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Sample records for em system aem-05

  1. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  2. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  3. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  4. Considerations for centralized EMS system control

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper describes a large central computer control system designed to communicate with energy management equipment. The problems and solutions involved in the use of ''black boxes,'' simple energy management controllers, dumb CRT and ''block structured'' communication protocols, duty cycling, and ladder logic are discussed. The hardware is divided into five groups: communications, operator interface, data storage, peripheral devices, and auxilliary processing. The central system configuration is given. Functional software organization is schematicized. Alarm monitoring, anomaly detection, and program validity checking and load simulation are highlighted. Such a computer system should be modular, and dictated by the requirements of energy management in the specific facility--not the other way around.

  5. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  6. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  7. ModEM: A modular system for inversion of elecgtromagnetic geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.; Meqbel, N.; Weng, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a modular system of computer codes for inversion of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical data (ModEM). ModEM allows for rapid adaptation of inversion algorithms developed for one purpose (e.g., three-dimensional magnetotellurics (MT)) to other EM problems (e.g., controlled source EM). The modular approach can also simplify maintenance of the inversion code, as well as development of new capabilities -- e.g., allowing for new data types such as the inter-site transfer functions in MT, or modifying model regularization. Basic data objects (model parameters, solution vectors, data vectors) are treated as abstract data types, with a standard set of methods developed for each class, including creation and destruction, and, as appropriate, linear algebra or other vector space methods. Operators required for gradient computations are developed as mappings between these basic object classes. Only these abstract data objects and mappings are manipulated by higher level Jacobian and inversion routines, with no reference to the problem specific details required for a specific EM method, or for the numerical implementation of the forward solver. Required problem-specific components are instantiated at the lowest levels of the system, with details hidden from generic top-level routines by an interface layer. Parallelization using MPI has been implemented at the top level, and is thus applicable to any problem embedded in ModEM. To illustrate the flexibility of the system, we consider applications to two- and three-dimensional MT inversion, as well as simple controlled source EM problems.

  8. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  9. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  10. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  11. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-05-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  12. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  13. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  14. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  15. Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzer, Terence 12Macnae, James

    2014-03-01

    We aim to eliminate or reduce significant impediments to conductive target detection and conductive cover penetration in airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems. Existing limitations come from the very high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth's magnetic field. We use the output of tri-axial rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors. The approach is successful in reducing rotation noise by one to two orders of magnitude at low frequencies.

  16. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  17. Energy Management System (EMS) study, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Volume 1 of 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three different types of energy management systems and determine which system would be most effective in each of a variety of different buildings. The three systems chosen for this analysis are the FM Relay (FMR), Power Line Carrier (PLC), and Direct Digital Control (DDC) systems. The analysis performed was based upon five buildings of different function, occupancy, and scheduling as well as different types of mechanical systems. The recommendations listed in this report are applied over the entire Installation using the criteria listed for evaluating each building. This study develops the recommended strategies for applying energy management systems (EMS) to many of the buildings at Ft. Belvoir.

  18. High Fill-Out, Extreme Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. VIII. EM Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Soonthornthum, B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W. P.; Dai, Z.-B.

    2008-11-01

    CCD photometric observations of the newly discovered close binary, EM Piscium, obtained from 2006 December 4 to 2008 January 7, are presented. The light curves are symmetric and show complete eclipses with an eclipse duration of 54 minutes. When comparing the present light curves with those published by González-Rojas et al., it is found that the depths of the two minima of the light curve have been interchanged, and the positive O'Connell effect has disappeared. The symmetric light curves in R and I bands were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is found that EM Piscium is a high fill-out overcontact binary system (f = 95.3 ± 2.7%) with an extreme mass ratio of q = 0.1487, suggesting that it is on the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binaries. Based on the nine instances of light minimum that we determined and those published by previous investigators, it is discovered that the orbital period shows a cyclic period variation with a period of 3.3 years, while it undergoes a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt = +3.97 × 10-6 days year-1. The cyclic period reveals the presence of a tertiary companion, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the overcontact binary by drawing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction. The high fill-out, the extreme mass ratio, and the rapid period increase may suggest that the binary system is quickly evolving into a rapid-rotating single star.

  19. Need a University Adopt a Formal Environmental Management System?: Progress without an EMS at a Small University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Englefield, Russell

    2004-01-01

    What system does a university need to optimise its progress to sustainability? Discusses the gradation of approaches possible for a university as it strives to improve its environmental performance. Argues that an environmental policy plus mechanisms for its implementation can be adequate, and endorsement of a single formal EMS need not be…

  20. Study of pre-seismic kHz EM emissions by means of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe disparate problems ranging from particle physics to economies of societies. A corollary is that transferring ideas and results from investigators in hitherto disparate areas will cross-fertilize and lead to important new results. It is well-known that the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics works best in dealing with systems composed of either independent subsystems or interacting via short-range forces, and whose subsystems can access all the available phase space. For systems exhibiting long-range correlations, memory, or fractal properties, non-extensive Tsallis statistical mechanics becomes the most appropriate mathematical framework. As it was mentioned a central property of the magnetic storm, solar flare, and earthquake preparation process is the possible occurrence of coherent large-scale collective with a very rich structure, resulting from the repeated nonlinear interactions among collective with a very rich structure, resulting from the repeated nonlinear interactions among its constituents. Consequently, the non-extensive statistical mechanics is an appropriate regime to investigate universality, if any, in magnetic storm, solar flare, earthquake and pre-failure EM emission occurrence. A model for earthquake dynamics coming from a non-extensive Tsallis formulation, starting from first principles, has been recently introduced. This approach leads to a Gutenberg-Richter type law for the magnitude distribution of earthquakes which provides an excellent fit to seismicities generated in various large geographic areas usually identified as "seismic regions". We examine whether the Gutenberg-Richter law corresponding to a non-extensive Tsallis statistics is able to describe the distribution of amplitude of earthquakes, pre-seismic kHz EM emissions (electromagnetic earthquakes), solar flares, and magnetic storms. The

  1. Determination of optimal collimation parameters for a rotating slat collimator system: a system matrix method using ML-EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, F.; Bekaert, V.; Brasse, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Single Photon imaging has become an essential part of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine. Whether to establish a diagnosis or in the therapeutic monitoring, this modality presents performance that continues to improve. For over 50 years, several collimators have been proposed. Mainly governed by collimation parameters, the resolution-sensitivity trade-off is the factor determining the collimator the most suitable for an intended study. One alternative to the common approaches is the rotating slat collimator (RSC). In the present study, we are aiming at developing a preclinical system equipped with a RSC dedicated to mice and rats imaging, which requires both high sensitivity and spatial resolution. We investigated the resolution-sensitivity trade-offs obtained by varying different collimation parameters: (i) the slats height (H), and (ii) the gap between two consecutive slats (g), considering different intrinsic spatial resolutions. One system matrix was generated for each set of collimation parameters (H,g). Spatial resolutions, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensitivity obtained for all the set of collimation parameters (H,g) were measured in the 2D projections reconstructed with ML-EM. According to our results, 20 mm high slats and a 1 mm gap were chosen as a good RSC candidate for a preclinical detection module. This collimator will ensure a sensitivity greater than 0.2% and a system spatial resolution below 1 mm, considering an intrinsic spatial resolution below 0.8 mm.

  2. Determination of optimal collimation parameters for a rotating slat collimator system: a system matrix method using ML-EM.

    PubMed

    Boisson, F; Bekaert, V; Brasse, D

    2016-03-21

    Nowadays, Single Photon imaging has become an essential part of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine. Whether to establish a diagnosis or in the therapeutic monitoring, this modality presents performance that continues to improve. For over 50 years, several collimators have been proposed. Mainly governed by collimation parameters, the resolution-sensitivity trade-off is the factor determining the collimator the most suitable for an intended study. One alternative to the common approaches is the rotating slat collimator (RSC). In the present study, we are aiming at developing a preclinical system equipped with a RSC dedicated to mice and rats imaging, which requires both high sensitivity and spatial resolution. We investigated the resolution-sensitivity trade-offs obtained by varying different collimation parameters: (i) the slats height (H), and (ii) the gap between two consecutive slats (g), considering different intrinsic spatial resolutions. One system matrix was generated for each set of collimation parameters (H,g). Spatial resolutions, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensitivity obtained for all the set of collimation parameters (H,g) were measured in the 2D projections reconstructed with ML-EM. According to our results, 20 mm high slats and a 1 mm gap were chosen as a good RSC candidate for a preclinical detection module. This collimator will ensure a sensitivity greater than 0.2% and a system spatial resolution below 1 mm, considering an intrinsic spatial resolution below 0.8 mm. PMID:26930449

  3. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  4. Mapping Porosity Structure Offshore Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve and Del Mar, California Using a Surface Towed EM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas Patrick

    Controlled source electromagnetic methods have been used in exploration of the offshore environment for over 50 years to map the resistivity structure of the earth. Developments in both instrumentation and computational power have lead to many advancements that have led to discoveries and insights about the subsurface. One of these advancements has been the development of towed EM acquisition systems. One system the Marine EM Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed is a shallow water system, named Porpoise, can be used in water depths as shallow as 5m. In May of 2014, a one day field test of this new shallow water acquisition system took place offshore of Del Mar and Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California. The data from this field test corresponds with previous interpretations of paleochannels directly offshore modern day San Dieguito and Soledad Valley river outflows. With resistivity data, it is possible to indirectly map porosity in the near surface and to map geological features. The data dense and economical operation of the Porpoise acquisition system can be used to map resistivity and indirectly porosity in a variety of shallow water marine environments. This field test proves the viability and limitations of the Porpoise system.

  5. Liposomes on a streptavidin crystal: a system to study membrane proteins by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liguo; Sigworth, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the preparation of cryo-EM specimens for random spherically-constrained (RSC) single-particle reconstruction of membrane proteins. The specimen consists of liposomes into which the purified membrane protein is reconstituted at low density. The substrate is a 2D streptavidin crystal, which serves as an affinity surface that tethers the liposomes, which are doped with biotinylated lipids; the crystal also can serve as an image-quality and image-calibration reference. After subtraction of the crystal and lipid membrane contributions to the image, the remaining particle images can be used for 3D reconstruction. PMID:20887857

  6. Using the <em>urtA> Gene to Profile Nitrogen Stress Adaptation and Spatio-Temporal Abundance of <em>Synechococcus> Clades in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, T.; Shilova, I. N.; Zehr, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Among the planet's most abundant photosynthetic groups, the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus contributes nearly a quarter of our global oxygen supply. Urea, from both natural and anthropogenic sources, is an important alternative to the preferred yet limited sources of reduced nitrogen for cyanobacteria in the marine environment. While urea uptake activity has been observed during nitrogen (N) limitation, this stress adaptation is not well-studied in natural habitats. We propose the urtAgene, which encodes the substrate-binding subunit of the urea-uptake ABC transporter, as a molecular marker to profile cell abundance and stress response in relation to N fluctuation. Strains prevalent in temperate waters of the California Current System - Synechococcus CC9311 (clade I), CC9605 (clade II) and CC9902/BL107 (clade IV) - were targeted by clade-specific qPCR assays to measure urtA gene copy abundance in samples from different geographical stations and a time-series. Spatial and seasonal patterns in clade abundance resembled those previously reported by studies using other Synechococcus marker genes, thus validating urtA as a strong marker. Synechococcus clades I and IV were most abundant in coastal and transitional stations, while the more oligotrophic clade II was detected near open waters. Synechococcus abundances were highest before and after the annual upwelling season, as supported by a non clade-specific rbcL-qPCR assay. A lack of correlation between abundance and nitrate availability indicated utilization of alternative nitrogen sources like urea, which was further evidenced by the detection of clade IV urtA transcripts at the station closest to shore. Urea concentrations tend to be highest in coastal environments due to fertilizer runoff, which can stimulate phytoplankton blooms including harmful algal blooms. This study adds to insight on how such environmental factors are related to N-cycling and patterns of urea-assimilating microbial populations like

  7. Prehospital Ketamine is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Excited Delirium in a Community Hospital Based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Scaggs, Thomas R; Glass, David M; Hutchcraft, Megan Gleason; Weir, William B

    2016-10-01

    administered by paramedics in the prehospital setting of a community hospital based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is a safe and effective treatment for ExDS. Scaggs TR , Glass DM , Hutchcraft MG , Weir WB . Prehospital ketamine is a safe and effective treatment for excited delirium in a community hospital based EMS system. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):563-569.

  8. Prehospital Ketamine is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Excited Delirium in a Community Hospital Based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Scaggs, Thomas R; Glass, David M; Hutchcraft, Megan Gleason; Weir, William B

    2016-10-01

    administered by paramedics in the prehospital setting of a community hospital based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is a safe and effective treatment for ExDS. Scaggs TR , Glass DM , Hutchcraft MG , Weir WB . Prehospital ketamine is a safe and effective treatment for excited delirium in a community hospital based EMS system. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):563-569. PMID:27517801

  9. Neural network based short-term electric load forecasting: EMS-integrated and PC-based stand-alone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khadem, M.; Lago, A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the application of a neural network (NN) based short-term electric load forecast model that is being used for the energy control center of the electric utilities. This NN based short-term load forecast program has been developed with a version integrated with the electric utility`s Energy management System (EMS), as well as a PC-based stand-alone version. The model forecasts the hourly electrical load for the current day and up to seven days. A multi-layer neural network is used to provide a non-linear mapping between weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters (such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity), and historical hourly loads, a neural network is trained for each day type and each weather-defined season. The forecast of weather parameters can be obtained by a weather station for the forecast period. The program is capable to generate hourly weather forecast if the forecast form the weather service is partial, such as if only a few hours per day are available, or even if the maximum or minimum daily values of the temperature forecast is available. A separate NN model has also been developed for identifying seasons based on the historical weather data. This paper will discuss features of the system, the neural network models and algorithm, and a sample result of the program performance.

  10. Baking firm's energy-efficiency on the rise with EM system

    SciTech Connect

    Zinycz, J.

    1983-09-01

    This article describes energy management systems being planned and installed at a baking company's facilities to control plant HVAC, lighting and some production equipment. The main system described is a New Jersey facility where the system directly controls 25 heating/ventilating units, 52 exhaust fans, five air-conditioning un s, six lighting circuit-breaker panels and two fermentation room compressors. Area temperature sensors automatically adjust the start and stop of the HVAC equipment in response to environmental conditions. To ensure positive pressure in the plant, the controlled air make-up units are turned off only when their corresponding exhaust fans are off. All controlled lighting has local timed override switches for maintenance, sanitation, security and safety, or any other activity beyond usual operating hours. The system has saved about ten percent in overall electrical utility costs. Greater savings are being recorded each month due to fine-tuning and the addition of more plant equipment to the system.

  11. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  12. WE-A-17A-03: Catheter Digitization in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with the Assistance of An Electromagnetic (EM) Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, AL; Bhagwat, MS; Buzurovic, I; Devlin, PM; Friesen, S; Hansen, JL; Kapur, T; Lee, LJ; Mehrtash, A; Nguyen, PL; O'Farrell, D; Wang, W; Viswanathan, AN; Cormack, RA

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a system using EM tracking, postprocessing and error-detection algorithms for measuring brachytherapy catheter locations and for detecting errors and resolving uncertainties in treatment-planning catheter digitization. Methods: An EM tracker was used to localize 13 catheters in a clinical surface applicator (A) and 15 catheters inserted into a phantom (B). Two pairs of catheters in (B) crossed paths at a distance <2 mm, producing an undistinguishable catheter artifact in that location. EM data was post-processed for noise reduction and reformatted to provide the dwell location configuration. CT-based digitization was automatically extracted from the brachytherapy plan DICOM files (CT). EM dwell digitization error was characterized in terms of the average and maximum distance between corresponding EM and CT dwells per catheter. The error detection rate (detected errors / all errors) was calculated for 3 types of errors: swap of two catheter numbers; incorrect catheter number identification superior to the closest position between two catheters (mix); and catheter-tip shift. Results: The averages ± 1 standard deviation of the average and maximum registration error per catheter were 1.9±0.7 mm and 3.0±1.1 mm for (A) and 1.6±0.6 mm and 2.7±0.8 mm for (B). The error detection rate was 100% (A and B) for swap errors, mix errors, and shift >4.5 mm (A) and >5.5 mm (B); errors were detected for shifts on average >2.0 mm (A) and >2.4 mm (B). Both mix errors associated with undistinguishable catheter artifacts were detected and at least one of the involved catheters was identified. Conclusion: We demonstrated the use of an EM tracking system for localization of brachytherapy catheters, detection of digitization errors and resolution of undistinguishable catheter artifacts. Automatic digitization may be possible with a registration between the imaging and the EM frame of reference. Research funded by the Kaye Family Award 2012.

  13. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives and targets : annual results summary - FY2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2011.

  14. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  15. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  16. EMS systems in Malta.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, A

    2008-02-01

    This article describes how emergency medicine, a new and growing speciality in Malta, has developed and the way emergency care, including pre-hospital care, is delivered in a small island state. The training programme for Emergency Medicine Specialists is highlighted. The author also comments on the future development of emergency care in Malta.

  17. A Multi-omics Approach to Understand the Microbial Transformation of Lignocellulosic Materials in the Digestive System of the Wood-Feeding Beetle <em>Odontotaenius disjunctus em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceja Navarro, J. A.; Karaoz, U.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Adkins, J.; Mayali, X.; Blackwell, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Odontotaenius disjuctus is a wood feeding beetle that processes large amounts of hardwoods and plays an important role in forest carbon cycling. In its gut, plant material is transformed into simple molecules by sequential processing during passage through the insect's digestive system. In this study, we used multiple 'omics approaches to analyze the distribution of microbial communities and their specific functions in lignocellulose deconstruction within the insect's gut. Fosmid clones were selected and sequenced from a pool of clones based on their expression of plant polymer degrading enzymes, allowing the identification of a wide range of carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Comparison of metagenomes of all gut regions demonstrated the distribution of genes across the beetle gut. Cellulose, starch, and xylan degradation genes were particularly abundant in the midgut and posterior hindgut. Genes involved in hydrogenotrophic production of methane and nitrogenases were more abundant in the anterior hindgut. Assembled contigs were binned into 127 putative genomes representing Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and Nematodes. Eleven complete genomes were reconstructed allowing to identify linked functions/traits, including organisms with cellulosomes, and a combined potential for cellulose, xylan and starch hydrolysis and nitrogen fixation. A metaproteomic study was conducted to test the expression of the pathways identified in the metagenomic study. Preliminary analyses suggest enrichment of pathways related to hemicellulosic degradation. A complete xylan degradation pathway was reconstructed and GC-MS/MS based metabolomics identified xylobiose and xylose as major metabolite pools. To relate microbial identify to function in the beetle gut, Chip-SIP isotope tracing was conducted with RNA extracted from beetles fed 13C-cellulose. Multiple 13C enriched bacterial groups were detected, mainly in the midgut. Our multi-omics approach has allowed us to characterize the contribution of

  18. The National EMS Research strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Michael R; White, Lynn J; Brown, Lawrence H; McHenry, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    One of the eight major recommendations put forth by the National EMS Research Agenda Implementation Project in 2002 was the development of an emergency medical services (EMS) research strategic plan. Using a modified Delphi technique along with a consensus conference approach, a strategic plan for EMS research was created. The plan includes recommendations for concentrating efforts by EMS researchers, policy makers, and funding resources with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes. Clinical issues targeted for additional research efforts include evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma, acute cardiac ischemia, circulatory shock, major injury, pain, acute stroke, and traumatic brain injury. The plan calls for developing, evaluating, and validating improved measurement tools and techniques. Additional research to improve the education of EMS personnel as well as system design and operation is also suggested. Implementation of the EMS research strategic plan will improve both the delivery of services and the care of individuals who access the emergency medical system.

  19. Energy Management System (EMS) study, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Department of the Army, Baltimore District, Corps of Engineers; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, E.Y.

    1995-11-01

    General Location; Fort Belvoir is an 8,656 acre Post held fee simple by the US Army. It is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, 14 miles south of Washington, D.C., situated primarily on a peninsula of the Potomac River. Interstate 95 and US Route 1 provide primary transportation links to Norfolk, Washington, DC, and other cities. Fort Belvoir is an Army Installation under the Command of the United States Military District of Washington (MDW). Installation Mission: Since 1988 and its transfer to the MDW, Fort Belvoir`s mission has shifted from training to service to MDW and the National Capitol Region (NCR). Within its eight mission elements are: contingency military support to the NCR, Regional Administrative Center, Regional Logistics Support, Regional Recreation Center, Classroom Center, Housing and other regional activities. The Installation is now referred to as `U.S. Army Fort Belvoir`. Ft. Belvoir has been tasked, by Executive Order 12902, with reducing the total energy consumption on the Installation by 30% of the FY1985 level by the year FY2005. The purpose of this study is to determine the most effective Energy Management Systems (EMS) to install to assist in meeting this challenge. The analysis performed was based upon five buildings of different function, occupancy and scheduling, as well as different types of mechanical systems. Three different EMS types were analyzed for their advantages and applicability to each building. The results of this study are to be used to evaluate other buildings on the Installation. The three types of systems analyzed for this study are the FM Relay (FMR), the Power Line Carrier (PLC) and the Direct Digital Control (DDC) Systems.

  20. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  1. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  2. Progress in Evaluating Potential EM Earthquake Precursors: Comparison of Independent Ultra Low-Frequency Electro-Magnetic (ULFEM) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Glen, J. M. G.; Klemperer, S. L.; Christman, L.; Bleier, T.; Dunson, J. C.; DeKlotz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ultra-low frequency anomalies in the magnetic and electric fields have been reported prior to several earthquakes. Because most prominent ULFEM anomalies have thus far only been observed on individual stations, some authors have argued that some of these anomalies have an instrumental cause, rather than being earthquake precursors. Two independent ULFEM networks are presently operating in the greater San Francisco Bay Area; one managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Stanford University and the other by QuakeFinder (QF).The case that these anomalies are not instrumental would be strengthened by a demonstration that identical anomalies are seen on the two networks, despite their different components (magnetometers, digitizers and telemetry). A detailed comparison of the two systems will allow data from each of the two networks to be used to confirm anomalies and to evaluate potential precursor signals. To provide this comparison, the USGS-Stanford and QF acquired data on two independent ULFEM systems at the USGS-Stanford ULFEM station located at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA, from March 31-May 13, 2014. The two systems were set up~50m from each other and away from potential sources of noise. Both systems recorded the magnetic field with induction coils oriented along the three cardinal directions aligned with magnetic north. The results of this experiment reveal that the two systems have very similar response functions and comparable noise and drift characteristics. Both complex "noise" (a, b) and single discrete pulses (c, d) were recorded with essentially identical characteristics by the two systems. We also found, in a few instances, where the signals were observed on one system but were absent on the other, clearly indicating either internal system noise or reflecting extremely local site phenomena affecting a single system. Future efforts will involve analyses of pulses, spectral characteristics, correlation coefficients and noise.

  3. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  4. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  5. Peach: a simple Perl-based system for distributed computation and its application to cryo-EM data processing.

    PubMed

    Leong, Peter A; Heymann, J Bernard; Jensen, Grant J

    2005-04-01

    A simple distributed processing system named "Peach" was developed to meet the rising computational demands of modern structural biology (and other) laboratories without additional expense by using existing hardware resources more efficiently. A central server distributes jobs to idle workstations in such a way that each computer is used maximally, but without disturbing intermittent interactive users. As compared to other distributed systems, Peach is simple, easy to install, easy to administer, easy to use, scalable, and robust. While it was designed to queue and distribute large numbers of small tasks to participating computers, it can also be used to send single jobs automatically to the fastest currently available computer and/or survey the activity of an entire laboratory's computers. Tests of robustness and scalability are reported, as are three specific electron cryomicroscopy applications where Peach enabled projects that would not otherwise have been feasible without an expensive, dedicated cluster.

