care requests before or after Hurricane Sandy, but there were 14 around Hurricane Irene and 10 surrounding the control period. Dispatch data can inform natural disaster planning. Education efforts can focus on geriatric patients, as well as resource distribution planning for an increase in geriatric populations. However, pattern variability between storms shows further study is needed to clarify exactly which resources should be

  7. The White Dwarf in EM Cygni: Beyond the Veil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P.

    2009-07-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases phi ~ 0.65 and phi ~ 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases phi = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K ± 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s-1. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10-10 M sun yr-1. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase phi < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white dwarf and disk. Based on observations made

  8. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  9. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white

  10. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  11. Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed.

  12. Balloting motion of SLEKE launch packages in EM railguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Szu H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports some balloting motion computational results of the SLEKE (Sabot Launched Electric-gun Kinetic Energy) launch packages, which are in their early stage of development. The computation model considers the effects of the EM (Lorentz) propulsion force, friction, air resistance, gravity, elastic forces, and clearance between the launch package and the barrel. The axial, normal and yaw displacement, velocity and acceleration; friction; deformations and forces at the interfacing points are computed. The results of this study indicate that the balloting force for SLEKE launch packages is on the order of the air drag force and that a uniformly distributed power source would be more desirable than sharp pulse current for electromagnetic railguns.

  13. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  14. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  15. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, W. D.; Lidia, S. M.

    2004-12-01

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as "workhorse" providers of microbunches.

  16. GW astronomy, EM observations, and the interactions between them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essick, Reed; LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    I present an overview of the types of low latency searches operated by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration, focusing on the products produced by each and how they tie into the broader astronomical community. This includes both automated and manual follow-up to characterize the source localization as well as statements about the data quality surrounding the candidate. In broad strokes, I'll also describe the internal and external communication mechanisms put in place to announce candidates and report follow-up activities, with particular emphasis placed on how GW and EM data are mutually beneficial. Time permitting, I will also describe some consequences of observed diurnal cycles governing when the LIGO detectors are likely to record data and studies comparing localizations from different algorithms.

  17. Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.

    PubMed

    Careless, James; Erich, John

    2008-08-01

    Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding.

  18. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  19. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  20. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  1. Suspended-Patch Antenna With Inverted, EM-Coupled Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An improved suspended-patch antenna has been designed to operate at a frequency of about 23 GHz with linear polarization and to be one of four identical antennas in a rectangular array. The antenna includes a parasitic patch on top of a suspended dielectric superstrate, an active patch on top of a suspended dielectric substrate, a microstrip on the bottom of the dielectric substrate, and a ground plane. The microstrip, the ground plane, the airgap between them, and the dielectric substrate together constitute a transmission line that has an impedance of 50 Ohm and is electromagnetically (EM) coupled to the active patch. The parasitic patch is, in turn, excited by the active patch. The microstrip feed is characterized as inverted because the microstrip is on the bottom of the substrate, whereas microstrips are usually placed on the tops of dielectric substrates

  2. Updated bathymetric survey of Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlington, R. A.; Wilson, W. D.; Johns, W. E.; Nelson, C.

    High-resolution bathymetric data obtained in July 1996 during a survey of the Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles revealed changes in the structure of the volcanic edifice compared to previously available surveys. The volcano's summit, at 178 m below sea level, was found to be approximately 18 m farther from the surface than was reported by Bouysse et al. (1988) and others. No dome was observed. Instead, an open crater, surrounded by walls that dropped significantly in elevation from one side to the opposite, suggest that eruptions, earthquakes, rockfalls or explosions may have altered the structure since the last detailed survey. The deepest contour of the volcano's crater was found 106 m below the summit.

  3. Elevated ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®, Roche): overview

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Anton; Müller, Lutz; Salgo, Miklos; Jones, Judith K; Larson, Peter; Tweats, David

