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Sample records for ema oli ori

  1. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  2. Voices of youth. Ema's story.

    PubMed

    Peteru, A

    1998-01-01

    In this article, a 21-year-old Samoan woman talks about her life and her involvement with a peer counseling program that promotes use of condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS. At age 21, Ema is the oldest of four children who lost their mother 5 years earlier. Ema was expelled from high school, has never been employed, and is not seeking employment. She has been involved in the peer education program for 3 years and enjoys being able to share information with other youth. The peer educators provide outreach services, including referrals for youth with sexually transmitted diseases, but they have very little incentive to continue with the program. Ema expresses surprise that she and other peer educators have been allowed to present condom demonstrations in the religious schools but notes that the clergy generally issue ultimatums instead of options. Ema reports that the government could reduce the incidence of sexual activity among 13- and 14-year-old adolescents by providing more jobs. While many youth understand the risks of unprotected sexual intercourse, girls are still victimized by rape and abuse. Ema would like to see young people become well educated about sex before they experience intercourse and calls upon parents to understand their role in shaping their children's futures.

  3. UX Ori-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinin, V.

    2017-06-01

    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  4. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  5. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  6. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  7. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  8. The oli1 gene and flanking sequences in mitochondrial DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the complete nucleotide sequence of a 1.35 kilobase petite mitochondrial DNA genome covering the oli1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ooi, B G; Nagley, P

    1986-01-01

    As part of our genetic and molecular analysis of mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affected in the oli1 gene (coding for mitochondrial ATPase subunit 9) we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA genome of a petite (23-3) carrying this gene. Petite 23-3 (1,355 base pairs) retains a continuous segment of the relevant wild-type (J69-1B) mtDNA genome extending 983 nucleotides upstream, and 126 nucleotides downstream, of the 231 nucleotide oli1 coding region. There is a 15-nucleotide excision sequence in petite 23-3 mtDNA which occurs as a direct repeat in the wild-type mtDNA sequence flanking the unique petite mtDNA segment (interestingly, this excision sequence in petite 23-3 carries a single base substitution relative to the parental wild-type sequence). The putative replication origin of petite 23-3 is considered to be in its single G,C rich cluster, which differs in just one nucleotide from the standard oriS sequence. The DNA sequences in the intergenic regions flanking the oli1 gene of strain J69-1B (and its derivatives) have been systematically compared to those of the corresponding regions of mtDNA in strains derived from the D273-10B parent (sequences from the laboratory of A. Tzagoloff). The nature and distribution of the sequence divergences (base substitutions, base deletions or insertions, and more extensive rearrangements) are considered in the context of functions associated with mitochondrial gene expression which are ascribed to specialized sequences in the intergenic regions of the yeast mitochondrial genome.

  9. Development of Electrochemical Supercapacitors for EMA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, John A.; Dunning, Thomas; LaConti, Anthony B.

    1996-01-01

    A limitation of the typical electrochemical capacitor is the maximum available power and energy density, and an improvement in capacitance per unit weight and volume is needed. A solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils has been developed. This capacitor could provide high-current pulses for electromechanical actuation (EMA). Primary project objectives were to develop high-capacitance particulates, to increase capacitor gravimetric and volumetric energy densities above baseline and to fabricate a 10-V capacitor with a repeating element thickness of 6 mils or less. Specific EMA applications were identified and capacitor weight and volume projections made.

  10. [Study of density functional theory (DFT) for Raman spectra of CH3OLi and CH3CH2OLi].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Yin, Yan-Feng; Fu, Juan; Ding, Li; Mo, Yu-Jun

    2009-11-01

    Molecular configurations of CH3 OLi and CH3 CH2 OLi were structured based on the previous study that lithium atom and oxygen atom are directly joined by O-Li bond in alkoxy lithium (ROLi). Neither experimental nor theoretical Raman spectra of CH3 OLi and CH3 CH2 OLi have been reported up to now. In the present paper, DFT method at the B3LYP/ 6-31G(d,p) level was used to optimize molecular configurations of CH3 OLi and CH3 CH2 OLi, obtaining each corresponding equilibrium configuration. Vibration frequencies and Raman spectra of these two molecules were calculated based on equilibrium configuration. The vibration frequencies of obtained calculated results were analyzed by normal coordinate analysis. Besides, the Raman vibration modes of CH3 OLi and CH3 CH2 OLi were assigned according to potential energy distribution of each vibration frequency, which will provide theoretical basis for experimental workers to analyze the components of solid electrolyte interface film (SEI film) of lithium ion battery.

  11. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  12. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-12-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research.

  13. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This paper reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has most been applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good, but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data, and hold promise for substance use research. PMID:19947783

  14. Influence of the micro-physical properties of the aerosol on the atmospheric correction of OLI data acquired over desert area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of surface reflectance obtained by different atmospheric correction algorithms of the Landsat 8 OLI data considering or not the micro-physical properties of the aerosol when images are acquired in desert area located in South-West of Nile delta. The atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-physical properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. In particular, the role of the aerosol micro-physical properties on the accuracy of the atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was investigated [Bassani et al., 2015; Tirelli et al., 2015]. In this work, the OLI surface reflectance was retrieved by the developed OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) physically-based atmospheric correction which considers the aerosol micro-physical properties available from the two AERONET stations [Holben et al., 1998] close to the study area (El_Farafra and Cairo_EMA_2). The OLI@CRI algorithm is based on 6SV radiative transfer model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997], specifically developed for Landsat 8 OLI data. The OLI reflectance obtained by the OLI@CRI was compared with reflectance obtained by other atmospheric correction algorithms which do not consider micro-physical properties of aerosol (DOS) or take on aerosol standard models (FLAASH, implemented in ENVI software). The accuracy of the surface reflectance retrieved by different algorithms were calculated by comparing the spatially resampled OLI images with the MODIS surface reflectance products. Finally, specific image processing was applied to the OLI reflectance images in order to compare remote sensing products obtained for same scene. The results highlight the influence of the physical characterization of aerosol on the OLI data improving the retrieved atmospherically corrected

  15. The magnetic field of ζ Ori A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Bouret, J.-C.; Tkachenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation (Wade et al. 2013) and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of ζ Ori A. We also provide a new analysis of both the new and older data taking binarity into account. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A. We identify that it belongs to ζ Ori Aa and characterize it.

  16. Sleep of Māori and non-Māori of Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosemary; Gander, Philippa; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Kepa, Mere; Dyall, Lorna; Moyes, Simon; Kerse, Ngaire

    2016-06-10

    To estimate prevalence and identify predictors and outcomes of reporting sleep problems in Māori and non-Māori of advanced age. Participants were 251 Māori, and 398 non-Māori adults (79-90 years) from Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu. Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand. Multiple logistic regression identified predictors of reporting a current sleep problem and investigated relationships between current sleep problems and physical and mental health. 26.3% of Māori and 31.7% of non-Māori reported a current sleep problem. Reporting a current sleep problem was associated with ethnicity (non-Māori, adjusted OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.30-0.90), and reporting a past sleep problem (adjusted OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.25-5.72). Sleep problems were related to poorer physical and mental health, and falling. Sleep problems are commonly reported and associated with poorer health. Early recognition and management of sleep problems could improve physical and mental health.

  17. Enhancing Māori food security using traditional kai.

    PubMed

    McKerchar, Christina; Bowers, Sharron; Heta, Craig; Signal, Louise; Matoe, Leonie

    2015-09-01

    Lack of food security is one of the major nutrition issues facing Māori today. Loss of traditional kai (food) gathering places and practices following colonisation and urbanisation has impacted negatively on food security for Māori. This paper explores the role of Māori in enhancing Māori food security through revitalising traditional kai. A narrative literature review of peer reviewed and grey literature on revitalising traditional kai for Māori was conducted. The focus was on two areas: increasing the availability of traditional kai to Māori households (such as through replenishing fish stocks, and gardening projects) and increasing the financial means available to Māori households to purchase food (by economic development of traditional kai industries and employment creation). A range of activities to improve food security for Māori by revitalising traditional kai was identified in the literature. Māori are now significant players in New Zealand's fishing industry, and are developing their horticultural resources. Gardening initiatives have also grown considerably in Māori communities. Enabling factors included: the return of traditional kai resources by the Crown, and successful pursuit by Māori of the legal rights to develop them; development of Māori models of governance; government policy around Māori economic development and healthy eating; and Māori leadership on the issue. Barriers to revitalising traditional kai that remain to be addressed include: tensions between Government and Māori goals and models of resource management; economic pressures resulting in severely depleted fishing stocks; and pollution of marine and freshwater fish. Revitalising traditional kai has considerable potential to improve food security for Māori, both directly in terms of food supply and by providing income, and warrants policy and practical support. These findings have implications for other indigenous cultures who are struggling to be food secure. © The

  18. Career decisions: factors that influence the Māori doctor.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C; Edmonds, L; Leroy, J; Reith, D

    2014-06-01

    ori have known health disparities that may be addressed through increasing the cultural competency of New Zealand's medical workforce. There is a paucity of Māori health professionals choosing paediatrics or adult medicine as a career and the factors influencing their career decision are yet to be explored. First, to differentiate factors influencing the medical career choice of non-Māori paediatricians and physicians, Māori paediatricians and physicians and other Māori doctors. Second, to identify ways in which Māori doctors may be encouraged to choose paediatricians or adult medicine. A questionnaire was distributed by email to New Zealand physicians and paediatricians and to Māori doctors. Questions included demographic information, a matrix rating table and open-ended questions. Altogether 199 people accessed the questionnaire. Response rates were 9% (n = 118) for non-Māori paediatricians and physicians, 70% (n = 19) for Māori paediatricians and physicians, and 31% (n = 62) for other Māori doctors. Māori paediatricians and physicians highlighted mentoring as having significant impact on career choice. Non-Māori paediatricians and physicians regarded interest as having the most influence on career choice (P < 0.01). Lifestyle factors influenced other Māori doctors (P < 0.001). All three groups regarded poor lifestyle as having the largest negative influence. No group regarded potential income as important. Mentoring provides an opportunity to attract Māori into paediatric and adult physician training. The use of existing mentoring programmes could facilitate in expanding Māori RACP workforce development. This extended Māori workforce would have benefits for the health of New Zealand as a whole. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Long-term orbital period behaviour of contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Muhammed Faruk; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori based on published minima times. Using the O-C analysis, it was found that both systems indicate orbital period increase. Mass transfer from less massive component to more massive component was used to explain increases in the orbital periods. On the other hand, the secular changes in their periods can be a sign of the thermal relaxation oscillation. In the O-C diagram of FZ Ori, periodic variations also exist. Cyclic periodic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a tertiary body around the eclipsing pair. The minimum mass of probable tertiary component around FZ Ori was found to be 0.63 M⊙. In addition, the cyclic variation may be evidence of magnetic activity of the components, which are late-type stars.

  20. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1991-05-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materialsrelated inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The Chairman of EMaCC for FY 1990 was Scott L. Richlen; the Executive Secretary was Dr. Jerry Smith.

  1. Drosophila Golgi membrane protein Ema promotes autophagosomal growth and function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Naylor, Sarah A; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process in which cellular material is enclosed within autophagosomes and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosomal biogenesis is well described; however mechanisms controlling the growth and ultimate size of autophagosomes are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila membrane protein Ema is required for the growth of autophagosomes. In an ema mutant, autophagosomes form in response to starvation and developmental cues, and these autophagosomes can mature into autolysosomes; however the autophagosomes are very small, and autophagy is impaired. In fat body cells, Ema localizes to the Golgi complex and is recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes in response to starvation. The Drosophila Golgi protein Lva also is recruited to the periphery of autophagosomes in response to starvation, and this recruitment requires ema. Therefore, we propose that Golgi is a membrane source for autophagosomal growth and that Ema facilitates this process. Clec16A, the human ortholog of Ema, is a candidate autoimmune susceptibility locus. Expression of Clec16A can rescue the autophagosome size defect in the ema mutant, suggesting that regulation of autophagosome morphogenesis may be a fundamental function of this gene family.

  2. Obstacles to transparency over pharmacovigilance data within the EMA.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In July and August 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) organised two public consultations concerning European pharmacovigilance. These two consultations reveal a number of EMA proposals that are counterproductive to the objective of improving transparency over pharmacovigilance data. The EMA's proposals offer pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to participate in public hearings held by the European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), in order to defend their drug. They also provide for the possibility of holding non-public hearings to discuss public data. There is a great risk that the drug industry might use these provisions to influence the debate. The strings attached to the access that the EMA proposes to grant researchers to data contained in the centralised European pharmacovigilance database would allow the EMA to censor the publication of their findings. The EMA seems to regard pharmacovigilance data as commercially confidential information. Responding to these consultations provided an opportunity to remind the EMA that data about adverse effects are a public good, in the common interest, and that it is unacceptable to keep this information confidential.

  3. Optical monitoring of T Ori requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. William Herbst (Wesleyan University) and Rachel Pedersen (Bates College) have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring the Orion variable T Ori in support of spectroscopy they will be obtaining during September 2013. AAVSO nightly coverage (visual or electronic, not time series) of this star is crucial throughout the month of September. T Ori is one of the first variable stars discovered and varies by up to several magnitudes, but the cause of its variability is not fully known more than a century after its discovery. The project goal is to observe spectral changes accompanying the brightness variations that will shed light on their cause. It is critical to be able to assign a magnitude to each spectrum, so amateur astronomers could make a terrific contribution to this project by more intensively monitoring the star during September. Because of the nebulosity associated with the area around T Ori, observations need to be made very carefully and consistently. When the variable is relatively bright, as in the case of T Ori, a filtered observation is always preferred to an unfiltered one as it is much easier to integrate with data from other observers. Visual observers: be sure to use AAVSO charts. An accuracy of 0.1 or even 0.2 mag as can be achieved by (careful!) visual observers will be sufficient. CCD observers: V magnitude or even unfiltered observations will be most useful. Multicolor photometry could be helpful, but the primary need is for a magnitude estimate. Observations in the AAVSO International Database show T Ori with a visual range of magnitude 9.3-~12.6; recent visual and V magnitudes show it between ~9.7 and 11.9. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  4. Tikanga Māori (Māori Customary Practices) in Oral Health Research.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John R; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Early childhood caries is a global health issue for Indigenous populations. The study, "Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic dental disease among Indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention," is being conducted in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa/New Zealand. To conduct the research in New Zealand using a kaupapa Māori (Māori philosophy) approach. This is a mixed-method study incorporating quantitative and qualitative data whilst acknowledging Māori cultural practices by the utilization of Te Whare Tapa Whā, a model for Māori health and well-being. This paper describes the application of the four dimensions of this model, (spiritual, mental, physical and family dimensions) within the research activity. Health research projects that are undertaken with Indigenous populations must ensure that the research process embraces Indigenous cultural practices. In Aotearoa/New Zealand Māori leadership over the research process ensures meaningful and beneficial outcomes for the Māori Indigenous population.

  5. A role for the membrane Golgi protein Ema in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-08-01

    Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic response that involves degradation of self-components by the double-membraned autophagosome. The biogenesis of autophagosomes has been well described, but the ensuing processes after autophagosome formation are not clear. In our recent study, we proposed a model in which the Golgi complex contributes to the growth of autophagic structures, and that the Drosophila melanogaster membrane protein Ema promotes this process. In fat body cells of the D. melanogaster ema mutant, the recruitment of the Golgi complex protein Lava lamp (Lva) to autophagic structures is impaired and autophagic structures are very small. In addition, in the ema mutant autophagic turnover of SQSTM1/p62 and mitophagy are impaired. Our study not only identifies a role for Ema in autophagy, but also supports the hypothesis that the Golgi complex may be a potential membrane source for the biogenesis and development of autophagic structures.

  6. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of depression-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Armey, Michael F; Schatten, Heather T; Haradhvala, Natasha; Miller, Ivan W

    2015-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is one research method increasingly employed to better understand the processes that underpin depression and related phenomena. In particular, EMA is well suited to the study of affect (e.g., positive and negative affect), affective responses to stress (e.g., emotion reactivity), and behaviors (e.g., activity level, sleep) that are associated with depression. Additionally, EMA can provide insights into self-harm behavior (i.e. suicide and non-suicidal self-injury), and other mood disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder) commonly associated with depressive episodes. Given the increasing availability and affordability of handheld computing devices such as smartphones, EMA is likely to play an increasingly important role in the study of depression and related phenomena in the future.

  7. Controller Design for EMA in TVC Incorporating Force Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schinstock, Dale E.; Scott, Douglas A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop control schemes and control design procedures for electromechanical actuators (EMA) in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. For a variety of reasons, there is a tendency within the aerospace community to use electromechanical actuators in applications where hydraulics have traditionally been employed. TVC of rocket engines is one such application. However, there is considerable research, development, and testing to be done before EMA will be accepted by the community at large for these types of applications. Besides the development of design procedures for the basic position controller, two major concerns are dealt with in this research by incorporating force feedback: 1) the effects of resonance on the performance of EMA-TVC-rocket-engine systems, and 2) the effects of engine start transients on EMA. This report only highlights the major contributions of this research.

  8. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  9. EMA- EISENBERGER-MAIOCCO ALGORITHM FOR SPARES PROVISIONING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Eisenberger-Maiocco algorithm (EMA) is an efficient Markov sparing algorithm to aid in the provisioning of spare parts. There are two calculations performed by EMA: 1) forecasting the availability of a system with a given spare parts pool, and 2) determining the most cost effective spares package. EMA was used in NASA's Deep Space Network project to calculate the probability that a system would be up and operational with the spares available at each location. The system to be analyzed is defined in terms of modules, which are any pieces of equipment which may fail, be repaired, or be replaced. A module can be in one of three states: working, spare, or failed and waiting for repair. For each module type in the system configuration, there is an actual number in use by the system, and a minimum number for the system to be operational. A module type is considered 'down' when there are fewer than the required minimum number working, and there are no spares in the stockpile. Input to EMA includes module data such as mean time between failure, mean time to repair, number of spares, and cost of the item. EMA determines the overall system availability, or uptime ratio, as the probability the system will be operational during a given time. EMA can also calculate the most cost effective spares package for a given range of uptime ratios. EMA is written in interpreter PC-BASIC and is for interactive execution. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS 2.0 with a central memory requirement of approximately 64K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1978.

  10. EMA- EISENBERGER-MAIOCCO ALGORITHM FOR SPARES PROVISIONING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Eisenberger-Maiocco algorithm (EMA) is an efficient Markov sparing algorithm to aid in the provisioning of spare parts. There are two calculations performed by EMA: 1) forecasting the availability of a system with a given spare parts pool, and 2) determining the most cost effective spares package. EMA was used in NASA's Deep Space Network project to calculate the probability that a system would be up and operational with the spares available at each location. The system to be analyzed is defined in terms of modules, which are any pieces of equipment which may fail, be repaired, or be replaced. A module can be in one of three states: working, spare, or failed and waiting for repair. For each module type in the system configuration, there is an actual number in use by the system, and a minimum number for the system to be operational. A module type is considered 'down' when there are fewer than the required minimum number working, and there are no spares in the stockpile. Input to EMA includes module data such as mean time between failure, mean time to repair, number of spares, and cost of the item. EMA determines the overall system availability, or uptime ratio, as the probability the system will be operational during a given time. EMA can also calculate the most cost effective spares package for a given range of uptime ratios. EMA is written in interpreter PC-BASIC and is for interactive execution. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS 2.0 with a central memory requirement of approximately 64K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1978.