  6. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets : annual results summary %3CU%2B2013%3E FY10.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale S.; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2011-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each fiscal year (FY) significant environmental aspects are identified and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are designed to mitigate the impact of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to and rational for annually revised significant aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2010.

  7. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  8. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  9. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Mahadimane, Periyapatna Vishwaprakash; Vasudev, Venkateshaiah

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC), there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  10. In plant demonstration of high temperature EM pulser and pulsed EMAT receiver: Final report: Experimental development and testing of ultrasonic system for high temperature applications on hot steel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D.M.; Sperline, P.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes work performed under the Field Work Proposal on the ''In-Plant Demonstration of a High-Temperature EM Pulser and pulsed EMAT Receiver'' for the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Programs. Cost sharing by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) helped provide both technical guidance and equipment for the plant demonstration. This report covers the time period from January 1988 through September 1988.

  11. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  12. Systems Innovation and Education Management Systems (EMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nageswararao A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers and practitioners contend that all institutions respond to changing market need and can create competitive advantage through innovation and creativity. Each year, institutions expend significant resources developing new products and processes and yet research shows that more than half these initiatives fail. Successful…

  13. EMS: part three. Preventive medicine for EMS maladies

    SciTech Connect

    Hyfantis, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Shakeout problems in the fast-growing field of energy-management systems (EMS) are gorwing pains and neither unexpected nor insoluble. A National Bureau of Standards (NBS) survey found user complaints ranging from problems with food spoilage to poorly trained service people. But blame can be placed on users, manufacturers, and distributors. Involving operators and managers in load-control strategies can alleviate some problems and save some money. Allowing for realistic testing time in the installation phase can also save in the long run, as will initiating a maintenance schedule and maintaining operating logs. Software maintenance can present a serious problem. Another NBS study result indicates there is perceptible improvement in system performance when good training accompanies installation, particularly when the training is provided at the user facility. User education is probably the best key to avoiding most of the potential pitfalls. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  15. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e F

  16. Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N

    1983-01-01

    The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations.

  17. Evaluation of the Ems Estuary ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baretta, J. W.; Ruardij, P.

    1987-11-01

    An ecosystem model is used to calculate and summarize carbon budgets within the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands. The similarity between model calculations and field data is established using a validation procedure. Model results show that the seaward boundary concentration for suspended matter is important in determining whether an estuary is an importer or exporter of carbon. Lowered boundary concentrations of suspended matter enhance pelagic primary production, but reduce sedimentation and hence the carbon flux from pelagic to benthic systems.

  18. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  20. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  1. Assessing different airborne EM systems for delivering information on aquifer geometry and character: A case study from the Musgrave Province South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Ley-Cooper, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    When developing their pre-competitive data bases in support of the minerals industry, State and Federal Government agencies in Australia are now looking at the conjunctive use of airborne geophysics. This is particularly so for AEM data sets, which are now being acquired to promote exploration. This reflects a recognition that in the arid regions of Australia development of a given mineral deposit will, in part, be determined by the availability of water to support mining and mineral processing. An emerging trend, linked to the availability of new data processing procedures, sees AEM data now being actively employed for a combination of applications linked to minerals exploration including geological mapping, aquifer characterization and groundwater assessment. New surveys are being commissioned with attention being given as to whether AEM systems are capable of resolving the complexity of aquifer systems. In addition to new surveys, historical AEM data sets acquired to target potential mineralization are being re-processed for groundwater related applications. As part of the South Australian Goyder FLOWS project, regional and local scale AEM data sets are being examined to develop hydrogeological conceptual models in the remote Musgrave Province in the States north. The work has required the re-processing of historical data, including those acquired by TEMPEST, HoisTEM and VTEM. More recently, the project also acquired co-incident data from several new AEM systems, including the new SkyTEM508 (a helicopter TDEM system) and the SPECTREM2000 (a fixed wing TDEM system). Their acquisition aims to inform State agencies about options for acquiring further pre-competitive AEM data to support mineral exploration whilst also addressing groundwater resource requirements for the region. In this paper we examine the results from a comparative study of these systems for defining the variability of aquifers that are expected to provide the main source of groundwater for any

  2. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  3. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  4. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  5. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  6. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  7. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  8. A Monte Carlo Approach to Modeling the Breakup of the Space Launch System EM-1 Core Stage with an Integrated Blast and Fragment Catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin; Hays, M. J.; Blackwood, J. M.; Skinner, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Liquid Propellant Fragment Overpressure Acceleration Model (L-FOAM) is a tool developed by Bangham Engineering Incorporated (BEi) that produces a representative debris cloud from an exploding liquid-propellant launch vehicle. Here it is applied to the Core Stage (CS) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS launch vehicle). A combination of Probability Density Functions (PDF) based on empirical data from rocket accidents and applicable tests, as well as SLS specific geometry are combined in a MATLAB script to create unique fragment catalogues each time L-FOAM is run-tailored for a Monte Carlo approach for risk analysis. By accelerating the debris catalogue with the BEi blast model for liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen explosions, the result is a fully integrated code that models the destruction of the CS at a given point in its trajectory and generates hundreds of individual fragment catalogues with initial imparted velocities. The BEi blast model provides the blast size (radius) and strength (overpressure) as probabilities based on empirical data and anchored with analytical work. The coupling of the L-FOAM catalogue with the BEi blast model is validated with a simulation of the Project PYRO S-IV destruct test. When running a Monte Carlo simulation, L-FOAM can accelerate all catalogues with the same blast (mean blast, 2 s blast, etc.), or vary the blast size and strength based on their respective probabilities. L-FOAM then propagates these fragments until impact with the earth. Results from L-FOAM include a description of each fragment (dimensions, weight, ballistic coefficient, type and initial location on the rocket), imparted velocity from the blast, and impact data depending on user desired application. LFOAM application is for both near-field (fragment impact to escaping crew capsule) and far-field (fragment ground impact footprint) safety considerations. The user is thus able to use statistics from a Monte Carlo

  9. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  10. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  11. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  12. The effective molarity (EM)--a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-08-01

    The effective molarity (EM) for 12 intramolecular S(N)2 processes involving the formation of substituted aziridines and substituted epoxides were computed using ab initio and DFT calculation methods. Strong correlation was found between the calculated effective molarity and the experimentally determined values. This result could open a door for obtaining EM values for intramolecular processes that are difficult to be experimentally provided. Furthermore, the calculation results reveal that the driving forces for ring-closing reactions in the two different systems are proximity orientation of the nucleophile to the electrophile and the ground strain energies of the products and the reactants.

  13. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  14. Light 'Em Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Paul J.; Lindstrom, Chuck

    1998-01-01

    Provides advice on designing sports-field lighting that can help balance design with cost and lighting-system performance. Areas addressed include system installation, pole placement, light-spillage control, and maintenance. (GR)

  15. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  16. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  17. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite.

  18. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  19. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  20. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  1. Environmental management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System (EMS) is identification of environmental consequences from SNL/NM activities, products, and/or services to develop objectives and measurable targets for mitigation of any potential impacts to the environment. This Source Document discusses the annual EMS process for analysis of environmental aspects and impacts and also provides the fiscal year (FY) 2010 analysis. Further information on the EMS structure, processes, and procedures are described within the programmatic EMS Manual (PG470222).

  2. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  3. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2005-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program was developed in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1 and incorporates the elements of the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2013-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2014-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1.

  6. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  7. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  8. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-11-06

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment.

  9. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2007-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004. Elements of the ISO standard overlap with those of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, thus SNL/CA's EMS program also meets the DOE requirements.

  10. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  11. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  12. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  13. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  14. Conjoined Use of EM and NMR in RNA Structure Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhou; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    More than 40% of the RNA structures have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. NMR mainly provides local structural information of protons and works most effectively on relatively small biomacromolecules. Hence structural characterization of large RNAs can be difficult for NMR alone. Electron microscopy (EM) provides global shape information of macromolecules at nanometer resolution, which should be complementary to NMR for RNA structure determination. Here we developed a new energy term in Xplor-NIH against the density map obtained by EM. We conjointly used NMR and map restraints for the structure refinement of three RNA systems — U2/U6 small-nuclear RNA, genome-packing motif (ΨCD)2 from Moloney murine leukemia virus, and ribosome-binding element from turnip crinkle virus. In all three systems, we showed that the incorporation of a map restraint, either experimental or generated from known PDB structure, greatly improves structural precision and accuracy. Importantly, our method does not rely on an initial model assembled from RNA duplexes, and allows full torsional freedom for each nucleotide in the torsion angle simulated annealing refinement. As increasing number of macromolecules can be characterized by both NMR and EM, the marriage between the two techniques would enable better characterization of RNA three-dimensional structures. PMID:25798848

  15. The effective molarity (EM) puzzle in proton transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2009-08-01

    The DFT and HF calculation results for the proton transfer reactions of three different systems reveal that the reaction mechanism (transfer of a proton to a nucleophile) is largely determined by the distance between the two reactive centers (r). Systems with relatively large r values tend to abstract a proton from a molecule of water, whereas, these with a relatively small r values prefer to be engaged intramolecularly and their interaction with water is only via hydrogen bonding. Further, the results indicate that the effective molarity (logEM) for an intramolecular process is strongly correlated with the distance between the two reacting centers (r) in accordance with Menger's "spatiotemporal hypothesis".

  16. Evaluation model calculations with the water reactor analysis package (WRAP-EM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package-Evaluation Model (WRAP-EM) is a modular system of computer codes designed to provide the safety analyst with the capability of performing complete loss-of-coolant calculations for both pressurized- and boiling-water reactor systems. The system provides a licensing-type calculation capability and thus contains most of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-Approved EM options, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix K. All phases of an accident (blowdown, refill, and reflood) are modeled. The WRAP consists of modified versions of five preexisting codes (RELAP4/MOD5, GAPCON, FRAP, MOXY, and NORCOOL), the necessary interfaces to permit automatic transition from one code to the next during the transient calculations, plus a host of user-convenience features to aid the analyst faced with a multitude of EM calculations. The WRAP has been verified against both calculated and experimental results.

  17. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  18. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  19. EM23, A Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis, Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells through Thioredoxin- and Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyu; Li, Manmei; Wang, Guocai; Shao, Fangyuan; Chen, Wenbo; Xia, Chao; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yaolan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus mollis (EM) is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR), two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation, and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human CML K562 cells and AML HL-60 cells. PMID:27064563

  20. EM23, A Natural Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis, Induces Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells through Thioredoxin- and Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Li, Manmei; Wang, Guocai; Shao, Fangyuan; Chen, Wenbo; Xia, Chao; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yaolan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus mollis (EM) is a traditional herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, the efficacy of EM in treating human leukemia is currently unknown. In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in EM23-mediated apoptosis was suggested by observed disruptions in mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23 caused a marked increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, almost fully reversed EM23-mediated apoptosis. In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR), two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. Concomitantly, Trx regulated the activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream regulatory targets, the p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. EM23-mediated activation of ASK1/MAPKs was significantly inhibited in the presence of NAC. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was suppressed by EM23, as suggested by the observed blockage of p65 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation, and reversion of IκBα degradation following EM23 treatment. Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human CML K562 cells and AML HL-60 cells. PMID:27064563

  1. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  2. PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria <EM>Brevundimonas diminutaEM>EM. The ...

  3. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  4. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  5. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  6. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  7. Expert witness qualifications and ethical guidelines for emergency medical services litigation: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, W Ann Winnie; Kupas, Douglas F; Glushak, Cai

    2011-01-01

    The clinical provision of medical care by emergency medical services (EMS) providers in the out-of-hospital environment and the operation of EMS systems to provide that care are unique in the medical arena. There is a substantive difference in the experience of individuals who provide medical care in the out-of-hospital setting and the experience of those who provide similar care in the hospital or other clinical settings. Furthermore, physicians who provide medical direction for EMS personnel have a clinical and oversight relationship with EMS personnel. This relationship uniquely qualifies EMS medical directors to provide expert opinions related to care provided by nonphysician EMS personnel. Physicians without specific EMS oversight experience are not uniformly qualified to provide expert opinion regarding the provision of EMS. This resource document reviews the current issues in expert witness testimony in cases involving EMS as these issues relate to the unique qualifications of the expert witness, the standard of care, and the ethical expectations. PMID:21539461

  8. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  9. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  10. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  11. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  15. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  16. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  17. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further.

  18. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  19. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources.

  20. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources. PMID:24844291

  1. An overview of SAE ARP 1587: Aircraft gas turbine engine monitoring system guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A systematic approach to developing an engine monitoring system (EMS) is outlined. An extensive shopping list of EMS capabilities and benefits are included. A team approach to developing an EMS is emphasized with a description of the responsibilities of each team member.

  2. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  3. EM-Based Multiuser Detection in Fast Fading Multipath Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borran, Mohammad Jaber; Aazhang, Behnaam

    2002-12-01

    We address the problem of multiuser detection in fast fading multipath environments for DS-CDMA systems. In fast fading scenarios, temporal variations of the channel cause significant performance degradation even with the Rake receiver. We use a previously introduced time-frequency (TF) Rake receiver based on a canonical formulation of the channel and signals to simultaneously combat fading and multipath effects. This receiver uses the Doppler spread caused by rapid time-varying channel as another means of diversity. In dealing with multiaccess interference and as an attempt to avoid the prohibitive computational complexity of the optimum maximum-likelihood (ML) detector, we use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to derive an approximate ML detector. The new detector turns out to have an iterative structure very similar to the well-known multistage detector with some extra parameters. At the two extreme values of these parameters, the EM detector reduces to either one-shot TF Rake or generalized multistage detector. For the intermediate values of the parameters, it combines the two estimates to obtain a better decision for the bits of the users. Because of using the EM algorithm, this detector has better convergence properties than the multistage detector; the bit estimates always converge, and if an appropriate initial vector is used, they converge to the global maximizer of the likelihood function. As a result, the new detector provides significantly improved performance while maintaining the low complexity of the multistage detector. Our simulation results confirm the expected performance improvements compared to the base case of the TF Rake as well as the multistage detector used with the TF Rake.

  4. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  5. Know When To Hold 'em, Know When To Fold 'em.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice for systems librarians facing the question of when to provide CD-ROM access and when to provide online access to databases for their patrons. Discusses price, updates, effective resource utilization, and determining users' needs. (AEF)

  6. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  7. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.

  8. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  9. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  10. A tailored ML-EM algorithm for reconstruction of truncated projection data using few view angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2013-06-01

    Dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data with a small number of views. In this note, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data with different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views.

  11. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  12. The intrinsic features of Environmental Management Systems that facilitate adoption and encourage innovation in primary industries.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Genevieve; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-11-15

    This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the adoption of innovations, and applies this knowledge to the uptake of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) amongst Australian farmers. We examine the specific features of the EMS process that might encourage or inhibit EMS adoption. We also consider elements of the EMS process to assess their utility in promoting adoption of various other innovations. We evaluate the EMS process in the light of two characteristics previously found to influence adoption of improved natural resource management practices - 'relative advantage' and 'trialability'. Drawing on literature, and our research and experience with farmers, we conclude that there are inherent features of EMS that promote the adoption of new practices, and that the elements of the EMS process actually create an on-going process of culture change as it is implemented. We believe that the EMS process offers significant advantages to farmers seeking to improve production whilst simultaneously meeting societal expectations for enhanced natural resource management. PMID:22776757

  13. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    This year's survey offered examples of evolving partnerships between the public and EMS providers with a growing number of systems implementing PAD programs. The apparent influence of a communication center's managing agency on prioritization strategies is concerning. However, further study is needed. EMS managers must pay careful attention to comm center practices and technology to ensure their ability to support response prioritization and the efficient management of EMS resources. The small reduction in the use of hot response (lights and siren) to every request for service is disappointing in light of medical literature and position statements that condemn this practice. Resource response can be safely prioritized using today's EMD protocol systems. Prioritization and changing response [figure: see text] time requirements to address impending revenue and service demand changes will require additional standardization of methodologies and reporting of response times to relate this measure to other system performance indicators (e.g., patient morbidity/mortality, cost, customer satisfaction, etc.). The future presents a difficult road for system administrators. However, the adoption of a growing number of information-management tools and changes in procedures and dispatch processes offer potential solutions. The increased use of hand-held computers or personal digital assistant (PDAs) to gather and provide information and the almost universal use of CAD will aid providers in performing the research necessary to change response time performance requirements, improving EMS system efficiency. Use of this technology will also likely improve patient care and reimbursement through more timely and accurate reporting and analysis. The medical director's role will be critical to ensuring potential changes don't compromise patient care. Obtaining a better understanding of how much time can safely elapse between the time of the 9-1-1 call and when patient-care activities

  14. Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

    A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

  15. Feasibility study of application of ROV-towed loop-loop EM sensor for mapping seafloor marine hydrothermal sulfide massive deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Ko, H.; Park, I.; Cho, S.; Won, I. J.; Funak, F.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits have gained much attention of scientific interest since 1970s. In recent years, as demand for metallic mineral resources such as copper, zinc, gold, and other rare earth material increases, together with modern enhancement of marine technology, SMS deposits become more competing and now being recognized as commercially viable mineral resources in near future. An off-shore experiment was performed with a new marine small loop electromagnetic (EM) survey system, which was developed primarily for exploration of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. The new marine system is a multi-frequency loop EM system so that it is designed to endure high pressure in deep sea up to 2000 m. To maintain altitude of the system from the seafloor in rough seafloor topography condition, the system was connected rigidly to ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle), which then tows the whole system for survey. We performed offshore tests with the new loop EM system by keeping altitude of ROV 2 m above from the seafloor at a depth of 300 m near off-shore. The ROV position and attitude while moving (pitch, roll, yaw) and CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) data are also recorded simultaneously with electromagnetic responses. Experiments showed that EM anomaly was clearly identified at the true location of metallic object, and the pattern of the EM responses matches well with the theoretical responses from a 3-D integral equation EM modeling code. With the test in offshore, we confirmed that the method of operation of the EM survey system by ROV was readily feasible, and the system could effectively be used to map actual seafloor hydrothermal deposits in the highly conductive seafloor environment.

  16. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  17. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  18. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe

    2016-08-01

    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  19. <em>Terrestrial Planet Space Weather Information: An Update em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Lee, C.; Mays, M. L.; Odstrcil, D.; Jian, L.; Galvin, A. B.; Mewaldt, R. A.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Russell, C. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Thompson, W. T.; Baker, D. N.; Dewey, R. M.; Zheng, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather research is now a solar system-wide enterprise. While with the end of the Venus Express Express mission and MESSENGER, we lost our 'inside' sentinels, new missions such as Solar Orbiter and SPP, and Bepi-Colombo will soon be launched and operating. In the meantime the combination of L1 resources (ACE,WIND,SOHO) and STEREO-A at 1 AU, and Mars Express and MAVEN missions at ~1.5 AU, provide opportunities. Comparative conditions at the Earth orbit and Mars orbit locations are of special interest because they are separated by the region where most solar wind stream interaction regions develop. These alter the propagation of disturbances including the interplanetary CME-driven shocks that make the space radiation affecting future Human mission planning. We share some observational and modeling results thatillustrate present capabilities, as well as developing ones such as ENLIL-based SEP event models that use a range of available observations.

  20. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Lidia, S.M.

    2004-12-07

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as 'workhorse' providers of microbunches.

  1. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  2. Generation and identification of Arabidopsis EMS mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2014-01-01

    EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning.

  3. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  4. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  5. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  6. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest

  7. Integrated support systems for electric utility operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.W.; Imparato, C.F.; Becker, D.L.; Malinowski, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Power system dispatch, the real-time monitoring and coordination of transmission and generation facilities, is the focal point of power system operations. However, dispatch is just one of the many duties of the typical power system operations department. Many computer-based tools and systems are used in support of these duties. Energy management systems (EMS), the centralized, mainframe-, or mini-computer-based systems that support dispatch, have been widely publicized, but few of the other support systems have been given much notice. This article provides an overview of these support tools and systems, frames the major issues faced in systems integration, and describes the path taken to integrate EMS, workstations, desktop computers, networks and applications. Network architecture enables the distribution of real-time operations data throughout the company, from EMS to power plants to district offices, on an unprecedented scale.

  8. Helicopter EM (ZTEM-VTEM) survey results over the Nuqrah copper-lead-zinc-gold SEDEX massive sulphide deposit in the Western Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Izarra, Carlos; Prikhodko, Alexander; Zhao, Shengkai; Saadawi, Emad M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) results from two helicopter EM surveys, a time-domain (VTEM) and AFMAG (ZTEM), are compared over the Nuqrah sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) massive sulphide deposits in the Western Arabian Shield of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The magnetic and EM data from both surveys map the major controlling structures that host the Nuqrah North and South deposits. Neither Nuqrah deposits stand out as distinctive aeromagnetic anomalies, but both EM surveys define the massive sulphide mineralised vent and bedded portions of the SEDEX orebodies. ZTEM is interpreted to be more capable in defining the larger, lower conductance and less mineralised distal portions of the SEDEX system. The modelled ZTEM also defines a down-dip extension of the Nuqrah South zone below a depth of 750 m.

  9. Retinoic acid down-regulates the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri.

    PubMed

    Nikko, E; Van de Vyver, G; Richelle-Maurer, E

    2001-06-01

    The effects of retinoic acid (RA), a common morphogen and gene expression regulator in vertebrates, were studied in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri, both on morphogenesis and on the expression of EmH-3 homeobox-containing gene. At 0.3 microM, RA had no noticeable influence on sponge development, slightly up-regulating EmH-3 expression. In contrast, in sponges reared in 10, 8 microM and to a lesser extent 2 microM RA, there was a strong down-regulation of EmH-3 expression after hatching. This induced modifications in cell composition and morphology, greatly disturbing normal development. Archaeocytes kept the features found in newly hatched sponges while choanocytes and a functional aquiferous system were completely absent. The inhibition of morphogenesis and down-regulation of EmH-3 expression were reversible when sponges were no longer subjected to RA. After RA removal, EmH-3 expression returned to the high values found in untreated sponges, archaeocytes differentiated into choanocytes and sponges achieved a normal development. These results clearly show that, in freshwater sponges, the most primitive metazoan, RA may also act as a morphogen, regulating the expression of a homeobox-containing gene. They demonstrate that the expression of EmH-3 is necessary for the differentiation of archaeocytes into choanocytes and hence for the formation of a complete functional aquiferous system.

  10. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  11. The ISO 14001 EMS implementation process and its implications: A case study of Central Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Matouq

    2000-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Bhubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms towards other firms working for the same group, or branches--mainly small and medium sized enterprises--in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the environment. In other words, attention is given to life cycle analysis (LCA) among certified firms.

  12. Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Differentiation of Clonal HD-11EM Cells Into Osteoclast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steinbeck, Marla J.; Kim, Jung-Keun; Trudeau, Mathew J.; Hauschka, Peter V.; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses the osteoclast precursor clonal line, HD-11EM, to study the potential of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in mediating the differentiation of HD-11EM into osteoclast-like cells. HD-11EM cells are a newly established clonal cell line that, in response to 1α,25-(OH)2D3, differentiate into osteoclast-like cells that are multinucleated (more than three nuclei), express tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and excavate resorption pits when cultured on dentin slices in the presence of osteoblasts (Hsia et al., 1995, J. Bone Miner. Res., 10(Suppl 1):S424; Hsia, and Hauschka, 1997, unpublished data). Here we demonstrate that HD-11EM express the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase specific cytochrome b558 subunits, and that stimulation of HD-11EM with 1 or 10 nM 1α,25-(OH)2D3 increases the extracellular release of H2O2 within 5–10 min. Ours is the first report that stimulation of a cell with 1α,25-(OH)2D3 enhances the activation of NADPH-oxidase and increases the basal release of superoxide and the formation of its dismutation product, H2O2. To determine the possible involvement of H2O2 in the differentiation of HD-11EM, these cells were exposed to glucose/glucose oxidase. This enzyme system was used to deliver a pure and continuous source of H2O2 in nanomole amounts consistent with quantities produced by HD-11EM in response to 1α,25-(OH)2D3. Both 1α,25-(OH)2D3 and the exogenously generated H2O2 stimulated a dose- and time-dependent increase in TRAP activity/cell and the number of multinucleated cells 24–48 hr after treatment. Northern analysis confirmed an increase in expression of TRAP mRNA in response to either 1α,25-(OH)2D3 or H2O2. Decreases in cell proliferation and v-myc mRNA were also observed in response to these agents. Taken together, our findings indicate that production of H2O2 by HD-11EM is an important local factor involved in differentiation of HD-11EM into osteoclast-like cells, and suggest

  13. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Designation Staff to the State to assist the State Director in conducting a training meeting(s) with State... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special EM loan training. 1945.35 Section 1945.35...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.35 Special EM loan...