    2009-01-01

    Roche's protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept®) produced between March 2007-June 2007 was found to contain elevated levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a known mutagen (alkylator) – leading to a global recall of the drug. EMS levels in a daily dose (2,500 mg Viracept/day) were predicted not to exceed a dose of ~2.75 mg/day (~0.055 mg/kg/day based on 50 kg patient). As existing toxicology data on EMS did not permit an adequate patient risk assessment, a comprehensive animal toxicology evaluation of EMS was conducted. General toxicity of EMS was investigated in rats over 28 days. Two studies for DNA damage were performed in mice; chromosomal damage was assessed using a micronucleus assay and gene mutations were detected using the MutaMouse transgenic model. In addition, experiments designed to extrapolate animal exposure to humans were undertaken. A general toxicity study showed that the toxicity of EMS occurred only at doses ≥ 60 mg/kg/day, which is far above that received by patients. Studies for chromosomal damage and mutations in mice demonstrated a clear threshold effect with EMS at 25 mg/kg/day, under chronic dosing conditions. Exposure analysis (Cmax) demonstrated that ~370-fold higher levels of EMS than that ingested by patients, are needed to saturate known, highly conserved, error-free, mammalian DNA repair mechanisms for alkylation. In summary, animal studies suggested that patients who took nelfinavir mesylate with elevated levels of EMS are at no increased risk for carcinogenicity or teratogenicity over their background risk, since mutations are prerequisites for such downstream events. These findings are potentially relevant to >40 marketed drugs that are mesylate salts. PMID:19660105

  4. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  5. Risk factors for hypothermia in EMS-treated burn patients.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Rittenberger, Jon C; Patterson, P Daniel; McEntire, Serina J; Corcos, Alain C; Ziembicki, Jenny A; Hostler, David

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia has been associated with increased mortality in burn patients. We sought to characterize the body temperature of burn patients transported directly to a burn center by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel and identify the factors independently associated with hypothermia. We utilized prospective data collected by a statewide trauma registry to carry out a nested case-control study of burn patients transported by EMS directly to an accredited burn center between 2000 and 2011. Temperature at hospital admission ≤36.5°C was defined as hypothermia. We utilized registry data abstracted from prehospital care reports and hospital records in building a multivariable regression model to identify the factors associated with hypothermia. Forty-two percent of the sample was hypothermic. Burns of 20-39% total body surface area (TBSA) (OR 1.44; 1.17-1.79) and ≥40% TBSA (OR 2.39; 1.57-3.64) were associated with hypothermia. Hypothermia was also associated with age > 60 (OR 1.50; 1.30-1.74), polytrauma (OR 1.58; 1.19-2.09), prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale <8 (OR 2.01; 1.46-2.78), and extrication (OR 1.49; 1.30-1.71). Hypothermia was also more common in the winter months (OR 1.54; 1.33-1.79) and less prevalent in patients weighing over 90 kg (OR 0.63; 0.46-0.88). A substantial proportion of burn patients demonstrate hypothermia at hospital arrival. Risk factors for hypothermia are readily identifiable by prehospital providers. Maintenance of normothermia should be stressed during prehospital care.

  6. Effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Abdul; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hussain, Tahir

    2006-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms on growth and yield of cotton. Treatments included: control; organic materials (OM); effective microorganisms (EM); OM+EM; mineral NPK (170:85:60 kg); 1/2 mineral NPK+EM; 1/2 mineral NPK+OM+EM and mineral NPK+OM+EM. OM and EM alone did not increase the yield and yield attributing components significantly but integrated use of both resulted in a 44% increase over control. Application of NPK in combination with OM and EM resulted in the highest seed cotton yield (2470 kg ha-1). Integrated use of OM+EM with 1/2 mineral NPK yielded 2091 kg ha-1, similar to the yield (2165 kg ha-1) obtained from full recommended NPK, indicating that this combination can substitute for 85 kg N ha-1. Combination of both N sources with EM also increased the concentrations of NPK in plants. Economic analysis suggested the use of 1/2 mineral NPK with EM+OM saves the mineral N fertilizer by almost 50% compared to a system with only mineral NPK application. This study indicated that application of EM increased the efficiency of both organic and mineral nutrient sources but alone was ineffective in increasing yield.

  7. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  8. Time-Lapse inversion of EM Tomography data for polymer-injected hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Seiwook; Park, Chanho; Nam, Myung Jin; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-04-01