  11. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 OriS sequence: mapping of functional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D W; Deb, S P; Klauer, J S; Deb, S

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) OriS region resides within a 90-bp sequence that contains two binding sites for the origin-binding protein (OBP), designated sites I and II. A third presumptive OBP-binding site (III) within OriS has strong sequence similarity to sites I and II, but no sequence-specific OBP binding has yet been demonstrated at this site. We have generated mutations in sites I, II, and III and determined their replication efficiencies in a transient in vivo assay in the presence of a helper virus. Mutations in any one of the sites reduced DNA replication significantly. To study the role of OriS sequence elements in site I and the presumptive site III in DNA replication, we have also generated a series of mutations that span from site I across the presumptive binding site III. These mutants were tested for their ability to replicate and for the ability to bind OBP by using gel shift analyses. The results indicate that mutations across site I drastically reduce DNA replication. Triple-base-pair substitution mutations that fall within the crucial OBP-binding domain, 5'-YGYTCGCACT-3' (where Y represents C or T), show a reduced level of OBP binding and DNA replication. Substitution mutations in site I that are outside this crucial binding sequence show a more detrimental effect on DNA replication than on OBP binding. This suggests that these sequences are required for initiation of DNA replication but are not critical for OBP binding. Mutations across the presumptive OBP-binding site III also resulted in a loss in efficiency of DNA replication. These mutations influenced OBP binding to OriS in gel shift assays, even though the mutated sequences are not contained within known OBP-binding sites. Replacement of the wild-type site III with a perfect OBP-binding site I results in a drastic reduction of DNA replication. Thus, our DNA replication assays and in vitro DNA-binding studies suggest that the binding of the origin sequence by OBP is not the only

  12. Multiple sclerosis in New Zealand Māori.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John F; Alla, Sridhar; Clarke, Glynnis; Taylor, Bruce V; Miller, David H; Richardson, Ann; Mason, Deborah F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of MS in New Zealand in 2006 was 73.2 (age standardized per 100,000) while for those with indigenous Māori ancestry it was 3.6 times lower at 20.6. Earlier regional surveys (1968-2001) all reported much lower, or zero, prevalence for Māori than European. There was no evidence for differences in MS between those with and without Māori ancestry in either clinical features or latitude, confirming that Māori ancestry does not produce the reported increase in prevalence with latitude. It is likely that prevalence is increasing in low risk Māori; however, MS prognosis is independent of Māori ancestry.

  13. Analysis of Ori-S sequence of HSV-1: identification of one functional DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Deb, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using gel retardation assays, we have detected an Ori-S binding activity in the nuclear extract of HSV-1 infected Vero cells. The sequence-specific DNA binding activity seems to be identical to that described by Elias et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6322-6326, 1986). This activity fails to retard a mutant origin DNA that has a 5 bp deletion in the reported protein binding site along with an A to T substitution at a position 16 base-pairs away from the site. This mutant also failed to replicate in a transient replication assay, thus correlating binding of the factor on the origin to replication efficiency. Using crude nuclear extracts as the source of the factor and with the help of footprint and gel retardation analyses, we confirmed that protection is only observed on the preferred site of binding on and near the left arm of the Ori-S palindrome. In order to analyze the sequence specificity of the binding we have generated a set of binding site mutants. Competition experiments with these mutant origins indicate that the sequence 5'-TTCGCACTT-3' is crucial for binding. Images PMID:2541411

  14. ori identity signatures: A latent profile analysis of the types of Māori identity.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lara M; Houkamau, Carla; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. However, the term 'Māori' can refer to a wide range of people of varying ethnic compositions and cultural identity. We present a statistical model identifying 6 distinct types, or 'Māori Identity Signatures,' and estimate their proportion in the Māori population. The model is tested using a Latent Profile Analysis of a national probability sample of 686 Māori drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We identify 6 distinct signatures: Traditional Essentialists (22.6%), Traditional Inclusives (16%), High Moderates (31.7%), Low Moderates (18.7%), Spiritually Orientated (4.1%), and Disassociated (6.9%). These distinct Identity Signatures predicted variation in deprivation, age, mixed-ethnic affiliation, and religion. This research presents the first formal statistical model assessing how people's identity as Māori is psychologically structured, documents the relative proportion of these different patterns of structures, and shows that these patterns reliably predict differences in core demographics. We identify a range of patterns of Māori identity far more diverse than has been previously proposed based on qualitative data, and also show that the majority of Māori fit a moderate or traditional identity pattern. The application of our model for studying Māori health and identity development is discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Compound control strategy used in Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongling; Yan, Meng

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly describes the overall structure of the loading test rig; establish mathematical model of loading EMA, analyze its stability, surplus force and other properties in MATLAB; propose a compound control strategy combined speed feedback, PID and feed-forward compensation based on structure invariance principle. To verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, do a co-simulation by designing a controller based on the control strategy above in MATLAB and building the EMA model in AMESim. The results show that the compound control strategy can significantly improve dynamic tracking accuracy and reduce surplus force.

  16. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  17. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  18. Bridging two worlds: Māori mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Baker, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Building an Indigenous mental health workforce is a strategy used to develop culturally responsive and effective mental health services in New Zealand. However, researchers know little about Indigenous (Māori) mental health nursing. We undertook a Māori-centered methodology and grounded theory using focus groups to collect data from 10 Māori mental health nurses. We then analyzed the data using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling until saturation of the core category and subcategories emerged. "Bridging two worlds," together with two subcategories, "going beyond" and "practicing differently," explains the process Māori mental health nurses used to resolve the tensions they encountered working in the worlds of mainstream and Māori health services. This research provides insight into the tensions Indigenous and minority nurses experience when attempting to integrate cultural perspectives and practices to meet the needs of their patients.

  19. A cohort study comparing cardiovascular risk factors in rural Māori, urban Māori and non-Māori communities in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Faatoese, Allamanda F; Gillies, Matea W; Robertson, Paul J; Huria, Tania M; Doughty, Rob N; Whalley, Gillian A; Richards, Mark A; Troughton, Richard W; Tikao-Mason, Karen N; Wells, Elisabeth J; Sheerin, Ian G; Pitama, Suzanne G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the indigenous Māori of New Zealand, diagnosed and undiagnosed CVD risk factors were compared in rural Māori in an area remote from health services with urban Māori and non-Māori in a city well served with health services. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Hauora Manawa is a cohort study of diagnosed and previously undiagnosed CVD, diabetes and risk factors, based on random selection from electoral rolls of the rural Wairoa District and Christchurch City, New Zealand. Participants Screening clinics were attended by 252 rural Māori, 243 urban Māori and 256 urban non-Māori, aged 20–64 years. Main outcome measures The study documented personal and family medical history, blood pressure, anthropometrics, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, HbA1c and urate to identify risk factors in common and those that differ among the three communities. Results Mean age (SD) was 45.7 (11.5) versus 42.6 (11.2) versus 43.6 (11.5) years in rural Māori, urban Māori and non-Māori, respectively. Age-adjusted rates of diagnosed cardiac disease were not significantly different across the cohorts (7.5% vs 5.8% vs 2.8%, p=0.073). However, rural Māori had significantly higher levels of type-2 diabetes (10.7% vs 3.7% vs 2.4%, p<0.001), diagnosed hypertension (25.0% vs 14.9% vs 10.7%, p<0.001), treated dyslipidaemia (15.7% vs 7.1% vs 2.8%, p<0.001), current smoking (42.8% vs 30.5% vs 15.2%, p<0.001) and age-adjusted body mass index (30.7 (7.3) vs 29.1 (6.4) vs 26.1 (4.5) kg/m2, p<0.001). Similarly high rates of previously undocumented elevated blood pressure (22.2% vs 23.5% vs 17.6%, p=0.235) and high cholesterol (42.1% vs 54.3% vs 42.2%, p=0.008) were observed across all cohorts. Conclusions Supporting integrated rural healthcare to provide screening and management of CVD risk factors would reduce health disparities in this indigenous population. PMID:22685219

  20. An oral health intervention for the Māori indigenous population of New Zealand: oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) as a component of the undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John

    2010-06-01

    ori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand having migrated across the Pacific from Hawaiki over a 500 year period from 800AD to 1300AD establishing a society based on whānau (family), hapū (subtribe) and iwi (tribe). Today, like other Indigenous populations throughout the world, New Zealand Māori do not enjoy the same oral health status as non-Māori across all age groups. An intervention strategy to improve Māori oral health and to reduce disparities is to develop a dental health workforce that has an understanding of contemporary Māori society and Māori oral health. The Faculty of Dentistry (Te Kaupeka Pūniho) of the University of Otago has a well developed undergraduate programme in Māori culture and Māori oral health. This programme has been reinforced by the adoption of a new Māori Strategic Framework (MSF) which has been designed to be "a vibrant contributor to Māori development and the realisation of Māori aspirations." Goal 5 of the MSF, Ngā Whakahaerenga Pai (Quality Programmes) has the objective to develop and integrate Māori content in the undergraduate course. This paper will discuss the oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) component of the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  1. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices.

  2. Breast cancer inequities between Māori and non-Māori women in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, R; Seneviratne, S; Scott, N; Peni, T; Brown, C; Campbell, I

    2016-03-01

    ori women have one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world. This high incidence is generally unexplained although higher rates of obesity and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors that may be important. Māori women are less likely to attend mammographic breast screening and are likely to be diagnosed with more advanced disease. This is one of the reasons for the excess mortality. Another factor is differences in the treatment pathway. Māori women are more likely to experience delay in receiving treatment, are less likely to receive radiotherapy, are more likely to be treated with a mastectomy and are less likely to adhere to long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, genetic factors in Māori women do not seem to impact significantly on mortality. This review looks at the inequity between Māori and non-Māori women and addresses the causes. It proposes ways of reducing inequity through primary prevention, increased participation in breast screening and greater standardisation of the treatment pathway for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We believe that health system improvements will decrease barriers to health care participation for Māori women and suggest that further research into identifying and modifying obstacles within health systems is required.

  3. Physiological and biochemical effects of allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-10-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of an allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis) on bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, were investigated. EMA significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. The metabolic indices (represented by esterase and total dehydrogenase activities), the cellular redox status (represented by the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)), and the oxidative damage index (represented by the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of membrane lipid peroxidation) were used to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes in M. aeruginosa after EMA exposure. Esterase activity in M. aeruginosa did not change (P>0.05) after 2 h of exposure to EMA, but increased greatly after 24 and 48 h (P<0.05). EMA exposure (>0.5 mg L(-1)) resulted in a remarkable loss of total dehydrogenase activity in M. aeruginosa after 4 h (P<0.01), but an increase after 40 h (P<0.05). EMA caused a great increase in ROS level of the algal cells. At high EMA concentration (4 mg L(-1)), the ROS level was remarkably elevated to 1.91 times as much as that in the controls after 2 h. Increases in the ROS level also occurred after 24 and 48 h. The increase in lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa was dependent upon EMA concentration and the exposure time. After 40 h of exposure, the MDA content at 4 mg L(-1) of EMA reached approximately 3.5 times (P<0.01) versus the controls. These results suggest that the cellular structure and metabolic activity of M. aeruginosa are influenced by EMA; the increased metabolic activity perhaps reflects the fact that the resistance of cellular response system to the stress from EMA is initiated during EMA exposure, and the oxidative damage induced by EMA via the oxidation of ROS may be an important factor responsible for the inhibition of EMA on the growth of M. aeruginosa.

  4. Possible Reasons for the Slow Rotation of BF Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Possible reasons for the very low projected rotation velocity of BF Ori compared to other UX Ori stars are discussed. The hypothesis of a close companion that slows down the star's rotation by a tidal interaction is examined. Based on a theory of synchronization and modern models of evolution, the interaction is calculated numerically for different masses of the companion and values of the semi-major axis. It is shown that in order to obtain the projected velocity observed for BF Ori, the companion must have a mass greater than 0.5M⊙ . Such a large companion should have been discovered observationally. It is suggested that the low rotation velocity of BF Ori is more likely to be related to the distribution of the angular momentum of a protostellar cloud between the angular momentum of the star and the orbital angular momentum of a low-mass companion.

  5. Design of isomorphic symmetric descendants of the Miura-ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareh, Pooya; Guest, Simon D.

    2015-08-01

    The Miura-ori is a classic flat-foldable tessellation which has its root in origami, but has been applied to the folding of reconfigurable structures for a variety of engineering and architectural applications. In recent years, researchers have introduced design variations on the Miura-ori which change both the form and the function of the pattern. This paper introduces the family of isomorphically generalized symmetric variations of the Miura-ori. We study the Miura crease pattern as a wallpaper pattern. We reduce the symmetry of the original crease pattern to design new patterns while at the same time preserving the symmetry group of the tessellation as well as the flat-foldability condition at each node. It will be shown that—through appropriate design variations on the original pattern—we are able to use the Miura-ori to design either globally planar, or globally curved, flat-foldable patterns.

  6. Lumped Node Thermal Modeling of EMA with FEA Validation (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    minor heat path. For forced convection, the Nusselt number for a cylinder is determined from[6], ⁄ (3) where and are based on the Reynold’s...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE...SUBTITLE LUMPED NODE THERMAL MODELING OF EMA WITH FEA VALIDATION (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-2-2940 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  7. Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA's) for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Didier; De Coster, Francois

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this paper is to present two concepts for electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for space applications:• The first concept implements external anti-rotation devices, as well as a blocking device in order to meet the specific Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) constraints.• The second concept is a new anti-rotation device based on DIN 32712-B P4C profile.

  8. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-08-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  9. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  10. Alcohol Use and Older Māori in Aotearoa.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sarah; Stephens, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated alcohol use, hazardous and binge drinking prevalence, and their relationships to socio-demographic variables in community dwelling older Māori adults in New Zealand. Alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and binge drinking were assessed with the AUDIT-C in a cross-sectional postal survey of 1042 older Māori people randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. A total of 41.2% of all participants reported drinking at hazardous levels. Odds ratios from binomial logistic regression showed hazardous drinking was significantly more likely to occur among males, current smokers, and those with higher local self-contained network scores. Binge drinking was reported by 19.6% of the sample, with odds ratios indicating that males, current smokers, and those with higher Māori cultural identification scores were significantly more likely to report binge drinking. The high rates of hazardous and binge drinking prevalence reported in the current study raise issues of concern when considering the health of older Māori people. Results indicate that social networks, gender, smoking status, and Māori cultural identification may influence hazardous and binge drinking alcohol use. However, limitations of the present study also highlight the need for more focused and in-depth research to be conducted with older Māori people to understand the sociocultural context in which alcohol use occurs.

  11. Key informant views on biobanking and genomic research with Māori.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui; Southey, Kim; Uerata, Lynley; Beaton, Angela; Milne, Moe; Russell, Khyla; Smith, Barry; Wilcox, Phillip; Toki, Valmaine; Cheung, Melanie

    2016-12-16

    The aim of the Te Mata Ira project was to explore Māori views on biobanking and genomic research, and to identify ways to address Māori concerns over the collection and use of human tissue. Key informant interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori to identify Māori views in relation to biobanking and genomic research; and, informed by these views, interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori and non-Māori key informants (Indigenous Advisory Panel (IAP) members and science communities) to explore key issues in relation to Māori participation in biobanking and genomic research. Māori key informants identified the following as key deliberations: (1) the tension for Māori between previous well-publicised negative experiences with genomic research and the potential value for whānau and communities as technologies develop, (2) protection of Māori rights and interest, (3) focus on Māori health priorities, (4) control of samples and data, (5) expectations of consultation and consent and (6) a desire for greater feedback and communication. Māori and non-Māori key informants highlighted the need to enhance levels of Māori participation in the governance of genomic research and biobanking initiatives, and acknowledged that only by increasing the level of transparency and accountability in relation to these activities will Māori communities feel that their whakapapa, rights and interests are being appropriately protected.

  12. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  13. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  14. The Open Learning Initiative: Measuring the Effectiveness of the OLI Statistics Course in Accelerating Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Marsha; Meyer, Oded; Thille, Candace

    2008-01-01

    The Open Learning Initiative (OLI) is an open educational resources project at Carnegie Mellon University that began in 2002 with a grant from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. OLI creates web-based courses that are designed so that students can learn effectively without an instructor. In addition, the courses are often used by instructors…

  15. [Effects of allelochemical EMA from reed on the production and release of cyanotoxins in Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Men, Yu-jie; Hu, Hong-ying

    2007-09-01

    The growth inhibition of ethyl-2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) isolated from common reed (Phragmites australis Trin. or Phragmites communis Trin.) on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 was investigated and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of cyanotoxin (MC-LR) after treatment of EMA were tested. The experimental results indicated that EMA has significant inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosa PCC7806, and the value of EC(50,7d) was 2.0 mg x L(-1). However, the inhibition declined with the cultivation time. During the whole cultivation period, EMA showed no significant effect on the release of MC-LR from cells to the culture. After 7 days, the amount of intracellular MC-LR per cell unit increased with the increasing of EMA concentration. The amount of MC-LR per cell unit was 25 ng x (10(6) cells)(-1) after the treatment with 1.5 mg x L(-1) EMA, which was increased by 39% compared with the control. The total MC-LR production (including intracellular and extracellular MC-LR) first slightly increased and then decreased significantly with the increase of EMA concentration. After the treatment with 3 mg x L(-1) EMA, the total MC-LR production was 28 microg x L(-1) (only half of that in the control). After 16 days, EMA showed no significant effect on both the amount of MC-LR per cell and the total MC-LR production.

  16. Insufficient differentiation of live and dead Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes cells by ethidium monoazide (EMA) compromises EMA/real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Flekna, Gabriele; Stefanic, Polonca; Wagner, Martin; Smulders, Frans J M; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Hein, Ingeborg

    2007-06-01

    Recently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) has been proposed as a means of reducing the real-time PCR signal originating from free DNA and dead bacterial cells by selectively entering damaged cells and blocking the DNA for PCR amplification via photoactivation. The present study investigated the effect of EMA on viable and dead bacterial cells using real-time PCR, plate count method and microscopy. The foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes were used as a Gram-negative and a Gram-positive model organism, respectively. EMA/real-time PCR analysis of heat-treated cultures of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes containing 2.6x10(5) and 4x10(5) viable and 3x10(6) and 2x10(6) dead cells/ml, respectively, yielded 2x10(3) and 5.2x10(4) bacterial cell equivalents/ml after EMA treatment, thus underestimating the viable cell count in the samples. Similar results were obtained when analyzing late exponential phase cultures of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes. Inhibition of growth by EMA was observed. It depended on the concentration of the bacterial cells present in the sample and the EMA concentration used (100-1 microg/ml). An EMA concentration at which dead cells would stain brightly and viable cells would not stain at all or would be very pale was not identified, as revealed by comparison with the results of a commercial live/dead stain. The results suggest that EMA influences not only dead but also viable cells of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes. Thus EMA/real-time PCR is a poor indicator of cell viability.

  17. Optical and Infrared Variability of UX Ori-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostopchina-Shakhovskaya, A.; Grinin, V.; Shenavrin, V.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Demidova, T.; Belan, S.

    2017-06-01

    Analyzing data of the long-term simultaneous NIR and optical photometry of five UX Ori type stars we estimate intrinsic NIR luminosity of their circumstellar disks in I, J, H bands. The H to J flux ratio for WW Vul, CQ Tau, RR Tau, UX Ori is consistent with 1500 K blackbody radiation, a typical temperature of dust sublimation. For the same stars except RR Tau, J to I flux ratio suggests much hotter source with T>2000 K, probably the inner dust-free disk. In case of RR Tau this value is close to 1500 K, implying sublimating dust as a main contributor in all three bands. The SED for BF Ori differs from the rest of objects, with flux density peaking in J band, probably due to an unresolved cool companion.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments.