  14. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  15. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  17. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  18. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designations. When production losses meet the requirements in § 759.5 and the county has been designated as a disaster area for that reason, or when the discretionary exception to production losses for EM under § 759... eligible producers can receive EM loans. (2) Physical loss notification. When only qualifying...

  19. ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two new USEPA documents address environmental management systems (EMS) from the perspectives of government and industry and are offered as tools for understanding the process of the ISO 14000 Standards development and usefulness of an EMS approach. The first document, ISO 14001 -...

  20. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  1. Cryo-EM: A Unique Tool for the Visualization of Macromolecular Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an expanding structural biology technique that has recently undergone a quantum leap progression in its achievable resolution and its applicability to the study of challenging biological systems. Because crystallization is not required, only small amounts of sample are needed, and, because images can be classified in a computer, the technique has the potential to deal with compositional and conformational mixtures. Therefore, cryo-EM can be used to investigate complete and fully functional macromolecular complexes in different functional states, providing a richness of biological insight. In this review we underlie some of the principles behind the cryo-EM methodology of single particle analysis and discuss some recent results of its application to challenging systems of paramount biological importance. We place special emphasis on new methodological developments that are leading to an explosion of new studies, many of which are reaching resolutions that could only be dreamed of only a couple of years ago. PMID:26000851

  2. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  3. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  4. Sensitive and Specific Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Human Alveolar Echinococcosis with the Monoclonal Antibody Em2G11

    PubMed Central

    Tappe, Dennis; Stark, Lorenz; Grüner, Beate; Buttenschoen, Klaus; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Juchems, Markus; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Kern, Petra; Seitz, Hanns M.; Möller, Peter; Rausch, Robert L.; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. Differential diagnosis with cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by E. granulosus and AE is challenging. We aimed at improving diagnosis of AE on paraffin sections of infected human tissue by immunohistochemical testing of a specific antibody. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analysed 96 paraffin archived specimens, including 6 cutting needle biopsies and 3 fine needle aspirates, from patients with suspected AE or CE with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Em2G11 specific for the Em2 antigen of E. multilocularis metacestodes. In human tissue, staining with mAb Em2G11 is highly specific for E. multilocularis metacestodes while no staining is detected in CE lesions. In addition, the antibody detects small particles of E. multilocularis (spems) of less than 1 µm outside the main lesion in necrotic tissue, liver sinusoids and lymphatic tissue most probably caused by shedding of parasitic material. The conventional histological diagnosis based on haematoxylin and eosin and PAS stainings were in accordance with the immunohistological diagnosis using mAb Em2G11 in 90 of 96 samples. In 6 samples conventional subtype diagnosis of echinococcosis had to be adjusted when revised by immunohistology with mAb Em2G11. Conclusions/Significance Immunohistochemistry with the mAb Em2G11 is a new, highly specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for AE. The staining of small particles of E. multilocularis (spems) outside the main lesion including immunocompetent tissue, such as lymph nodes, suggests a systemic effect on the host. PMID:23145198

  5. EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, targets thioredoxin reductase to activate JNK and cell death pathways in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fang-Yuan; Wang, Sheng; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Wen-Bo; Wang, Guo-Cai; Ma, Dong-Lei; Wong, Nai Sum; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Li, Yao-Lan; Li, Man-Mei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants and found to have potential anticancer activities. However, the intracellular molecular targets of SLs and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we observed that EM23, a natural SL, exhibited anti-cancer activity in human cervical cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis as indicated by caspase 3 activation, XIAP downregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23-induced apoptosis was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the knockdown of thioredoxin (Trx) or thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) resulted in a reduction in apoptosis. EM23 attenuated TrxR activity by alkylation of C-terminal redox-active site Sec498 of TrxR and inhibited the expression levels of Trx/TrxR to facilitate ROS accumulation. Furthermore, inhibition of Trx/TrxR system resulted in the dissociation of ASK1 from Trx and the downstream activation of JNK. Pretreatment with ASK1/JNK inhibitors partially rescued cells from EM23-induced apoptosis. Additionally, EM23 inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and induced autophagy, which was observed to be proapoptotic and mediated by ROS. Together, these results reveal a potential molecular mechanism for the apoptotic induction observed with SL compound EM23, and emphasize its putative role as a therapeutic agent for human cervical cancer. PMID:26758418

  6. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and

  7. Emergency Medical Services Systems Research Projects, 1977. NCHSR Research Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This document contains summaries of thirty-two research projects supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR) under authority of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems Act. (Focus of these research projects is to describe, explain, and predict the performance of more than 200 EMS systems being established under Title…

  8. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  9. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  10. Design and modeling of an on-silicon spiral inductor library using improved EM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni-Iturri, A.; Khemchandani, S. L.; del Pino, F. J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, B.; Hernandez, A.

    2005-06-01

    This paper deals with the design and modeling of integrated spiral inductors for RF applications by means of a general purpose Electromagnetic (EM) simulator. These tools allow optimizing flexibly the inductor layout structure. The inductor performance can be obtained by using a three-dimensional design tool or a two-dimensional one. Planar 2-D or so called 2.5-Ds simulators are faster and accept complex coil geometries. We have used one of these simulators, the Advanced Design System planar EM simulator, Momentum, from Agilent. The inductor quality factor (Q) is limited, among other phenomena, by the series resistance of the metal traces and the substrate losses. Therefore the simulator requires an accurate set up of the process and simulator parameters and a correct algorithm to model metal thickness to rely on simulation results. In this paper we analyze and compare these different approaches. A high-quality factor inductor library on a 0.35 μm SiGe technology at 5 GHz is also designed in this work using the proper simulator set up. Nine of the inductors have been fabricated and measured to test the simulator reliability. Measurements taken over a frequency range from 500 MHz to 10GHz show a good agreement with 2.5-EM simulations.

  11. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  12. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts.

  13. Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

  14. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  15. Modeling and analysis of equipment managers in manufacturing execution systems for semiconductor packaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F T; Yang, H C; Luo, T L; Feng, C; Jeng, M

    2000-01-01

    Equipment Managers (EMs) play a major role in a Manufacturing Execution System (MES). They serve as the communication bridge between the components of an MES and the equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel methodology for developing analytical and simulation models for the EM such that the validity and performance of the EM can be evaluated. Domain knowledge and requirements are collected from a real semiconductor packaging factory. By using IDEFO and state diagrams, a static functional model and a dynamic state model of the EM are built. Next, these two models are translated into a Petri net model. This allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. The EM net model is then expanded into the MES net model. Therefore, the performance of an EM in the MES environment can be evaluated. These evaluation results are good references for design and decision making. PMID:18252408

  16. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  17. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states.

  18. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  19. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  20. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  1. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    encompassed three break-out sessions, which focused on needs and opportunities associated with the following LTM technical areas: (1) Performance Monitoring Tools, (2) Systems, and (3) Information Management. The specific objectives of the Technical Forum were to identify: (1) technical targets for reducing EM costs for life-cycle monitoring; (2) cost-effective approaches and tools to support the transition from active to passive remedies at EM waste sites; and (3) specific goals and objectives associated with the lifecycle monitoring initiatives outlined within the Roadmap. The first Breakout Session on LTM performance measurement tools focused on the integration and improvement of LTM performance measurement and monitoring tools that deal with parameters such as ecosystems, boundary conditions, geophysics, remote sensing, biomarkers, ecological indicators and other types of data used in LTM configurations. Although specific tools were discussed, it was recognized that the Breakout Session could not comprehensively discuss all monitoring technologies in the time provided. Attendees provided key references where other organizations have assessed monitoring tools. Three investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The second Breakout Session was on LTM systems. The focus of this session was to identify new and inventive LTM systems addressing the framework for interactive parameters such as infrastructure, sensors, diagnostic features, field screening tools, state of the art characterization monitoring systems/concepts, and ecosystem approaches to site conditions and evolution. LTM systems consist of the combination of data acquisition and management efforts, data processing and analysis efforts and reporting tools. The objective of the LTM systems workgroup was to provide a vision and path towards novel and innovative LTM systems, which should be able to provide relevant, actionable information on system performance in a cost-effective manner. Two investment

  2. A Memory-Based Approach to Two-Player Texas Hold'em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Jonathan; Watson, Ian

    A Case-Based Reasoning system, nicknamed SARTRE, that uses a memory-based approach to play two-player, limit Texas Hold'em is introduced. SARTRE records hand histories from strong players and attempts to re-use this information to handle novel situations. SARTRE'S case features and their representations are described, followed by the results obtained when challenging a world-class computerised opponent. Our experimental methodology attempts to address how well SARTRE'S performance can approximate the performance of the expert player, who SARTRE originally derived the experience-base from.

  3. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  4. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  5. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  6. Elected medical staff leaders: who needs 'em?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R E

    1994-03-01

    Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.

  7. Prehospital Electronic Patient Care Report Systems: Early Experiences from Emergency Medical Services Agency Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Adam B.; Lee, Christopher H.; Sasson, Comilla; Van Gelder, Carin M.; Curry, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background As the United States embraces electronic health records (EHRs), improved emergency medical services (EMS) information systems are also a priority; however, little is known about the experiences of EMS agencies as they adopt and implement electronic patient care report (e-PCR) systems. We sought to characterize motivations for adoption of e-PCR systems, challenges associated with adoption and implementation, and emerging implementation strategies. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews with EMS agency leaders. Participants were recruited through a web-based survey of National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) members, a didactic session at the 2010 NAEMSP Annual Meeting, and snowball sampling. Interviews lasted approximately 30 minutes, were recorded and professionally transcribed. Analysis was conducted by a five-person team, employing the constant comparative method to identify recurrent themes. Results Twenty-three interviewees represented 20 EMS agencies from the United States and Canada; 14 EMS agencies were currently using e-PCR systems. The primary reason for adoption was the potential for e-PCR systems to support quality assurance efforts. Challenges to e-PCR system adoption included those common to any health information technology project, as well as challenges unique to the prehospital setting, including: fear of increased ambulance run times leading to decreased ambulance availability, difficulty integrating with existing hospital information systems, and unfunded mandates requiring adoption of e-PCR systems. Three recurring strategies emerged to improve e-PCR system adoption and implementation: 1) identify creative funding sources; 2) leverage regional health information organizations; and 3) build internal information technology capacity. Conclusion EMS agencies are highly motivated to adopt e-PCR systems to support quality assurance efforts; however, adoption and implementation of e

  8. Simulation of Energy Management Systems in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2008-01-01

    An energy management system (EMS) is a dedicated computer that can be programmed to control all of a building's energy-related systems, including heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, interior lighting, exterior lighting, on-site power generation, and mechanized systems for shading devices, window actuators, and double facade elements. Recently a new module for simulating an EMS was added to the EnergyPlus whole-building energy simulation program. An essential part of the EMS module is the EnergyPlus Runtime Language (ERL), which is a simple programming language that is used to specify the EMS control algorithms. The new EMS controls and the flexibility of ERL allow EnergyPlus to simulate many novel control strategies that are not possible with the previous generation of building energy simulation programs. This paper surveys the standard controls in EnergyPlus, presents the new EMS features, describes the implementation of the module, and explores some of the possible applications for the new EMS capabilities in EnergyPlus.

  9. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  10. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  11. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  12. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  13. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  14. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  15. Tritium contamination at EG&G/EM in North Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, C.V.; Arent, L.J.

    1996-06-01

    The tritium contamination discovered at the EG&G Energy Measurements (EG&G/EM) facility in North Las Vegas, Nevada, on 20 April 1995, could have been averted by good health physics practices and/or adequate management oversight. Scandium tritide (ScT{sub 3}) targets were installed for use in sealed tube neutron generators at EG&G/EM. In addition, EG&G/EM was also storing zirconium tritide (ZrT{sub 3}) and titanium tritide (TiT{sub 3}) foils. Since the targets were classified as sealed sources, the appropriate administrative and engineering control measures such as relocating targets/sources, air monitoring, bioassay, waste stream management, labeling/posting and training were not implemented. In all there were six unreported incidents of tritium contamination from March 1994 to July 1995. Swipe surveys revealed areas exceeding the action level of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} by up to three orders of magnitude. After reclassifying the targets as unsealed sources, a bioassay program was instituted, and the results were higher than expected for three employees. The doses assigned to the three individuals working in the contaminated area were 35, 58, and 61 mrem committed effective dose equivalent. Though the doses were low, the decontamination costs were in excess of $350,000.00. An investigation, was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office to analyze the events that led to the tritium contamination and recommend actions to prevent recurrence. Event and causal factor charting, Project Evaluation Tree (PET) analysis techniques, and root cause analysis, were used to evaluate management systems, causal sequences, and systems factors contributing to the tritium release.

  16. An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.; Williams, R.C.; Urbanek, M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper gives an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain allele frequencies, haplotype frequencies, and gametic disequilibrium coefficients for multiple-locus systems. It permits high polymorphism and null alleles at all loci. This approach effectively deals with the primary estimation problems associated with such systems; that is, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic categories, and sample sizes tend to be much smaller than the number of phenotypic categories. The EM method provides maximum-likelihood estimates and therefore allows hypothesis tests using likelihood ratio statistics that have X{sup 2} distributions with large sample sizes. We also suggest a data resampling approach to estimate test statistic sampling distributions. The resampling approach is more computer intensive, but it is applicable to all sample sizes. A strategy to test hypotheses about aggregate groups of gametic disequilibrium coefficients is recommended. This strategy minimizes the number of necessary hypothesis tests while at the same time describing the structure of equilibrium. These methods are applied to three unlinked dinucleotide repeat loci in Navajo Indians and to three linked HLA loci in Gila River (Pima) Indians. The likelihood functions of both data sets are shown to be maximized by the EM estimates, and the testing strategy provides a useful description of the structure of gametic disequilibrium. Following these applications, a number of simulation experiments are performed to test how well the likelihood-ratio statistic distributions are approximated by X{sup 2} distributions. In most circumstances X{sup 2} grossly underestimated the probability of type I errors. However, at times they also overestimated the type 1 error probability. Accordingly, we recommend hypothesis tests that use the resampling method. 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  18. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  20. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  1. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  2. Multimodality image guidance system integrating X-ray fluoroscopy and ultrasound image streams with electromagnetic tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Luis F.; Shechter, Guy; Stanton, Douglas; Dalal, Sandeep; Elgort, Daniel; Manzke, Robert; Chan, Raymond C.; Zagorchev, Lyubomir

    2007-03-01

    This work presents an integrated system for multimodality image guidance of minimally invasive medical procedures. This software and hardware system offers real-time integration and registration of multiple image streams with localization data from navigation systems. All system components communicate over a local area Ethernet network, enabling rapid and flexible deployment configurations. As a representative configuration, we use X-ray fluoroscopy (XF) and ultrasound (US) imaging. The XF imaging system serves as the world coordinate system, with gantry geometry derived from the imaging system, and patient table position tracked with a custom-built measurement device using linear encoders. An electromagnetic (EM) tracking system is registered to the XF space using a custom imaging phantom that is also tracked by the EM system. The RMS fiducial registration error for the EM to X-ray registration was 2.19 mm, and the RMS target registration error measured with an EM-tracked catheter was 8.81 mm. The US image stream is subsequently registered to the XF coordinate system using EM tracking of the probe, following a calibration of the US image within the EM coordinate system. We present qualitative results of the system in operation, demonstrating the integration of live ultrasound imaging spatially registered to X-ray fluoroscopy with catheter localization using electromagnetic tracking.

  3. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  4. Varying-energy CT imaging method based on EM-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Han, Yan

    2016-11-01

    For complicated structural components with wide x-ray attenuation ranges, conventional fixed-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging cannot obtain all the structural information. This limitation results in a shortage of CT information because the effective thickness of the components along the direction of x-ray penetration exceeds the limit of the dynamic range of the x-ray imaging system. To address this problem, a varying-energy x-ray CT imaging method is proposed. In this new method, the tube voltage is adjusted several times with the fixed lesser interval. Next, the fusion of grey consistency and logarithm demodulation are applied to obtain full and lower noise projection with a high dynamic range (HDR). In addition, for the noise suppression problem of the analytical method, EM-TV (expectation maximization-total Jvariation) iteration reconstruction is used. In the process of iteration, the reconstruction result obtained at one x-ray energy is used as the initial condition of the next iteration. An accompanying experiment demonstrates that this EM-TV reconstruction can also extend the dynamic range of x-ray imaging systems and provide a higher reconstruction quality relative to the fusion reconstruction method.

  5. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  6. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  7. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  8. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  9. Optimization of the EMS process parameters in compocasting of high-wear-resistant Al-nano-TiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipour, Majid; Pahlevani, Zahra; Shabani, Mohsen Ostad; Mazahery, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Understanding of the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) process parameters-wear relation in nanocomposite is required for further creation of tailored modifications of process in accordance with the demands for various applications. This study depicts the performance of hybrid algorithm for optimization of the parameters in EMS compocasting of nano-TiC-reinforced Al-Si alloys. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) coupled with particle swarm optimization (PSO) was applied to find the optimum combination of the inputs including mold temperature, mix time, impeller speed, powder temperature, cast temperature and average particle size. The optimized condition was obtained in minimization of objective function. The objective function is calculated by ANFIS and then minimized by PSO. The optimized parameters were used to produce semisolid cast aluminum matrix composites reinforced with nano-TiC particles. The optimized nanocomposites were then studied for their tribological properties.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2012-03-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site first received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006 and recertification in 2009. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy and Water Resource Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services Environmental programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National

  12. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2011-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a set of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has several groups operating at Sandia National Laboratories, New

  13. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  14. Environmental Systems Research FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  15. Environmental Systems Research, FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  16. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria <EM>Brevundimonas diminutaEM>, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  17. Reservoir characterization and process monitoring with EM methods. 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.

    1994-09-01

    During the past four years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have applied the EM induction method to the problem of thermal front tracking during EOR operations. During this past year, they have also turned their attention to the larger, but related, problem of petroleum reservoir characterization. As in the past, this research is a collaborative effort. The main focus of activities at LLNL is hardware development, field measurement and geological interpretation of the results. The authors are dependent on others for theoretical and software development, geological information and the availability of sites to test field systems. Collaborative interdependency serves to make research dollars stretch further and allows completion of the tasks in a timely manner. In this annual report the authors discuss the progress in the development of numerical modeling codes, describe improvements to the field system and present some field results.

  18. Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

    2011-12-01

    Several methods of climate field reconstructions (CFRs) have been introduced in the past few years to estimate past climate variability from proxy data over the Common Era. The pseudoproxy framework has become a tool of choice for assessing the relative merits of such methods. Here we compare four variants of the RegEM algorithm [Schneider, 2001], using a pseudoproxy network mimicking the key spatio-temporal characteristics of the network of Mann et al., 2008 (hereinafter M08); the methods are (1) RegEM TTLS (2) RegEM iTTLS (3) GraphEM and (4) RegEM iRIDGE. To ensure continuity with previous work [Smerdon et al. 2011], pseudoproxy series are designed as a white-noise degraded version of the simulated temperature field [Amman et al. 2007] over 850-1980 C.E. colocated with 1138 M08 proxies. We use signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of: ∞ (no noise), 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25, to simulate differences in proxy quality. Two novelties in pseudoproxy design are introduced here: (1) the decrease in proxy availability over time follows that found in M08, (2) a realistic case where the SNR is empirically derived from correlations between each M08 proxy and the HadCRUT3v temperature field. It is found that this realistic SNR is clustered around 0.3, but ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. Verification statistics such as RE, CE, r2, bias, standard deviation ratio and RMSE are presented for each method at each SNR level. The results show that all methods perform relatively well at SNR levels higher than 0.5, but display drastically different performances at lower SNR levels. Compared with results using pseudoproxy network of Mann et al., 1998, (hereinafter MBH98), the reconstruction skill of the M08 network is relatively improved, in line with the findings of Smerdon et al., 2011. Overall, we find that GraphEM and iTTLS tend to produce more robust estimates of the temperature field at low SNR levels than other schemes, while preserving a higher amount of variance in the target field. Ammann, C. M., F

  19. A modified EM algorithm for estimation in generalized mixed models.

    PubMed

    Steele, B M

    1996-12-01

    Application of the EM algorithm for estimation in the generalized mixed model has been largely unsuccessful because the E-step cannot be determined in most instances. The E-step computes the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood and when the random effect distribution is normal, this expectation remains an intractable integral. The problem can be approached by numerical or analytic approximations; however, the computational burden imposed by numerical integration methods and the absence of an accurate analytic approximation have limited the use of the EM algorithm. In this paper, Laplace's method is adapted for analytic approximation within the E-step. The proposed algorithm is computationally straightforward and retains much of the conceptual simplicity of the conventional EM algorithm, although the usual convergence properties are not guaranteed. The proposed algorithm accommodates multiple random factors and random effect distributions besides the normal, e.g., the log-gamma distribution. Parameter estimates obtained for several data sets and through simulation show that this modified EM algorithm compares favorably with other generalized mixed model methods.

  20. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  1. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  2. A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

  3. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  4. EM-Navigated Catheter Placement for Gynecologic Brachytherapy: An Accuracy Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and/or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems. PMID:25076828

  5. ECM Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, A. M.; Ottoboni, E. G.

    1984-11-01

    The ECM Monitoring System (EMS) was designed and developed to characterize continuous wave (CW) and pulsed-type RF signals in the 50 MHz to 18 GHz range. In particular, the system measures the signal parameters (spectral content, FM content, AM content, average power, and/or noise quality) of electronic countermeasure (ECM) signals. Radar signals associated with these ECM signals are also characterized. The system uses mostly commercially available instrumentation and some custom equipment to characterize the signal parameters automatically. The system can measure and quantify the parameters of operational and developmental jamming systems. It is a valuable test and evaluation tool for use during the entire life cycle of such systems, and aids in the development and deployment of effective jammers for use by operational military forces.

  6. On the impact of salinity observations on state estimates in Ems Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pein, Johannes Ulrich; Grayek, Sebastian; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil Vassilev

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamics of Ems Estuary are dominated by tides and their interaction with buoyancy forcing. Such an environment is challenging for any effort to bring together observations and model results. In this study, we investigate how salinity measurements in the Ems Estuary affect the reconstruction of the salinity field. Similar to the traditional observing system experiments, the impact of specific observational arrays is simulated in the framework of statistical experiments. The experimental algorithm mainly relies on the model covariance matrix. Each experiment results in an estimate of the reconstruction error. The analysed observation configurations involve single and multiple, as well as stationary and non-stationary observing arrays. Generally, the reconstruction of the ocean state improves with increasing the density of observations. It appears that certain locations are more favourable for reconstruction than others. In fact, the regions separating the main dynamical realms resist strongest to the reconstruction effort. Extending the covariance matrix by the temporal cross-covariances between the model grid points enables to evaluate the impact of observations taken from a moving platform. This approach further improves the outcome of the experiments, resulting in reconstruction errors near zero with the exception of the tidal river. The cross-covariance information is able to tackle even the irregular dynamics arising on the border between the different physical regimes.