    Polymer flooding is a method to increase the production of hydrocarbon reservoir by injecting polymer solution into the reservoir. For a study on the monitoring fluid variation within the reservoir, we first make analysis on seismic- and electromagnetic (EM)- tomography responses for seismic and electrical-resistivity rock physics models (RPMs) of the reservoir considering polymer fluid. Constructing RPMs are dependent on not only geologic characteristics of reservoir but also reservoir parameters such as fluid-type, fluid saturation, pressure and temperature. When making RPM for monitoring analysis, we assume the geology does not changes while reservoir parameters change to affect responses of seismic and EM tomography data. Specifically when constructing electrical-resistivity RPM, we consider three different types of hydrocarbon reservoirs, which are clean sand, shaly sand, sand-shale lamination, while considering two different types of waters (fresh water and salt water) to make 2wt% polymer solution. To compute time lapse EM and seismic tomography responses for corresponding RPMs of polymer-injected reservoirs, we used 2.5D finite element EM modeling algorithm and staggered-grid finite difference elastic modeling algorithm, respectively. Comparison between sensitivities of seismic and EM tomography to polymer injection confirms that EM tomography is more sensitivity to the polymer injection. For the evaluation of the potential of EM tomography to monitor polymer flooding, this study subsequently develops an efficient time-lapse EM tomography inversion algorithm based on the 2.5D EM tomography modeling. Using the inversion algorithm, we inverted the time-lapse EM tomography data to construct true resistivity models of polymer-injected reservoirs and analyze differences between them. From the time-lapse inversion results, we can observe the differences in time lapse responses between using fresh water and salt water have been decreased in the inverted time

  9. DNA-ligase activities appear normal in the CHO mutant EM9.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; Thompson, L H; Becker, F F

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant strain EM9 was previously shown to be hypersensitive to killing by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), to have a 12-fold increased baseline incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), and to be defective in rejoining DNA strand breaks after treatment with EMS, MMS, or X-rays. A study was performed to determine if the primary biochemical defect might be a DNA ligase. DNA-ligase activities were assayed and compared after separation of the multiple forms of ligase by AcA 34 gel-filtration chromatography of total cellular extracts. In EM9 cells the levels of the presumptive replicative forms, DNA ligase Ia (480 kd) and ligase Ib (240 kd) were about 50% and 60%, respectively, of those in the parental AA8 cells, whereas DNA ligase II (80 kd) was unaltered in EM9 . In a phenotypic revertant line ( 9R1 ) ligases Ia, Ib and II levels were 35%, 37% and 100%, respectively, of those in AA8 . The reduced levels of ligases Ia and Ib in EM9 and 9R1 cells are apparently not related directly to the mutant phenotype and may be attributable to the somewhat slower growth rates of these strains compared with those of AA8 . To determine if the repair defect in EM9 might reside in the ability to induce DNA-ligase activity after treatment with a DNA-damaging agent, AA8 and EM9 cells were treated with MMS at 30 micrograms/ml for 60 min before preparing fractions for ligase assays. Under these conditions the activities of ligases Ia and Ib decreases 70-80% in both cell lines, but ligase II increased 2.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, in AA8 and EM9 . As a further test of defective ligase activities in EM9 , assays were performed in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl or after heating the fractions for 10 min at 50 degrees C. Although all 3 forms of ligase showed altered activity under both of these conditions, there were no significant differences between EM9 and AA8 cells. These data combined with the above results provide strong

  10. Quantitative performance evaluation of the EM algorithm applied to radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailean, James C.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Sullivan, Barry J.

    1991-07-01

    In this study, the authors evaluate quantitatively the performance of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as a restoration technique for radiographic images. The 'perceived' signal-to-nose ratio (SNR), of simple radiographic patterns processed by the EM algorithm are calculated on the basis of a statistical decision theory model that includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. The relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to quantitatively compare the effects of the EM algorithm to two popular image enhancement techniques: contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering.

  11. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  12. Health care for women in situations of violence: discoordination of network professionals.

    PubMed

    Arboit, Jaqueline; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Vieira, Letícia Becker; Paula, Cristiane Cardoso de; Costa, Marta Cocco da; Cortes, Laura Ferreira

    2017-04-03

    To learn the conceptions and actions of health professionals on the care network for women in situations of violence. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted between April and July 2015 with the participation of 21 health professionals from four primary health care teams in a city of the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used for data systematization. Health professionals recognized the importance of the health care network for coping with the problem of violence against women. However, their conceptions and actions were limited by the discoordination or absence of integration among professionals and services of the care network. The conceptions and actions of health professionals contribute to the discoordination among the services. It is necessary to reflect on the daily practices of care for women in situations of violence. Conhecer as concepções e ações de profissionais de saúde sobre a rede de atenção às mulheres em situação de violência. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, realizado no período de abril a julho de 2015. Participaram 21 profissionais de saúde de quatro equipes da Atenção Primária à Saúde em um município da região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados ocorreu mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas e individuais. Para sistematização dos dados, empregou-se a análise de conteúdo. Os profissionais de saúde reconheciam a importância da rede de atenção à saúde no enfrentamento da problemática da violência contra as mulheres. Contudo, suas concepções e ações eram limitadas pela desarticulação ou ausência de integração entre os profissionais e serviços da rede de atenção. As concepções e ações dos profissionais de saúde contribuem para a desarticulação entre os serviços. Faz-se necessário refletir acerca das práticas cotidianas de cuidados