  19. Extension of EMA to address regional skew and low outliers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffis, V.W.; Stedinger, J.R.; Cohn, T.A.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    The recently developed expected moments algorithm [EMA] (Cohn et al. 1997) does as well as MLEs at estimating LP3 flood quantiles using systematic and historical information. Needed extensions include use of a regional skewness estimator and its precision to be consistent with Bulletin 17B and to make use of such hydrologic information. Another issue addressed by Bulletin 17B is the treatment of low outliers. A Monte Carlo study illustrates the performance of an extended EMA estimator compared to estimators that employ the complete data set with and without use of regional skew, conditional probability adjustment from Bulletin 17B, and an estimator that uses probability plot regression to compute substitute values for low outliers. Estimators that use a regional skew all do better than estimators that fail to use an informative regional skewness estimator. For LP3 data, the low outlier rejection procedure results in no loss of overall accuracy, and the differences between the MSEs of the estimators that used an informative regional skew were generally negligible in the skew range of real interest.

  20. Estimation on the concentration of total suspended matter in Lombok Coastal using Landsat 8 OLI, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emiyati; Manoppo, Anneke K. S.; Budhiman, Syarif

    2017-01-01

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM) are fine materials which suspended and floated in water column. Water column could be turbid due to TSM that reduces the depth of light penetration and causes low productivity in coastal waters. The objective of this study was to estimate TSM concentration using Landsat 8 OLI data in Lombok coastal waters Indonesia by using empirical and analytic approach between three visible bands of Landsat 8 OLI subsurface reflectance (OLI 2, OLI 3 and OLI 4) and field data. The accuracy of model was tested using error estimation and statistical analysis. Colour of waters, transparency and reflectance values showed, the clear water has high transparency and low reflectance while the turbid waters have low transparency and high reflectance. The estimation of TSM concentrations in Lombok coastal waters are 0.39 to 20.7 mg/l. TSM concentrations becoming high when it is on coast and low when it is far from the coast. The statistical analysis showed that TSM model from Landsat 8 OLI data could describe TSM from field measurement with correlation 91.8% and RMSE value 0.52. The t-test and f-test showed that the TSM derived from Landsat 8 OLI and TSM measured in field were not significantly different.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and follow-up investigations in Māori and non-Māori men in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Obertová, Zuzana; Scott, Nina; Brown, Charis; Hodgson, Fraser; Stewart, Alistair; Holmes, Michael; Lawrenson, Ross

    2014-08-26

    ori men in New Zealand have higher mortality from prostate cancer, despite having lower incidence rates. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of screening for prostate cancer in primary care and follow-up investigations after an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result in Māori and non-Māori men in order to help explain the observed differences in incidence and mortality. Men aged 40+ years were identified from 31 general practices across the Midland Cancer Network region. Computerised practice records were cross-referenced with laboratory data to determine the number and value of PSA tests undertaken between January 2007 and December 2010. Screening rates were calculated for the year 2010 by age, ethnicity, and practice. For men with an elevated PSA result information on specialist referrals and biopsy was extracted from practice records. Practice characteristics were assessed with respect to screening rates for Māori and non-Māori men. The final study population included 34,960 men aged 40+ years; 14% were Māori. Māori men were less likely to be screened in 2010 compared with non-Māori men (Mantel Haenszel (M-H) age-adjusted risk ratio (RR), 0.52 [95% CI, 0.48, 0.56]). When screened, Māori men were more than twice as likely to have an elevated PSA result compared with non-Māori men (M-H age-adjusted RR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.42, 3.31]). There were no significant differences between Māori and non-Māori men in the rate of follow-up investigations and cancer detection. Māori provider practices showed equal screening rates for Māori and non-Māori men, but they were also the practices with the lowest overall screening rates. Māori men were half as likely to be screened compared to non-Māori men. This probably explains the lower reported incidence of prostate cancer for Māori men. Practice characteristics had a major influence on screening rates. Large variation in screening behaviour among practices and differences in follow

  2. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  3. Characterization of endometriosis-associated immune cell infiltrates (EMaICI).

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Claudia; Bauer, Petia; Chiantera, Vito; Sehouli, Jalid; Kaufmann, Andreas; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    To identify and characterize endometriosis-associated immune cell infiltrates (EMaICI). Furthermore, to define occurrence and size of EMaICI in various types of endometriosis. Immune cells were characterized in samples of 60 premenopausal women with histological proven endometriosis. Therefore, immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD25, CD56, CD68, and CD20 on sections of paraffin-embedded endometriotic tissue was performed. EMaICI were observed in all the types of endometriosis, and characterized as T lymphocytes (CD3+), helper T lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), antigen-experienced T lymphocytes"memory cells" (CD45RO+), macrophages (CD68+), and B lymphocytes (CD20+). The maximum frequency of EMaICI and their distribution per endometriotic lesion (EML) was observed in peritoneal endometriosis (pEM) and in ovarian endometriosis (Ov. EM). In myometrium from adenomyosis (M/AM), EMaICI occurrence was lower and smaller in size in comparison with EMaICI seen in other forms of endometriosis. EMaICI were negative for regulatory T cells (CD25+ high, FoxP3+) and natural killer cells (NK cells, CD56+). Numerous and brisk EMaICI comprising several types of immune cells in all endometriosis forms suggest acute immunological reactions within the microenvironment of endometriosis lesions.

  4. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  5. [Effects of allelochemical EMA isolated from Phragmites communis on algal cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-ying; Chong, Yun-xiao; Men, Yu-jie; Guo, Mei-ting

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the antialgal mechanisms of allelochemicals, effects of the allelochemical eathyl-2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulagaris were studied in this paper. The lipid fatty acids of the algal membrane were isolated following the Bligh and Dye method and quantified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure of algal cells was observed with TEM. The results showed that EMA increased the contents of linolenic acid and linolic acid with increment of 14%, while decreased the content of myristic acid and cetylic acid in C. pyrenoidosa, membrane. The content of unsaturated fatty acids C18:1 and C18:2 increased 12% and 10% in M. aeruginosa with the addition of EMA, while the content of saturated fatty acids C18:0 and C16:0 decreased. EMA showed no significant change in the fatty acid composition in C. vulagaris under the experiment condition. EMA broke off cell wall of C. pyrenoidosa and M. aeruginosa. EMA damaged the cell membrane and the inclusion of algal cell leaked out. Nuclear and mitochondrial structure was damaged with the addition of EMA. EMA showed no significant change in the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris.

  6. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  7. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Preferred Activities among Māori and non-Māori of Advanced age in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Rapson, Angela; Kepa, Mere; Connolly, Martin; Keeling, Sally; Rolleston, Anna; Teh, Ruth; Broad, Joanna B; Dyall, Lorna; Jatrana, Santosh; Wiles, Janine; Pillai, Avinesh; Garrett, Nick; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-06-09

    This study explored active aging for older Māori and non-Māori by examining their self-nominated important everyday activities. The project formed part of the first wave of a longitudinal cohort study of aging well in New Zealand. Māori aged 80 to 90 and non-Māori aged 85 were recruited. Of the 937 participants enrolled, 649 answered an open question about their three most important activities. Responses were coded under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Activities and Participation domains. Data were analyzed by ethnicity and gender for first in importance, and all important activities. Activity preferences for Māori featured gardening, reading, walking, cleaning the home, organized religious activities, sports, extended family relationships, and watching television. Gendered differences were evident with walking and fitness being of primary importance for Māori men, and gardening for Māori women. Somewhat similar, activity preferences for non-Māori featured gardening, reading, and sports. Again, gendered differences showed for non-Māori, with sports being of first importance to men, and reading to women. Factor analysis was used to examine the latent structural fit with the ICF and whether it differed for Māori and non-Māori. For Māori, leisure and household activities, spiritual activities and interpersonal interactions, and communicating with others and doing domestic activities were revealed as underlying structure; compared to self-care, sleep and singing, leisure and work, and domestic activities and learning for non-Māori. These findings reveal fundamental ethnic divergences in preferences for active aging with implications for enabling participation, support provision and community design.

  8. Possibility of the BF Ori rotation slowdown due to the orbital synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, S. G.

    2016-11-01

    BF Ori is an UX Ori type star with a very slow projected rotational velocity. We analyzed a possibility of the slowdown due to the synchronization in close binary systems. We hypothesized that BF Ori has a companion and estimated its properties as it might be massive and close enough to make this slowdown possible. The conclusion that the rotational velocity of BF Ori is apparently not a result of the tidal interaction with a low mass companion is made.

  9. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  10. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  11. THE HERBIG BE STAR V1818 ORI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2015-03-15

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ∼900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510–1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  12. Rapid variability of the EXor star NY Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rapid brightness variability of the classical EXor star NY Ori observed with the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of our program EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056).

  13. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  14. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  15. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  16. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  17. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifying ORI of special circumstances. 93.318 Section 93.318 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  18. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notifying ORI of special circumstances. 93.318 Section 93.318 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  19. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying ORI of special circumstances. 93.318 Section 93.318 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  20. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifying ORI of special circumstances. 93.318 Section 93.318 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  1. The Herbig Be Star V1818 Ori and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ˜900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510-1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T; Arvin, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    The VZV genome has two origins of DNA replication (oriS), each of which consists of an AT-rich sequence and three origin binding protein (OBP) sites called Box A, C and B. In these experiments, the mutation in the core sequence CGC of the Box A and C not only inhibited DNA replication but also inhibited both ORF62 and ORF63 expression in reporter gene assays. In contrast the Box B mutation did not influence DNA replication or flanking gene transcription. These results suggest that efficient DNA replication enhances ORF62 and ORF63 transcription. Recombinant viruses carrying these mutations in both sites and one with a deletion of the whole oriS were constructed. Surprisingly, the recombinant virus lacking both copies of oriS retained the capacity to replicate in melanoma and HELF cells suggesting that VZV has another origin of DNA replication.

  3. Engagement and recruitment of Māori and non-Māori people of advanced age to LiLACS NZ.

    PubMed

    Dyall, Lorna; Kepa, Mere; Hayman, Karen; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Broad, Joanna B; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-04-01

    Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ) aims to determine the predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the trajectories of wellbeing in advanced age. This paper reports recruitment strategies used to enrol 600 Māori aged 80-90 years and 600 non-Māori aged 85 years living within a defined geographic boundary. Electoral roll and primary health lists of older people were used as a base for identification and recruitment, supplemented by word of mouth, community awareness raising and publicity. A Kaupapa Māori method was used to recruit Māori with: dual Māori and non-Māori research leadership; the formation of a support group; local tribal organisations and health providers recruiting participants; and use of the Māori language in interviews. Non-Māori were recruited through local health and community networks. Six organisations used differing strategies to invite older people to participate in several ways: complete full or partial interviews; complete physical assessments; provide a blood sample and provide access to medical records. During 14 months in 2010-2011, 421 of 766 (56%) eligible Māori and 516 of 870 (59%) eligible non-Māori were enrolled. Participation and contribution of information varied across the recruitment sites. Attention to appropriate recruitment techniques resulted in an acceptable engagement and recruitment for both Māori and non-Māori of advanced age in a longitudinal cohort study. There is high potential for meaningful results useful for participants, their whānau and families, health agencies, planners and policy. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The EMA systems proposed for future space transportation applications are high power systems operating at voltages up to 270 Vdc and at current levels on the order of hundreds of amperes. The position of the actuator is controlled by modulating the flow of energy from the source to an electric motor with an inverter. Hard-switching of the semiconductor devices in the inverter results in considerable device switching stresses and losses and in the generation of substantial amounts of EMI. Both of these can be reduced by employing zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) techniques in the inverter. This project has focused on the development of a ZVS inverter for the Marshall Space Center EMA prototypes, which utilize brushless dc motors to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. An inverter which permitted zero-voltage switching and a quasi-PWM operation was selected for study and implementation. A waveshaping circuit is added to the front of a standard three-phase inverter to achieve the desired switching properties. This circuit causes the input voltage of the three-phase inverter to ring to zero where it is clamped for a short period of time. During this zero-voltage period, any of the semiconductor switches in the three-phase inverter are switched on or off at zero voltage resulting in a reduction in switching losses and EMI. The operation of this waveshaping circuit and its interaction with the three-phase inverter are described. The different circuit modes were analyzed using equivalent circuits. Based on this analysis, design relationships were developed for calculating component values for the circuit elements in the waveshaping circuit. Waveforms of various voltages and currents in the waveshaping circuit were plotted and used to determine the ratings of the semiconductors in the waveshaping circuit. The implementation of this inverter are described. Block diagrams for the overall control system and the waveshaping circuit control are presented and discussed

  5. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  6. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-11-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  7. A comparative analysis of Resourcesat-2 LISS-3 and Landast-8 OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, E.; Sivannarayana, T.; Ratna Kumar, K. V.

    2014-11-01

    Linear Imaging Self Scanning Sensor (LISS-3) onboard Resoucesat-1 and 2 Satellites have been used extensively for various land cover-land use applications. In this study, we examined the potential of using Resourcesat-2 LISS-3 images in the absence of LANDSAT-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. This paper compares the capabilities of LISS-3 sensor with OLI sensor. LISS-3 images were selected for comparison because of their close resemblance in electromagnetic spectrum range with LS-8 OLI images. Images of LS-8 OLI and RS-2 LISS-3 of the same area in Andhra Pradesh were used to evaluate the comparative performances based on the intra-inter band correlation, spectral vegetation indices and land cover classification. The results showed that in most cases the LS-8 OLI and the RS-2 LISS-3 images are comparable. This study also indicated that LISS-3 images could fill the data gaps in OLI images for land-cover studies, vice versa.

  8. Biotechnology: the language of multiple views in Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Te Momo, O H Fiona

    2007-09-01

    In Aotearoa (New Zealand), the government funded studies on communicating biotechnology to different sectors in the community from 2003 to 2006. Subsequently, a researcher covering the Māori sector performed a content analysis of data gathered in the community. Qualitative analysis methods included examining text from participant interviews, focus groups, government documents, newspapers, Internet sites, and current literature. Content was coded by identifying common themes in the English and the Māori language. Words like genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE), and biotechnology were explained to provide a basic understanding between the communities and researcher. The terminology applied in the research was essential to achieve communication between the researcher and the community. The resultant themes represented seven views to interpret the communities association with biotechnology: purist Māori, religious Māori, anti Māori, pro Māori, no Māori, uncertain Māori, and middle Māori views. The themes are taken from the analysis of data compiled after 3 years of completing different stages of a research project. The views indicate that a common understanding can be achieved in the diverse range of Māori tribal communities providing those communicating biotechnology can identify the view and interpretations communities associate with biotechnology. This knowledge is essential for government agencies, researchers, community practitioners, scientist, and businesses that desire to dialogue with Māori communities in the language of biotechnology.

  9. Surrogate origins of replication in the mitochondrial genomes of ori-zero petite mutants of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Goursot, R; Mangin, M; Bernardi, G

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial genome of eight ori-zero spontaneous petite mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tandem repeat units of these genomes do not contain any of the seven canonical ori sequences of the wild-type genome. Instead, they contain one, or more, ori-S sequences. These 44-nucleotide long surrogate origins of replication are a subset of GC clusters characterized by a potential secondary fold with two sequences ATAG and GGAG , inserted in AT spacers, two AT base pairs just following them, a GC stem (broken in the middle, and, in most cases also near the base, by non-paired nucleotides), and a terminal loop. This structure is reminiscent of that of GC clusters A and B from canonical ori sequences and supports the view (Bernardi, 1982a ) that the GC clusters of the mitochondrial genome arose, by an expansion process, from the canonical ori sequences. Like the latter, ori-S sequences are present in both orientations, are located in intergenic regions, and can be used as excision sequences when tandemly oriented. Again as in the case of canonical ori sequences, the density of ori-S sequences on the repeat units of petite genomes are correlated with the replication efficiency of the latter, as assessed by the outcome of crosses with wild-type or petite tester strains. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6329699

  10. Navigation: process of building relationships with kaumātua (Māori leaders).

    PubMed

    Dyall, Lorna; Skipper, Te Kaanga; Kēpa, Mere; Hayman, Karen; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-01-25

    In the article the authors depict relations in sociocultural navigation by Māori researchers conducting research embedded in mutual trust; rather than instrumental navigation in linear time. A longitudinal study of Māori and non Māori men and women ageing successfully was planned; this feasibility stage tested whether engaging with kōroua/older Māori men and kuia/older Māori women was possible. We document the process undertaken with Ngā Pae o te Maramatanga New Zealand's Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence (hosted by the University of Auckland) to involve Māori people in the research, engaging with kōroua and kuia aged 75 to 79 years old, developing focus groups to discuss questions specific to te reo Māori me ngā tikanga/Maori language and culture, and building research capacity in Māori tribal and primary health organisations in the Bay of Plenty. In addition, engaging with Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori/ Māori Language Commission to translate the questions; recruiting the RopuKaitiaki o Ngā Tikanga Māori/Protectors of Principles of Conduct in Māori Research, and naming the study will be discussed. The involvement of the kaumātua/older Māori people has been fundamental in laying the foundation of the Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu to study a group of Māori aged 80 to 90 years old.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  12. Oak Ridge Graph Analytics for Medical Innovation (ORiGAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Larry W.; Lee, Sangkeun

    2016-01-01

    In this era of data-driven decisions and discovery where Big Data is producing Bigger Data, data scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are leveraging unique leadership infrastructure (e.g., Urika XA and Urika GD appliances) to develop scalable algorithms for semantic, logical and statistical reasoning with Big Data (i.e., data stored in databases as well as unstructured data in documents). ORiGAMI is a next-generation knowledge-discovery framework that is: (a) knowledge nurturing (i.e., evolves seamlessly with newer knowledge and data), (b) smart and curious (i.e. using information-foraging and reasoning algorithms to digest content) and (c) synergistic (i.e., interfaces computers with what they do best to help subject-matter-experts do their best. ORiGAMI has been demonstrated using the National Library of Medicine's SEMANTIC MEDLINE (archive of medical knowledge since 1994).

  13. Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Koltsidopoulos, P; Tsea, M; Kafki, S; Skoulakis, C

    2013-10-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.

  14. ORC binding to TRF2 stimulates OriP replication.

    PubMed

    Atanasiu, Constandache; Deng, Zhong; Wiedmer, Andreas; Norseen, Julie; Lieberman, Paul M

    2006-07-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) lacks sequence-specific DNA binding, and it remains unclear what other factors specify an origin of DNA replication. The Epstein-Barr virus origin of plasmid replication (OriP) recruits ORC, but the precise mechanism of ORC recruitment and origin activation is not clear. We now show that ORC is recruited selectively to the dyad symmetry (DS) region of OriP as a consequence of direct interactions with telomere repeat factor 2 (TRF2) and ORC1. TRF-binding sites within DS stimulate replication initiation and facilitate ORC recruitment in vitro and in vivo. TRF2, but not TRF1 or hRap1, recruits ORC from nuclear extracts. The amino-terminal domain of TRF2 associated with a specific region of ORC1 and was necessary for stimulation of DNA replication. These results support a model in which TRF2 stimulates OriP replication activity by direct binding with ORC subunits.