  7. Application of the high-resolution EM method in the investigation of B Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lanfang; He, Zhanxiang; Wang, Xuben; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Lunkai

    2005-09-01

    A successful case history of exploring for concealed structure using the high-resolution EM method in the investigation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project’s B Tunnel is presented in this paper. The high frequency electromagnetic image system named STRATAGEM EH4, operating at frequencies ranging from 90 KHz to lHz, was used for data acquisition. The orthogonal components of the electromagnetic field were measured during the field acquisition and the relevant electromagnetic attributes of the object body were extracted from the electromagnetic data. Hybrid sources, consisting of natural and full tensor-controlled sources, were utilized to produce high-quality electromagnetic field data. B Tunnel lies in the western part of Hubei province, at depths of less than 200 m. The geologic setting of B tunnel is very complex. Following an initial geologic investigation, an outcrop considered to be a bedrock interface by investigators, collapsed during tunneling operations. A second investigation applied high-resolution EM and seismic refraction methods to reveal a more complex geologic structure along the tunnel route. The predicted rock classes and fault were encountered during the subsequent tunneling operations.

  8. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  9. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  10. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  11. Signals Attenuation and Application of EM-MWD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Liu, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, J.; Wu, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the course of drilling utilizes directional well and horizontal well, it is indispensable to master timely and exact geological guide information, and offering services for such complicated drilling is electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling (EM-MWD) which can measure guide data of drilling tool in the hole and formation data while drilling. This knowledge allows the directional driller to make appropriate mechanical corrections in drill string orientation that will allow the advancing drill bit to hit an intended subsurface target area. Based on electromagnetic field theory, the paper has studied the propagation particularity and attenuation regularity that the signals of electromagnetic wave for EM-MWD transmit in stratum. The paper also gives a brief introduction of the containing, the work principle and the main technology parameter of EM-MWD. To check up the performance of EM-MWD, the field test of 5 wells were carried out in Shengli Oilfield and Liaohe Oilfield. Numerical simulation results indicate the signal attenuation will be added with the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10 Hz the stratum absorptivity is tiny and does not add noticeably with the increase of the electromagnetic wave frequency and the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10000 Hz the stratum absorptivity does not increase noticeably with the decrease of the dielectric constant of the stratum. Field test demonstrate that EM-MWD receives successfully signal emitted from depth underground 1600 meters in Shengli oilfield and 2400 meters in Liaohe oilfield. Our results indicate that numerical simulation methods are comparable to field test.

  12. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  13. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  14. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  15. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  16. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress. PMID:25760489

  17. Fast and accurate calibration of an X-ray imager to an electromagnetic tracking system for interventional cardiac procedures.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andrew; Stanton, Douglas; Parthasarathy, Vijay; Jain, Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease affects millions of Americans each year. Interventional guidance systems are being developed as treatment options for some of the more delicate procedures, including targeted stem cell therapy. As advanced systems for such types of interventional guidance are being developed, electromagnetic (EM) tracking is coming in demand to perform navigation. To use this EM tracking technology, a calibration is necessary to register the tracker to the imaging system. In this paper we investigate the calibration of an X-ray imaging system to EM tracking. Two specially designed calibration phantoms have been designed for this purpose, each having a rigidly attached EM sensor. From a clinical usability point-of-view, we propose to divide this calibration problem into two steps: i) in initial calibration of the EM sensor to the phantom design using an EM tracked needle to trace out grooves in the phantom surface and ii) segmentation from X-ray images and 3D reconstruction of beads embedded in the phantom in a known geometric pattern. Combining these two steps yields and X-ray-to-EM calibration accuracy of less than 1 mm when overlaying an EM tracked needle on X-ray images.

  18. Interference harmonics and rigorous EM spectrum analysis method for low-k1 CD Bossung tilt correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Shuo-Yen; Ng, Hoi-Tou; Chen, Yi-Yin; Lee, Chien-Fu; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the CD Bossung tilt phenomena in low-k1 lithography using interference harmonics and rigorous EM spectrum analysis. Interference harmonics analysis is introduced to explain the interaction of diffraction orders in the focal region leading to this abnormal CD behavior. This method decomposes the vector image formula into a superposition of cosine components to describe the interference of diffraction orders. The symmetry properties of components of an optical projection system were investigated to find out three potential sources for the asymmetric Bossung behavior, namely mask 3D (M3D) effect, lens aberration, and wafer reflectivity. Under good lens aberration and substrate reflectivity controls, the M3D effect accounts for most of the CD Bossung tilt. A rigorous EM mask spectral analysis was performed to reveal the impact of mask topography on the near-field intensity of mask transmission and the far-field image formation. From the analysis, the asymmetric phase distribution in the mask spectrum is the root cause for CD Bossung tilt. Using both the interference harmonics and the rigorous EM spectrum analysis, the effect of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) to the Bossung tilt is also studied to find the best RET combination for M3D immunity. In addition, a pupil optimization algorithm based on these two analyses is proposed to generate the phase compensation map for M3D effect counteraction.

  19. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  20. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  1. Signal-to-Noise Ratios of the <em>ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulatorem> (<em>ACES>) for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to advance technologies in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission and to demonstrate them initially from a high-altitude airborne platform. With a multiple fiber-amplifier-based Swept-Frequency Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (SF-IM-CW) high-power laser transmitter and a multiple-aperture receiver, the ACES system provides simultaneous measurements of the differential optical depth at the 1571-nm CO2 absorption line and the associated range between the transmitter and target on an airborne platform. The precise measurement of the CO2 differential optical depth and the range, determined by signal amplitudes and phases in the ACES returns, together with the temperature, pressure, and water vapor information at the same location, make it possible to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mixing ratio (XCO2). The Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNRs) of both return-signal amplitudes and phases of three simultaneously-received SF-IM-CW signals in the ACES system directly affect the measurement precision of the differential optical depths and the ranges between the ACES system and the Earth's surface or the tops of intermediate cloud layers. In this paper, we present results from numerical simulations and experimental measurements of ACES SNRs based on the laboratory-determined system parameters and flight experiments over ocean and land areas. These results will be used in the design of an IM-CW CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar system for ASCENDS mission.

  2. Xyz Airborne Time Domain Em: P-Them Test in Reid Mahaffy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical axis transmitter loop and receiver coil combination is widely used in Airborne Time-Domain EM systems. In such configurations the largest portion of the transmitter magnetic moment, which is distributed in a vertical direction, is transmitted to the subsurface, and the strongest vertical response from underground conductors is acquired with a vertical axis (Z) receiver coil. However, the horizontal axis (X and Y) components carry valuable information about target body geometry and their borders/edges. Most Airborne Time Domain systems currently in use are configured such that the X component is aligned with the flight direction. At typical survey speeds (60 to 80 kph) towed bird systems may expect to be subject to vibration that results in movement of horizontal and vertical receiver's axis from its desired nominal position. The mechanical design of the P-THEM transmitter and receiver is based on Bernard Kremer's (THEM Geophysics) developments finished and improved by Pico Envirotec Inc. The P-THEM system consists of a loop-transmitter assembly, powered by a motor generator and a 3-axis (XYZ) coil receiver attached at the midpoint of a tow cable between transmitter and a helicopter. The suspension system of the receiver coils assembly allows the Z-coil to remain horizontal at all the time during the flight. Pico Envirotec has developed methodology to recalculate the data from three axis of the receiver that allows mechanical vibration influence to be eliminated from the acquired data. The recalculated X-component gives very useful information for interpretation of the observation results. The P-THEM system has been test flown over the Reid Mahaffy geological test site located in Northern Ontario in Canada. The test site, created by the Ontario Geological Survey, contains the main conductor formed with three sub-vertical sliced conductive bodies. Three lines (L30, L40 and L50) over the test site have been flown in North and South direction with the P

  3. Emergency Medical Services System in Hong Kong: a pearl in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, E; Burkle, F M

    1997-01-01

    Each Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is unique in its development and scope of practice. In many instances, it incorporates components of other models. It is important to the intellectual growth of the Emergency Medical Technicians that they visualize EMS design from an international perspective. This article describes the EMS system that exists in Hong Kong. It explores the changes that are occurring, defines the relationship between Hong Kong and China, and considers the influence that this evolving model might have on China after 1997.

  4. COHERENT LASER VISION SYSTEM (CLVS) OPTION PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Clark

    1999-11-18

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) suitable for DOE's EM Robotic program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update the dimensional spatial data on the order of once per second. The system has total immunity to ambient lighting conditions.

  5. Identifying conformational states of macromolecules by eigen-analysis of resampled cryo-EM images

    PubMed Central

    Penczek, Pawel A.; Kimmel, Marek; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present the codimensional PCA, a novel and straightforward method for resolving sample heterogeneity within a set of cryo-EM 2D projection images of macromolecular assemblies. The method employs Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of resmapled 3D structures computed using subsets of 2D data obtained with a novel hypergeometric sampling scheme. PCA provides us with a small subset of dominating “eingevolumes” of the system, whose reprojections are compared with experimental projection data to yield their factorial coordinates constructed in a common framework of the 3D space of the macromolecule. Codimensional PCA is unique in the dramatic reduction of dimensionality of the problem, which facilitates rapid determination of both the plausible number of conformers in the sample and their 3D structures. We applied the codimensional PCA to a complex data set of T. thermophilus 70S ribosome, and we identified four major conformational states and visualized high mobility of the stalk base region. PMID:22078558

  6. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  7. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation.

  8. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  9. Electromagnetic Pumps for Conductive-Propellant Feed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Polzin, K. A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in high-power electric thrusters for application in nuclear-electric propulsion systems. Two of the most promising thrusters utilize liquid metal propellants: the lithium-fed magnetoplasmadynamic thruster and the bismuth-fed Hall thruster. An important element of part of the maturation of these thrusters will be the development of compact, reliable conductive-propellant feed system components. In the present paper we provide design considerations and experimental calibration data for electromagnetic (EM) pumps. The role of an electromagnetic pump in a liquid metal feed system is to establish a pressure gradient between the propellant reservoir and the thruster - to establish the requisite mass flow rate. While EM pumps have previously been used to a limited extent in nuclear reactor cooling loops, they have never been implemented in electric propulsion (EP) systems. The potential benefit of using EM pumps for EP are reliability (no moving parts) and the ability to precisely meter the propellant flow rate. We have constructed and tested EM pumps that use gallium, lithium, and bismuth propellants. Design details, test results (pressure developed versus current), and material compatibility issues are reported. It is concluded that EM pumps are a viable technology for application in both laboratory and flight EP conductive-propellant feed systems.

  10. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  11. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules. PMID:26566976

  12. EM international activities: May 1998 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This publication is produced twice a year by the International Technology Systems Application staff. This issue is divided into the following sections: (1) Global Issues Facing Environmental Management; (2) Activities in Western Europe; (3) Activities in Central and Eastern Europe; (4) Activities in Russia; (5) Activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim; (6) Activities in South America; (7) Activities in North America; (8) Country studies; and (9) International Organizations. Some topics discussed are nuclear materials management, radioactive waste and hazardous waste management, and remedial action programs.

  13. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  14. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future. PMID:21950142

  15. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  16. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  17. Minimum-distortion isometric shape correspondence using EM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Yemez, Yücel

    2012-11-01

    We present a purely isometric method that establishes 3D correspondence between two (nearly) isometric shapes. Our method evenly samples high-curvature vertices from the given mesh representations, and then seeks an injective mapping from one vertex set to the other that minimizes the isometric distortion. We formulate the problem of shape correspondence as combinatorial optimization over the domain of all possible mappings, which then reduces in a probabilistic setting to a log-likelihood maximization problem that we solve via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM algorithm is initialized in the spectral domain by transforming the sampled vertices via classical Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Minimization of the isometric distortion, and hence maximization of the log-likelihood function, is then achieved in the original 3D euclidean space, for each iteration of the EM algorithm, in two steps: by first using bipartite perfect matching, and then a greedy optimization algorithm. The optimal mapping obtained at convergence can be one-to-one or many-to-one upon choice. We demonstrate the performance of our method on various isometric (or nearly isometric) pairs of shapes for some of which the ground-truth correspondence is available.

  18. SubspaceEM: A Fast Maximum-a-posteriori Algorithm for Cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dvornek, Nicha C.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Tagare, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Single particle reconstruction methods based on the maximum-likelihood principle and the expectation-maximization (E–M) algorithm are popular because of their ability to produce high resolution structures. However, these algorithms are computationally very expensive, requiring a network of computational servers. To overcome this computational bottleneck, we propose a new mathematical framework for accelerating maximum-likelihood reconstructions. The speedup is by orders of magnitude and the proposed algorithm produces similar quality reconstructions compared to the standard maximum-likelihood formulation. Our approach uses subspace approximations of the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data and projection images, greatly reducing the number of image transformations and comparisons that are computed. Experiments using simulated and actual cryo-EM data show that speedup in overall execution time compared to traditional maximum-likelihood reconstruction reaches factors of over 300. PMID:25839831

  19. Analysis of an electrodynamic maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.

    1999-09-01

    Electrodynamic systems (EDS's) for maglev have an advantage over electromagnetic systems (EMS's) in that the stability is built into the system. EDS's induce the currents used for levitation and guidance, while EMS's impose those currents with controlled feedback. The movement of a magnet over properly designed EDS coils results in forces to keep the system fixed in the lowest energy or null flux spot. In the past such systems have been examined through two-dimensional boundary element techniques. An approximation to the full three-dimensional time harmonic problem is obtained through LaPlace transform theory after using boundary element methods to predict the mutual coupling of the magnets with the track coils. The analytic solution offers helpful design and operation guidelines.

  20. Numerical Methods in Electromagnetics: Evanescent Nanometry for DNA Sequencing, and EM Induction for UXO Detection and Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijamov, Alex

    The main goals of this work are to extend forward and apply inverse EM numerical methods to enhance the fundamental understanding of ultra-wideband frequency range EM fields in complex geometries. The particular emphases are made on medical device development for whole human genome sequencing using force spectroscopy; and underwater target detection, and live sites UXO discrimination. Force spectroscopy is a powerful technique used to manipulate single biomolecules and study their interactions. In these experiments one end of a macromolecule is immobilized on a substrate, while its free end is attached to an externally-manipulated microscopic bead. Crucial to the application of force spectroscopy to DNA sequencing is the ability to apply pulling forces reaching hundreds of pico-Newtons and image molecular extensions with sub-nanometer resolution. To achieve both goals the behavior of EM fields in the vicinity of the beads and the associated far fields need to be investigated using numerical simulations. In recent years our group has developed a numerical technique---the Method of Auxiliary Sources---which was modified here for these problems. In this work the physics of bead scattering and fluorescent responses is studied for a variety of bead and substrate compositions and geometries, including layered structures, to understand their potential in increasing imaging sensitivity. This thesis also studies the inversion problems related to the underwater UXO detection and live-site UXO discrimination. Rigorous analysis of underlying physics of low-frequency EM field scattering from conducting objects in underwater environments is performed. The effects of seawater surface roughness on transmitted EM signals and the associated noise levels are analyzed. A new, magnetic field-based geolocation system is studied numerically for GPS-denied underwater environments. Finally, the performances of statistical and machine learning methods are analyzed for automatic

  1. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and

  2. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  3. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  4. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the

  5. The interaction between gravity waves and solar tides: results from <em>4-Dem> ray tracing <em>fully> coupled to a linear tidal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, B.; Achatz, U.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between solar tides (STs) and gravity waves (GWs) is studied via a fully coupled system of a three-dimensional ray-tracer model and a linear tidal model.The tidal model describes the propagation of STs on a monthly mean climatology, allowing STs to interact with stationary planetary waves. The tidal model has been obtained by linearization of the primitive equations about the climatology. STs are being forced by aclimatological diurnal heating and by the (instantaneous) GWs flux convergences of momentum and buoyancy. The GW forcing is calculated (at each time step) by the ray tracer model.The ray tracer model describes GW dynamics on a spatially and time dependent background formed by a monthly mean climatology and STs, the last being calculated (at each time step) by the linear tidal model. It does not suffer from typical simplifications of conventional GW parameterizations, where horizontal GW propagation is neglected, as are the effects of horizontal background gradients on GW dynamics. The ray tracer model uses a variant of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) theory where a spectral description in position-wavenumber space is helping to avoid numerical instabilities otherwise likely to occur in caustic like situations.Notwithstanding the simplicity of the employed GW source many aspects of observed tidal dynamics are reproduced. Under the conventional ``single-column'' approximation, GW impacts are shown to be significantly overestimated. Those overestimated GWflux convergences lead to significant changes in ST amplitudes and phases, pointing at a sensitive issue of GW parameterizations in general. Non-diurnal STs, whose existence is in this model set-up exclusively due to the GW forcing, are studied and shown to be more important near the poles, giving a partial explanation of STs amplitudes in these latitudes.

  6. Technical and organisational feasibility of a multifunctional telemedicine system in an emergency medical service - an observational study.

    PubMed

    Bergrath, Sebastian; Rörtgen, Daniel; Rossaint, Rolf; Beckers, Stefan K; Fischermann, Harold; Brokmann, Jörg Ch; Czaplik, Michael; Felzen, Marc; Schneiders, Marie-Thérèse; Skorning, Max

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the technical and organisational feasibility of a multifunctional telemedicine system in an emergency medical service (EMS) from the user's perspective. The telemedicine system was designed to transmit vital signs data and 12-lead-ECG data, send still pictures and allow voice communication and video transmission from an ambulance. The data were sent to a teleconsultation centre staffed with EMS physicians (tele-EMS physician). The system was used in 157 EMS missions. The applications were used successfully on 80% of missions for real-time vital signs transmission and on 97% for video transmission. The quality of the transmitted still images (n = 64) was: 23% excellent, 50% good, 17% moderate, 9% rather poor and 0% unusable. The quality of the video streaming (n = 36) was: 33% excellent, 56% good, 6% moderate, 6% rather poor and 0% unusable. The tele-EMS physician was able to assist the EMS team in several cases and provided the preliminary information for the hospital in nearly all missions. Use of the telemedical system in EMS is feasible and the quality of the transmitted images and video was satisfactory. However, technical reliability and availability need to be improved prior to routine use.

  7. Multifrequency crosshole EM imaging for reservoir characterization. FY 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    Electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks is controlled by the porosity, hydraulic permeability, temperature, saturation, and the pore fluid conductivity. These rock parameters play important roles in the development and production of hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) resources. For these reasons, resistivity well logs have long been used by geologists and reservoir engineers in petroleum industries to map variations in pore fluid, to distinguish between rock types, and to determine completion intervals in wells. Reservoir simulation and process monitoring rely heavily on the physical characteristics of the reservoir model. Over a period of three years (1991-1993) there was an initial phase of crosshole EM technique development via an informal partnership between LLNL and LBL. Researchers developed field instrumentation to apply to oil field for monitoring EOR thermal processes. Specifically, a prototype single-frequency instrumentation was developed and with this system we have conducted field surveys in four separate locations. Theory and software were developed to interpret these data by providing subsurface images of the electrical conductivity. In spite of our initial success in developing practical EM techniques, we still had severe instrumentation limitations and shortcomings in interpretation for other than simple structures. The field equipment was designed to work only at a single frequency at a time and the transmitter must be opened to change frequencies. The equipment was also significantly noiser at higher frequencies. For high-resolution applications we need to take full advantage of the resolution inherent in the data. The development of a high-resolution subsurface conductivity imaging methods would have benefits far beyond the petroleum application. Such techniques would be very useful in environmental applications, mineral and geothermal exploration and for civil engineering applications.

  8. MOUSE (MODULAR ORIENTED UNCERTAINTY SYSTEM): A COMPUTERIZED UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM. OPERATIONAL MANUAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty SystEm) deals with the problem of uncertainties in models that consist of one or more algebraic equations. It was especially designed for use by those with little or no knowledge of computer languages or programming. It is compact (and thus can...

  9. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  10. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  11. Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

  12. CERCLA reporting requirements, DOE occurrence reporting, and the DOE Emergency Management System. CERCLA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, R.

    1993-10-01

    The Emergency Management System (EMS) provides a structure for reporting and processing operations information related to DOE owned/operated facilities. Hazardous Substance (HS) releases are subject to reporting requirements under the EMS as well as under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA requires reporting of HS releases into the environment in amounts greater than or equal to Reportable Quantities (RQs). This Information Brief elaborates on earlier CERCLA reporting and response process information Briefs by providing a general explanation of these CERCLA or EMS requirements, procedures, and events as they pertain to releases of HS`s at DOE facilities.

  13. Resonant transmission through a multiple periodic scattering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Taishi; Tanaka, Hiroya

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the propagation and transmission of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the subwavelength regime when a multiple periodic scattering system (MPSS) is illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. This system has a cascaded structure with square hole arrays periodically perforated on a metal slab with arbitrary slab thickness and arbitrary air-gap. The framework of this paper is based on a modal expansion theory, in which the EM fields in pure vacuum are expanded in terms of plane waves, while those in the holes of the slab are expressed in terms of waveguide modes. The boundary conditions for the EM waves lead to a system of equations whose solution can be obtained quasianalytically in a monomodal approximation method. We study the transmission spectrum and field distribution in the MPSS, varying geometrical parameters such as the air-gap and/or number N of slabs in the context of symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries. We find that an MPSS with N ≥ 2 provides discrete transmission windows whose resonance order linearly increases against N and the associated resonance wavelengths are confined to a specific finite band for large N. The EM fields at the resonance states are quite uniquely distributed in the MPSS, depending not only on the resonance wavelength, but also either on even N or on odd N. We also demonstrate that the transmission of the EM energy is strongly boosted by the evanescent electric fields mirror-symmetrically distributed in the air-gaps of the MPSS.

  14. EMS Bill of Rights: what every patient deserves.

    PubMed

    Meador, Steven R; Slovis, Corey M; Wrenn, Keith D

    2003-03-01

    Every EMT, paramedic, supervisor and EMS medical director must stress that our job is to treat every patient the way we'd like to be treated or the way we'd want one of our family members treated. Those charged with supervision must ensure that EMTs and paramedics receive the support and training necessary to allow adherence to the 10 objectives outlined in this article. Quality-assurance reviews, quality-improvement programs, provider comments and complaints from the public must all be used to improve the care we deliver. Prehospital care should be constantly improving the delivery of excellent, life-saving care.

  15. On the EM algorithm for overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, G J

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of the EM algorithm for the fitting of distributions by maximum likelihood to overdispersed count data. In the course of this, we also provide a review of various approaches that have been proposed for the analysis of such data. As the Poisson and binomial regression models, which are often adopted in the first instance for these analyses, are particular examples of a generalized linear model (GLM), the focus of the account is on the modifications and extensions to GLMs for the handling of overdispersed count data. PMID:9185291

  16. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care. PMID:10143711

  17. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  18. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  19. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  20. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

  1. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  2. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  3. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  4. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  5. On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, V.; Kallio, E.