  13. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is ± 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is ± 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We

  14. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  15. cryoSPARC: algorithms for rapid unsupervised cryo-EM structure determination.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Ali; Rubinstein, John L; Fleet, David J; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2017-03-01

    Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful method for determining the structures of biological macromolecules. With automated microscopes, cryo-EM data can often be obtained in a few days. However, processing cryo-EM image data to reveal heterogeneity in the protein structure and to refine 3D maps to high resolution frequently becomes a severe bottleneck, requiring expert intervention, prior structural knowledge, and weeks of calculations on expensive computer clusters. Here we show that stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and branch-and-bound maximum likelihood optimization algorithms permit the major steps in cryo-EM structure determination to be performed in hours or minutes on an inexpensive desktop computer. Furthermore, SGD with Bayesian marginalization allows ab initio 3D classification, enabling automated analysis and discovery of unexpected structures without bias from a reference map. These algorithms are combined in a user-friendly computer program named cryoSPARC (http://www.cryosparc.com).

  16. Analysis of the electrochemistry of hemes with Ems spanning 800 mV

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Gunner, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The free energy of heme reduction in different proteins is found to vary over more than 18 kcal/mol. It is a challenge to determine how proteins manage to achieve this enormous range of Ems with a single type of redox cofactor. Proteins containing 141 unique hemes of a-, b-, and c-type, with bis-His, His-Met, and aquo-His ligation were calculated using Multi-Conformation Continuum Electrostatics (MCCE). The experimental Ems range over 800 mV from −350 mV in cytochrome c3 to 450 mV in cytochrome c peroxidase (vs. SHE). The quantitative analysis of the factors that modulate heme electrochemistry includes the interactions of the heme with its ligands, the solvent, the protein backbone, and sidechains. MCCE calculated Ems are in good agreement with measured values. Using no free parameters the slope of the line comparing calculated and experimental Ems is 0.73 (R2 = 0.90), showing the method accounts for 73% of the observed Em range. Adding a +160 mV correction to the His-Met c-type hemes yields a slope of 0.97 (R2 = 0.93). With the correction 65% of the hemes have an absolute error smaller than 60 mV and 92% are within 120 mV. The overview of heme proteins with known structures and Ems shows both the lowest and highest potential hemes are c-type, whereas the b-type hemes are found in the middle Em range. In solution, bis-His ligation lowers the Em by ≈205 mV relative to hemes with His-Met ligands. The bis-His, aquo-His, and His-Met ligated b-type hemes all cluster about Ems which are ≈200 mV more positive in protein than in water. In contrast, the low potential bis-His c-type hemes are shifted little from in solution, whereas the high potential His-Met c-type hemes are raised by ≈300 mV from solution. The analysis shows that no single type of interaction can be identified as the most important in setting heme electrochemistry in proteins. For example, the loss of solvation (reaction field) energy, which raises the Em, has been suggested to be a major factor in

  17. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  18. Design of Microstrip Lange Coupler Based on Em-Ann Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziqiang; Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu

    2006-10-01

    Electromagnetically trained artificial neural network (EM-ANN) model for microstrip Lange Coupler is presented. Full-wave EM analysis software is employed to characterize the Lange Coupler. The EM-ANN model is then designed using physical parameters as inputs and S-parameters as outputs. Once the EM-ANN model is trained, it can be used to find the optimal physical structure of the Lange Coupler for a given application using optimization technique. A Ka-band microstrip Lange Coupler is designed by this method. The simulated results of the Lange Coupler show that the insert loss is better than -3.64 dB; the amplitude balance is less than 0.55 dB and the phase balance is less than 0.52°from the 90°phase difference over the 30 to 40 GHz frequency range.

  19. 3D parallel inversion of time-domain airborne EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun-He; Yin, Chang-Chun; Ren, Xiu-Yan; Qiu, Chang-Kai

    2016-12-01

    To improve the inversion accuracy of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data, we propose a parallel 3D inversion algorithm for airborne EM data based on the direct Gauss-Newton optimization. Forward modeling is performed in the frequency domain based on the scattered secondary electrical field. Then, the inverse Fourier transform and convolution of the transmitting waveform are used to calculate the EM responses and the sensitivity matrix in the time domain for arbitrary transmitting waves. To optimize the computational time and memory requirements, we use the EM "footprint" concept to reduce the model size and obtain the sparse sensitivity matrix. To improve the 3D inversion, we use the OpenMP library and parallel computing. We test the proposed 3D parallel inversion code using two synthetic datasets and a field dataset. The time-domain airborne EM inversion results suggest that the proposed algorithm is effective, efficient, and practical.