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Sean D.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Simon, Theodore; Gibb, Erika L.; Liskowsky, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We present new high-resolution infrared echelle spectra of V1647 Ori, the young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. From the start, V1647 Ori has been an enigmatic source that has defied classification, in some ways resembling eruptive stars of the FUor class and in other respects the EXor variables. V1647 Ori underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, it underwent a new outburst. In this paper, we present high-resolution K-band and M-band spectra from the W. M. Keck Observatory that were acquired during the 2008 outburst. We compare the spectra to spectra acquired during the previous outburst and quiescent phases. We find that the luminosity and full width at half maximum power of Br γ increased as the star has brightened and decreased when the star faded, indicating that these phases are driven by variations in the accretion rate. We also show that the temperature of the CO emission has varied with the stellar accretion rate, confirming suggestions from modeling of the heating mechanisms of the inner disk. Finally, we find that the lowest energy blueshifted CO absorption lines originally reported in 2007 are no longer detected. The absence of these lines confirms the short-lived nature of the outflow launched at the start of the quiescent phase in 2006.

  16. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  19. Effects of a novel allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on the ultrastructure and pigment composition of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Huang, Jing-Jing; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) can significantly inhibit the growth of bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa. In order to assess the implication of the damage of EMA on the algal photosynthetic apparatus, the effects of EMA on the algal ultrastructure and pigment composition were investigated. At initial exposure time to EMA (0-40 h), algal allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin and carotenoid degraded firstly; chlorophyll a increased, especially by 47% in the algae exposed to 2 mg L(-1) of EMA; phycocyanin was not significantly affected; lipid bodies increased remarkably. After 40 h of EMA exposure, chlorophyll a decreased gradually, especially by 45% in the algae exposed to 4 mg L(-1) of EMA; lipid bodies greatly reduced but cyanophycin granules accumulated; thylakoid structures were dissolved or disappeared with the presence of numerous vacuoles. These results showed that all ophycocyanin, phycoerythrin and carotenoid were more sensitive to EMA than other pigments, the cells of M. aeruginosa was stressed by EMA with the occurrence of cyanophycin granules and the photosynthesis pigments and ultrastructure of M. aeruginosa were quickly destroyed by EMA with exposure time increasing.

  20. A review of Māori astronomy in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Pauline; Matamua, Rangi; Smith, Takirirangi; Kerr, Hoturoa; Waaka, Toa

    2013-11-01

    Across the world indigenous people are seeking to reclaim their traditional knowledge. Within the last fifty years the Māori of Aotearoa-New Zealand have made significant efforts to reclaim their language, arts and science. Part of this renaissance includes a growing Māori movement to reclaim their astronomical knowledge. Māori astronomical understanding was infused throughout much of pre-colonial Māori life, culture and belief. The Sun, Moon and stars were an integral part of practices pertaining to agriculture, architecture, fishing, calendrical systems and exploration. Although early ethnographers attempted to record this knowledge, their works seem to only reflect a somewhat superficial level of understanding. Thus this paper highlights some of the current research being conducted on Māori astronomy, which seeks a greater understanding of how the ancestors of the Māori perceived the heavens.

  1. Differences in survival between Māori and New Zealand Europeans with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lao, C; Obertová, Z; Brown, C; Scott, N; Edlin, R; Gilling, P; Holmes, M; Tyrie, L; Lawrenson, R

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the survival disparity between Māori men and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans diagnosed with prostate cancer. We identified men aged 40+ years in the Midland Cancer Network region registered with prostate cancer in 2007-2010 in the Cancer Registry. Data were extracted from patient notes of all Māori men and a sample of NZ Europeans. The survival disparity between Māori men and Europeans was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models after adjusting for other factors. This study included 535 men with prostate cancer (135 Māori men and 400 Europeans). The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 98.6% for men diagnosed with localised cancer, 88.8% for locally advanced disease and 19.1% for metastatic cancer. The all-cause survival and the cancer-specific survival were both significantly poorer for Māori men than for NZ Europeans (log rank test: P = 0.004, 0.006 respectively). The hazard ratio of cancer-specific survival for Māori men was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.21-3.36) compared with NZ Europeans. Māori men with prostate cancer had poorer all-cause survival and cancer-specific survival than NZ Europeans. Māori men were at risk of having more advanced disease at diagnosis, which explains most of the survival inequity between Māori men and NZ Europeans.

  2. Stellar rotation in the σ-Ori cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Pinzón, G.; Hernández, J.

    2017-07-01

    We conducted measurements of projected rotational velocities in the quite young σ-Ori cluster using 169 spectra with a resolution of 8 km/s, obtained with the Hectoechelle spectograph attached to the 6.5 MMT telescope. The vsini obtained values are more precise than those reported so far in the literature. Rotational velocities were determined via the cross-correlation technique using the package FXCOR in IRAF for 60 low mass star members. Our preliminary results confirm the presence of both fast and slow rotators among the sample, being the latter group less massive as suggested by previous studies.

  3. Pre-vaccination type-specific HPV prevalence in confirmed cervical high grade lesions in the Māori and non-Māori populations in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Jung; Lewis, Hazel; Smith, Megan A; Simonella, Leonardo; Neal, Harold; Bromhead, Collette; Canfell, Karen

    2015-08-22

    New Zealand initiated HPV vaccination in 2008, and has attained 3-dose coverage of ~50 % in 12-13 year old girls. Due to the success of program initiatives in Māori girls, higher coverage rates of ~60 % have been achieved in this group. We have previously reported a benchmark overall pre-vaccination prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection in high grade cervical lesions in New Zealand. The current extended analysis provides separate pre-vaccination benchmark prevalence for Māori and non-Māori women. The National Cervical Screening Programme Register (NCSP-R) was used to identify any woman aged 20-69 years of age with an index high grade cytology report from 2009-2011. Extended recruitment was performed until 2012 in clinics with a high proportion of Māori women. Ethnicity status was based on self-reported information by participating women through phone contact supplemented by recordings on the study questionnaire (the NCSP-R was not used to extract ethnicity status). A total of 730 women consented to participate and had a valid HPV test result; 418 of these had histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 lesions (149 Māori, 269 non-Māori). The prevalence of any cervical oncogenic HPV infection, HPV16, and HPV18 was calculated in women with CIN2/3. In confirmed CIN2/3, the prevalence of any oncogenic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18 was 96 % (95 % CI:91-99 %), 54 % (95 % CI:46-63 %), 11 % (95 % CI:7-18 %) in Māori and 96 % (95 % CI:93-98 %), 54 % (95 % CI:48-60 %), 11 % (95 % CI:7-15 %) in non-Māori women, respectively. Age-specific patterns of infection for HPV16/18 in confirmed CIN2/3 differed between the two groups (Pinteraction = 0.02), with a lower prevalence in younger vs. older Māori women (57 % in 20-29 years vs 75 % in 40-69 years) but a higher prevalence in younger vs. older non-Māori women (70 % in 20-29 years vs 49 % in 40-69 years); the difference in the age-specific patterns of infection for HPV16/18 was not significant either

  4. Combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler as maintenance and reliever therapy in Māori with asthma.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Janine; Patel, Mitesh; Smith, Ann; Davies, Cheryl; Pritchard, Alison; Travers, Justin; Black, Peter; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard; Harwood, Matire

    2014-08-01

    There are significant health disparities between Māori and non-Māori with asthma, a pattern seen between other ethnic populations. This study investigates outcomes for Māori in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler therapy in asthma. This 24-week multicentre RCT recruited 303 adult asthma patients, 44 of whom were Māori. Participants were randomized to the single combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler as maintenance and reliever therapy ('SMART') regimen or 'standard' regimen (combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler for maintenance and salbutamol as reliever). Outcomes included patterns of beta-agonist inhaler use including 'high use' of reliever therapy (>8 actuations of budesonide/formoterol in excess of four maintenance doses per day for SMART and >16 actuations per day of salbutamol for standard). Differences in outcomes for Māori versus non-Māori were assessed using an interaction term between ethnicity and treatment. With adjustment for ethnicity, the SMART group had fewer days of high use (relative rate (RR) 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.85)), days of high use without medical review within 48 h (RR 0.49 (95% CI: 0.32-0.75)) and severe exacerbations (RR 0.54 (95% CI: 0.36-0.81)) compared with standard. The magnitude of the benefit from the SMART regimen was similar in Māori and non-Māori. Regardless of treatment regimen, Māori demonstrated more days of high use, high use without medical review and underuse of maintenance therapy. The SMART regimen has a favourable risk/benefit profile in Māori. Days of high use, days of high use without medical review and underuse of maintenance treatment were greater in Māori, regardless of treatment regimen. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  6. OLiMPS. OpenFlow Link-layer MultiPath Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Harvey B.; Barczyk, Artur; Bredel, Michael

    2014-11-17

    The OLiMPS project’s goal was the development of an OpenFlow controller application allowing load balancing over multiple switched paths across a complex network topology. The second goal was to integrate the controller with Dynamic Circuit Network systems such as ESnet’s OSCARS. Both goals were achieved successfully, as laid out in this report.

  7. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  8. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-04-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  9. Relative rates of RNA synthesis across the genome of Epstein-Barr virus are highest near oriP and oriLyt.

    PubMed Central

    Metzenberg, S

    1989-01-01

    The rates of Epstein-Barr virus transcription were measured in isolated nuclei from marmoset and human lymphoblasts transformed in vitro. In B95-8, a marmoset B-lymphoid cell line, the most frequently transcribed viral genes are the EBERs (small nuclear RNAs) and BHLF-1 (encoding a lytic-phase gene product). The EBERs and BHLF-1 genes are separated by nearly 50 kilobase pairs on the Epstein-Barr virus genome and lie adjacent to (less than 300 base pairs from) oriP and oriLyt, respectively. oriP and oriLyt are putative origins of viral DNA replication, and each is associated with a transcriptional enhancer element. Among the human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, only the transcription of EBERs predominates. Images PMID:2552173

  10. A comparison of glacier classification with Sentinel 2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The recently launched Sentinel 2 satellite with its sensor Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) offers unprecedented possibilities for automated and much more precise glacier mapping at global scales than other freely available sensors (e.g. the commonly used Landsat). With its 10 m spatial resolution in the VNIR bands (20 m in SWIR) and the large swath width of 290 km it will theoretically be possible to map all glaciers in a country such as Switzerland or Austria in a single day. The higher repeat frequency also offers better chances for a cloud free acquisition in a comparably short end-of-summer time-window. As the spectral ranges of the VNIR and SWIR bands of MSI and the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 are very similar, glaciers (clean ice and snow) can be mapped automatically with previously applied methods such as the TM3/5 (OLI4/6, MSI 4/11) band ratio. In this study a Sentinel 2 precursor dataset (from the commissioning phase) acquired on August 29, 2015 over the Swiss Alps is used to map glaciers with the band ratio method mentioned above and compared to outlines derived from a Landsat 8 OLI scene of the same region acquired only 2 days later (on 31.8. 2015). Additional to the classic red/SWIR band ratio, we have also used the 15 m resolution panchromatic band of OLI instead of the red band to map glaciers. Before the high-resolution band ratios were calculated, the SWIR bands of OLI and MSI were resampled with a bilinear interpolation to a two-times higher spatial resolution. The ratios were applied to the raw digital numbers of all bands without any further correction and threshold values were manually selected. First results show that the red/SWIR ratio for MSI required an additional threshold in the blue band for accurate mapping of snow and ice in shadow, whereas this was not required for OLI. In general, all outlines overlap within the geometric accuracy of the orthorectification, but the 30 m outlines from the OLI red/SWIR ratio were generally

  11. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  12. The complexities of designing therapy for Māori living with stroke-related communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Karen M

    2016-05-27

    Stroke-related communication disorders can have a substantial impact on Māori whānau (extended family). Timely and appropriate speech-language therapy is required, but there are many challenges in providing this. In this article we discuss the need for a kaupapa Māori approach to speech-language therapy that is designed by Māori for Māori, and undertaken in a Māori way. We report the results of a literature review that revealed a small but significant body of literature describing Māori experiences of stroke, aphasia and speech-language therapy, and evidence that a Māori-specific therapy programme can improve outcomes for people with stroke. We then consider the social and political context that impacts the design and delivery of such an approach. Informed by the literature, we propose a hierarchy of skill and resource acquisition for speech-language therapists, in which they learn why to be culturally safe, how to be culturally safe, and how to interact before creating resources to build relationships, resources for education and for therapy. The creation of a kaupapa Māori speech-language therapy approach should bring together people with stroke, whānau members and service providers to create therapy that crosses sectors and disciplines and acknowledges the wider social and political context.

  13. Near-IR photometric monitoring of FU Ori Type Object 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Benigni, S.

    2015-05-01

    Maehara, Kojima, and Fujii (ATel #6770) discovered a recent FU Ori-type outburst in 2MASS J06593158-0405277. High resolution spectroscopic follow up by Hillenbrand (ATel #6797) confirmed its FU Ori nature, and discovered P-Cygni profile for H alpha line and blue-shifted absorption for other hydrogen lines.

  14. Dissonant roles: The experience of Māori in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin; Signal, Louise; Davies, Cheryl; Tavite, Huia; Hooper, Carolyn; Sarfati, Diana; Stairmand, Jeannine; Cunningham, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous peoples have poorer health outcomes than their non-indigenous counterparts and this applies to cancer outcomes for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Differential access to and quality of healthcare contributes to poorer survival rates for Māori. This research provides insight into some of the mechanisms that hinder and facilitate care access. Thirty four people who had undergone cancer treatment (19 Māori and 15 non-Māori) were interviewed by two Māori researchers. The analysis of the interview transcripts was informed by membership categorization analysis. This form of analysis attends to the categories that are used and the activities and characteristics associated with those categories. From this analysis it is argued that the classical patient role, or sick role, inadequately captures the kind of role that some Māori take in relation to their healthcare. Māori can also have culturally specific family (whānau) influences and a greater draw towards alternative approaches to healthcare. Dissonant roles contribute to a different experience for Māori. A better understanding of the categories and roles that are relevant to those who have cancer provides opportunities to attenuate the monocultural impacts of healthcare.

  15. Premature mortality resilience and wellbeing within urban Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Waa, Andrew M; Pearson, Amber L; Ryks, John L

    2017-01-01

    ori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being. Resilient urban neighborhoods were defined as those that had lower than expected premature mortality among Māori residents despite high levels of socio-economic adversity. Selected resilience indicators theoretically linked to a Māori well-being framework were correlated with the novel Māori_RINZ resilience index. Of the selected indicators, only exposure to crime showed a clear gradient across the resilience index as predicted by the Māori well-being framework. Future research is needed as unclear trends for other indicators may reflect limitations in the indicators used or the need to develop a more comprehensive measure of well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  17. White spots in pharmaceutical pipelines-EMA identifies potential areas of unmet medical needs.

    PubMed

    Papaluca, Marisa; Greco, Martina; Tognana, Enrico; Ehmann, Falk; Saint-Raymond, Agnès

    2015-05-01

    Unmet medical needs are a priority for organizations such as the WHO and major public-private initiatives, such as Innovative Medicines Initiative, were established to speed up the development of better and safer medicines for patients. To assist such projects, the EMA in its 'Road Map to 2015' considered the mapping of unmet medical needs as a priority. This study has identified medical conditions for which the EMA could not identify developments in the pharmaceutical pipelines, that is, 'white spots'. Our analysis was made using external data sources as well as mining data of the EMA. The main areas for white spots were oncology, infectious diseases and certain psychiatric conditions. According to our data and a review of literature, in a number of these white spots, diagnostic tools may even be missing. The identification of those conditions will benefit stakeholders, including regulators, research funding bodies and patients' organizations.

  18. In vivo mutagenesis reveals that OriL is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Miralles Fusté, Javier; Stewart, James B; Wanrooij, Paulina H; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA replication have been hotly debated for a decade. The strand-displacement model states that lagging-strand DNA synthesis is initiated from the origin of light-strand DNA replication (OriL), whereas the strand-coupled model implies that OriL is dispensable. Mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected and the requirements of OriL in vivo have therefore not been addressed. We here use in vivo saturation mutagenesis to demonstrate that OriL is essential for mtDNA maintenance in the mouse. Biochemical and bioinformatic analyses show that OriL is functionally conserved in vertebrates. Our findings strongly support the strand-displacement model for mtDNA replication. PMID:23090476

  19. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt’s diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future. PMID:26884903

  20. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA).

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt's diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future.

  1. Patterns of privilege: A total cohort analysis of admission and academic outcomes for Māori, Pacific and non-Māori non-Pacific health professional students.

    PubMed

    Wikaire, Erena; Curtis, Elana; Cormack, Donna; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Rob; Reid, Papaarangi

    2016-10-07

    Tertiary institutions are struggling to ensure equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students in health professional study. This demonstrates disadvantaging of ethnic minority student groups (whereby Indigenous and ethnic minority students consistently achieve academic outcomes at a lower level when compared to non-ethnic minority students) whilst privileging non-ethnic minority students and has important implications for health workforce and health equity priorities. Understanding the reasons for academic inequities is important to improve institutional performance. This study explores factors that impact on academic success for health professional students by ethnic group. Kaupapa Māori methodology was used to analyse data for 2686 health professional students at the University of Auckland in 2002-2012. Data were summarised for admission variables: school decile, Rank Score, subject credits, Auckland school, type of admission, and bridging programme; and academic outcomes: first-year grade point average (GPA), first-year passed all courses, year 2 - 4 programme GPA, graduated, graduated in the minimum time, and composite completion for Māori, Pacific, and non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP) students. Statistical tests were used to identify significant differences between the three ethnic groupings. Māori and Pacific students were more likely to attend low decile schools (27 % Māori, 33 % Pacific vs. 5 % nMnP, p < 0.01); complete bridging foundation programmes (43 % Māori, 50 % Pacific vs. 5 % nMnP, p < 0.01), and received lower secondary school results (Rank Score 197 Māori, 178 Pacific vs. 231 nMnP, p < 0.01) when compared with nMnP students. Patterns of privilege were seen across all academic outcomes, whereby nMnP students achieved higher first year GPA (3.6 Māori, 2.8 Pacific vs. 4.7 nMnP, p < 0.01); were more likely to pass all first year courses (61 % Māori, 41 % Pacific vs. 78 % nMnP, p < 0.01); to

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  3. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Merrill, Jennifer E; Monti, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in "high resolution." Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near-real time. Compared with other methods, EMA can better sample and capture changes in these phenomena that occur in relatively short time frames. EMA also has several potential applications in studying the consequences of alcohol use, including physical, interpersonal, behavioral, and legal problems. However, even with all these potential capabilities, EMA research in the alcohol field still is associated with some limitations, including the potential for measurement reactivity and problems with acceptability and compliance. Despite these limitations, electronically based EMA methods are versatile and are capable of capturing data relevant to a variety of momentary influences on both alcohol use and consequences. Therefore, it will be exciting to fully realize the potential of future applications of EMA technologies, particularly if the associated costs can be reduced.