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  6. Integrated induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers for EM analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanstein, T.; Strack, K.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of a full field array electromagnetic system is an ideal tool to support hydrocarbon and geothermal E & P as well as various engineering monitoring applications. Some of the key questions are defining the reservoir, mapping of the fractures and reservoir depletion monitoring. The reservoirs are all too often relative thin and give an anomalous electromagnetic (EM) response, which is often small in amplitude and challenging for the EM measuring system. A digital fluxgate magnetometer (32-bit) is connected to the KMS magnetotelluric acquisition system with analogue induction coils and electrodes to extend the range of application of a single recording site. Since the noise level is above that of the induction coil for periods shorter than 20 s, the apparent resistivity is biased. For longer periods the apparent resistivity is consistent and eventually better than the induction coil. However, phase and tipper are not biased and agree well with the induction data even for shorter periods. This allows us to develop algorithms that significantly extend the range of application of the fluxgate beyond what was done in the past. The highest frequency of the fluxgate magnetometer is about 180 Hz and the hightest sampling of the FG-board is 4 kHz.The different induction coils and fluxgate magnetometer have intensively been tested in the magnetic chamber and at the field test site near Houston for noise performance by parallel recordings. They show that even in an environment with high cultural noise, the specification can be met. In Northeast China, a 30-day monitoring test with MT was carried out for seismologic applications. Acquisitition schedule included different recordings times and sampling rates. Daily, the data was collected and processed via the internet from either Europe or the US. Even with long recording, we still had to select the time windows for data averaging and coherences are not a good threshhold criteria in this case. During another MT

  7. Data-adaptive Shrinkage via the Hyperpenalized EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Philip S.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extension of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, called the hyperpenalized EM (HEM) algorithm, that maximizes a penalized log-likelihood, for which some data are missing or unavailable, using a data-adaptive estimate of the penalty parameter. This is potentially useful in applications for which the analyst is unable or unwilling to choose a single value of a penalty parameter but instead can posit a plausible range of values. The HEM algorithm is conceptually straightforward and also very effective, and we demonstrate its utility in the analysis of a genomic data set. Gene expression measurements and clinical covariates were used to predict survival time. However, many survival times are censored, and some observations only contain expression measurements derived from a different assay, which together constitute a difficult missing data problem. It is desired to shrink the genomic contribution in a data-adaptive way. The HEM algorithm successfully handles both the missing data and shrinkage aspects of the problem. PMID:26834856

  8. The Search for Gravitational Wave EM Counterparts with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennea, Jamie; Evans, Phil; Swift GW follow-up Team

    2016-04-01

    We present the plan to search for electromagnetic counterparts of Gravitational Waves (GWs) discovered during the current and upcoming runs of the LIGO and Virgo detectors. As we enter a period where the sensitivity of the current generation of GW detectors approaches a high probability of the first detection of a real GW signal, confirmation of the reality of these triggers will be greatly improved if an EM counterpart can be found. Swift’s ability to rapidly respond to high priority target-of-opportunity observations, it’s multi-wavelength capabilities and low overhead observing make it a seemingly ideal follow-up facility. However comparing the size of the expected GW error regions with the fields of view of the Swift XRT and UVOT telescopes, we find that covering the large GW error regions would require a unreasonably large number of pointings. We present our method of meeting this challenge, by both reducing the problem using Galaxy targeting, and by operating Swift in an entirely new way in order to cover the still large number of fields needed to chase down the EM counterpart before it disappears.

  9. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  10. The EM fields in the Solid Generated by a Fault in a Porous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Huang, Q.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic effect, as one of the most possible generation mechanisms of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenons associated with natural earthquakes, has interested many researchers. Besides, it is also considered as a potential tool for the water/oil exploration. Recently, we numerically investigated the electromagnetic (EM) fields due to the electrokinetic effect in mixed layered model. The mixed model comprises not only porous layers but also solid layers. We firstly tested a two-layer mixed model. The numerical results show that, in addition to the radiation EM fields, another kind of evanescent EM fields can be generated by the seismic waves arriving at the interface with incident angles greater the critical angle. The evanescent EM fields decay faster than the radiation EM fields when getting away from the interface. For the seismic frequency band, the evanescent EM fields in the solid are still measurable at a distance of, e.g., 2km to the interface. We then tested a eight-layer mixed model. The top and bottom layers are solid and the other layers are porous. A finite fault of 20x10km is located in the porous region. The focal depth is 8km. The applied source time function is a ramp fuction with an arise time of 0.8s. Point stacking method was used to compute the wave-fields caused by the finite fault. Our nuemrical results show that, this model can generate the EM fields before the arrival of seismic waves as well as the residual EM fields. Both the two kinds of EM fields have been observed in field observations. There is a possibility that the anomalous EM activities before big earthquakes may be caused by the fluid flow in the shallow Earth as a result of the stress changes.

  11. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  12. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  13. EM field and instrumentation diagnostics in support of the LFT&E HPM methodology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R A; Nelson, S D

    1997-09-04

    The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, under the direction of the DoD LFT&E Office performed a series of HPM tests for the purpose of exercising the HPM methodology for LFT&E applications. An AH-1S Cobra helicopter was used as the canonical test bed. The Air Force Research Lab (formally Phillips Lab) provided the wide-band source and the Army Research Lab provided the narrow-band used in the tests. LLNL provided the EM diagnostics used at the site for both test series. Our mission was to measure the radiated field from the sources, measure the fields inside the helicopter and the coupling onto various signal lines inside the helicopter, and to monitor the various system signal levels for "bird health" purposes. These experiments were performed during June of 1997 and consisted of exposing the test bed to a series of narrow-band and wide-band pulses from HPM sources. This report covers the measured radiated fields, the fields inside the helicopter, and the coupled signal levels. The radiated fields were measured over a region which spans the physical body of the helicopter. The fields inside the helicopter and the coupled fields were measured using a series of probes inside the helicopter and connected to the outside measurement system using fiber-optic cables. The helicopter effects data are presented in the main China Lake report.

  14. EM field and instrumentation diagnostics in support of the LFT E HPM methodology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. A.; Nelson, S. D.

    1997-09-04

    The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, under the direction of the DOD LFT E Office performed a series of HPM tests for the purpose of exercising the HPM methodology for LFT E applications. An AH-1S Cobra helicopter was used as the canonical test bed. The Air Force Research Lab (formally Phillips Lab) provided the wide-band source and the Army Research Lab provided the narrow-band used in the tests. LLNL provided the EM diagnostics used at the site for both test series. Our mission was to measure the radiated field from the sources, measure the fields inside the helicopter and the coupling onto various signal lines inside the helicopter, and to monitor the various system signal levels for bird health purposes. These experiments were performed during June of 1997 and consisted of exposing the test bed to a series of narrow-band and wide-band pulses from HPM sources. This report covers the measured radiated fields, the fields inside the helicopter, and the coupled signal levels. The radiated fields were measured over a region which spans the physical body of the helicopter. The fields inside the helicopter and the coupled fields were measured using a series of probes inside the helicopter and connected to the outside measurement system using fiber-optic cables. The helicopter effects data are presented in the main China Lake report.

  15. An implementation of a neural network based load forecasting model for the EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Papalexopoulos, A.D.; Hao, S. ); Peng, T.M. , San Francisco, CA )

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents the development and implementation of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based short-term system load forecasting model for the Energy Control Center of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). Insights gained during the development of the model regarding the choice of the input variables and their transformations, the design of the ANN structure, the selection of the training cases and the training process itself will be described in the paper. Attention was paid to model accurately special events, such as holidays, heat-waves, cold snaps and other conditions that disturb the normal pattern of the load.The significant impact of special events on the model's performance was established through testing of an existing load forecasting package that is currently in production use. The new model has been tested under a wide variety of conditions and it is shown in this paper to produce excellent results. Comparison results between the existing, regression based model and the ANN model are very encouraging. The ANN model consistently outperforms the existing model in terms of both, average errors over a long period of time and number of large errors. The ANN model has also been integrated with PG and E's Energy Management System (EMS). It is envisioned that the ANN model will eventually substitute the existing model to support the Company's real-time operations. In the interim both models will be available for production use.

  16. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  17. Evaluating the ability of current energy use assessment methods to study contrasting livestock production systems.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment of agriculture has received increased attention over recent decades, leading to development of numerous methods. Among them, three deal with energy use: Energy Analysis (EA), Ecological Footprint (EF) and Emergy synthesis (Em). Based on a review of 197 references applying them to a variety of agricultural systems, this paper evaluates their ability to assess energy use. While EF assesses energy use as land use via a global accounting approach in which energy is only one component of the assessment, EA and Em are energy-focused and appear more appropriate to highlight ways to increase energy-use efficiency. EA presents a clear methodology via fossil energy use and its associated impacts but does not consider all energy sources. With inclusion of natural and renewable resources, Em focuses on other energy resources, such as solar radiation and energy from labour, but does not present impact indicators nor establish a clear link between activities and their environmental impacts. Improvements of the EA and Em methods could increase their ability to perform realistic and unbiased energy analysis or the diversity of livestock systems encountered in the world. First, to consider all energy sources, as Em does, EA could include solar radiation received by farm surfaces and energy expenditure by humans and animals to accomplish farm operations. Second, boundaries of the studied system in EA and Em must include draft animals, humans and communal grazing lands. Third, special attention should be given to update and locally adapt energy coefficients and transformities.

  18. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  19. An electromechanical material testing system for in situ electron microscopy and applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of a material testing system for in situ electron microscopy (EM) mechanical testing of nanostructures. The testing system consists of an actuator and a load sensor fabricated by means of surface micromachining. This previously undescribed nanoscale material testing system makes possible continuous observation of the specimen deformation and failure with subnanometer resolution, while simultaneously measuring the applied load electronically with nanonewton resolution. This achievement was made possible by the integration of electromechanical and thermomechanical components based on microelectromechanical system technology. The system capabilities are demonstrated by the in situ EM testing of free-standing polysilicon films, metallic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes. In particular, a previously undescribed real-time instrumented in situ transmission EM observation of carbon nanotubes failure under tensile load is presented here. PMID:16195381

  20. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  1. Proposal of Electro-Magnetic-Suspension System with Tilting Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chih-Chung; Suda, Yoshihiro; Komine, Hisanao; Iwasa, Takashi

    This paper proposes a new Electro-Magnetic-Suspension (EMS) system, which has the ability of self-banking in curve section. This new EMS system can tilt automatically corresponding to the magnitude of the centrifugal force. Four hybrid-magnets (HMs) ─ a combination of permanent and electro-magnets ─ are used to guide and suspend a vehicle simultaneously in a manner different from that of a conventional EMS system, which acquires the necessary force from a guidance system while running in a tight curve. The Nearly-Zero-Power control method is applied to minimize energy consumption of the HMs. Five degrees of freedom are considered during the simulation and the experiment. The results of the simulation and the experiment demonstrate that this new EMS system has the ability to tilt automatically corresponding to the magnitude of the centrifugal force and nullify the constant disturbance forces applied in five directions using only the attractive forces of the permanent magnets (PMs) in the HMs and the earth's gravity.

  2. <em>Smart Interpretationem> - Application of Machine Learning in Geological Interpretation of AEM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, T.; Gulbrandsen, M. L.; Jacobsen, R.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A. S.; Hansen, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    When using airborne geophysical measurements in e.g. groundwater mapping, an overwhelming amount of data is collected. Increasingly larger survey areas, denser data collection and limited resources, combines to an increasing problem of building geological models that use all the available data in a manner that is consistent with the geologists knowledge about the geology of the survey area. In the ERGO project, funded by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, we address this problem, by developing new, usable tools, enabling the geologist utilize her geological knowledge directly in the interpretation of the AEM data, and thereby handle the large amount of data, In the project we have developed the mathematical basis for capturing geological expertise in a statistical model. Based on this, we have implemented new algorithms that have been operationalized and embedded in user friendly software. In this software, the machine learning algorithm, Smart Interpretation, enables the geologist to use the system as an assistant in the geological modelling process. As the software 'learns' the geology from the geologist, the system suggest new modelling features in the data. In this presentation we demonstrate the application of the results from the ERGO project, including the proposed modelling workflow utilized on a variety of data examples.

  3. <em> Stability of coorbital objects around the Pluto-Charon binaryem>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarante, A.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Pluto-Charon binary system is dynamical interesting with its retinue of four small moons. The system is relatively full with few remaining stable locations evenly-spaced for additional moons on uninclined, circular orbits; most of these are Trojan (Tadpole/Horseshoe) orbits (Pires et al. 2011; Porter and Stern 2015). In this work, we study the coorbital region of each moon with long time integrations taking into account the gravitational effects of the satellites Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra. We numerically simulate a sample of 10,000 test particles initially located randomly around each moon's orbit (Figure). All test particles start on nearly circular and uninclined orbits and are followed for 5000 years. The results of our numerical simulations show stable coorbital objects - both Tadpoles and Horseshoes - for each of the small moons (Table). Horseshoe orbits are most common at all moons, although Hydra also has a sizeable population of Tadpole orbits. We also find interesting cases where the orbits switch from L4 Tadpoles to Horseshoes and even to L5 Tadpoles. These transitioning orbits comprise less than 1% of coorbital objects at all moons, and are most common at Styx. We have also investigated eccentric and inclined orbits and will report on our findings.

  4. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job.

  5. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job. PMID:10110186

  6. Three penalized EM-type algorithms for PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

    2012-06-01

    Based on Bayes theory, Green introduced the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm to obtain a smoothing reconstruction for positron emission tomography. This algorithm is flexible and convenient for most of the penalties, but it is hard to guarantee convergence. For a common goal, Fessler penalized a weighted least squares (WLS) estimator by a quadratic penalty and then solved it with the successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm, however, the algorithm was time-consuming and difficultly parallelized. Anderson proposed another WLS estimator for faster convergence, on which there were few regularization methods studied. For three regularized estimators above, we develop three new expectation maximization (EM) type algorithms to solve them. Unlike MAP and SOR, the proposed algorithms yield update rules by minimizing the auxiliary functions constructed on the previous iterations, which ensure the cost functions monotonically decreasing. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  7. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  8. Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed. PMID:23633595

  9. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  10. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  11. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  12. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  13. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  14. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  15. Systems-based practice: the sixth core competency.

    PubMed

    Dyne, Pamela L; Strauss, Robert W; Rinnert, Stephan

    2002-11-01

    Systems-Based Practice (SBP) is the sixth competency defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project. Specifically, SBP requires "Residents [to] demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care and the ability to effectively call on system resources to provide care that is of optimal value." This competency can be divided into four subcompetencies, all of which are integral to training emergency medicine (EM) physicians: resources, providers, and systems; cost-appropriate care; delivery systems; and patient advocacy. In March 2002, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD-EM) convened a consensus conference to assist residency directors in modifying the SBP competency specific for EM. The Consensus Group modified the broad ACGME definition for SBP into EM-specific goals and objectives for residency training in SBP. The primary assessment methods from the Toolbox of Assessment Methods were also identified for SBP. They are direct observation, global ratings, 360-degree evaluations, portfolio assessment, and testing by both oral and written exams. The physician tasks from the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine that are most relevant to SBP are out-of-hospital care, modifying factors, legal/professional issues, diagnostic studies, consultation and disposition, prevention and education, multitasking, and team management. Suggested EM residency curriculum components for SBP are already in place in most residency programs, so no additional resources would be required for their implementation. These include: emergency medical services and administrative rotations, directed reading, various interdisciplinary and hospital committee participation, continuous quality improvement project participation, evidence-based medicine instruction, and various didactic experiences, including follow-up, interdisciplinary, and case conferences. With appropriate

  16. Development of MPD thruster EM for a space test. [Engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiina, K.; Suzuki, H.; Uematsu, K.; Ohtsuka, T.; Toki, K. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa )

    1990-01-01

    An engineering model (EM) of MPD thruster has been developed for a space test on board the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). A thermal vacuum test was conducted, and the following results were obtained: (1) a thermal mathematical model of MPD thruster EM was established, (2) sizing data of thruster heaters were obtained, and (3) thermal characteristics of the MPD thruster EM were confirmed to meet the requirement. The data are going to be reflected in designing a protoflight model of MPD thruster. 8 refs.

  17. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here).

  18. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  19. Environmental Management System Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Robert; Thorson, Patrick; Horst, Blair; Speros, John; Rothermich, Nancy; Hatayama, Howard

    2009-03-24

    Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management establishes the policy that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities in a manner that is environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continually improving, efficient, and sustainable. The Department of Energy (DOE) has approved DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program and DOE Order 430.2B, Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy and Transportation Management as the means of achieving the provisions of this Executive Order. DOE Order 450.1A mandates the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) to implement sustainable environmental stewardship practices that: (1) Protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources potentially impacted by facility operations; (2) Meet or exceed applicable environmental, public health, and resource protection laws and regulations; and (3) Implement cost-effective business practices. In addition, the DOE Order 450.1A mandates that the EMS must be integrated with a facility's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) established pursuant to DOE P 450.4, 'Safety Management System Policy'. DOE Order 430.2B mandates an energy management program that considers energy use and renewable energy, water, new and renovated buildings, and vehicle fleet activities. The Order incorporates the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The Order also includes the DOE's Transformational Energy Action Management initiative, which assures compliance is achieved through an Executable Plan that is prepared and updated annually by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL, Berkeley Lab, or the Laboratory) and then approved by the DOE Berkeley Site Office. At the time of this revision to the EMS plan, the 'FY2009 LBNL Sustainability Executable Plan' represented the most current Executable Plan. These

  20. Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

    2014-03-18

    A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

  1. Conformity with the HIRF Environment Applied to Avionic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristant, F.; Rotteleur, J. P.; Moreau, J. P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the qualification and certification methodology applied to the avionic system for the HIRF and Lightning environment. Several versions of this system are installed in our legacy Falcon with different variations. The paper presents the compliance process taking into account the criticality and the complexity of the system, its installation, the level of exposition for EM environment and some solutions used by Dassault Aviation to demonstrate the compliance process.

  2. GridOPTICS Software System

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allowmore » power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.« less

  3. GridOPTICS Software System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A; Ciraci, PNNL Selim; Gibson, PNNL Tara; Rice, PNNL Mark; Sharma, PNNL Poorva; Yin, PNNL Jian; Allwardt, PNNL Craig; PNNL,

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allow power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.

  4. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  5. Prompt Observation of the Type Ib/c Supernova 2001em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, David

    2003-09-01

    The X-ray emission from core-collapse SNe comes from the interaction of the ejected matter and the circumstellar material, which is the progenitor's pre-SN wind. It is thus a unique probe of both the ejected material and the SN environment. We propose a 30 ksec Chandra obs. of the type Ib/c SN 2001em (which just turned on in the radio; K. Weiler, IAUC submitted) to determine the X-ray flux to ~5% (see below for flux estimate) and temperature to ~10%. This information, combined with continued VLA obs., will determine the mass-loss rate of the progenitor, thus providing information about both the explosion environment and the nature of the progenitor. This is especially important in the case of SNe Ib/c given the association with some GRBs. Such information will provide a key piece of the puzzle in understanding the progenitor systems of SNe Ib/c (and by association, GRBs) and the aftermath of the SN (and GRB) explosion.

  6. Acceleration of EM-Based 3D CT Reconstruction Using FPGA.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Kyu; Cong, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Reducing radiation doses is one of the key concerns in computed tomography (CT) based 3D reconstruction. Although iterative methods such as the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm can be used to address this issue, applying this algorithm to practice is difficult due to the long execution time. Our goal is to decrease this long execution time to an order of a few minutes, so that low-dose 3D reconstruction can be performed even in time-critical events. In this paper we introduce a novel parallel scheme that takes advantage of numerous block RAMs on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Also, an external memory bandwidth reduction strategy is presented to reuse both the sinogram and the voxel intensity. Moreover, a customized processing engine based on the FPGA is presented to increase overall throughput while reducing the logic consumption. Finally, a hardware and software flow is proposed to quickly construct a design for various CT machines. The complete reconstruction system is implemented on an FPGA-based server-class node. Experiments on actual patient data show that a 26.9 × speedup can be achieved over a 16-thread multicore CPU implementation.

  7. Cryo-EM Structures of the Magnesium Channel CorA Reveal Symmetry Break upon Gating.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Doreen; Dalmas, Olivier; Borgnia, Mario J; Dominik, Pawel K; Merk, Alan; Rao, Prashant; Reddy, Bharat G; Islam, Shahidul; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Perozo, Eduardo; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-02-11

    CorA, the major Mg(2+) uptake system in prokaryotes, is gated by intracellular Mg(2+) (KD ∼ 1-2 mM). X-ray crystallographic studies of CorA show similar conformations under Mg(2+)-bound and Mg(2+)-free conditions, but EPR spectroscopic studies reveal large Mg(2+)-driven quaternary conformational changes. Here, we determined cryo-EM structures of CorA in the Mg(2+)-bound closed conformation and in two open Mg(2+)-free states at resolutions of 3.8, 7.1, and 7.1 Å, respectively. In the absence of bound Mg(2+), four of the five subunits are displaced to variable extents (∼ 10-25 Å) by hinge-like motions as large as ∼ 35° at the stalk helix. The transition between a single 5-fold symmetric closed state and an ensemble of low Mg(2+), open, asymmetric conformational states is, thus, the key structural signature of CorA gating. This mechanism is likely to apply to other structurally similar divalent ion channels. PMID:26871634

  8. Acceleration of EM-Based 3D CT Reconstruction Using FPGA.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Kyu; Cong, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Reducing radiation doses is one of the key concerns in computed tomography (CT) based 3D reconstruction. Although iterative methods such as the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm can be used to address this issue, applying this algorithm to practice is difficult due to the long execution time. Our goal is to decrease this long execution time to an order of a few minutes, so that low-dose 3D reconstruction can be performed even in time-critical events. In this paper we introduce a novel parallel scheme that takes advantage of numerous block RAMs on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Also, an external memory bandwidth reduction strategy is presented to reuse both the sinogram and the voxel intensity. Moreover, a customized processing engine based on the FPGA is presented to increase overall throughput while reducing the logic consumption. Finally, a hardware and software flow is proposed to quickly construct a design for various CT machines. The complete reconstruction system is implemented on an FPGA-based server-class node. Experiments on actual patient data show that a 26.9 × speedup can be achieved over a 16-thread multicore CPU implementation. PMID:26462240

  9. EM Modeling of Far-Field Radiation Patterns for Antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-01-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.

  10. 3D time-domain airborne EM forward modeling with topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe; Cai, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The time-domain finite-difference method has been widely used in simulation of the electromagnetic field diffusion. However, this method is severely restricted by the mesh size and time step. To overcome the defect, we adopted edge finite-element method for unstructured grid with Backward Euler method to conduct 3D airborne electromagnetic forward modeling directly in time-domain. The tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility required for representing the rugged topography and complex-shape anomalous bodies. We simulated the practical shape, size and attitude of transmitting source by directly setting the loop into the well-generated grids. The characteristic properties of vector basic functions guarantee automatic satisfaction of divergence-free property of electric fields. The Galerkin's method is used to discretize the governing equations and a direct solver is adopted to solve the large sparse linear system. We adopted an algorithm with constant step in each time segment to speed up the forward modeling. Further we introduced the local mesh strategy to reduce the calculations, in which an optimized grid is designed for each sounding station. We check the accuracy of our 3D modeling results against the solution for a homogenous half-space and those for a buried vertical plate model using integral equation. The numerical experiments for a hill, a valley or undulating topography model with buried anomalous bodies were further studied that show that the topography has a serious effect on airborne EM data.

  11. EM modeling of far-field radiation patterns for antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-05-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.

  12. Optical characterization of the SOFIA telescope using fast EM-CCD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfüller, Enrico; Wolf, Jürgen; Hall, Helen; Röser, Hans-Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently demonstrated its scientific capabilities in a first series of astronomical observing flights. In parallel, special measurements and engineering flights were conducted aiming at the characterization and the commissioning of the telescope and the complete airborne observatory. To support the characterization measurements, two commercial Andor iXon EM-CCD cameras have been used, a DU-888 dubbed Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC) running at frame rates up to about 400 fps, and a DU-860 as a Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) providing 2000 fps. Both cameras have been mounted to the telescope’s Focal Plane Imager (FPI) flange in lieu of the standard FPI tracking camera. Their fast image sequences have been used to analyze and to improve the telescope’s pointing stability, especially to help tuning active mass dampers that suppress eigenfrequencies in the telescope system, to characterize and to optimize the chopping secondary mirror and to investigate the structure and behavior of the shear layer that forms over the open telescope cavity in flight. In June 2011, a collaboration between the HIPO science instrument team, the MIT’s stellar occultation group and the FDC team, led to the first SOFIA observation of a stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Pluto over the Pacific.

  13. Generalized SIMD algorithm for efficient EM-PIC simulations on modern CPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren; Silva, Luis

    2012-10-01

    There are several relevant plasma physics scenarios where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate. Further understanding of these scenarios is generally explored through relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS [1], but this algorithm is computationally intensive, and efficient use high end parallel HPC systems, exploring all levels of parallelism available, is required. In particular, most modern CPUs include a single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) vector unit that can significantly speed up the calculations. In this work we present a generalized PIC-SIMD algorithm that is shown to work efficiently with different CPU (AMD, Intel, IBM) and vector unit types (2-8 way, single/double). Details on the algorithm will be given, including the vectorization strategy and memory access. We will also present performance results for the various hardware variants analyzed, focusing on floating point efficiency. Finally, we will discuss the applicability of this type of algorithm for EM-PIC simulations on GPGPU architectures [2]. [4pt] [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002)[0pt] [2] V. K. Decyk, T. V. Singh; Comput. Phys. Commun. 182, 641-648 (2011)

  14. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  15. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  16. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.