  20. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    DOE PAGES

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; ...

    2015-09-17

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. We first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. Furthermore, we then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surfacemore » pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. Thus it is suggested that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.« less

  1. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2015-09-17

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. We first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. Furthermore, we then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. Thus it is suggested that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.

  2. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  3. Using PAs in prehospital environments to reduce ED and EMS overuse.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine M; Tozier, William L

    2017-04-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) and EDs in large cities are burdened with a significant number of patients with chronic disease who have limited options for receiving proper care. Despite their relatively small numbers, these "superusers" can have a significant effect on EMS, particularly in large cities. Additionally, EDs are not designed to provide chronic and continuous healthcare. This article describes how several organizations use physician assistants to manage these patients.

  4. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  5. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    Indonesia in the spring 2016 are being arranged. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mixing within the Banda; EM APEX fl oats; upper ocean processes; mixed layer...tech instrumentation. The Indonesian seas or maritime continent is at the nexus of key components of the ocean and climate systems, such as ENSO...has the potential to lead to larger, more elaborate field programs investigating upper ocean dynamics. EM APEX float measurements provide .details of

  6. Quantify Lateral Dispersion and Turbulent Mixing by Spatial Array of chi-EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    before being transported to the northeast, with strong south-east/north- west gradients. The other assets were moved northward immediately, causing an...experiments. REFERENCES Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B., 1993, Submesoscale Dynamics near a Seamount . Part I: Measurements of Ertel Vorticity, American...EM-APEX Floats and Moorings (N00014-08-1-0560) as a part of the ITOP DRI. Fourteen EM-APEX floats were air-deployed into two W. Pacific typhoons

  7. Light curve analysis of beta Lyrae type binary star EM TrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of photometric observations of the eclipsing binary system EM TrA (TYC 9258-211-1=CD-67 1660) is presented in this study. The V light curve of the system from All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) was solved using the Wilson-Devinney code. The final solution describes EM TrA as a detached system. The absolute parameters of the components of the system were estimated.

  8. Orion EM-1 Forward Skirt Move from Hangar AF to BFF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    The Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) left-hand forward skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters arrives inside the high bay at the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In the BFF, the forward skirt will be inspected and prepared for use on the left-hand solid rocket booster for EM-1. NASA's Orion spacecraft will fly atop the SLS rocket on its first uncrewed flight test.

  9. Orion EM-1 Forward Skirt Move from Hangar AF to BFF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    The Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) left-hand forward skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters arrives at the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida from Hangar AE at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In the BFF, the forward skirt will be inspected and prepared for use on the left-hand solid rocket booster for EM-1. NASA's Orion spacecraft will fly atop the SLS rocket on its first uncrewed flight test.

  10. Orion EM-1 Forward Skirt Move from Hangar AF to BFF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    The Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) left-hand forward skirt for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters arrives at the entrance to the high bay at the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In the BFF, the forward skirt will be inspected and prepared for use on the left-hand solid rocket booster for EM-1. NASA's Orion spacecraft will fly atop the SLS rocket on its first uncrewed flight test.

  11. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  12. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  13. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  14. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  15. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    A view from inside NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, as the Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured inside its transport container, is loaded into the aircraft. The test article will be transported to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.

  16. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    On the tarmac at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured in its transport container, is loaded into the agency's Super Guppy aircraft. The test article will be transported to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.

  17. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    NASA's Super Guppy aircraft takes off from the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured inside the Super Guppy, will be transported to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.

  18. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    The Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured inside its transport container, is lifted up by crane from its transport vehicle at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The test article will be loaded into NASA's Super Guppy aircraft, in view at left, and transported to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.

  19. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    A view from inside NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured inside its transport container, will be loaded into the Super Guppy for transport to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.

  20. Orion EM-1 Crew Module Structural Test Article loaded onto Guppy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-25

    The Orion Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) structural test article, secured inside its transport container, is loaded into NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The test article will be transported to Lockheed Martin's Denver facility for testing. The Orion spacecraft will launch atop NASA’s Space Launch System rocket on EM-1, its first deep space mission.