  4. EMA401: an old antagonist of the AT2R for a new indication in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Schatman, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    EMA401 is an old molecule, synthesized by Parke-Davis in the last century and characterized at that time as an AT2R antagonist. Professor Maree Smith and her group from the University of Queensland (Australia) patented the drug and many related derivatives and other compounds with high affinity for the AT2R for the indication neuropathic pain in 2004, an example of drug repositioning. After some years of university work, the Australian biotech company Spinifex Pharmaceuticals took over further research and development and characterized the S-enantiomer, code name EMA401, and related compounds in a variety of animal models for neuropathic and cancer pain. EMA401 was selected as the lead compound, based on high selectivity for the AT2R and good oral bioavailability (33%). EMA401, however, was only administered once in a chronic neuropathic pain model, and no data have been published in other pain models, or during steady state, although such data were available for the racemate EMA400 and some related compounds (EMA200, EMA400). A pilot phase IIa study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the drug taken twice daily as two capsules of 50 mg (400 mg/day). In 2015, Novartis took over the clinical development. Two phase IIb studies designed by Spinifex Pharmaceuticals were put on hold, probably because Novartis wanted to improve the clinical design or collect additional preclinical data. Further data are eagerly awaited, especially since EMA401 is first-in-class in neuropathic pain.

  5. EMA401: an old antagonist of the AT2R for a new indication in neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Schatman, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    EMA401 is an old molecule, synthesized by Parke-Davis in the last century and characterized at that time as an AT2R antagonist. Professor Maree Smith and her group from the University of Queensland (Australia) patented the drug and many related derivatives and other compounds with high affinity for the AT2R for the indication neuropathic pain in 2004, an example of drug repositioning. After some years of university work, the Australian biotech company Spinifex Pharmaceuticals took over further research and development and characterized the S-enantiomer, code name EMA401, and related compounds in a variety of animal models for neuropathic and cancer pain. EMA401 was selected as the lead compound, based on high selectivity for the AT2R and good oral bioavailability (33%). EMA401, however, was only administered once in a chronic neuropathic pain model, and no data have been published in other pain models, or during steady state, although such data were available for the racemate EMA400 and some related compounds (EMA200, EMA400). A pilot phase IIa study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the drug taken twice daily as two capsules of 50 mg (400 mg/day). In 2015, Novartis took over the clinical development. Two phase IIb studies designed by Spinifex Pharmaceuticals were put on hold, probably because Novartis wanted to improve the clinical design or collect additional preclinical data. Further data are eagerly awaited, especially since EMA401 is first-in-class in neuropathic pain. PMID:28255254

  6. The photometric variability of ζ Ori Aa observed by BRITE* **

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.

    2016-12-01

    Using BRITE photometry, we investigated the photometric variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant ζOri Aa. We found two independent frequencies, leading to several higher harmonics and simple linear combinations. One frequency is related to the rotation period, f_{rot} = 0.15±0.02 d^{-1}. The derived rotation period from this frequency and its higher harmonics, P_{rot} = 6.65±0.28 d, is compatible with the literature value (P_{rot} = 6.83±0.08 d). Thanks to simultaneous CHIRON spectroscopy, we locate the origin of the second frequency, f_{env} = 0.10±0.02 d^{-1}, at the circumstellar environment. We propose mass-loss events as the underlying origin.

  7. Mechanics of Miura-ori Origami Lattice Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Evans, Arthur; Ginepro, Jessica; Santangelo, Christian; Hull, Thomas; Cohen, Itai

    2014-03-01

    The mechanical properties of origami-inspired materials show remarkable potential for responsive, tunable next-generation materials. For example, the Miura-ori fold is predicted to have negative Poisson ratio and anisotropic compressive properties. Using a custom mechanical testing device and 3D laser profilometry, we investigate the moduli and the role of curvature in setting these material properties. Because defects are known to dramatically alter the bulk properties in other periodic materials, we introduce defects into the folding pattern to investigate their effects on the macroscopic mechanical properties. Interestingly, we find that a single defect increases the overall material stiffness, but the introduction of a second defect in the opposite direction can cancel out the first, tending to restore the original material properties. Moreover, these defect pairs can be arranged to form edge dislocations, grain boundaries, and many other topological configurations familiar from the study of crystallographic lattice defects.

  8. EMA-CO chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a clinical analysis of 54 patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, W-G; Ye, F; Shen, Y-M; Fu, Y-F; Chen, H-Z; Wan, X-Y; Xie, X

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the outcomes of chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) with EMA-CO regimen as primary and secondary protocol in China. Fifty-four patients with high-risk GTN received 292 EMA/CO treatment cycles between 1996 and 2005. Forty-five patients were primarily treated with EMA-CO, and nine were secondarily treated after failure to other combination chemotherapy. Adjuvant surgery and radiotherapy were used in the selected patients. Response, survival and related risk factors, as well as chemotherapy complications, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-five of forty-five patients (77.8%) receiving EMA-CO as first-line treatment achieved complete remission, and 77.8% (7/9) as secondary treatment. The overall survival rate was 87.0% in all high-risk GTN patients, with 93.3% (42/45) as primary therapy and 55.6% (5/9) as secondary therapy. The survival rates were significantly different between two groups (chi(2)= 6.434, P =0.011). Univariate analysis showed that the metastatic site and the number of metastatic organs were significant risk factors, but binomial distribution logistic regression analysis revealed that only the number of metastatic organs was an independent risk factor for the survival rate. No life-threatening toxicity and secondary malignancy were found. EMA-EP regimen was used for ten patients who were resistant to EMA-CO and three who relapsed after EMA-CO. Of those, 11 patients (84.6%) achieved complete remission. We conclude that EMA-CO regimen is an effective and safe primary therapy for high-risk GTN, but not an appropriate second-line protocol. The number of metastatic organs is an independent prognostic factor for the patient with high-risk GTN. EMA-EP regimen is a highly effective salvage therapy for those failing to EMA-CO.

  9. Chemical modeling of iron(II)/(III) solutions in hydrometallurgy using OLI(TM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Michael Kardono

    Iron is the most common impurity in hydrometallurgy which is usually removed by precipitation of insoluble iron compounds, such as hematite and jarosite. The knowledge of iron solubility in multicomponent solutions is important for design and optimization of the iron removal steps. The OLI Software package is a chemical modeling tool that incorporates the powerful mixed-solvent electrolyte (MSE) model capable of performing simulations of multicomponent electrolyte solutions from the freezing point up to the limit of fused salt and near the critical temperature of the solution. Literature or experimental solubility data was fitted on the OLI MSE model to improve the performance in simulating multicomponent Fe(II)/Fe(III) solutions. The particular focus of this work aimed at developing simulation capability for the FeCl 3-MgCl2-HCl-H2O system through experimental solubility measurement and modeling, relevant to atmospheric processing of saprolites by HCl using MgCl2 brines.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis oriC sequestration by MtrA response regulator.

    PubMed

    Purushotham, Gorla; Sarva, Krishna B; Blaszczyk, Ewelina; Rajagopalan, Malini; Madiraju, Murty V

    2015-10-01

    The regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA replication are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in synchronously replicating M. tuberculosis, MtrA access to origin of replication (oriC) is enriched in the post-replication (D) period. The increased oriC binding results from elevated MtrA phosphorylation (MtrA∼P) as evidenced by reduced expression of dnaN, dnaA and increased expression of select cell division targets. Overproduction of gain-of-function MtrAY102C advanced the MtrA oriC access to the C period, reduced dnaA and dnaN expression, interfered with replication synchrony and compromised cell division. Overproduction of wild-type (MtrA+) or phosphorylation-defective MtrAD56N did not promote oriC access in the C period, nor affected cell cycle progression. MtrA interacts with DnaA signaling a possibility that DnaA helps load MtrA on oriC. Therefore, oriC sequestration by MtrA∼P in the D period may normally serve to prevent untimely initiations and that DnaA-MtrA interactions may facilitate regulated oriC replication. Finally, despite the near sequence identity of MtrA in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, the M. smegmatis oriC is not MtrA-target. We conclude that M. tuberculosis oriC has evolved to be regulated by MtrA and that cell cycle progression in this organisms are governed, at least in part, by oscillations in the MtrA∼P levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis oriC sequestration by MtrA response regulator

    PubMed Central

    Purushotham, Gorla; Sarva, Krishna B.; Blaszczyk, Ewelina; Rajagopalan, Malini; Madiraju, Murty V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA replication are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in synchronously replicating M. tuberculosis, MtrA access to origin of replication (oriC) is enriched in the post-replication (D) period. The increased oriC binding results from elevated MtrA phosphorylation (MtrA~P) as evidenced by reduced expression of dnaN, dnaA and increased expression of select cell division targets. Overproduction of gain-of-function MtrAY102C advanced the MtrA oriC access to the C period, reduced dnaA and dnaN expression, interfered with replication synchrony and compromised cell division. Overproduction of wild-type (MtrA+) or phosphorylation-defective MtrAD56N did not promote oriC access in the C period, nor affected cell cycle progression. MtrA interacts with DnaA signaling a possibility that DnaA helps load MtrA on oriC. Therefore, oriC sequestration by MtrA~P in the D period may normally serve to prevent untimely initiations and that DnaA-MtrA interactions may facilitate regulated oriC replication. Finally, despite the near sequence identity of MtrA in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, the M. smegmatis oriC is not MtrA-target. We conclude that M. tuberculosis oriC has evolved to be regulated by MtrA and that cell cycle progression in this organisms are governed, at least in part, by oscillations in the MtrA~P levels. PMID:26207528

  12. The rosiglitazone decision process at FDA and EMA. What should we learn?

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Koen B; van Grootheest, Kees

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010 the EMA decided to suspend the market authorisation of rosiglitazone, while the FDA decided to restrict the use of rosiglitazone. These actions were taken approximately 10 years after the introduction of rosiglitazone, because rosiglitazone might be associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. It is often stated that the first signs of an increased risk of ischemic heart disease were noticed in 2004, however already in 2001 the FDA concluded, based on data available to the EMA at the time of initial approval, that rosiglitazone should not be used in combination with insulin, because this combination therapy was associated with an increased risk of cardiac failure and ischemic heart disease. Remarkably, in 2007, when the evidence against this combination therapy had increased, the EMA made a decision that encouraged the use of insulin in combination with rosiglitazone, while the FDA tried to restrict this combination therapy. Despite the publication of several studies, including a large randomized controlled study, the cardiovascular risk of rosiglitazone still has not been definitively established. The weight given to the benefits and the risks seems mainly a subjective decision. To prevent new cases like rosiglitazone, more attention should be given to evaluation of study protocols of safety trials prior to their starts. This paper gives a critical overview of the decision making process at the FDA and the EMA on the basis of public available information.

  13. The diagnostic value of EMA expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Zăhoi, Delia Elena; Izvernariu, D

    2011-01-01

    Renal parenchyma tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are difficult to diagnose and classify. Immunohistochemistry begun to be routinely used for the diagnosis of these tumors. Panels of antibodies are developed for the diagnostic assessment of these tumors, which include cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is expressed by most of the tumor cell types. Forty-seven specimens of renal parenchyma tumors were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of EMA. In the majority of the cases, clear cells carcinoma was positive for EMA (25/33, 75.70%). All of the papillary carcinomas were positive, with different staining patterns between the two subtypes. The two cases of chromophobe cells carcinomas were intensely positive with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. The mixed epithelial-stromal tumor was negative for EMA in both of the components. Out of the three cases of sarcomatoid carcinomas, one was negative, one was weakly positive (+1) and the last was positive (+2). Intensely positive normal tubes were caught by the tumor proliferation in the negative case and in the negative stained areas of the weakly positive case.

  14. Improvements to the Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsinbigler, M. A.; Gleason, J. L.; Huffer, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support Earth Science data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS complements the ODISEES' data discovery system with an intelligent tool to enable data producers to auto-generate semantically enhanced metadata and upload it to the metadata repository that drives ODISEES. Like ODISEES, the OlyMPUS metadata provisioning tool leverages robust semantics, a NoSQL database and query engine, an automated reasoning engine that performs first- and second-order deductive inferencing, and uses a controlled vocabulary to support data interoperability and automated analytics. The ODISEES data discovery portal leverages this metadata to provide a seamless data discovery and access experience for data consumers who are interested in comparing and contrasting the multiple Earth science data products available across NASA data centers. Olympus will support scientists' services and tools for performing complex analyses and identifying correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena using the full spectrum of NASA Earth Science data available. By providing an intelligent discovery portal that supplies users - both human users and machines - with detailed information about data products, their contents and their structure, ODISEES will reduce the level of effort required to identify and prepare large volumes of data for analysis. This poster will explain how OlyMPUS leverages deductive reasoning and other technologies to create an integrated environment for generating and exploiting semantically rich metadata.

  15. Radiometric Calibration and Stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron; Haque, Md Obaidul

    2015-01-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  16. Landsat 8 OLI radiometric calibration performance after three years (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfitt, Ron A.

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) impressed science users soon after launch in early 2013 with both its radiometric and geometric performance. After three years on-orbit, OLI continues to exceed expectations with its high signal-to-noise ratio, low striping, and stable response. The few artifacts that do exist, such as ghosting, continue to be minimal and show no signs of increasing. The on-board calibration sources showed a small decrease in response during the first six months of operations in the coastal aerosol band, but that decrease has stabilized to less than a half percent per year since that time. The other eight bands exhibit very little change over the past three years and have remained well within a half percent of their initial response to all on-board calibration sources. Analysis of lunar acquisitions also agree with the on-board calibrators. Overall, the OLI on-board the Landsat 8 spacecraft continues to provide exceptional measurements of the Earth's surface to continue the long tradition of Landsat.

  17. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  18. Absolute ultraviolet spectrophotometry of: alpha CMa, gamma Ori, kappa Ori, and alpha Leo; and a continuing calibration program and some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    Spectral observations of the stars alpha CMa, gamma Ori, kappa Ori, and alpha Leo have been obtained in the range 1150 to 4000 Angstroms, using rocket borne spectrometers. The payloads have a 13-inch diameter telescope, a rotatable concave diffraction grating, and three pulse counting photomultiplier photometers. The laboratory standards used as photometric references derive their primary calibration directly or indirectly from the National Bureau of Standards. An error range of up to + or - 10 percent is attributed to these laboratory standards; + or - 8 percent to the calibration procedure; and + or - 10 percent is assigned as an accidental error range.

  19. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  20. Infectious oral necrosis (cancrum oris) in Nigerian children: a review.

    PubMed

    Enwonwu, C O

    1985-06-01

    The devastating orofacial gangrenous disease known as cancrum oris (noma) is still commonly seen in underprivileged Nigerian children. These children are usually victims of such stressors as chronic malnutrition, numerous endemic communicable diseases and severe adverse physical conditions which may lead to depletion of their adaptive resources or produce physiological maladaptation to additional stressors. Measles is the most common infection preceding the development of noma in Nigerian children. Acquired immunodeficiency as well as the impaired endocrine balance of the chronically malnourished permits, for example, widespread infection with the measles virus. Anergy resulting from the combination of malnutrition and measles virus infection promotes selective overgrowth and invasion by an infective consortium consisting of anaerobic organisms and other species capable of elaborating necessary growth factors for the former. Because of the pre-existing depletion of adaptive physiologic resources in the malnourished child, the infection is not readily contained locally as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis but instead spreads rapidly to the next naturally occurring anatomical barriers. This is then followed by continuing necrosis and possible sequestration as exemplified by noma.

  1. Differential polarization direct imaging of FU Ori type YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Takami, Michihiro; Scicluna, Peter; Karr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    FU Orionis objects (FUors) are distinguished from other young stellar objects due to their outbursts. They can surge in brightness by multiple magnitudes in a short time. Thus FUors have always been considered the strongest evidence which suggests unsteady accretion process in low mass young stellar objects (YSO). However the accreting process of FUors are not well understood. We present high resolution (~0.1 arcseconds) observations of 5 FUors (FU Ori, V1057cyg, V1515cyg, V1735cyg, Z Cma) in near infrared bandpasses (J,H,K) using the Subaru telescope. Through using polarization differential imaging and coronagraphy techniques, we were able to obtain high contrast images of circumstellar environment around central young stars. After image processing, we found interesting structures (stream, tail, fragment, etc) in the circumstellar disks. These structures are indications for dynamical interaction, potential outflow cavities and disk fragmentation. More importantly, these disk features can provide us with insight into the accretion process and where outbursts originate.

  2. Te Reo Māori: indigenous language acquisition in the context of New Zealand English.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan

    2017-07-06

    This study assessed the status of te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds (Growing Up in New Zealand), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood Māori. Parents completed the new MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory short forms for te reo Māori (NZM: CDI sf) and New Zealand English (NZE: CDI sf). Mothers with higher education levels had children with larger vocabularies in both te reo Māori and NZ English. For English speakers, vocabulary advantages also existed for girls, first-borns, monolinguals, those living in areas of lower deprivation, and those whose mothers had no concerns about their speech and language. Because more than 99% of Māori speakers were bilingual, te reo Māori acquisition appears to be occurring in the context of the acquisition of New Zealand English.

  3. Dependence on place: A source of autonomy in later life for older Māori.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Elizabeth; Breheny, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Attachment to place is an important component of ageing. Although the importance of place for older people's well-being is known, the ways in which different conceptions of place and expectations for what later life may hold depend upon cultural beliefs, values, and expectations is underexplored. This study examined the ways that place influences experiences of ageing for older Māori in New Zealand. Eight interviews with older Māori were analysed thematically alongside field notes from a research visit. Attachment to place provided the foundation for experiences of ageing for older Māori. Through their connection to place, the participants drew on a comforting and comfortable dependence on land and family to enable autonomy in later life. Rather than seeking to maintain independence in terms of avoiding reliance on others, older Māori conceptualised older age through autonomy and freedom to live in accordance with Māori values encapsulated by whakawhanaungatanga. A good old age depended on balancing competing demands of living in wider society with attachment to place and Māori identity in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an oriC vector for use in Mycoplasma synoviae.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad A; Marenda, Marc S; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2014-08-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae, an important poultry pathogen, belonging to the class Mollicutes, causes airsacculitis, synovitis, decreased egg production and produces significant economic losses. Efforts to determine M. synoviae virulence factors and their role in pathogenicity require suitable tools for genetic manipulation of this pathogen. This study describes, for the first time, the identification and cloning of the origin of replication (oriC) of M. synoviae to develop a replicable oriC vector for this mycoplasma. Shuttle vectors containing different putative oriC regions along with tetracycline resistance gene tetM were constructed to transform M. synoviae. An oriC vector, pMAS-LoriC, harbouring the complete dnaA gene along with upstream and downstream DnaA boxes, successfully transformed M. synoviae at an average transformation frequency of 1.07×10(-8) transformants per colony-forming unit (CFU), and remained freely replicating as well as integrated at the chromosomal oriC. Plasmid copy number for pMAS-LoriC was estimated to be 62±29 (average±SD) per cell. This study also provided evidence of the occurrence of homologous recombination and the functionality of the heterologous tetM determinant in M. synoviae. The transformation technique and the oriC vector developed in this study have the potential to be used in targeted gene disruption, gene complementation and expression studies in this organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Responses of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to the allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis).

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Xie, Xing; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-08-25

    Macrophytic allelochemicals are considered an environment-friendly and promising alternative to control algal bloom. However, studies examining the potential mechanisms of inhibitory allelochemicals on algae are few. The allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA), isolated from reed (Phragmites communis), was a strong allelopathic inhibitor on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. EMA-induced antioxidant responses were investigated in the cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa to understand the mechanism of EMA inhibition on algal growth. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) of M. aeruginosa cells were analyzed after treatments with different concentrations of EMA. Exposure of M. aeruginosa to EMA caused changes in enzyme activities and contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants in different manners. The decrease in SOD activity occurred first after 4 h of EMA exposure, and more markedly after 40 h. CAT activity did not change after 4 h of EMA exposure, but increased obviously after 40 h. The contents of AsA and GSH were increased greatly by EMA after 4 h. After 60 h, low EMA concentrations still increased the CAT activity and the contents of AsA and GSH, but high EMA concentrations started to impose a marked suppression on them. EMA increased dehydroascorbate (DHAsA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents during all exposure times. After 60 h, the regeneration rates of AsA and GSH (represented by the AsA/DHAsA ratio and GSH/GSSG ratio, respectively) were reduced by high EMA concentrations. These results suggest that the activation of CAT and the availability of AsA and GSH at early exposure are important to counteract the oxidative stress induced by EMA, and the inactivation of SOD may be crucial to the growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa by EMA.