  18. Sampling quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces quality assurance guidance pertaining to the design and implementation of sampling procedures and processes for collecting environmental data for DOE`s Office of EM (Environmental Restoration and Waste Management).

  19. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  20. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Upland flora studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Glenn D.; Cattelino, Peter J.; Gale, Margaret R.; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of upland flora conducted near the Navy's transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored tree, herb, and fungal species dominant in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna. Above-ground parameters included the productivity, physiology, and phenology of trees, as well as the morphology and phenology of an herb. Below-ground, the important association between tree roots and fungi were monitored. Investigators also measured ambient weather conditions, soil nutrients, and EM field intensities. The MTU research team used analysis of variance and covariance to examine the data. When site-by-year interactions were significant, correlations and regressions were used to determine whether residuals were related to EM exposure. Results suggest a possible subtle EM effect to the cambial and stemwood growth of some tree species but not to any other parameter. MTU investigators conclude no short-term, adverse effects on forest health from exposure to EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan.

  1. Science Measurements for the <em>Io Volcano Observer (IVO)em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Turtle, E. P.; Lorenz, R. D.; Perry, J.; Spencer, J. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Jia, X.; Moses, J. I.; Paranicas, C.; Hamilton, C.; Nimmo, F.; Showman, A. P.; Thomas, N.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S. V.; Wieser, M.; Spohn, T.; Horst, S. M.; Breuer, D.; Iess, L.; Helbert, J.; Heyner, D.; Humm, D. C.; De Pater, I.; Mousis, O.; Bagenal, F.; Sutton, S.; Hibbard, K.; Reynolds, E.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Proposed for Discovery in 2015, IVO would launch in 2021, arrive at Jupiter in early 2026, and perform at least 9 fast flybys of Io. IVO satisfies the key science objectives of the Io Observer concept for New Frontiers. Science instruments include Narrow- and wide-angle cameras (from APL and UA), dual fluxgate magnetometers (UCLA), thermal mapper (DLR-Germany), ion and neutral mass spectrometer (UBE-Switzerland), and plasma ion analyzer (IRF-Sweden). For more on the mission see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/meetings/feb2015/presentations/. Key measurements include: 1. High-resolution (<20 m/pixel) imaging of volcanic landforms and vent structures; 2. Regional surface changes every encounter; 3. Velocities and effusion rates of dynamic processes; 4. Mapping of 150 K to ≥1000 K surfaces at 0.5-20 km/pixel for volcanic history; 5. Peak color temperature of erupting lavas; 6. Melt fraction of the mantle from electromagnetic sounding; 7. Thickness of Io's lithosphere; 8. Constraints on Io's internal magnetic field; 9. Global pattern of endogenic heat flow driven by tidal heating; 10. Regional topographic anomalies; 11. Tidal k2 to constrain mantle rigidity; 12. Topography of tectonic landforms; 13. Structural changes since Voyager and Galileo imaging; 14. Neutral species in Io's atmosphere and exosphere; 15. SO2, OI, and other emissions (in eclipse); 16. Christiansen Frequency (CF) to constrain SiO2 of warm silicate lavas; 17. Surface color variations from 300-1000 nm; 18. Passive background temperatures to model diurnal T variations; 19. Neutral species in Io's vicinity; 20. Remote monitoring of Na cloud and Io Plasma Torus; 21. Variability of plasma and magnetic signatures; 22. Search for plumes on Europa's bright limb at high phase angles; and 23. Monitor Europa's surface color and albedo for changes. In summary, IVO will acquire a broad suite of measurements to understand how tidal heating drives dynamic phenomena on Io and in the Jupiter system.

  2. Toward a <em>Digital> Resilience (with a Dash of Location Enlightenment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The AGU Earth and Space Science Informatics Focus Group addresses a compelling array of research questions and projects. This year's session topics range from large-scale data management within global cyberinfrastructures or virtual observatories, to intelligent systems theory, semantics, and handling of near-real-time data streams, to issues of "dark data," data transparency, reproducibility, and more. The aim of this lecture is to build in part on these themes but to consider more broadly how we might push the boundaries of informatics knowledge more along the lines of use-inspired science (responsive to the needs and perspectives of society while still being fundamental and cutting edge). To wit, as we contend with human impacts on the biosphere recent innovations in computational and data science are now facilitating community resilience to climate change (e.g., helping communities to monitoring air quality or drought, find available drinking water, determine habitat vulnerability, etc.). But not often discussed is a path toward digital resilience. If digital tools are to continue helping communities, it stands to reason that they must engender some resilience themselves. The capacity to deal effectively with change and threats, to recover quickly from challenges or difficulties, even to withstand stress and catastrophe, can apply to data too. As investments in digital data continue to rise, we find ourselves in new "digital world order" comprised of ubiquitous technologies from satellites to wristwatches to human biochip implants. And a significant proportion of these are geospatial, given the incredible power of maps to communicate, persuade, inspire, understand, and elicit action. Therefore, the lecture reviews and recommends seven fundamental digital research and communication practices. The aim is ensuring not only a modicum of resilience for our nascent discipline, but in prototyping and delivering repeatable solutions that all can use to help guide the

  3. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  4. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  5. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  6. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  7. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  8. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  9. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired.

  10. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  11. A review of nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The last 25-30 years of system concepts and design philosophies for spacecraft employing nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP) are reviewed. NEP spacecraft-system design constraints and criteria are identified, including radiation exposure of humans and electronics, thermal control requirements, effluent contamination of spacecraft surfaces, surface erosion, launch-vehicle integration, operations and safety requirements, attitude control, EM interference, and power control and distribution. The impact on spacecraft design philosophy of these constraints and criteria is explored. Several NEP spacecraft are characterized and discussed with respect to the propulsion system used. The electric propulsion system catagories are electrothermal (arcjet), EM (magnetoplasmadynamic and pulsed-inductive thruster) and electrostatic (ion engine). A brief summary of the mission, nuclear power source, electric propulsion system, and spacecraft configuration are provided for each NEP spacecraft concept.

  12. A Unique Photon Bombardment System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    The innovative Electromagnetic Radiation Collection and Concentration System (EMRCCS) described is the foundation for the development of a multiplicity of space and terrestrial system formats. The system capability allows its use in the visual, infrared, and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum for EM collection, concentration, source/receptor tracking, and targeting. The nonimaging modular optical system uses a physically static position aperture for EM radiation collection. Folded optics provide the concentration of the radiation and source autotracking. The collected and concentrated electromagnetic radiation is utilized in many applications, e.g., solar spectrum in thermal and associative photon bombardment applications for hazardous waste management, water purification, metal hardening, hydrogen generation, photovoltaics, etc., in both space and terrestrial segment utilization. Additionally, at the high end of the concentration capability range, i.e., 60,000+, a solar-pulsed laser system is possible.

  13. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  14. Visualizing Proteins and Macromolecular Complexes by Negative Stain EM: from Grid Preparation to Image Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S.; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology 1. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes 2, 3. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice 4, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast 5. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes 6, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users. PMID:22215030

  15. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  16. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-08-03

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis.

  17. Using Molecular Simulation to Model High-Resolution Cryo-EM Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Loerke, Justus; Behrmann, Elmar; Spahn, Christian M T; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of new data from high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies has produced a large number of data sets for many species of ribosomes in various functional states over the past few years. While many methods exist to produce structural models for lower resolution cryo-EM reconstructions, high-resolution reconstructions are often modeled using crystallographic techniques and extensive manual intervention. Here, we present an automated fitting technique for high-resolution cryo-EM data sets that produces all-atom models highly consistent with the EM density. Using a molecular dynamics approach, atomic positions are optimized with a potential that includes the cross-correlation coefficient between the structural model and the cryo-EM electron density, as well as a biasing potential preserving the stereochemistry and secondary structure of the biomolecule. Specifically, we use a hybrid structure-based/ab initio molecular dynamics potential to extend molecular dynamics fitting. In addition, we find that simulated annealing integration, as opposed to straightforward molecular dynamics integration, significantly improves performance. We obtain atomistic models of the human ribosome consistent with high-resolution cryo-EM reconstructions of the human ribosome. Automated methods such as these have the potential to produce atomistic models for a large number of ribosome complexes simultaneously that can be subsequently refined manually.

  18. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-02-23

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling.

  19. An erythromycin derivative, EM-523, induces motilin-like gastrointestinal motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, N; Satoh, H; Maki, Y; Hashimoto, N; Itoh, Z; Omura, S

    1989-11-01

    The effect of an erythromycin derivative, EM-523, on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in conscious dogs and compared with that of motilin cisapride, trimebutine and metoclopramide. In the fasting state, EM-523 given i.v. or i.d. at 3 micrograms/kg or more induced contractions in the stomach that migrated along the small intestine. The pattern of the contractions was very similar to that induced by motilin. In the digestive state, EM-523 increased the amplitude of gastric contractions. Cisapride and metoclopramide increased gastrointestinal motility both in the fasting and digestive states; however, their contractile pattern was different from that of EM-523. Trimebutine did not induce gastric motility in the fasting state but rather decreased gastric motility in the digestive state. The contractions induced by EM-523 and motilin were inhibited by atropine but were not affected by naloxone, suggesting that the cholinergic pathway is important in the exertion of their action. These results indicate that EM-523 mimics motilin in stimulating gastrointestinal motility and that this agent may be useful treat gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric stasis, gastroesophageal reflux, and postoperative ileus, and so forth. PMID:2810120

  20. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  1. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  2. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  3. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

  4. Electromagnetic Sensor-Guided Enteral Access Systems: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Smithard, David; Barrett, Nicholas A; Hargroves, David; Elliot, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    Enteral feeding is the nutritional support of choice for acutely ill patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts who are unable to swallow. Several benefits including reduced mortality and length of hospital stay have been associated with early initiation of enteral feeding. However, misplacement of conventional nasoenteric tubes is relatively common and can result in complications including pneumothorax. In addition, the need to confirm the position by X-ray can delay the start of using the tube. Eliminating these delays can help patients start feeding, and minimise the adverse impact on initiating hydration and medication. The purpose of this review was to critically examine whether electromagnetic sensor-guided enteral access systems (EMS-EAS) can help overcome the challenges of conventional nasoenteric feeding tube placement and confirmation. The Royal Society of Medicine's library performed two searches on Medline (1946-March 2014) and Embase (1947-March 2014) covering all papers on Cortrak or electromagnetic or magnetic guidance systems for feeding tubes in adults. Results from the literature search found an agreement between the radiographic and EMS-EAS confirmation of placement. EMS-EAS virtually eliminated the risk of misplacement and pneumothorax was not reported. In addition, studies showed a small decrease in the number of X-rays with EMS-EAS and a reduced average time to start feeding compared with blind placement. This review suggests that EMS-EAS reduces several complications associated with the misplacement of nasoenteric feeding tubes, and that there could be considerable improvements in mortality, morbidity, patient experience and cost if EMS-EAS is used instead of conventional methods.

  5. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  6. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method.

  7. TRLFS: Analysing spectra with an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinborn, A.; Taut, S.; Brendler, V.; Geipel, G.; Flach, B.

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for fitting statistical models to time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) spectra is presented. Such spectra result from counting emitted photons in defined intervals. Any photon can be described by emission time and wavelength as observable attributes and by component and peak affiliation as hidden ones. Understanding the attribute values of the emitted photons as drawn from a probability density distribution, the model estimation problem can be described as a statistical problem with incomplete data. To solve the maximum likelihood task, an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is derived and tested. In contrast to the well known least squares method, the advantage of the new approach is its ability to decompose the spectrum into its components and peaks using the revealed hidden attributes of the photons as well as the ability to decompose a background-superimposed spectrum into the exploitable signal of the fluorescent chemical species and the background. This facilitates new possibilities for evaluation of the resulting model parameters. The simultaneous detection of temporal and spectral model parameters provides a mutually consistent description of TRLFS spectra.

  8. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  9. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  10. Specimen Preparation for High-Resolution Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Passmore, L A; Russo, C J

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector, and support technology. PMID:27572723

  11. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. PMID:27572732

  12. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  13. Challenges in the Development of Environmental Management Systems on the Modern University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bero, Bridget N.; Doerry, Eckehard; Middleton, Ryan; Meinhardt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe challenges and lessons learned in the design and development of a comprehensive, flexible environmental management system (EMS) in a real university setting; also to inform development of similar systems elsewhere and provide a modular, extensible software architecture for such efforts.…

  14. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  15. Fast, automatic, and accurate catheter reconstruction in HDR brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Eric; Racine, Emmanuel; Beaulieu, Luc; Binnekamp, Dirk

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this technical note is to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system for automated and real-time catheter reconstruction. Methods: For this preclinical study, a total of ten catheters were inserted in gelatin phantoms with different trajectories. Catheters were reconstructed using a 18G biopsy needle, used as an EM stylet and equipped with a miniaturized sensor, and the second generation Aurora{sup ®} Planar Field Generator from Northern Digital Inc. The Aurora EM system provides position and orientation value with precisions of 0.7 mm and 0.2°, respectively. Phantoms were also scanned using a μCT (GE Healthcare) and Philips Big Bore clinical computed tomography (CT) system with a spatial resolution of 89 μm and 2 mm, respectively. Reconstructions using the EM stylet were compared to μCT and CT. To assess the robustness of the EM reconstruction, five catheters were reconstructed twice and compared. Results: Reconstruction time for one catheter was 10 s, leading to a total reconstruction time inferior to 3 min for a typical 17-catheter implant. When compared to the μCT, the mean EM tip identification error was 0.69 ± 0.29 mm while the CT error was 1.08 ± 0.67 mm. The mean 3D distance error was found to be 0.66 ± 0.33 mm and 1.08 ± 0.72 mm for the EM and CT, respectively. EM 3D catheter trajectories were found to be more accurate. A maximum difference of less than 0.6 mm was found between successive EM reconstructions. Conclusions: The EM reconstruction was found to be more accurate and precise than the conventional methods used for catheter reconstruction in HDR-B. This approach can be applied to any type of catheters and applicators.

  16. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system.

    PubMed

    Franz, A M; Schmitt, D; Seitel, A; Chatrasingh, M; Echner, G; Oelfke, U; Nill, S; Birkfellner, W; Maier-Hein, L

    2014-11-21

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  17. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, A. M.; Schmitt, D.; Seitel, A.; Chatrasingh, M.; Echner, G.; Oelfke, U.; Nill, S.; Birkfellner, W.; Maier-Hein, L.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high.

  18. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system.

    PubMed

    Franz, A M; Schmitt, D; Seitel, A; Chatrasingh, M; Echner, G; Oelfke, U; Nill, S; Birkfellner, W; Maier-Hein, L

    2014-11-21

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. PMID:25332308

  19. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice. PMID:27524243

  20. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  1. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  2. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  3. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: concept generation of patient-handling devices.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karen M; Reichelt, Paul A; Lavender, Steven A; Gacki-Smith, Jessica; Hattle, Sally

    2008-11-01

    Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS patient-handling devices that were framed within the contextual reality of the end user firefighter/paramedics. Guided by an ecological model of musculoskeletal injuries in the fire service, focus groups were conducted with 25 firefighter/paramedics from 13 suburban fire departments. Based on their availability, participants were assigned to one of three groups with each group focusing on a different EMS patient-handling scenario. Each group participated in two focus group sessions: one session to brainstorm ideas for devices and a second session to validate sketches of their design ideas. The sketches were professionally drawn by an industrial designer who attended all focus group sessions. Sketches, photos, videotapes, and written transcripts were content analyzed to describe the phenomena of interest. The ideas centered on EMS devices for lateral transfers, bed-to-stairchair transfers, and stair descent transport, and served as the starting point for the development of EMS devices in subsequent phases of a mixed method research study. The outcomes of this study were an improved understanding of the contextual issues that need to be considered in designing EMS patient handling devices and a set of industrial design sketches that served as a starting point for subsequent development of the devices. End user acceptance criteria for the devices included: affordability, portability/compactness, durability, operability including being quickly ready for use, and cleanability.

  4. Coherent laser vision system (CLVS)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of the CLVS research project is to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System suitable for DOE`s EM Robotics program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update geometric data on the order of once per second. The CLVS project plan required implementation in two phases of the contract, a Base Contract and a continuance option. This is the Base Program Interim Phase Topical Report presenting the results of Phase 1 of the CLVS research project. Test results and demonstration results provide a proof-of-concept for a system providing three-dimensional (3D) vision with the performance capability required to update geometric data on the order of once per second.

  5. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  6. Electromagnetic design of a microwave radiometer antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Cockrell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary electromagnetic (EM) design of a radiometric antenna system was developed for the microwave radiometer spacecraft mission. The antenna system consists of a large spherical reflector and an array of feed horns along a concentric circular arc in front of the reflector. The reflector antenna was sized to simultaneously produce 200 contiguous 1 km diameter footprints with an overall beam efficiency of 90 percent, and the feed horns and feed horn array were designed to monitor the radiation from the footprints.

  7. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  8. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  9. New Advances for a joint 3D inversion of multiple EM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Ritter, O.

    2013-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods are routinely applied to image the subsurface from shallow to regional structures. Individual EM methods differ in their sensitivities towards resistive and conductive structures as well as in their exploration depths. Joint 3D inversion of multiple EM data sets can result in significantly better resolution of subsurface structures than the individual inversions. Proper weighting between different EM data is essential, however. We present a recently developed weighting algorithm to combine magnetotelluric (MT), controlled source EM (CSEM) and DC-geoelectric (DC) data. It is well known that MT data are mostly sensible to regional conductive structures, whereas, CSEM and DC data are more suitable to recover more shallow and resistive structures. Our new scheme is based on weighting individual components of the total data gradient after each model update. Norms of each data residual are used to assess how much weight individual components of the total data gradient must have to achieve an equal contribution of all data sets in the inverse model. A numerically efficient way to search for appropriate weighting factors could be established by applying a bi-diagonalization procedure to the sensitivity matrix. Thereby, the original inverse problem can be projected onto a smaller dimension in which the search of weighting factors is numerically cheap. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed weighting schemes and explore the model domain with synthetic data sets.

  10. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem. PMID:26777304

  11. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mariah R; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca(2+) release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca(2+) release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.

  12. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets.

  13. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  14. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets. PMID:26087140

  15. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  16. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  17. Development of the Engineering Test Satellite-3 (ETS-3) ion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, S.

    1984-01-01

    The ion engine system onboard the ETS-3 is discussed. The system consists of two electron bombardment type mercury ion engines with 2 mN thrust and 2,000 sec specific impulse and a power conditioner with automatic control functions. The research and development of the system, development of its EM, PM and FM, the system test and the technical achievements leading up to final launch are discussed.

  18. A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Michael L.; Hite, Richard K.; Steffen, Alanna M.; Damko, Ermelinda; Li, Zongli; Walz, Thomas; Chen, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumor cells depends on antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecules (MHC I). Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumor development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies to either down-regulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. To date neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. In this study we describe the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. We show that the twelve transmembrane helices and two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two NBDs separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and also prevents NBD closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the ER, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host. PMID:26789246

  19. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  20. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  1. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  2. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  3. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  4. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  5. Progress in Technology Validation of the Next Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development.

  6. Systems biology in 3D space--enter the morphome.

    PubMed

    Lucocq, John M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M; Hacker, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Systems-based understanding of living organisms depends on acquiring huge datasets from arrays of genes, transcripts, proteins, and lipids. These data, referred to as 'omes', are assembled using 'omics' methodologies. Currently a comprehensive, quantitative view of cellular and organellar systems in 3D space at nanoscale/molecular resolution is missing. We introduce here the term 'morphome' for the distribution of living matter within a 3D biological system, and 'morphomics' for methods of collecting 3D data systematically and quantitatively. A sampling-based approach termed stereology currently provides rapid, precise, and minimally biased morphomics. We propose that stereology solves the 'big data' problem posed by emerging wide-scale electron microscopy (EM) and can establish quantitative links between the newer nanoimaging platforms such as electron tomography, cryo-EM, and correlative microscopy.

  7. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  8. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

  9. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  10. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior. PMID:24510371

  11. New wave of refrigeration EMS said to avoid food spoilage

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, E.

    1982-05-24

    New energy-management systems for supermarkets are designed to eliminate the food-spoilage problems of demand limiting and load-shedding systems. The new systems use sensors to keep compressors running if food-case temperatures are high. They also require a set level of frost accumulation before defrosting. Users report savings of 10 to 30% and expect a payback of a few months to three years. A description of the four available systems includes comments from the manufacturers and users. (DCK)

  12. EMS transports patients to clinics--seeks to relieve ED crowding.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    With most EDs overcrowded and with no relief in sight, ED managers will take all the help they can get. In some areas of the country, the local EMS providers are looking to offer some relief by transporting less urgent patients to alternative sites such as urgent care clinics. EDs assist in the development of program protocols and processes. ED nurses are considered for consultation on whether a patient can appropriately be seen in a less urgent setting. EMS providers must be trained on the requirements patients must fulfill to be transported to an ED PMID:20608479

  13. Label-Free Visualization of Ultrastructural Features of Artificial Synapses via Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses. PMID:22860164

  14. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C.

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  15. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  16. Study on rheo-diecasting process of 7075R alloys by SA-EMS melt homogenized treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhihua, G.; Jun, X.; Zhifeng, Z.; Guojun, L.; Mengou, T.

    2016-03-01

    An advanced melt processing technology, spiral annular electromagnetic stirring (SA-EMS) based on the annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) process was developed for manufacturing Al-alloy components with high integrity. The SA-EMS process innovatively combines non-contact electromagnetic stirring and a spiral annular chamber with specially designed profiles to in situ make high quality melt slurry, and intensive forced shearing can be achieved under high shear rate and high intensity of turbulence inside the spiral annular chamber. In this paper, the solidification microstructure and hardness of 7075R alloy die-casting connecting rod conditioned by the SA-EMS melt processing technology were investigated. The results indicate that, the SA-EMS melt processing technology exhibited superior grain refinement and remarkable structure homogeneity. In addition, it can evidently enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the crack tendency.

  17. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa; Jarvinen, Riku

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propa-gation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform(e.g. ion-neutral collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expan-sion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  18. From a hybrid model to a fully kinetic model: On the modeling of planetary plasma environments by a fully kinetic electromagnetic global model HYB-em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Valter; Kallio, Esa

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC) model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new model enables us to (1) study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three dimensional space, (2) analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes) are also automatically included in HYB-em model. In this presentation we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1) expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2) propagation of a plane wave in plasma. We demonstrate that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.

  19. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  20. Patient and System-Related Delays of Emergency Medical Services Use in Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps)

    PubMed Central

    AlHabib, Khalid F.; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Amin, Haitham; Al Jarallah, Mohammed; Alfaleh, Hussam F.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Hersi, Ahmad; Kashour, Tarek; Al Aseri, Zohair; Ullah, Anhar; Altaradi, Hani B.; Nur Asfina, Kazi; Welsh, Robert C.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use and pre-hospital triage of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Arabian Gulf countries. Methods Clinical arrival and acute care within 24 h of STEMI symptom onset were compared between patients transferred by EMS (Red Crescent and Inter-Hospital) and those transferred by non-EMS means. Data were retrieved from a prospective registry of 36 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries, from January 2014 to January 2015. Results We enrolled 2,928 patients; mean age, 52.7 (SD ±11.8) years; 90% men; and 61.7% non-Arabian Gulf citizens. Only 753 patients (25.7%) used EMS; which was mostly via Inter-Hospital EMS (22%) rather than direct transfer from the scene to the hospital by the Red Crescent (3.7%). Compared to the non-EMS group, the EMS group was more likely to arrive initially at a primary or secondary health care facility; thus, they had longer median symptom-onset-to-emergency department arrival times (218 vs. 158 min; p˂.001); they were more likely to receive primary percutaneous coronary interventions (62% vs. 40.5%, p = 0.02); they had shorter door-to-needle times (38 vs. 42 min; p = .04); and shorter door-to-balloon times (47 vs. 83 min; p˂.001). High EMS use was independently predicted mostly by primary/secondary school educational levels and low or moderate socioeconomic status. Low EMS use was predicted by a history of angina and history of percutaneous coronary intervention. The groups had similar in-hospital deaths and outcomes. Conclusion Most acute STEMI patients in the Arabian Gulf region did not use EMS services. Improving Red Crescent infrastructure, establishing integrated STEMI networks, and launching educational public campaigns are top health care system priorities. PMID:26807577

  1. 6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

  3. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help.