  6. Surgical treatment for paediatric patients with moyamoya disease by indirect revascularization procedures (EDAS, EMS, EMAS).

    PubMed

    Matsushima, T; Fujiwara, S; Nagata, S; Fujii, K; Fukui, M; Kitamura, K; Hasuo, K

    1989-01-01

    Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good collateral formation through EDAS, EMAS, or EMS in about 70-80 percent of all surgically treated sides. The symptoms such as TIA, RIND, and/or involuntary movements disappeared in the cases with a good collateral formation but not in those with insufficient development of the collateral circulation. The indirect EC-IC bypass surgery seems effective for most of the children with Moyamoya disease who present with ischaemic signs.

  7. [Progress of EBNA1/oriP-based plasmid applied in gene therapy].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2005-05-01

    The nonviral gene delivery systems are usually not very effective in transferring gene into target cells, and the intensity and duration of the gene expression is very poor. The EBNA1/oriP maintain EBNA1/oriP-based plasmids as episome, contribute to nuclear transport of the plasmid and transcriptional up-regulation of target gene. The EBNA1/oriP based plasmid enhances the transfection rate as well as magnitude and longevity of gene expression. This article reviews recent preclinical gene therapy studies with the EBV plasmid vectors conducted against various diseases. For gene therapy against malignancies, the EBNA1/ oriP based plasmid encoding the HSV1-TK suicide gene was combined with a cationic polymer to transfer into HCC cell line. The expression level of TK gene was 100- to 1000-fold higher than the conventional plasmid. The sensitivity of HCC to ganciclovir (GCV) elevated several hundred-fold. The EBNA1/oriP based plasmid equipped with tumor specific promoter, such as CEA promoter, enabled targeted killing of CEA-positive tumor cell. Transfection of EBNA1/oriP based plasmid carrying IL-12 and IL-18 gene either locally, or systemically, induced therapeufic antitumor immune responses including augmentation of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte and natural killer activities and growth retardation of tumors. For gene therapy of congenital diseases and chronic diseases, the EBNA1/oriP based plasmid encoding the adenosine deaminase gene was transfered into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The ADA activity was elevated 1.5-to 2-fold. Intracardiomuscrlar transfer of the EBNA1/oriP based plasmid encoding the beta-AR gene may be useful for the treatment of severe heart failure. Human tumor necrosis factoralpha (hTNFalpha) is one of the most important inflammatory cytokines. It has been implicated in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. sTNFR can efficiently neutralize the bioactivities of hTNFalpha. In primary study we cloned the chimeric protein sTNFR II-IgG Fc and

  8. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  9. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  10. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1992. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE EMaCC serves to coordinate the department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the department. This document presents summaries of budgets and of research projects, arranged according to the offices of energy efficiency and renewable energy, energy research, environmental restoration and waste management, nuclear energy, civilian radioactive waste management, defense, and fossil energy. A directory and a keyword index are included.

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The following text briefly describes the materials research programs of the Department of Energy. It is organized by office and organizational charts are provided to allow easy identification of the materials research programs of each office. These program descriptions have been prepared from inputs submitted by many different EMaCC members. This report is not a comprehensive summary of the Department's programs, but rather a compilation of the programs of those offices that submitted inputs.

  12. BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR

    PubMed Central

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Lowe, Edward W.; Butkiewicz, Mariusz; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule's biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS) that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF) determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78). Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891). PMID:22907158

  13. Fu Ori outbursts and the planet-disc mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, Sergei; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that giant protoplanets migrating inwards through the disc more rapidly than they contract could be tidally disrupted when they fill their Roche lobes ˜0.1 au away from their parent protostars. Here we consider the process of mass and angular momentum exchange between the tidally disrupted planet and the surrounding disc in detail. We find that the planet's adiabatic mass-radius relation and its ability to open a deep gap in the disc determine whether the disruption proceeds as a sudden runaway or a balanced quasi-static process. In the latter case, the planet feeds the inner disc through its Lagrangian L1 point like a secondary star in a stellar binary system. As the planet loses mass, it gains specific angular momentum and normally migrates in the outward direction until the gap closes. Numerical experiments show that planet disruption outbursts are preceded by long 'quiescent' periods during which the disc inward of the planet is empty. The hole in the disc is created when the planet opens a deep gap, letting the inner disc to drain on to the star while keeping the outer one stalled behind the planet. We find that the mass-losing planet embedded in a realistic protoplanetary disc spawns an extremely rich set of variability patterns. In a subset of parameter space, there is a limit cycle behaviour caused by non-linear interaction between the planet mass-loss and the disc hydrogen ionization instability. We suggest that tidal disruptions of young massive planets near their stars may be responsible for the observed variability of young accreting protostars such as FU Ori, EXor and T Tauri stars in general.

  14. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Josko; Forempoher, Gea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Andjelinovic, Simun; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2011-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of leptomeninges developed during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Nestin appeared for the first time in week 7, EMA in week 8, while mesothelin appeared in week 22 of development. In the late fetal period and after birth, nestin expression decreased, whereas expression of EMA and mesothelin increased. EMA appeared in all surface epithelial cells and nodules, while mesothelin was found only in some of them. In adult meninges, all three proteins were predominantly localized in the surface epithelium and meningeal nodules. In meningothelial meningiomas (WHO grade I), EMA was detected in all tumor cells except in the endothelial cells, mesothelin characterized nests of tumor cells, while nestin was found predominantly in the walls of blood vessels. The distribution pattern of those proteins in normal meningeal and tumor cells indicates that nestin might characterize immature cells, while EMA and mesothelin appeared in maturing epithelial cells. Neoplastic transformation of these specific cell lineages contributes to the cell population in meningiomas.

  15. Distinguishing benign from malignant mesothelial cells in effusions by Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Michael; Florence, Roxanne R; Pantanowitz, Liron; Visintainer, Paul F; Cibas, Edmund S; Otis, Christopher N

    2013-02-01

    Distinguishing malignant mesothelioma (MM) from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RM) may be difficult in effusions. This study tested the hypothesis that immunocytochemistry (IC) in effusion cell blocks (CB) can distinguish MM from RM and that the results may be applied to individual specimens. External validation of a risk score (RS) model associating sensitivity and specificity was applied to an external set of MM and RM specimens from a separate institution. Forty three effusion cytology CBs of 25 confirmed malignant mesotheliomas were compared to CBs of 23 benign mesothelial effusions without inflammation and 13 reactive mesothelial proliferations associated with inflammation. Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression were evaluated by immunocytochemistry on CBs. Each antibody was compared using ROC values, where the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.90, 0.82, and 0.84 for Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin, respectively. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was applied to a combination of Glut-1 and EMA. A combined ROC curve was modeled for Glut-1 and EMA (AUC = 0.93). A RS = 2 × (Glut-1%) + 1 × (EMA%) was created from this ROC curve. When applied to an external set of MM and RM, the RS resulted in an ROC with AUC = 0.91. In conclusion, a RS derived from a LR of Glut-1 and EMA IC greatly improves the distinction between MM from RM cells in individual effusions. The study illustrates principles of evidence-based pathology concerning internal and external test performance in the differential diagnosis of MM versus RM.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of disability for Māori 24 months after injury.

    PubMed

    Wyeth, Emma H; Samaranayaka, Ari; Davie, Gabrielle; Derrett, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    To investigate post-injury disability prevalence and identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors 24 months post-injury among Māori Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study participants. Participants were recruited from New Zealand's no-fault injury insurer. Pre-injury and injury-related characteristic information was obtained from participants at three and 24 months post-injury. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule was used to measure disability. Multivariable models were developed to estimate relative risks of post-injury disability. Of 2,856 participants, 566 were Māori. Analyses were restricted to 374 Māori with pre-injury and 24-month post-injury disability data available. Pre-injury, 9% reported disability compared to 19% 24 months post-injury. Strong predictors of increased risk of disability 24 months post-injury were having ≥2 chronic conditions pre-injury and having trouble accessing healthcare services after injury. Hospitalisation for injury and having inadequate pre-injury household income were other predictors. Māori experience considerable disability 24 months post-injury. Pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial, and injury-related characteristics independently predict post-injury disability and provide focus for future research and interventions to improve Māori post-injury outcomes. Implications for public health: Despite having had access to services, injured Māori experienced considerable long-term disability. Pre-injury and injury-related factors predict long-term disability and should be the focus to reduce the post-injury disability burden for Māori. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC. This occurs via the concerted action of numerous proteins, including DnaA, which acts as an initiator. The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC, triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. The requisite information is encoded in the unique arrangement of specific sequences called DnaA boxes, which form a framework for DnaA binding and assembly. Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. We show that oriC encoded instructions allow not only for initiation but also for precise regulation of replication initiation and coordination of chromosomal replication with the cell cycle (also in response to environmental signals). We focus on Escherichia coli, and then expand our discussion to include several other microorganisms in which additional regulatory proteins have been recently shown to be involved in coordinating replication initiation to other cellular processes (e.g., Bacillus, Caulobacter, Helicobacter, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces). We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. PMID:25610430

  18. Orbital and Physical Properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B Triple System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Lorenzo, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Negueruela, I.; Barbá, R. H.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Montes, D.; Pellerin, A.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sódor, Á.; Sota, A.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  19. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Barbá, R. H.; Montes, D.; Pellerin, A.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sota, A.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  20. Predictors of academic success for Māori, Pacific and non-Māori non-Pacific students in health professional education: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wikaire, Erena; Curtis, Elana; Cormack, Donna; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Rob; Reid, Papaarangi

    2017-05-01

    Tertiary institutions internationally aim to increase student diversity, however are struggling to achieve equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students and detailed exploration of factors that impact on success is required. This study explored the predictive effect of admission variables on academic outcomes for health professional students by ethnic grouping. Kaupapa Māori and Pacific research methodologies were used to conduct a quantitative analysis using data for 2686 health professional students [150 Māori, 257 Pacific, 2279, non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP)]. The predictive effect of admission variables: school decile; attending school in Auckland; type of admission; bridging programme; and first-year bachelor results on academic outcomes: year 2-4 grade point average (GPA); graduating; graduating in the minimum time; and optimal completion for the three ethnic groupings and the full cohort was explored using multiple regression analyses. After adjusting for admission variables, for every point increase in first year bachelor GPA: year 2-4 GPA increased by an average of 0.46 points for Māori (p = 0.0002, 95% CI 0.22, 0.69), 0.70 points for Pacific (p < 0.0001, CI 0.52, 0.87), and 0.55 points for nMnP (p < 0.0001, CI 0.51, 0.58) students. For the total cohort, ethnic grouping was consistently the most significant predictor of academic outcomes. This study demonstrated clear differences in academic outcomes between both Māori and Pacific students when compared to nMnP students. Some (but not all) of the disparities between ethnic groupings could be explained by controlling for admission variables.

  1. Extended Monopole antenna Array with individual Shield (EMAS) coil: An improved monopole antenna design for brain imaging at 7 tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Woo, Myung-Kyun; Hong, Suk-Min; Lee, Jongho; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Sung-Yeon; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2016-06-01

    To propose a new Extended Monopole antenna Array with individual Shields (EMAS) coil that improves the B1 field coverage and uniformity along the z-direction. To increase the spatial coverage of Monopole antenna Array (MA) coil, each monopole antenna was shielded and extended in length. Performance of this new coil, which is referred to as EMAS coil, was compared with the original MA coil and an Extended Monopole antenna Array coil with no shield (EMA). For comparison, flip angle, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and receive sensitivity maps were measured at multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the brain. The EMAS coil demonstrated substantially larger flip angle and receive sensitivity than the MA and EMA coils in the inferior aspect of the brain. In the brainstem ROI, for example, the flip angle in the EMAS coil was increased by 45.5% (or 60.0%) and the receive sensitivity was increased by 26.9% (or 14.9%), resulting in an SNR gain of 84.8% (or 76.3%) when compared with the MA coil (or EMA). The EMAS coil provided 25.7% (or 24.4%) more uniform B1+ field distribution compared with the MA (or EMA) coil in sagittal. The EMAS coil successfully extended the imaging volume in lower part of the brain. Magn Reson Med 75:2566-2572, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The nurse's role in improving health disparities experienced by the indigenous Māori of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Katherine Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Many countries across the globe experience disparities in health between their indigenous and non-indigenous people. The indigenous Māori of New Zealand are the most marginalized and deprived ethnic group with the poorest health status overall. Factors including the historical British colonization, institutional discrimination, healthcare workforce bias and the personal attitudes and beliefs of Māori significantly contribute to disparities, differential access and receipt of quality health services. Māori experience more barriers towards accessing health services and as a result achieve poorer health outcomes. Contradicting translations of Te Tiriti o Waitangi have created much debate regarding social rights as interpreted by Oritetanga (equal British citizenship rights) and whether or not Māori are entitled to equal opportunities or equal outcomes. Inconsistent consideration of Māori culture in the New Zealand health system and social policy greatly contributes to the current health disparities. Nurses and healthcare professionals alike have the gifted opportunity to truly change attitudes toward Māori health and move forward in adopting culturally appropriate care practices. More specifically the nursing workforce provides 80% of direct patient care, thus are in a unique position to be the forefront of change in reducing health disparities experienced by Māori. Incorporating cultural safety, patient advocacy, and Māori-centred models of care will support nurses in adopting a new approach toward improving Māori health outcomes overall.

  3. Paleochannel delineation using Landsat 8 OLI and Envisat ASAR image fusion techniques in Cholistan desert, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zaheer Ul; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Junaid Aziz; Qazi, Waqas A.

    2016-10-01

    Sustainability of desert ecosystem is highly dependent upon water availability from different sources. Paleochannels are important sources of groundwater, and exploiting such resources involves their identification/mapping and subsequent investigation for fresh groundwater. A study in which multisensor (optical/infrared Landsat 8 OLI and active microwave Envisat ASAR) images of the Cholistan desert of Pakistan were processed and analyzed to identify and map Hakra River paleochannels is presented. Radiometrically corrected optical and synthetic aperture radar datasets were fused using principal components image fusion method. The paleochannels were extracted from the analysis of this fused output, and normalized difference vegetative index analysis of Landsat 8 OLI atmospheric corrected images was used as supporting information. Identification and alignment of an identified paleochannel was validated with geophysical ground measurements (electrical resistivity and conductivity surveys) and historical records. The presence of high apparent electrical resistivity with corresponding low soil water conductivity values intersects well with the paleochannels identified from the remote sensing data. The results were also confirmed with historical evidence such as old wells beside forts and proposed ground water harvesting sites. The proposed methodology in this study could be adopted in other parts of the world for mapping of paleochannels.

  4. Assessing the potential of Landsat 8 OLI for retrieving salinity in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf, located in an arid region in the Middle East, has high salinity that can exceed 43 practical salinity units (psu) due to its special conditions, such as high evaporation, low precipitation, and desalination discharge. In this study, a regional algorithm was developed to retrieve salinity using in situ measurements conducted between June 2013 and November 2014 along the western coast of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multivariate linear regression model using the visible bands of Operational Land Imager (OLI) was proposed and indicated good performance with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.7. The algorithm was then applied to an OLI scene, which revealed the spatial distribution of salinity over the study area. The findings are favorable for better interpretation of the complex water mass exchange between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman through the Strait of Hormuz, validating salinity from numerical models, studying the effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change on ecosystem in the hypersaline Arabian Gulf, etc.

  5. An effective modified water extraction method for Landsat-8 OLI imagery of mountainous plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Wang, L.; Jing, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-04-01

    Water body extraction from remote sensing imagery is an efficient way to investigate and monitor water resources. In the study area of this research, a mountainous plateau near Kashgar, China, sparse vegetation and seasonal rivers affect water body extraction. In order to extract water bodies, a modified water body extraction method is proposed in this paper and tested using Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Following this method, binary images are first generated using a classification, a Tasseled Cap transform, and a normalized difference water index, respectively, and then combined to yield a mask. Next, water bodies are delineated by masking the Landsat-8 OLI imagery and then refined by eliminating false areas using a supervised classification. It is demonstrated from the resulting water body maps that terrain related shadows in imagery were effectively eliminated and river tributaries and artificial ditches were precisely delineated, with accuracy up to 94%. Compared with several current water body extraction methods, the modified method yielded water body maps with better visualization and slightly improved accuracy.

  6. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  7. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  8. Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers.

    PubMed

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Robinson, Jo-Ani; Tavila, Aliitasi; Wilton, Jenny; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2008-07-01

    In New Zealand the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples. Nutrition labels have the potential to promote healthy food choices and eating behaviours. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of research among indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities and low-income populations regarding their perceptions, use and understanding of nutrition labels. Our aim was to evaluate perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples and to explore improvements or alternatives to current labelling systems. Māori, Samoan and Tongan researchers recruited participants who were regular food shoppers. Six focus groups were conducted which involved 158 people in total: one Māori group, one Samoan, one Tongan, and three low-income groups. Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders rarely use nutrition labels to assist them with their food purchases for a number of reasons, including lack of time to read labels, lack of understanding, shopping habits and relative absence of simple nutrition labels on the low-cost foods they purchase. Current New Zealand nutrition labels are not meeting the needs of those who need them most. Possible improvements include targeted social marketing and education campaigns, increasing the number of low-cost foods with voluntary nutrition labels, a reduction in the price of 'healthy' food, and consideration of an alternative mandatory nutrition labelling system that uses simple imagery like traffic lights.

  9. A STAR-FORMING RING AROUND κ Ori 250 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250–280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5–8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  10. Remotely sensed sea surface salinity in the hyper-saline Arabian Gulf: Application to landsat 8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a multivariable linear algorithm was developed to derive sea surface salinity (SSS) from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) in the hyper-saline Arabian Gulf. In situ measured Rrs at Operational Land Imager (OLI) bands 1-4 were involved in the algorithm development. Comparisons between estimated and in situ measured SSS produced R2s reaching 0.74 and RMSEs <2%. The proposed algorithm was applied to OLI scenes collected in November 2013 and March 2016 to demonstrate SSS changes from normal conditions when extreme events were encountered. The good agreement between satellite-derived and in situ Rrs suggested that the algorithm uncertainties were primarily attributed to the algorithm parameterization and more measurements were required for performance improving. Compared with OLI-derived products, numerical simulations overestimated SSS by 3.4%. Our findings demonstrate the potential of high resolution satellite products to study short-lasting events and capture fine-scale features in the marine environment.

  11. GHRS Observations of the Interstellar Medium toward 23 ORI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, D. E.; Hobbs, L. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; Spitzer, L.; York, D. G.

    1996-05-01

    High-resolution optical spectra, GHRS echelle and G160M spectra, and Copernicus spectra are combined to study the abundances and physical conditions in the diffuse interstellar clouds seen toward 23 Ori. High-resolution (0.3--2.0 km s(-1) ) spectra of Na I, Ca I, Ca II, and K I are used to define the underlying component structure that is unresolved in the UV spectra, enabling more accurate individual cloud abundances and physical conditions to be derived from the numerous transitions found in the UV. Multiple absorption components are present for each of several distinct types of gas. Strong low-velocity (SLV) absorption, due to cool, moderately dense neutral gas, is seen for neutral and singly ionized species at 20 km s(-1) la vsun la 30 km s(-1) . Weaker low-velocity (WLV) absorption, probably due to warmer gas, is seen primarily for singly ionized species at 0 km s(-1) la vsun la 20 km s(-1) . Weak absorption from C II, Mg II, and Si III is seen at -45 km s(-1) la vsun la 0 km s(-1) , and from more highly ionized species at -5 km s(-1) la vsun la 25 km s(-1) . Absorption from singly and doubly ionized species is seen at -110 km s(-1) la vsun la -80 km s(-1) ; this apparently shock-ionized gas is not in collisional ionization equilibrium, having cooled more quickly than it could recombine. The various types of gas present along this line of sight are characterized by different relative abundance / depletion patterns; these depletion patterns are compared with the physical conditions derived for the different components. For the SLV components, most typically depleted species are less depleted by factors of 2--4, compared to the ``cold, dense cloud'' pattern found, for example, toward zeta Oph. The depletions in the WLV gas are typically another factor of 2--3 less than in the SLV gas, similar to the ``warm cloud'' pattern seen in less reddened lines of sight. While there is some uncertainty, due to unobserved ionization stages, as to the depletions in the high

  12. Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for Māori and non-Māori: the New Zealand e-SBINZ trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading modifiable cause of mortality and morbidity among young people. Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is a key strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm in the community, and web-based approaches (e-SBI) have advantages over practitioner-delivered approaches, being cheaper, more acceptable, administrable remotely and infinitely scalable. An efficacy trial in a university population showed a 10-minute intervention could reduce drinking by 11% for 6 months or more among 17-24 year-old undergraduate hazardous drinkers. The e-SBINZ study is designed to examine the effectiveness of e-SBI across a range of universities and among Māori and non-Māori students in New Zealand. Methods/Design The e-SBINZ study comprises two parallel, double blind, multi-site, individually randomised controlled trials. This paper outlines the background and design of the trial, which is recruiting 17-24 year-old students from seven of New Zealand's eight universities. Māori and non-Māori students are being sampled separately and are invited by e-mail to complete a web questionnaire including the AUDIT-C. Those who score >4 will be randomly allocated to no further contact until follow-up (control) or to assessment and personalised feedback (intervention) via computer. Follow-up assessment will occur 5 months later in second semester. Recruitment, consent, randomisation, intervention and follow-up are all online. Primary outcomes are (i) total alcohol consumption, (ii) frequency of drinking, (iii) amount consumed per typical drinking occasion, (iv) the proportions exceeding medical guidelines for acute and chronic harm, and (v) scores on an academic problems scale. Discussion The trial will provide information on the effectiveness of e-SBI in reducing hazardous alcohol consumption across diverse university student populations with separate effect estimates for Māori and non-Māori students. Trial registration Australian New Zealand

  13. The experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; House, Meaghan E; Horne, Anne; Te Karu, Leanne; Petrie, Keith J; McQueen, Fiona M; Taylor, William J

    2013-02-01

    Although high prevalence of gout in Māori and Pacific people is well-documented, the experience of disease in these groups has not been explored in detail. The aim of this analysis was to describe the experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people. Patients with gout for <10 years were recruited from primary and secondary care settings into a prospective observational study (n = 291; 37 Māori, 35 Pacific, and 219 not Māori or Pacific). Participants attended a baseline study visit which included a comprehensive clinical assessment. Serum urate, flare frequency and activity limitation were recorded at baseline and after 1 year. Māori and Pacific participants had earlier age of onset (by 9 years), higher flare frequency and more features of joint inflammation. Serum urate concentrations were higher in the Māori and Pacific patients at baseline, despite greater use of allopurinol. Māori and Pacific patients reported greater pain and activity limitation and lower health-related quality of life. The cost of gout treatment was more than three times higher in the Māori and Pacific patients. After 1 year, the higher flare frequency and activity limitation persisted in the Māori and Pacific patients. Māori and Pacific people with gout experience early onset, severe disease with frequent flares and poorly controlled hyperuricaemia. Māori and Pacific ethnicity should be recognised as a prognostic factor for more severe outcomes in this disease, and intensive efforts should be made to work with these patients to control serum urate and prevent flares.

  14. Detecting Chlorophyll and Phycocyanin in Lake Texoma Using in Situ Photo from GPS Digital Camera and Landsat 8 OLI Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Hambright, K.; Xiao, X.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing the temporal and spatial change of algae blooms across lake systems is difficult through conventional sampling methodologies. The application of remote sensing to lake water quality has improved significantly over recent years. However there are seldom reports about in situ photos from GPS digital camera and the new satellite Landsat 8 OLI monitoring algae blooms in freshwater lakes. A pilot study was carried out in Lake Texoma in Oklahoma on April 25th 2013. At each site (12 sites in total), pigments (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentration), in situ spectral data and digital photos had been acquired using Hydrolab DS5X sonde (calibrated routinely against laboratory standards), ASD FieldSpec and GPS camera, respectively. The field spectral data sets were transformed to blue, green and red ranges which match the spectral resolution of Landsat 8 OLI images by average spectral reflectance signature to the first four Landsat 8 OLI bands. Comparing with other ratio indices, red/ blue was the best ratio index which can be employed in predicting phycocyanin and chlorophyll a concentration; and pigments (phycocyanin and chlorophyll a) concentration in whole depth should be selected to be detected using remote sensing method in Lake Texoam in the followed analysis. An image based darkest pixel subtraction method was used to process atmospheric correction of Landsat 8 OLI images. After atmospheric correction, the DN values were extracted and used to compute ratio of band4 (Red)/ band1(Blue). Higher correlation coefficients existed in both between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of photo DN values (R2=0.9425 n=12) and between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of Landsat 8 OLI images DN values (R2=0.8476 n=12). Finally, we analyzed the correlation between pigments concentrations in whole depth and DN values ratio red/ blue of both Landsat 8 OLI images and digital photos. There were higher correlation coefficients

  15. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1989-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.

  16. What pebbles are made of: Interpretation of the V883 Ori disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonenberg, Djoeke; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Ormel, Chris W.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observation of the water snow line in the protoplanetary disk around the FU Orionis star V883 Ori was reported. The radial variation of the spectral index at mm-wavelengths around the snow line was interpreted as being due to a pileup of particles interior to the snow line. However, radial transport of solids in the outer disk operates on timescales much longer than the typical timescale of an FU Ori outburst (101-102 yr). Consequently, a steady-state pileup is unlikely. We argue that it is only necessary to consider water evaporation and re-coagulation of silicates to explain the recent ALMA observation of V883 Ori because these processes are short enough to have had their impact since the outburst. Our model requires the inner disk to have already been optically thick before the outburst, and our results suggest that the carbon content of pebbles is low.

  17. OlyMPUS - The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Gleason, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register their data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS leverages the semantics and reasoning capabilities of ODISEES to provide data producers with a semi-automated interface for producing the semantically rich metadata needed to support ODISEES' data discovery and access services. It integrates the ODISEES metadata search system with multiple NASA data delivery tools to enable data consumers to create customized data sets for download to their computers, or for NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility registered users, directly to NAS storage resources for access by applications running on NAS supercomputers. A core function of NASA's Earth Science Division is research and analysis that uses the full spectrum of data products available in NASA archives. Scientists need to perform complex analyses that identify correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena. Comprehensive analytics are hindered, however, by the fact that many Earth science data products are disparate and hard to synthesize. Variations in how data are collected, processed, gridded, and stored, create challenges for data interoperability and synthesis, which are exacerbated by the sheer volume of available data. Robust, semantically rich metadata can support tools for data discovery and facilitate machine-to-machine transactions with services such as data subsetting, regridding, and reformatting. Such capabilities are critical to enabling the research activities integral to NASA's strategic plans. However, as metadata requirements increase and competing standards emerge

  18. Pounamu: E Hine: access to contraception for indigenous Mãori teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Beverley; Makowharemahihi, Charrissa; Cram, Fiona; Robson, Bridget; Ngata, Tina

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Timely and equitable access to contraception enables teenage mothers to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to contraception for Māori teenagers who become mothers. METHODS 'E Hine' is a longitudinal qualitative Kaupapa Māori (by Māori for Māori) study involving Māori women (aged 14-19 years), following them through pregnancy (n = 44) and the birth of their babies until their babies' first birthdays (n = 41). This analysis focusses on contraception access pre-and post-pregnancy. FINDINGS Pre-pregnancy most participants accessed contraception or advice. Contraception use was compromised by a lack of information, negative side effects, and limited follow up. All reported their subsequent pregnancies as unplanned. Participants gave considerable thought to post-pregnancy contraception. Despite this many experienced clinical and service delays, financial barriers, and negative contraceptive side effects. There was little focus on contraception initiation and a lack of integrated care between midwives and other primary care services, leaving many participants without timely effective contraception. The system worked well when there was a contraception plan that included navigation, free access, and provision of contraception. CONCLUSION The majority of participants actively sought contraception pre- and post-conception. Despite a publicly funded system, a lack of health sector integration resulted in multiple missed opportunities to meet the needs of these teenagers for effective contraception. Health service funding formulas should define the goal as initiation of contraception rather than advice and provide funding to improve timely access to long acting reversible contraception. KEYWORDS Indigenous teenage pregnancy; contraception; barriers to contraception; Māori mothers.

  19. A three-dimensional evaluation of Māori and New Zealand European faces.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph S; Lawrence, Caleb; Leow, Arthur; Rongo, Roberto; Dias, George; Farella, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    ori patients are often inappropriately treated using Caucasian norms, despite obvious differences in facial morphology. There is currently very little data concerning the nature and/or magnitude of these differences in facial features. The objective of the present study was therefore to evaluate the facial features of Māori and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans. Two convenience samples of 30 Māori and 30 NZ Europeans, evenly matched for age and gender, were recruited from amongst students of the University of Otago, New Zealand. Using a 3D white-light scanner, 12 facial scans were taken of each participant, which were then merged to form a single 3D image of the face. Prior to scanning, round markers were fixed to the skin in order to facilitate the localisation of facial anthropometric points and from which vertical, sagittal, and transverse measurements were assessed from the 3D facial image. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance were used to test for differences between the two groups before and after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Significant differences were found in vertical, sagittal, and transverse facial dimensions, before and after adjusting for BMI. The overall face of Māori was significantly larger than that of NZ Europeans, although the facial proportions were generally similar. However, Māori had a broader face, more anterior position of the chin and reduced facial convexity in comparison with NZ Europeans (p < 0.01). Māori have markedly different sagittal facial features compared with NZ Europeans. These distinctive features may reflect important differences in environmental and genetic influences between the two populations. The findings from the present study may assist the clinician in the treatment planning and assessment of facial dysmorphology in these ethnic groups.

  20. Tracking of body mass indices over 2 years in Māori and European children.

    PubMed

    Rush, E; Reed, P W; McLennan, S; Coppinger, T; Simmons, D; Graham, D

    2012-02-01

    In 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), was higher in New Zealand Māori (40%) and Pacific (60%) than in European (24%) children; however, this does not take into account interethnic differences in body composition. This study compared trajectories of anthropometric indices from 2004 to 2006 among 5- and 10-year-old Māori and European children. In 2004 and then in 2006, 1244 children (639 boys and 605 girls) aged 5 and 10 years had height, weight and fat-free mass (FFM) by bioimpedance measured to derive measures of fat mass (FM), percentage body fat (%BF), FM index (FMI, FM/height(2)), FFM index (FFMI, FFM/height(2)), and s.d. scores for BMI and %BF and BMI categories by International Obesity Task Force criteria. Body composition and growth in Māori children is different from European children. Over 2 years, the BMI and %BF s.d. scores in both 5- and 10-year-old cohorts increased more in Māori children than in European children. The prevalence of overweight and obesity also increased within ethnicity and age group. The relative change of FMI and FFMI differed by age group, gender and ethnicity. In Māori girls, the magnitude of the changes between 10 and 12 years of age was most marked-the major contribution was from an increase in FMI. At 12 years, the mean %BF of Māori girls was 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 30.1 and 33.3) compared with that of European girls (28.0%; 95% CI: 27.0 and 29.0). FM and FFM measures provide a more appropriate understanding of growth and body composition change in children than BMI, and vary with gender and ethnicity. Thus, FMI and FFMI should be tracked and compared among populations.

  1. BCS Biowaivers: Similarities and Differences Among EMA, FDA, and WHO Requirements.

    PubMed

    Davit, Barbara M; Kanfer, Isadore; Tsang, Yu Chung; Cardot, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability, has enjoyed wide use since 1995 as a mechanism for waiving in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. In 2000, the US-FDA was the first regulatory agency to publish guidance for industry describing how to meet criteria for requesting a waiver of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for highly soluble, highly permeable (BCS Class I) drugs. Subsequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) published guidelines recommending how to obtain BCS biowaivers for BCS Class III drugs (high solubility, low permeability), in addition to Class I drugs. In 2015, the US-FDA became better harmonized with the EMA and WHO following publication of two guidances for industry outlining criteria for obtaining BCS biowaivers for both Class I and Class III drugs. A detailed review and comparison of the BCS Class I and Class III criteria currently recommended by the US-FDA, EMA, and WHO revealed good convergence of the three agencies with respect to BCS biowaiver criteria. The comparison also suggested that, by applying the most conservative of the three jurisdictional approaches, it should be possible for a sponsor to design the same set of BCS biowaiver studies in preparing a submission for worldwide filing to satisfy US, European, and emerging market regulators. It is hoped that the availability of BCS Class I and Class III biowaivers in multiple jurisdictions will encourage more sponsors to request waivers of in vivo bioavailability/bioequivalence testing using the BCS approach.

  2. Looking Māori Predicts Decreased Rates of Home Ownership: Institutional Racism in Housing Based on Perceived Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand’s home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori. PMID:25738961

  3. Looking Māori predicts decreased rates of home ownership: institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance.

    PubMed

    Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand's home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori.

  4. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies.

  5. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. Thermal imaging of the FU Ori type object 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Kerr, T. H.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Milne, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) was discovered by Maehara, Kojima and Fujii (ATel #6770). Further observational studies (ATel #6797, #6838, #6862, #6901, #7025, #7578) and archival data research (Jurdana- & #138;epi & #263; & Munari, 2016, NewA, 43, 87) confirmed the FU Ori nature of this object.

  7. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  8. New Zealand youth that sexually offend: improving outcomes for Māori rangatahi and their whānau.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stacey; Lambie, Ian; Cooper, Erana

    2012-10-01

    ori youth are overrepresented in criminal justice statistics and youth forensic services. Māori youth that engage in sexual offending behaviors have a higher risk of dropping out of treatment than Pākehā(1) youth. Research into Māori mental health is important to inform ongoing service development and is essential to strive for equity in mental health outcomes and offending rates among Māori. In this study, the researchers investigated the coexisting emotional and behavioral problems and victimization histories of an age-matched sample of Māori (n = 75) and Pākehā (n = 75) youth who were referred to a community treatment program for sexual offending in Auckland between 1996 and 2008. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to investigate ethnic differences. After controlling for socioeconomic deprivation, Māori youth scored significantly higher than Pākehā youth on the Delinquent Behaviors syndrome scale. Māori youth were also more likely than Pākehā youth to have a background of physical abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed, with regard to the unique needs of Māori youth and appropriate interventions.

  9. Anatomical basis for apparent subepithelial cleft lip: a histological and ultrasonographic survey of the orbicularis oris muscle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Carolyn R; Weinberg, Seth M; Smith, Timothy D; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Mooney, Mark P; Marazita, Mary L

    2008-09-01

    To determine if there is an anatomic basis for subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects by directly comparing ultrasonographic images of the upper lip with corresponding histological sections obtained from cadavers. Ultrasound was performed on the upper lips of previously frozen, unpreserved cadaver heads (n = 32), followed by dissection and sectioning of the upper lips. The ultrasound sequences were scored by a panel of raters, classifying the orbicularis oris muscle as negative, positive, or unknown for the presence of an orbicularis oris discontinuity (subepithelial defect). Based on ultrasound, six lip specimens were chosen for histological sectioning, were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Gomori trichrome stain, and were evaluated with light microscopy at low (8x) and intermediate (100x) magnification. One cadaver was scored positive for an orbicularis oris muscle discontinuity based on ultrasound; whereas, the remaining cadavers were scored negative. Of the cadavers with negative ultrasound scores, two were noted to have orbicularis oris muscles with "irregular" features (e.g., excessive localized thinning or asymmetry). From histology, the area of discontinuity as visualized on the positively scored ultrasound was characterized by both disorganized orbicularis oris muscle fibers and excess connective tissue within the muscle belly. In contrast, the localized thinning observed on some of the negatively scored ultrasounds was not confirmed by histology. Abnormalities of the orbicularis oris muscle visualized by ultrasound have an anatomic basis as revealed through histology. Ultrasound is a useful tool for noninvasively identifying discontinuities of the orbicularis oris muscle.

  10. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-06-17

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  11. ori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".

    PubMed

    McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

    2014-10-01

    This study explored Māori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" Māori with aphasia and their whānau (extended family). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa Māori research (a Māori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 Māori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated whānau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some Māori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for Māori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and whānau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and whānau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia.

  12. Assessment of Sentinel-3/OLCI Sub-Pixel Variability and Platform Impact Using Landsat-8/OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Validation and calibration of ocean colour sensors with in situ data is key for successful exploitation of their data. Ship campaigns are expensive and provide a low number of good matchups, whereas autonomous systems can typically provide a matchup for each cloud-free scene. With the distribution of free and high quality imagery from Landsat-8, the amount of natural spatial variability in the coastal zone becomes quantifiable, and the possible impact of measurement platforms (ships, moorings, structures) on the signal measured by the satellite becomes clear. Here we present the use of Landsat-8/OLI imagery (30m) to assess the spatial variability within a Sentinel-3/OLCI pixel (300m) at validation sites, as well as an illustration of the impacts of the measurement platforms on the satellite measurement.

  13. A Preliminary Comparison Between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Papoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary comparison of multispectral data from Landsat 8 OLI to the respective data from Sentinel-2 for geological applications is performed and the results are presented in this study. The behaviour of different classical Landsat Thematic Mapper band ratios sensitive on mineral (TM5/7, TM5/4, TM3/1) or hydrothermal anomalies (TM5/7, TM3/1, TM4/3) detection were used in synergy with digital processing techniques like the Principal Component Analysis. Data fusion techniques were also applied in order to ameliorate the spatial resolution of the data. In order to assess the performance of these band ratio images different quantitative criteria are used such as, the standard deviation of the image, and the coefficient of variation of each pixel.