  4. Back strength and flexibility of EMS providers in practicing prehospital providers.

    PubMed

    Crill, Matthew T; Hostler, David

    2005-06-01

    In the execution of prehospital care duties, an EMS provider may be required to carry equipment and patients over long distances or over multiple flights of stairs at any time of the day. At a minimum, a prehospital provider must have sufficient lower back strength and hamstring flexibility to prevent musculoskeletal injury while lifting. This study administered fitness assessments related to the occupational activities of the prehospital provider with the purpose of describing the incidence of occupational back injury and percentage of providers with known risk factors for back injury. Ninety subjects were tested during a regional EMS conference. Men were significantly taller and heavier than women and had significantly less hamstring flexibility. Body Mass Index was 30.7 +/- 7.2 in men and 28 +/- 5.7 in women. However, no significant differences were noted in an extension test of back strength. When surveyed, 47.8% of subjects reported a back injury in the previous 6 months but only 39.1% of these injuries were sustained while performing EMS duties. While only 13% of these injuries resulted in missed work, 52.2% reported their injury interfered with their daily activities. In spite of the physical nature of the profession, EMS providers in our sample were significantly overweight according to their Body Mass Index and may lack sufficient back strength and flexibilityfor safe execution of their duties. This group of professionals may be at risk for occupational injury and should be targeted for interventions to improve strength and flexibility.

  5. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  6. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  7. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

  8. The Role of Journals in Building up Communities: The Experience of "Ciência em Tela"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    "Ciência em Tela" is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes…

  9. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. PMID:27424268

  10. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  11. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python.

  12. 6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the…

  14. Analysis of lipid nanoparticles by Cryo-EM for characterizing siRNA delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Randy; Dogdas, Belma; Keough, Edward; Haas, R Matthew; Wepukhulu, Wickliffe; Krotzer, Steven; Burke, Paul A; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Bagchi, Ansuman; Howell, Bonnie J

    2011-01-17

    Lipid nanoparticles are self-assembling, dynamic structures commonly used as carriers of siRNA, DNA, and small molecular therapeutics. Quantitative analysis of particle characteristics such as morphological features can be very informative as biophysical properties are known to influence biological activity, biodistribution, and toxicity. However, accurate characterization of particle attributes and population distributions is difficult. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (Cryo-EM) is a leading characterization method and can reveal diversity in particle size, shape and lamellarity, however, this approach is traditionally used for qualitative review or low throughput image analysis due to inherent EM micrograph contrast characteristics and artifacts in the images which limit extraction of quantitative feature values. In this paper we describe the development of a semiautomatic image analysis framework to facilitate reliable image enhancement, object segmentation, and quantification of nanoparticle attributes in Cryo-EM micrographs. We apply this approach to characterize two formulations of siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles composed of cationic lipid, cholesterol, and poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid, where the formulations differ only by input component ratios. We found Cryo-EM image analysis provided reliable size and morphology information as well as the detection of smaller particle populations that were not detected by standard dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis.

  15. DEVELOPING MCIP TO PROCESS WRF-EM OUTPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes modifications that were made to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System's Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) to ingest a new meteorological model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. This presentation al...

  16. The development of intelligent, triage-based, mass-gathering emergency medical service PDA support systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Polun; Hsu, Yueh-Shuang; Tzeng, Yuann-Meei; Sang, Yiing-Yiing; Hou, I-Ching; Kao, Wei-Fong

    2004-09-01

    The support systems for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) at mass gatherings, such as the local marathon or large international baseball games, are underdeveloped. The purposes of this study were to extend well-developed, triage-based, EMS Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) support systems to cover pre-hospital emergency medical services and onsite evaluation forms for the mass gatherings, and to evaluate users ' perceived ease of use and usefulness of the systems in terms of Davis ' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The systems were developed based on an established intelligent triage PDA support system and two other forms the general EMS form from the Taipei EMT and the customer-made Mass Gathering Medical form used by a medical center. Twenty-three nurses and six physicians in the medical center, who had served at mass gatherings, were invited to examine the new systems and answer the TAM questionnaire. The PDA systems were composed of 450 information items within 42 screens in 6 categories. The results supported the potential for using triage-based PDA systems at mass gatherings. Overall, most of the subjects agreed that the systems were easy to use and useful for mass gatherings, and they were willing to accept the systems.

  17. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  18. Ambiente e formação estelar em galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Estudamos o ambiente de galáxias com formação estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galáxias com formação estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificação as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente é caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galáxias. Mostramos que a fração de galáxias com formação estelar é bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galáxias passivas aumenta nestas regiões. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a fração de galáxias que apresentam um surto recente de formação estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regiões mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distorções em sua morfologia. Estes resultados são confrontados com a análise da dependência ambiental da taxa de formação estelar, estimada pela emissão em Ha, de uma amostra extraída do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declínio gradual da formação estelar também é observado nesta análise, sugerindo que as interações por efeitos de maré sejam responsáveis pela redução da formação estelar em ambientes densos através da remoção do reservatório de gás das galáxias. No entanto, estas interações também podem induzir surtos de formação estelar nas galáxias, além de peculiaridades morfológicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regiões mais densas.

  19. Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2009-07-01

    The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat.

  20. Subtyping of Y-chromosomal haplogroup E-M78 (E1b1b1a) by SNP assay and its forensic application.

    PubMed

    Caratti, S; Gino, S; Torre, C; Robino, C

    2009-07-01

    The continual discovery of new single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has led to an increased resolution of the Y chromosome phylogeny. Some of these Y-SNPs have shown to be restricted to small geographical regions and therefore may prove useful in the forensic field as tools for the prediction of population of origin of unknown casework samples. Here, we describe a system for the molecular dissection of haplogroup E-M78 (E1b1b1a), consisting of multiplex polymerase chain reaction and minisequencing of M78 and nine population-informative Y-SNPs (M148, M224, V12, V13, V19, V22, V27, V32, V65) in a single reaction. Sensitivity and admixture studies demonstrated that the SNP protocol allows robust genotyping from as little as 50 pg of male DNA, even in the presence of 500-fold amounts of female DNA. In order to evaluate the suitability of E1b1b1a, subhaplogrouping for population-of-origin prediction, the distribution of E-M78 and its derived variants was determined in an Italian population sample (n = 326). PMID:19430804

  1. Subtyping of Y-chromosomal haplogroup E-M78 (E1b1b1a) by SNP assay and its forensic application.

    PubMed

    Caratti, S; Gino, S; Torre, C; Robino, C

    2009-07-01

    The continual discovery of new single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has led to an increased resolution of the Y chromosome phylogeny. Some of these Y-SNPs have shown to be restricted to small geographical regions and therefore may prove useful in the forensic field as tools for the prediction of population of origin of unknown casework samples. Here, we describe a system for the molecular dissection of haplogroup E-M78 (E1b1b1a), consisting of multiplex polymerase chain reaction and minisequencing of M78 and nine population-informative Y-SNPs (M148, M224, V12, V13, V19, V22, V27, V32, V65) in a single reaction. Sensitivity and admixture studies demonstrated that the SNP protocol allows robust genotyping from as little as 50 pg of male DNA, even in the presence of 500-fold amounts of female DNA. In order to evaluate the suitability of E1b1b1a, subhaplogrouping for population-of-origin prediction, the distribution of E-M78 and its derived variants was determined in an Italian population sample (n = 326).

  2. A Study of Energy Management Systems and its Failure Modes in Smart Grid Power Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musani, Aatif

    The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique. The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be

  3. Fabrication of carbon films with ∼ 500nm holes for cryo-EM with a direct detector device.

    PubMed

    Marr, Chelsea R; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2014-01-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is often performed using EM grids coated with a perforated or holey layer of amorphous carbon. Regular arrays of holes enable efficient cryo-EM data collection and several methods for the production of micropatterned holey-carbon film coated grids have been described. However, a new generation of direct detector device (DDD) electron microscope cameras can benefit from hole diameters that are smaller than currently available. Here we extend a previously proposed method involving soft lithography with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp for the production of holey-carbon film coated EM grids. By incorporating electron-beam (e-beam) lithography and modifying the procedure, we are able to produce low-cost high-quality holey-carbon film coated EM grids with ∼500nm holes spaced 4μm apart centre-to-centre. We demonstrate that these grids can be used for cryo-EM. Furthermore, we show that by applying image shifts to obtain movies of the carbon regions beside the holes after imaging the holes, the contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters needed for calculation of high-resolution cryo-EM maps with a DDD can be obtained efficiently.

  4. Fabrication of carbon films with ∼ 500nm holes for cryo-EM with a direct detector device.

    PubMed

    Marr, Chelsea R; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2014-01-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is often performed using EM grids coated with a perforated or holey layer of amorphous carbon. Regular arrays of holes enable efficient cryo-EM data collection and several methods for the production of micropatterned holey-carbon film coated grids have been described. However, a new generation of direct detector device (DDD) electron microscope cameras can benefit from hole diameters that are smaller than currently available. Here we extend a previously proposed method involving soft lithography with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp for the production of holey-carbon film coated EM grids. By incorporating electron-beam (e-beam) lithography and modifying the procedure, we are able to produce low-cost high-quality holey-carbon film coated EM grids with ∼500nm holes spaced 4μm apart centre-to-centre. We demonstrate that these grids can be used for cryo-EM. Furthermore, we show that by applying image shifts to obtain movies of the carbon regions beside the holes after imaging the holes, the contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters needed for calculation of high-resolution cryo-EM maps with a DDD can be obtained efficiently. PMID:24269484

  5. General properties of quantum optical systems in a strong field limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chumakov, S. M.; Klimov, Andrei B.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an arbitrary atomic system (n-level atoms or many n-level atoms) interacting with a resonant quantized mode of an em field. If the initial field state is a coherent state with a large photon number then the system dynamics possesses some general features, independently of the particular structure of the atomic system. Namely, trapping states, factorization of the wave function, collapses and revivals of the atomic energy oscillations are discussed.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder interferometry—hardware and system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audley, H.; Danzmann, K.; García Marín, A.; Heinzel, G.; Monsky, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Steier, F.; Gerardi, D.; Gerndt, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Johann, U.; Luetzow-Wentzky, P.; Wand, V.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    Preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model (EM) of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on an optical system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilized directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently during in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MATLAB-based LTP data analysis toolbox. This paper presents an overview of the results from the EM test campaign that was successfully completed in December 2009.

  7. Echinococcus multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI): a glycolytic enzyme involved in metacestode growth and parasite-host cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Britta; Spiliotis, Markus; Müller, Joachim; Scholl, Sabrina; Müller, Norbert; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    In Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, the surface-associated and highly glycosylated laminated layer, and molecules associated with this structure, is believed to be involved in modulating the host-parasite interface. We report on the molecular and functional characterisation of E. multilocularis phosphoglucose isomerase (EmPGI), which is a component of this laminated layer. The EmPGI amino acid sequence is virtually identical to that of its homologue in Echinococcus granulosus, and shares 64% identity and 86% similarity with human PGI. Mammalian PGI is a multi-functional protein which, besides its glycolytic function, can also act as a cytokine, growth factor and inducer of angiogenesis, and plays a role in tumour growth, development and metastasis formation. Recombinant EmPGI (recEmPGI) is also functionally active as a glycolytic enzyme and was found to be present, besides the laminated layer, in vesicle fluid and in germinal layer cell extracts. EmPGI is released from metacestodes and induces a humoral immune response in experimentally infected mice, and vaccination of mice with recEmPGI renders these mice more resistant towards secondary challenge infection, indicating that EmPGI plays an important role in parasite development and/or in modulating the host-parasite relationship. We show that recEmPGI stimulates the growth of isolated E. multilocularis germinal layer cells in vitro and selectively stimulates the proliferation of bovine adrenal cortex endothelial cells but not of human fibroblasts and rat hepatocytes. Thus, besides its role in glycolysis, EmPGI could also act as a factor that stimulates parasite growth and potentially induces the formation of novel blood vessels around the developing metacestode in vivo.

  8. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

  9. Laser frequency down-conversion by means of a monochromatically driven two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions are found under which a simple two-level quantum system possessing dipole moment operator with permanent non-equal diagonal matrix elements and driven by external semiclassical monochromatic high-frequency EM (laser) field can radiate continuously at much lower frequency. Possible ways to experimental observation and practical implementation of the predicted effect for a wide range of applications are discussed.

  10. Environmental Management Systems for Educational Institutions: A Case Study of Teri University, New Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Suresh; Pant, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to put forth a model for implementation of an environmental management system (EMS) in institutes of higher education in India. Design/methodology/approach: The authors carried out initial environmental review (IER) and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to identify the major…

  11. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop testing of wireless systems in realistic environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory); Schniter, P. (Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    This document describes an approach for testing of wireless systems in realistic environments that include intentional as well as unintentional radio frequency interference. In the approach, signal generators along with radio channel simulators are used to carry out hardware-in-the-loop testing. The channel parameters are obtained independently via channel sounding measurements and/or EM simulations.

  13. A Study on M2M-based System for Hygienic Meteorology Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    M2M proposes a standardized communications technology between network and devices. This study has designed an M2M-based system to smoothly deliver information between devices which were required to provide hygienic meteorology services. Especially, an efficient plan for service provision has been studied, by classifying the types of information at each stage of user, EM, SM, HSM and SPM.

  14. Diagrammatic Representational Constraints of Spatial Scale in Earth-Moon System Astronomy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Roger S.; Grundstrom, Erika D.

    2011-01-01

    Given that astronomy heavily relies on visual representations it is especially likely for individuals to assume that instructional materials, such as visual representations of the Earth-Moon system (EMS), would be relatively accurate. However, in our research, we found that images in middle-school textbooks and educational webpages were commonly…

  15. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  16. HSQ unveils new DDC EMS with boiler and data analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Poplett, J.

    1985-08-26

    The HSQ Miser system, which introduces a host-based direct digital control energy management system for large applications of between 400 and 10,000 points, includes a boiler combustion analyzer and a communications data line analyzer. The unit cuts energy bills by 15 to 30%, and can pay for itself in less than three years. It is suitable for office buildings, department stores, shopping malls, multi-building facilities, and industrial complexes. Control strategies include optimum start/stop, enthalpy control, night setback, setpoint control, time-of-day scheduling, duty-cycling, demand limiting, chilled and hot-water reset, as well as chiller optimization. The system operates on standard twisted pair wiring.

  17. Systems Biology of Polycystic Kidney Disease: a Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Luis Fernando; Germino, Gregory G

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and diminishing costs of ‘omics’ approaches have finally opened the doors for small and medium laboratories to enter the ‘systems biology era’. This is a welcome evolution that requires a new framework to design, interpret and validate studies. Here we highlight some of the challenges, contributions, and prospects of the“cyst-ems biology” of polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25641951

  18. The Telemedical Rescue Assistance System "TemRas"--development, first results, and impact.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Christian; Elsner, Jesko; Schneiders, Marie-Thérèse; Thelen, Sebastian; Brodziak, Tadeusz; Seidenberg, Peter; Schilberg, Daniel; Tobias, Michael; Jeschke, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    German emergency medical services (EMS) face the challenge of ensuring high-quality emergency care against a background of continuously increasing numbers of emergency missions, resource shortages concomitant with greatly increased arrival times, particularly in rural areas. Because German EMS physicians are at maximum capacity, an immediate response is not always possible, and thus delays in commencing advanced life support measures sometimes occur. In such scenarios, paramedics start the initial treatment until the EMS physician arrives. The delayed availability of a physician can defer the decision process of the paramedics and thus postpone the start of the patient's essential treatment, which is particularly dangerous during the care of cardiovascular emergencies. Therefore, the project Telemedical Rescue Assistance System (TemRas) has developed an innovative concept to improve quality of emergency care. The objective is to introduce so-called tele-EMS physicians providing remote medical support for the emergency team on site by transmitting audio and video data as well as vital signs and 12-lead-ECG from the emergency site to a teleconsultation center. In this article, the development process as well as the first results of the evaluation phase and the impact for further use of telemedicine in EMS are presented. PMID:24445230

  19. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  20. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is

  1. Environmental management systems as sustainable tools in the way of life for the SMEs and VSMEs.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis

    2010-03-01

    Small medium enterprises (SMEs) and very small medium enterprises (VSMEs) are the economic backbone of the most economies in Europe. Those VSMEs have mono-service or product, they feel economic pressure, they sell to the local market, they are family traditions and they are informal organizations, they have very "low management", they have employees from different nationalities, they have little access to adult training and to the new requirements of the market, they do not federate and they produce high amount of waste. The research question of our study was: why do SMEs build up environmental management systems (EMS)? This paper presents the need for the implementation of the EMS as a sustainable tool in order to monitor the production of the waste from SMEs and VSMEs. The paper presents benefits, disadvantages, motivation, differences from the international literature in order to present the necessity for the implementation of the EMS.

  2. Environmental management system vs green specifications: how do they complement each other in the construction industry?

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Chau, C K; Poon, C S; Chun, K P

    2011-03-01

    Environmental Management System (EMS) has been one of the important tools for sustainable construction for around two decades. However, many issues concerning sustainable development have not been properly addressed, and there is a need for the introduction of green specifications to advance green performance in construction through contract management. This paper defines green specifications, identifies the reasons for adopting green specifications and highlights the environmental issues that may not be addressed by solely adopting EMS. It also presents the results of a recent survey of practitioners concerning their opinions towards green specifications and possible impacts arising from their adoption. From the results of the survey, a framework for developing green specifications is deemed valuable for the cities striving for sustainability. Interestingly, the level of acceptable changes brought about by green specifications as perceived by different industry stakeholders is found to be unrelated to whether they were from organizations implementing EMS or not.

  3. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  4. Application of Six Sigma Method to EMS Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Králiková, Ružena

    2011-01-01

    The Six Sigma method is a complex and flexible system of achieving, maintaining and maximizing the business success. Six Sigma is based mainly on understanding the customer needs and expectation, disciplined use of facts and statistics analysis, and responsible approach to managing, improving and establishing new business, manufacturing and service processes.

  5. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  6. Documentation for a web site to serve ULF-EM (Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic) data to the public

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neumann, Danny A.; McPherson, Selwyn; Klemperer, Simon L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Kappler, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Stanford Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic (ULF-EM) Monitoring Project is recording naturally varying electromagnetic signals adjacent to active earthquake faults, in an attempt to establish whether there is any variation in these signals associated with earthquakes. Our project is collaborative between Stanford University, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and UC Berkeley. Lead scientists are Simon Klemperer (Stanford University), Jonathan Glen (USGS) and Darcy Karakelian McPhee (USGS). Our initial sites are in the San Francisco Bay Area, monitoring different strands of the San Andreas fault system, at Stanford University's Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRSC), Marin Headlands of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (MHDL), and the UC Berkeley's Russell Reservation Field Station adjacent to Briones Regional Park (BRIB). In addition, we maintain in conjunction with the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) two remote reference stations at the Bear Valley Ranch in Parkfield, Calif., (PKD) and the San Andreas Geophysical Observatory at Hollister, Calif., (SAO). Metadata about our site can be found at http://ulfem-data.stanford.edu/info.html. Site descriptions can be found at the BSL at http://seismo.berkeley.edu/, and seismic data can be obtained from the Northern California Earthquake Data Center at http://www.ncedc.org/. The site http://ulfem-data.stanford.edu/ allows access to data from the Stanford-USGS sites JRSC, MHDL and BRIB, as well as UC Berkeley sites PKD and SAO.

  7. Architecture of fully occupied GluA2 AMPA receptor-TARP complex elucidated by cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Shanshuang; Yoshioka, Craig; Baconguis, Isabelle; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is largely carried out by AMPA-sensitive ionotropic glutamate receptors. Localized within the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic spines, AMPA receptors are composed of heterotetrameric receptor assemblies associated with auxiliary subunits, the most common of which are transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). The association of TARPs with AMPA receptors modulates receptor trafficking and the kinetics of receptor gating and pharmacology. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the homomeric rat GluA2 AMPA receptor saturated with TARP γ2 subunits, which shows how the TARPs are arranged with four-fold symmetry around the ion channel domain and make extensive interactions with the M1, M2 and M4 transmembrane helices. Poised like partially opened ‘hands’ underneath the two-fold symmetric ligand-binding domain (LBD) 'clamshells', one pair of TARPs is juxtaposed near the LBD dimer interface, whereas the other pair is near the LBD dimer-dimer interface. The extracellular ‘domains’ of TARP are positioned to not only modulate LBD clamshell closure, but also affect conformational rearrangements of the LBD layer associated with receptor activation and desensitization, while the TARP transmembrane domains buttress the ion channel pore.

  8. Designing Better Scaffolding in Teaching Complex Systems with Graphical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na

    Complex systems are an important topic in science education today, but they are usually difficult for secondary-level students to learn. Although graphic simulations have many advantages in teaching complex systems, scaffolding is a critical factor for effective learning. This dissertation study was conducted around two complementary research questions on scaffolding: (1) How can we chunk and sequence learning activities in teaching complex systems? (2) How can we help students make connections among system levels across learning activities (level bridging)? With a sample of 123 seventh-graders, this study employed a 3x2 experimental design that factored sequencing methods (independent variable 1; three levels) with level-bridging scaffolding (independent variable 2; two levels) and compared the effectiveness of each combination. The study measured two dependent variables: (1) knowledge integration (i.e., integrating and connecting content-specific normative concepts and providing coherent scientific explanations); (2) understanding of the deep causal structure (i.e., being able to grasp and transfer the causal knowledge of a complex system). The study used a computer-based simulation environment as the research platform to teach the ideal gas law as a system. The ideal gas law is an emergent chemical system that has three levels: (1) experiential macro level (EM) (e.g., an aerosol can explodes when it is thrown into the fire); (2) abstract macro level (AM) (i.e., the relationships among temperature, pressure and volume); (3) micro level (Mi) (i.e., molecular activity). The sequencing methods of these levels were manipulated by changing the order in which they were delivered with three possibilities: (1) EM-AM-Mi; (2) Mi-AM-EM; (3) AM-Mi-EM. The level-bridging scaffolding variable was manipulated on two aspects: (1) inserting inter-level questions among learning activities; (2) two simulations dynamically linked in the final learning activity. Addressing the first

  9. The Brava seamount, Cape Verde: Beyond the spatial extent of EM1 and petrogenesis of highly evolved alkaline lavas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Abigail; Andersson, Axel; Troll, Valentin; Hansteen, Thor; Ellam, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Alkaline lavas from the Brava seamount, Cape Verde are investigated to establish the spatial distribution of compositional heterogeneity in the southwest of the Cape Verde archipelago. Highly evolved lavas provide a record of shallow level magma-crust interaction beneath the Brava seamount. The Brava seamount, located southwest of the island of Brava, Cape Verde was sampled during research cruise 8/85 of the R.R.S. Charles Darwin in 1985. Two groups of highly evolved alkaline volcanics are distinguished from the Brava seamount: 1) pyroxene-phonolites containing clinopyroxene, amphibole, nepheline, ±biotite, and minor sanidine and 2) feldspathoid-phonolites containing nepheline, nausean, minor biotite and leucite. All of the samples have MgO between 0.8 and 2 wt%, comparable to the most evolved volcanics sampled in the Cape Verde archipelago. The feldspathoid-phonolites have NaO2 of 12-13 wt%. Alkaline lavas from the Brava seamount have higher 87Sr/87Sr (0.70337 to 0.70347) at ɛNd of +6 to +7 than previously sampled in Cape Verde. Sr isotopes will be integrated with oxygen isotopes to establish magma and crust interactions in the magmatic plumbing system beneath the Brava seamount. Clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry will be presented to constrain the depths of equilibrium crystallisation. Sr-O isotopes and thermobarometry will be combined to build a picture of the levels of magma stalling and interaction between magmas and the crust beneath the Brava seamount. The Brava seamount phonolitic lavas have high 206Pb/204Pb of 19.5 to 19.8 with negative ?8/4 and high ɛNd of +6 to +7 in contrast to the positive ?8/4 for lavas from nearby Brava and the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Lavas from the Brava seamount have Pb-Nd isotope systematics comparable to the northern Cape Verde islands, indicating the southwestern boundary in mantle heterogeneity and thereby the spatial extent of the EM1-like source contributing to the southern islands. The extensive

  10. Shared-savings cuts hotel's losses from EMS removal

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-11-08

    A shared-savings contract will minimize the Myrtle Beach, SC Downtown Holiday Inn's losses of replacing a poorly performing Energy Master energy-management system with Scientific Atlanta equipment. The contract with Energy Master Inc. (EMI), which saved Holiday Inn the $80,000 to $90,000 purchase price, also permitted removal (a year after installation) of the equipment when it failed to generate energy savings. A dispute between Associated Energy Consultants (AEC), which was to receive half the savings in exchange for arranging the equipment financing, is described. At $51,745, the 262-point Scientific Atlanta system should have a 1.7-year payback. The hotel's electric bills were $2000 a month lower during the first three months of operation. (DCK)

  11. FPGA technology application in a fast measurement and control system for the TESLA superconducting cavity of a FLASH free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2007-08-01

    Contemporary basic research in physics, biology, chemistry, pharmacology, material technology and other branches uses methods based on sample penetration (and the effect measurement) with pulsed ultra-short EM waves of very high beam intensity. This paper is an overview of a free electron laser (FEL) used in such methods. A method for the stabilization of the EM field in a superconducting 'TESLA' cavity accelerator for electrons is presented. This requires precise measurements of the field. The SC accelerator is a basic part of the FEL. The given example concerns the FLASH machine in DESY. The presented, high power EM field stabilization system is based on FPGA circuits with embedded fast hardware multiplication blocks. Examples of a few families of such new generation practically designed and constructed system realizations are given. The system is referred to as the SIMCON (from the microwave superconducting cavity SIMulator and CONtroller). SIMCONs consist of either single-module, multi-module configurable or multichannel distributed units. The SIMCON system stabilizes the EM field by a very fast feedback loop with an adaptation process, supplemented with a feed-forward. The following are presented: a parametric hardware description (firmware) in the form of behavioural VHDL algorithms; implementation results in VirtexIIPro circuits; examples of measurements of high power EM field stability performed under the nominal conditions of accelerator work.

  12. Nonintrusive cryogenic propellant sensing with millimeter-wave/EM beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, J. M.; Nyland, T. W.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper experimental results of cryogenic tankage mass measurements and descriptions of level sensors using optical and millimeter wave signal beams are presented. The discussed results are based on a 100 GHz frequency modulated radar mass sensor. Test results are compared with a similar system which makes use of a laser beam and a frequency modulated microwave subcarrier. In addition the performance of a laser triangulation level sensor is presented which is suitable for normal gravity applications. Performance prediction in terms of the resolution and measurement accuracy are discussed with emphasis on the measurement difficulties encountered while using liquid hydrogen under normal gravity conditions. For a mass sensor the small 11% refractive index change between an empty and a filled tank of hydrogen causes a loss of measurement accuracy by a factor of ten, as compared to a level sensor. This loss is common to all mass propellant sensing systems, including the conventional capacitance probe sensor. Special processing techniques are indicated. Extensions of the presented millimeter wave mass sensor concept for micro and zero gravity cryogenic systems and for other special space related propellant conditions such as slush hydrogen are discussed.

  13. Transparent ceramics for armor and EM window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Gilde, Gary A.; Dehmer, Peter G.; McCauley, James W.

    2000-10-01

    Recently, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has focused increased attention on the development of transparent armor material systems for a variety of applications. Future combat and non-combat environments will require lightweight, threat adjustable, multifunctional, and affordable armor. Current glass/polycarbonate technologies are not expected to meet the increased requirements. Results over the past few years indicate that the use of transparent crystalline ceramics greatly improve the performance of a system. These results coupled with recent processing and manufacturing advances have revitalized the interest in using transparent ceramics for armor systems. The materials currently under investigation at ARL are magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), aluminum oxynitride spinel (AlON), single crystal sapphire (Al2O3), glasses, and glass-ceramics. The polymers under investigation are polycarbonate (PC) and polyurethane (PU). An overview of current ARL efforts in these areas, including the motivation for using transparent ceramics, the requirements, the potential applications, and the ongoing processing research will be reviewed.

  14. The proposed icy mineralogy package (XRD/XRF) for TandEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Andrew Dominic; Wood, Ian G.; Dobson, David P.; Fewster, Paul F.; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    Introduction: Understanding the geology of Titan's crust, and its interaction with the atmosphere, requires determination of the chemistry and mineralogy of surface materials which can only be achieved unambiguously using a combination of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Here we describe an icy mineralogy package (IMP) consisting of a miniaturised XRD/XRF instrument designed primarily with Titan (and the TandEM ESA Cosmic Vision proposal [1]) in mind; however, the instrument is not predicated upon an a priori knowledge of surface mineralogy and consequently is applicable with little modification to any solar system body (rocky or icy). The proposed instrument is well suited to integration with other analytical tools, such as IR and UV Raman spectrometers. Instrument design: Two design concepts are currently under study, which differ in the complexity of the sample handling system, and the range of Bragg angles which may be observed. Both are focusing cameras, one (IMP senior) working in transmission, and the other (IMP junior) working in back-reflection. IMP jnr is intended for deployment on a static surface probe with no sample acquisition capability, collecting a single diffraction pattern through a window in the probe's underside. IMP snr is intended for deployment on a balloon with a sample collection arm able to deliver scoops of surface material to a rotating specimen stage. The latter may therefore be used to analyse many samples at geographically dispersed points. In each case we will use X-rays generated by high specific-activity radioisotope sources, 55 Fe and 241 Am. Our paper will present the results of the following activities: (a) compilation of a crystallographic database of materials expected on Titan's surface; (b) simulation of single-phase and polyphase diffraction data to illustrate the ease with which substances may be distinguished (even in complex mixtures); (c) blind tests of peak-matching software against

  15. On the convergence of EM-like algorithms for image segmentation using Markov random fields.

    PubMed

    Roche, Alexis; Ribes, Delphine; Bach-Cuadra, Meritxell; Krüger, Gunnar

    2011-12-01

    Inference of Markov random field images segmentation models is usually performed using iterative methods which adapt the well-known expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for independent mixture models. However, some of these adaptations are ad hoc and may turn out numerically unstable. In this paper, we review three EM-like variants for Markov random field segmentation and compare their convergence properties both at the theoretical and practical levels. We specifically advocate a numerical scheme involving asynchronous voxel updating, for which general convergence results can be established. Our experiments on brain tissue classification in magnetic resonance images provide evidence that this algorithm may achieve significantly faster convergence than its competitors while yielding at least as good segmentation results.

  16. [Antibiotic resistance of important infection sources in 1996 in Weser-Ems].

    PubMed

    Klarmann, D

    1997-08-01

    An overview of the antibiotic resistance of important bacteria of infectious disease in 1996 in the district of Weser-Ems in Lower Sexonie among farm animals, dogs and cats is given. The bacteria isolated from different materials as animal body, organ, droppings, milk, swabs from nose, cervix or other source and their resistance pattern were listed belonging to species and localisation of their isolation. By means of different counts of isolation one can see the importance of the isolated bacteria at the ITT, Institut für Tierzucht, Tierhaitung und Tiergesundheit, of the Landwirtschaftskammer Weser-Ems in Oldenburg. The development of resistance of bacteria obtained from dairy cows with mastitis and in general some important antibiotics like cefoperazon, ceftiofur and enrofloxacine is shown. Furthermore more detailed instructions to the method of microbiological resistance testing, the broth microdilution method, are given. PMID:9324462

  17. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  18. Reconstruction of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on the expectation maximum (EM) method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-11-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) calculates the internal conductivity distribution within a body using electrical contact measurements. The image reconstruction for EIT is an inverse problem, which is both non-linear and ill-posed. The traditional regularization method cannot avoid introducing negative values in the solution. The negativity of the solution produces artifacts in reconstructed images in presence of noise. A statistical method, namely, the expectation maximization (EM) method, is used to solve the inverse problem for EIT in this paper. The mathematical model of EIT is transformed to the non-negatively constrained likelihood minimization problem. The solution is obtained by the gradient projection-reduced Newton (GPRN) iteration method. This paper also discusses the strategies of choosing parameters. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the reconstructed images with higher quality can be obtained by the EM method, compared with the traditional Tikhonov and conjugate gradient (CG) methods, even with non-negative processing.

  19. High-Resolution Macromolecular Structure Determination by MicroED, a cryo-EM Method.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Gonen, T

    2016-01-01

    Microelectron diffraction (MicroED) is a new cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method capable of determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution from vanishingly small 3D crystals. MicroED promises to solve atomic resolution structures from even the tiniest of crystals, less than a few hundred nanometers thick. MicroED complements frontier advances in crystallography and represents part of the rebirth of cryo-EM that is making macromolecular structure determination more accessible for all. Here we review the concept and practice of MicroED, for both the electron microscopist and crystallographer. Where other reviews have addressed specific details of the technique (Hattne et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2016; Shi, Nannenga, Iadanza, & Gonen, 2013), we aim to provide context and highlight important features that should be considered when performing a MicroED experiment.

  20. Selecting gravitational wave events for EM follow-up in the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-A.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave sources with emissions in the frequency band detectable by ground-based instruments may have electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. The EM counterpart could help confirm the existence of the gravitational wave signature and provide complementary information regarding the source event. However, observable emissions are transient, requiring rapid communication between observing partners and members of the LSC (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) and Virgo in order to be captured. During the past year, we developed and began testing software known as the VOEvent Approval Processor that oversees the selection of events and generation of alerts to be sent to GCN for distribution. This talk will cover how VOEvent Approval Processor has been tested, thus far, and what kind of work is still to be done for its use in the advanced detector era. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.

  1. Denoising and covariance estimation of single particle cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Bhamre, Tejal; Zhang, Teng; Singer, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The problem of image restoration in cryo-EM entails correcting for the effects of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) and noise. Popular methods for image restoration include 'phase flipping', which corrects only for the Fourier phases but not amplitudes, and Wiener filtering, which requires the spectral signal to noise ratio. We propose a new image restoration method which we call 'Covariance Wiener Filtering' (CWF). In CWF, the covariance matrix of the projection images is used within the classical Wiener filtering framework for solving the image restoration deconvolution problem. Our estimation procedure for the covariance matrix is new and successfully corrects for the CTF. We demonstrate the efficacy of CWF by applying it to restore both simulated and experimental cryo-EM images. Results with experimental datasets demonstrate that CWF provides a good way to evaluate the particle images and to see what the dataset contains even without 2D classification and averaging.

  2. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  3. High-Resolution Macromolecular Structure Determination by MicroED, a cryo-EM Method.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Gonen, T

    2016-01-01

    Microelectron diffraction (MicroED) is a new cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) method capable of determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution from vanishingly small 3D crystals. MicroED promises to solve atomic resolution structures from even the tiniest of crystals, less than a few hundred nanometers thick. MicroED complements frontier advances in crystallography and represents part of the rebirth of cryo-EM that is making macromolecular structure determination more accessible for all. Here we review the concept and practice of MicroED, for both the electron microscopist and crystallographer. Where other reviews have addressed specific details of the technique (Hattne et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2016; Shi, Nannenga, Iadanza, & Gonen, 2013), we aim to provide context and highlight important features that should be considered when performing a MicroED experiment. PMID:27572734

  4. The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Devika; Chen, Zhenguo; Sun, Lei; Klose, Thomas; Pierson, Theodore C; Rossmann, Michael G; Kuhn, Richard J

    2016-04-22

    The recent rapid spread of Zika virus and its unexpected linkage to birth defects and an autoimmune neurological syndrome have generated worldwide concern. Zika virus is a flavivirus like the dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. We present the 3.8 angstrom resolution structure of mature Zika virus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of Zika virus is similar to other known flavivirus structures, except for the ~10 amino acids that surround the Asn(154) glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins that make up the icosahedral shell. The carbohydrate moiety associated with this residue, which is recognizable in the cryo-EM electron density, may function as an attachment site of the virus to host cells. This region varies not only among Zika virus strains but also in other flaviviruses, which suggests that differences in this region may influence virus transmission and disease.

  5. Considerations for safe EMS transport of patients infected with Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Schenarts, Paul J; Rupp, Lloyd E; Hawes, Kingdon J; Tysor, Benjamin M; Swansiger, Raymond G; Schwedhelm, Shelly S; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit through the Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska, recently received patients with confirmed Ebola virus from West Africa. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit and Omaha Fire Department's emergency medical services (EMS) coordinated patient transportation from airport to the high-level isolation unit. Transportation of these highly infectious patients capitalized on over 8 years of meticulous planning and rigorous infection control training to ensure the safety of transport personnel as well as the community during transport. Although these transports occurred with advanced notice and after confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnosis, approaches and key lessons acquired through this effort will advance the ability of any EMS provider to safely transport a confirmed or suspected patient with EVD. Three critical areas have been identified from our experience: ambulance preparation, appropriate selection and use of personal protective equipment, and environmental decontamination. PMID:25380073

  6. Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anna; Rohou, Alexis; Schep, Daniel G; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Walker, John E; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-10-06

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases.

  7. Rotating ned reactor as a power source for em gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approximately 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approximately 3000/degree/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it. The RBR can generate electric power (up to approximately 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications. 4 refs.

  8. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  9. Ab Initio Modeling of the Herpesvirus VP26 Core Domain Assessed by CryoEM Density

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L; Jiang, Wen; Wedemeyer, William J; Rixon, Frazer J; Baker, David; Chiu, Wah

    2006-01-01

    Efforts in structural biology have targeted the systematic determination of all protein structures through experimental determination or modeling. In recent years, 3-D electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has assumed an increasingly important role in determining the structures of these large macromolecular assemblies to intermediate resolutions (6–10 Å). While these structures provide a snapshot of the assembly and its components in well-defined functional states, the resolution limits the ability to build accurate structural models. In contrast, sequence-based modeling techniques are capable of producing relatively robust structural models for isolated proteins or domains. In this work, we developed and applied a hybrid modeling approach, utilizing cryoEM density and ab initio modeling to produce a structural model for the core domain of a herpesvirus structural protein, VP26. Specifically, this method, first tested on simulated data, utilizes the cryoEM density map as a geometrical constraint in identifying the most native-like models from a gallery of models generated by ab initio modeling. The resulting model for the core domain of VP26, based on the 8.5-Å resolution herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid cryoEM structure and mutational data, exhibited a novel fold. Additionally, the core domain of VP26 appeared to have a complementary interface to the known upper-domain structure of VP5, its cognate binding partner. While this new model provides for a better understanding of the assembly and interactions of VP26 in HSV-1, the approach itself may have broader applications in modeling the components of large macromolecular assemblies. PMID:17069457

  10. Disentangling conformational states of macromolecules in 3D-EM through likelihood optimization.

    PubMed

    Scheres, Sjors H W; Gao, Haixiao; Valle, Mikel; Herman, Gabor T; Eggermont, Paul P B; Frank, Joachim; Carazo, Jose-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) permits structural characterization of macromolecular assemblies in distinct functional states, the inability to classify projections from structurally heterogeneous samples has severely limited its application. We present a maximum likelihood-based classification method that does not depend on prior knowledge about the structural variability, and demonstrate its effectiveness for two macromolecular assemblies with different types of conformational variability: the Escherichia coli ribosome and Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen.

  11. [Study on spatial variability of soil salinity based on spectral indices and EM38 readings].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-kun; Yang, Jin-song; Li, Xiao-ming

    2009-04-01

    Taking Feng-qiu County as a case of soil salinization widely existing in the semiarid region, the spatial variability of soil salinity was investigated by using remote sensing and EM (electromagnetic induction) technologies in the present study. Descriptive statistics was applied to soil salinity data interpreted from EM38 measurements using field sampling method. Spectral indices (soil index and plant index) were derived from 25-resolution Landsat TM image taken in April 2005, and proved to be significantly correlated with soil salinity interpreted by EM38 readings. Regression models were further established between the interpreted soil electrical conductivity and spectral indices (soil index and plant index), and'spatial distribution patterns across the study area were finally mapped based on the above regression models. Results indicated that soil salinity at each soil layer is from 0.259 to 0.572 and exhibits the moderate spatial variability owing to compound impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Spatial distribution maps of soil salinity were obtained with the application of plant index, soil index and EM38 measurements. It was shown that soil salinization, mainly located in the north and south of the study area, exhibited obvious trend effect. Salinity at surface soil was the greatest and showed the trend of a decrease at subsoil layer and then an increase at deep layer in the whole soil profile. The accuracy of the predictions was tested using 40 soil sampled points. The root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration for soil salinity in each layer was 0.094, 0.052, 0.071 and 0.067 ds x m(-1) respectively, showing that the precision is ideal. The change trends of RMSE were the same as soil salinity in soil profile. The trends indicated that soil salinity had effect on the salinity prediction by spectral indices, and showed better accuracy at low soil salinity.

  12. The sky's the limit. How to plan your career in EMS.

    PubMed

    Roell, F

    1992-08-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, it is possible to make EMS a career. The key is deciding that the field of prehospital care is where you ultimately want to be and planning where you want to go and what you want to do within the field. Follow these tips on becoming an EMT, moving up to paramedic and, finally, deciding whether to become a manager, and find out for yourself that the sky really is the limit.

  13. Quantum theory of extended particle dynamics in the presence of EM radiation-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a trajectory-based relativistic quantum wave equation is established for extended charged spinless particles subject to the action of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) interaction. The quantization pertains the particle dynamics, in which both the external and self EM fields are treated classically. The new equation proposed here is referred to as the RR quantum wave equation. This is shown to be an evolution equation for a complex scalar quantum wave function and to be realized by a first-order PDE with respect to a quantum proper time s . The latter is uniquely prescribed by representing the RR quantum wave equation in terms of the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations and introducing a parametrization in terms of Lagrangian paths associated with the quantum fluid velocity. Besides the explicit proper time dependence, the theory developed here exhibits a number of additional notable features. First, the wave equation is variational and is consistent with the principle of manifest covariance. Second, it permits the definition of a strictly positive 4-scalar quantum probability density on the Minkowski space-time, in terms of which a flow-invariant probability measure is established. Third, the wave equation is non-local, due to the characteristic EM RR retarded interaction. Fourth, the RR wave equation recovers the Schrödinger equation in the non-relativistic limit and the customary Klein-Gordon wave equation when the EM RR is negligible or null. Finally, the consistency with the classical RR Hamilton-Jacobi equation is established in the semi-classical limit.

  14. FLOYDS Classification of ASASSN-14em as a SN Ia Around Max

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, I.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.

    2014-07-01

    We obtained a spectrum of ASASSN-14em (ATel #6342) on 2014 July 26.3 (UT) with the robotic FLOYDS spectrograph mounted on the Faulkes Telescope North. Using Superfit (Howell et al. 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), we find good matches to spectra of Type Ia supernovae near maximum light at the redshift of the host galaxy (z=0.03).

  15. Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zhu, Hongtu; Tang, Niansheng

    2009-01-01

    We consider novel methods for the computation of model selection criteria in missing-data problems based on the output of the EM algorithm. The methodology is very general and can be applied to numerous situations involving incomplete data within an EM framework, from covariates missing at random in arbitrary regression models to nonignorably missing longitudinal responses and/or covariates. Toward this goal, we develop a class of information criteria for missing-data problems, called ICH,Q, which yields the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion as special cases. The computation of ICH,Q requires an analytic approximation to a complicated function, called the H-function, along with output from the EM algorithm used in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. The approximation to the H-function leads to a large class of information criteria, called ICH̃(k),Q. Theoretical properties of ICH̃(k),Q, including consistency, are investigated in detail. To eliminate the analytic approximation to the H-function, a computationally simpler approximation to ICH,Q, called ICQ, is proposed, the computation of which depends solely on the Q-function of the EM algorithm. Advantages and disadvantages of ICH̃(k),Q and ICQ are discussed and examined in detail in the context of missing-data problems. Extensive simulations are given to demonstrate the methodology and examine the small-sample and large-sample performance of ICH̃(k),Q and ICQ in missing-data problems. An AIDS data set also is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology. PMID:19693282

  16. How to avoid the ten most frequent EMS pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.

    1982-04-19

    It pays to do your homework before investing in an energy management system if you want to avoid the 10 most common pitfalls listed by users, consultants, and manufacturers as: oversimplification, improper maintenance, failure to involve operating personnel, inaccurate savings estimates, failure to include monitoring capability, incompetent or fradulent firms, improper load control, not allowing for a de-bugging period, failure to include manual override, and software problems. The article describes how each of these pitfalls can lead to poor decisions and poor results. (DCK)

  17. Profiling the Local Seebeck Coefficient with Nanometer Resolution Using Scanning Thermoelectric Microscopy (SThEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiang; Walrath, Jenna; Goldman, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices offer a method of recovering waste heat through solid state conversion of heat to electricity. Nanostructured thermoelectric materials may provide the key to increased efficiencies, which are sensitive to the Seebeck coefficients (S) However, traditional bulk measurement techniques can only provide a spatially averaged measurement of S over the whole sample, which can hardly investigate the effects of nanostructures on S on the nanoscale. A novel technique known as scanning thermoelectric microscopy (SThEM) has recently been developed to measure induced thermal voltages with nanometer resolution In SThEM, an unheated scanning tunneling microscopy tip acts as a high-resolution voltmeter probe to measure the thermally-induced voltage, V, in a heated sample. Here we present a local S measurement using SThEM across an InGaAs P-N junction. The thermovoltage shows an abrupt change of sign within 10 nanometers, which reveals nanometer spatial resolution. We will discuss local S measurements of AlAs/GaAs superlattices (SLs) with various SL periods and compare the local S with scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements, which will reveal how local electronic states influence thermoelectric properties. This material is based upon work primarily supported by DOE under grant No. DE-FG02-06 and ER46339 the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-PI0000012.

  18. Particle migration analysis in iterative classification of cryo-EM single-particle data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Shen, Bingxin; Frank, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Recently developed classification methods have enabled resolving multiple biological structures from cryo-EM data collected on heterogeneous biological samples. However, there remains the problem of how to base the decisions in the classification on the statistics of the cryo-EM data, to reduce the subjectivity in the process. Here, we propose a quantitative analysis to determine the iteration of convergence and the number of distinguishable classes, based on the statistics of the single particles in an iterative classification scheme. We start the classification with more number of classes than anticipated based on prior knowledge, and then combine the classes that yield similar reconstructions. The classes yielding similar reconstructions can be identified from the migrating particles (jumpers) during consecutive iterations after the iteration of convergence. We therefore termed the method "jumper analysis", and applied it to the output of RELION 3D classification of a benchmark experimental dataset. This work is a step forward toward fully automated single-particle reconstruction and classification of cryo-EM data.

  19. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  20. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Lee, Ki Ha; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    1994-09-01

    Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked, eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 in. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two flberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then six months after the steam was injected to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resisitivity images derived from the EM data collected before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and after steam flooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated eastward. Surface-to-borehole measurements were useful in mapping the distribution of the major oil sands, but they were insensitive to resisitivity changes in the early stages of the steam flood.