  14. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  15. A Sequence within the Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) OriS Is a Negative Regulator of DNA Replication and Is Bound by a Protein Complex Containing the VZV ORF29 Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mohamed I.; Arvin, Ann; Jones, Jeremy; Ruyechan, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication (OriS) differs significantly from that of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA replication origin. Novel aspects of the VZV OriS include a GA-rich region, three binding sites for the VZV origin-binding protein (OBP) all on the same strand and oriented in the same direction, and a partial OBP binding site of unknown function. We have designated this partial binding site Box D and have investigated the role it plays in DNA replication and flanking gene expression. This has been done with a model system using a replication-competent plasmid containing OriS and a replication- and transcription-competent dual-luciferase reporter plasmid containing both the OriS and the intergenic region between VZV open reading frames (ORFs) 62 and 63. We have found that (i) Box D is a negative regulator of DNA replication independent of flanking gene expression, (ii) the mutation of Box D results in a decrease in flanking gene expression, thus a sequence within the VZV OriS affects transcription, which is in contrast to results reported for HSV-1, (iii) there is a specific Box D complex formed with infected cell extracts in electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments, (iv) supershift assays show that this complex contains the VZV ORF29 single-strand DNA-binding protein, and (v) the formation of this complex is dependent on the presence of CGC motifs in Box D and its downstream flanking region. These findings show that the VZV ORF29 protein, while required for DNA replication, also plays a novel role in the suppression of that process. PMID:21937644

  16. A sequence within the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) OriS is a negative regulator of DNA replication and is bound by a protein complex containing the VZV ORF29 protein.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Arvin, Ann; Jones, Jeremy; Ruyechan, William T

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication (OriS) differs significantly from that of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA replication origin. Novel aspects of the VZV OriS include a GA-rich region, three binding sites for the VZV origin-binding protein (OBP) all on the same strand and oriented in the same direction, and a partial OBP binding site of unknown function. We have designated this partial binding site Box D and have investigated the role it plays in DNA replication and flanking gene expression. This has been done with a model system using a replication-competent plasmid containing OriS and a replication- and transcription-competent dual-luciferase reporter plasmid containing both the OriS and the intergenic region between VZV open reading frames (ORFs) 62 and 63. We have found that (i) Box D is a negative regulator of DNA replication independent of flanking gene expression, (ii) the mutation of Box D results in a decrease in flanking gene expression, thus a sequence within the VZV OriS affects transcription, which is in contrast to results reported for HSV-1, (iii) there is a specific Box D complex formed with infected cell extracts in electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments, (iv) supershift assays show that this complex contains the VZV ORF29 single-strand DNA-binding protein, and (v) the formation of this complex is dependent on the presence of CGC motifs in Box D and its downstream flanking region. These findings show that the VZV ORF29 protein, while required for DNA replication, also plays a novel role in the suppression of that process.

  17. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4"-Oxo-Avermectin: Heterologous Expression of the ema1 Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Hill, D. Steven; Zirkle, Ross; Hammer, Philip E.; Gross, Frank; Buckel, Thomas G.; Jungmann, Volker; Pachlatko, Johannes Paul; Ligon, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Ema1 from Streptomyces tubercidicus R-922 and its homologs from closely related Streptomyces strains are able to catalyze the regioselective oxidation of avermectin into 4"-oxo-avermectin, a key intermediate in the manufacture of the agriculturally important insecticide emamectin benzoate (V. Jungmann, I. Molnár, P. E. Hammer, D. S. Hill, R. Zirkle, T. G. Buckel, D. Buckel, J. M. Ligon, and J. P. Pachlatko, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:6968-6976, 2005). The gene for Ema1 has been expressed in Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces avermitilis, and solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida strains using different promoters and vectors to provide biocatalytically competent cells. Replacing the extremely rare TTA codon with the more frequent CTG codon to encode Leu4 in Ema1 increased the biocatalytic activities of S. lividans strains producing this enzyme. Ferredoxins and ferredoxin reductases were also cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor and biocatalytic Streptomyces strains and tested in ema1 coexpression systems to optimize the electron transport towards Ema1. PMID:16269733

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  19. Immunolocalization of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult serous membranes and mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Josko; Punda, Hrvoje; Brakus, Snjezana Mardesic; Vukojevic, Katarina; Govorko, Danijela Kalibovic; Alfirevic, Darko; Kvesic, Ante; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2012-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), mesothelin and nestin was immunohistochemically analyzed in developing and adult human serous membranes and mesotheliomas in order to detect possible differences in the course of mesenchymal to epithelial transformation, which is associated with differentiation of mesothelial cells during normal development and tumorigenesis. Pleura and pericardium developing from the visceral mesoderm gradually transform into mesothelial cells and connective tissue. EMA appeared in mesothelium of both serous membranes during the early fetal period, whereas during further development, EMA expression was retained only in the pericardial mesothelium. It increased in both pleural mesothelium and connective tissue. Mesothelin appeared first in pericardial submesothelial cells and later in surface mesothelium, while in pleura it was immediately localized in mesothelium. In adult serous membranes, EMA and mesothelin were predominantly expressed in mesothelium. Nestin never appeared in mesothelium, but in connective tissues and myocardial cells and subsequently decreased during development, apart from in the walls of blood vessels. Mesothelial cells in the two serous membranes developed in two separate developmental pathways. We speculate that submesothelial pericardial and mesothelial pleural cells might belong to a population of stem cells. In epithelioid mesotheliomas, 13% of cells expressed nestin, 39% EMA and 7% mesothelin.

  20. The novel endosomal membrane protein Ema interacts with the class C Vps-HOPS complex to promote endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Wairkar, Yogesh P; Daniels, Richard W; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2010-03-08

    Endosomal maturation is critical for accurate and efficient cargo transport through endosomal compartments. Here we identify a mutation of the novel Drosophila gene, ema (endosomal maturation defective) in a screen for abnormal synaptic overgrowth and defective protein trafficking. Ema is an endosomal membrane protein required for trafficking of fluid-phase and receptor-mediated endocytic cargos. In the ema mutant, enlarged endosomal compartments accumulate as endosomal maturation fails, with early and late endosomes unable to progress into mature degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Defective endosomal down-regulation of BMP signaling is responsible for the abnormal synaptic overgrowth. Ema binds to and genetically interacts with Vps16A, a component of the class C Vps-HOPS complex that promotes endosomal maturation. The human orthologue of ema, Clec16A, is a candidate susceptibility locus for autoimmune disorders, and its expression rescues the Drosophila mutant demonstrating conserved function. Characterizing this novel gene family identifies a new component of the endosomal pathway and provides insights into class C Vps-HOPS complex function.

  1. River plumes investigation using Sentinel-2A MSI and Landsat-8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Soloviev, Dmitry M.; Strochkov, Mikhail A.; Bocharova, Tatiana Y.; Kashnitsky, Alexandr V.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of using Sentinel-2A Multispectral Imager Instrument (MSI/S2) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI/L8) data to monitor river plumes in the eastern Black Sea and from the Rhône River in the Mediterranean Sea. The focus is on exploring the possibility to investigate hydrodynamic processes associated with river outflows, in particular internal waves (IWs). Submesoscale IWs having wavelengths less than 50 m and generated by unstable sharp front of a river plume were revealed and their parameters were assessed. A map of surface manifestation of IW trains in the Gulf of Lions was created based on MSI/S2 images. There are different mechanisms of IW generation in river outflow zones, they are determined by a number of parameters including river discharge, bottom topography and presence of tidal currents or inertial period IWs in the shelf zone. A new phenomenon manifested as a chain of quasi circles was discovered. Inertial water motions were suggested as its prime cause, however, this hypothesis is yet to be investigated. An analysis of OLI/L8 and MSI/S2 data enabled us to consider in detail river debouchment streams. For the first time a wave pattern of such stream in the eastern Black Sea was observed in conditions of foehn winds. Usually, foehn winds are distinctly manifested in radar images. A joint analysis of quasi simultaneous ocean color MSI/S2 and Sentinel-1A SAR images demonstrated how water stream wave-like signatures differ from those of foehn winds.

  2. Maintaining postreproductive health: A care pathway from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Armeni, Eleni; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    This position statement from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) provides a care pathway for the maintenance of women's health during and after the menopause. It is designed for use by all those involved in women's health. It covers assessment, screening for diseases in later life, treatment and follow-up. Strategies need to be optimised to maintain postreproductive health, in part because of increased longevity. They encompass optimising diet and lifestyle, menopausal hormone therapy and non-estrogen-based treatment options for climacteric symptoms and skeletal conservation, personalised to individual needs.

  3. Photometric activity of UX orionis stars and related objects in the near infrared and optical: CO Ori, RR Tau, UX Ori, and VV Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaya, A. N.; Grinin, V. P.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.; Belan, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper continues a study of the photometric activity of UX Ori stars in the optical and near-infrared ( JHKLM bands) initiated in 2000. For comparison, the list of program stars contains two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical: MWC480 andHD179218. Fadings ofUXOri stars in the optical ( V band) due to sporadic increases of the circumstellar extinction are also observed in the infrared (IR), but with decreasing amplitude. Two stars, RR Tau and UX Ori, displayed photometric events when V -band fadings were accompanied by an increase in IR fluxes. Among the two Herbig Ae stars that are photometrically quiet in the optical, MWC 480 proved to be fairly active in the IR. Unlike the UX Ori stars, the variation amplitude of MWC 480 increases from the J band to the M band. In the course of the observations, no deep fadings in the IR bands were detected. This indicates that eclipses of the program stars have a local nature, and are due to extinction variations in the innermost regions of the circumstellar disks. The results presented testify to an important role of the alignment of the circumstellar disks relative to the direction towards the observer in determining the observed IR variability of young stars.

  4. Human DNA replication initiation factors, ORC and MCM, associate with oriP of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, B; Xu, H; Todorov, I; Dutta, A; Yates, J L

    2001-08-28

    The 165-kb chromosome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is replicated by cellular enzymes only once per cell cycle in human cells that are latently infected. Here, we report that the human origin recognition complex, ORC, can be detected in association with an EBV replication origin, oriP, in cells by using antibodies against three different subunits of human ORC to precipitate crosslinked chromatin. Mcm2, a subunit of the MCM replication licensing complex, was found to associate with oriP during G(1) and to dissociate from it during S phase. The detection of ORC and Mcm2 at oriP was shown to require the presence of the 120-bp replicator of oriP. Licensing and initiation of replication at oriP of EBV thus seem to be mediated by ORC. This is an example of a virus apparently using ORC and associated factors for the propagation of its genome.

  5. Human DNA replication initiation factors, ORC and MCM, associate with oriP of Epstein–Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Biswendu; Xu, Hongzhan; Todorov, Ivan; Dutta, Anindya; Yates, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The 165-kb chromosome of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is replicated by cellular enzymes only once per cell cycle in human cells that are latently infected. Here, we report that the human origin recognition complex, ORC, can be detected in association with an EBV replication origin, oriP, in cells by using antibodies against three different subunits of human ORC to precipitate crosslinked chromatin. Mcm2, a subunit of the MCM replication licensing complex, was found to associate with oriP during G1 and to dissociate from it during S phase. The detection of ORC and Mcm2 at oriP was shown to require the presence of the 120-bp replicator of oriP. Licensing and initiation of replication at oriP of EBV thus seem to be mediated by ORC. This is an example of a virus apparently using ORC and associated factors for the propagation of its genome. PMID:11517328

  6. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860-1900.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.

  7. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  8. Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) Sheets Decorated with OLi, ONa, and Li2 F Molecules for Enhanced Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syeda Rabab; Rao, Gollu Sankar; Luo, Wei; Ahuja, Rajeev; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-03-03

    First-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets functionalized with small molecules, such as OLi, ONa, and Li2 F, to study their hydrogen (H2 ) storage properties. We found that OLi and ONa strongly adsorb on h-BN sheets with reasonably large inter-adsorbent separations, which is desirable for H2 storage. Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further confirmed the structural stability of OLi-BN and ONa-BN systems at 400 K. On the other hand, Li2 F molecules form clusters over the surface of h-BN at higher temperatures. We performed a Bader charge investigation to explore the nature of binding between the functionalized molecules and h-BN sheets. The density of states (DOS) revealed that functionalized h-BN sheets become metallic with two-sided coverage of each type of molecules. Hydrogenation of OLi-BN and ONa-BN revealed that the functionalized systems adsorb multiple H2 molecules around the Li and Na atoms, with H2 adsorption energies ranging from 0.20 to 0.28 eV, which is desirable for an efficient H2 storage material. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Radiometric cross calibration of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mishra, Nischal; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Leigh, Larry; Aaron, David; Helder, Dennis; Markham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the radiometric consistency between Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) using cross calibration techniques. Two approaches are used, one based on cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event on 29–30 March 2013. The other approach is based on using time series of image statistics acquired by these two sensors over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS) (+28.55°N, +23.39°E). Analyses from these approaches show that the reflectance calibration of OLI is generally within ±3% of the ETM+ radiance calibration for all the reflective bands from visible to short wave infrared regions when the ChKur solar spectrum is used to convert the ETM+ radiance to reflectance. Similar results are obtained comparing the OLI radiance calibration directly with the ETM+ radiance calibration and the results in these two different physical units (radiance and reflectance) agree to within ±2% for all the analogous bands. These results will also be useful to tie all the Landsat heritage sensors from Landsat 1 MultiSpectral Scanner (MSS) through Landsat-8 OLI to a consistent radiometric scale.

  10. Differentiation of the DnaA-oriC subcomplex for DNA unwinding in a replication initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shogo; Noguchi, Yasunori; Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Miyazaki, Erika; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2012-10-26

    In Escherichia coli, ATP-DnaA multimers formed on the replication origin oriC promote duplex unwinding, which leads to helicase loading. Based on a detailed functional analysis of the oriC sequence motifs, we previously proposed that the left half of oriC forms an ATP-DnaA subcomplex competent for oriC unwinding, whereas the right half of oriC forms a distinct ATP-DnaA subcomplex that facilitates helicase loading. However, the molecular basis for the functional difference between these ATP-DnaA subcomplexes remains unclear. By analyzing a series of novel DnaA mutants, we found that structurally distinct DnaA multimers form on each half of oriC. DnaA AAA+ domain residues Arg-227 and Leu-290 are specifically required for oriC unwinding. Notably, these residues are required for the ATP-DnaA-specific structure of DnaA multimers in complex with the left half of oriC but not for that with the right half. These results support the idea that the ATP-DnaA multimers formed on oriC are not uniform and that they can adopt different conformations. Based on a structural model, we propose that Arg-227 and Leu-290 play a crucial role in inter-ATP-DnaA interaction and are a prerequisite for the formation of unwinding-competent DnaA subcomplexes on the left half of oriC. These residues are not required for the interaction with DnaB, nucleotide binding, or regulatory DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, which further supports their important role in inter-DnaA interaction. The corresponding residues are evolutionarily conserved and are required for unwinding in the initial complexes of Thermotoga maritima, an ancient hyperthermophile. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel and common mechanism for ATP-DnaA-dependent activation of initial complexes.

  11. Detection and mapping the spatial distribution of bracken fern weeds using the Landsat 8 OLI new generation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matongera, Trylee Nyasha; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy; Sibanda, Mbulisi

    2017-05-01

    Bracken fern is an invasive plant that presents serious environmental, ecological and economic problems around the world. An understanding of the spatial distribution of bracken fern weeds is therefore essential for providing appropriate management strategies at both local and regional scales. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the freely available medium resolution Landsat 8 OLI sensor in the detection and mapping of bracken fern at the Cathedral Peak, South Africa. To achieve this objective, the results obtained from Landsat 8 OLI were compared with those derived using the costly, high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery. Since previous studies have already successfully mapped bracken fern using high spatial resolution WorldView-2 image, the comparison was done to investigate the magnitude of difference in accuracy between the two sensors in relation to their acquisition costs. To evaluate the performance of Landsat 8 OLI in discriminating bracken fern compared to that of Worldview-2, we tested the utility of (i) spectral bands; (ii) derived vegetation indices as well as (iii) the combination of spectral bands and vegetation indices based on discriminant analysis classification algorithm. After resampling the training and testing data and reclassifying several times (n = 100) based on the combined data sets, the overall accuracies for both Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 were tested for significant differences based on Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that the integration of the spectral bands and derived vegetation indices yielded the best overall classification accuracy (80.08% and 87.80% for Landsat 8 OLI and WorldView-2 respectively). Additionally, the use of derived vegetation indices as a standalone data set produced the weakest overall accuracy results of 62.14% and 82.11% for both the Landsat 8 OLI and WorldView-2 images. There were significant differences {U (100) = 569.5, z = -10.8242, p < 0.01} between the classification accuracies

  12. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p < 0.0001. Interpretation of EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p < 0.05. Mean fluorescence of EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  13. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema).

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented.

  14. Surface wind speed estimation over open ocean using bidirectional observation by Sentinel-2/MSI and Landsat-8/OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Hagolle, Olivier; Lachérade, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Large stripes, observed on first Sentinel-2/MSI images over ocean, are not due to instrumental artifacts but to the target itself. The same kind of signature can be observed on Landsat-8/OLI. Both MSI and OLI instruments are known for their excellent radiometric quality for land observation. The MSI's focal plane is composed by 12 elements to cover the 300km-swath, respectively 14 elements for a 185km-swath for OLI. For technical reason, elements were slightly shifted forward/backward alternatively in the focal plane. As a consequence, each element has a different viewing angle than the next/previous one, leading for a considered target on the ground to a significant difference in zenith/azimuthal viewing angles. These angular variations, fully acceptable for the land mission, become sensitive for specific targets such as sunglint, a highly directional signal. It was already demonstrated the possibility to retrieve surface wind speed from bidirectional space measurements with POLDER/PARASOL instruments. Indeed, using multiple viewing angles is a good way to better constrain the inversion because it doesn't fully rely on the absolute estimation of a unique measurement. Somehow, MSI or OLI can be seen as bidirectional sensors for targets located between 2 elements of the focal plane. Knowing the exact acquisition geometry, the observed radiometric gap can be directly related to the surface wind speed. Because it is a relative estimation, this inversion becomes more robust to aerosol contamination. Finally, an improved retrieval can be foreseen thanks to the multiple spectral bands provided by MSI and OLI.

  15. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Delaney, Martha Ann; Fravel, Vanessa Ashley; Gulland, Frances; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-07-01

    We document the first associations of two recently described species of Pasteurellaceae bacteria with lesions in wild pinnipeds in rehabilitation. Samples were collected from nine lesions in four California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and two Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) during necropsy or admission examinations at a rehabilitation facility in northern California. Seven Pasteurellaceae isolates were identified using phenotypic tests and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Six strains of Otariodibacter oris were isolated from California sea lions. Otariodibacter oris was isolated in pure culture from four abscesses, an affected lymph node, and a bone lesion consistent with osteomyelitis. Otariodibacter oris was also cultured with Arcanobacterium phocae and β-hemolytic streptococci. A pure culture of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 was obtained from an abscess in a harbor seal. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that O. oris has been associated with infection. Isolation of these bacteria in pure culture from abscesses and osteomyelitis strongly indicates a pathogenic potential of this organism. Likewise, the isolation of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 in pure culture from an abscess in a harbor seal implies causality.

  16. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  17. OrysPSSP: a comparative Platform for Small Secreted Proteins from rice and other plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bohu; Sheng, Jia; Sun, Weining; Zhao, Yinhong; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have large diverse families of small secreted proteins (SSPs) that play critical roles in the processes of development, differentiation, defense, flowering, stress response, symbiosis, etc. Oryza sativa is one of the major crops worldwide and an excellent model for monocotyledonous plants. However, there had not been any effort to systematically analyze rice SSPs. Here, we constructed a comparative platform, OrysPSSP (http://www.genoportal.org/PSSP/index.do), involving >100 000 SSPs from rice and 25 plant species. OrysPSSP is composed of a core SSP database and a dynamic web interface that integrates a variety of user tools and resources. The current release (v0530) of core SSP database contains a total of 101 048 predicted SSPs, which were generated through a rigid computation/curation pipeline. The web interface consists of eight different modules, providing users with rich resources/functions, e.g. browsing SSP by chromosome, searching and filtering SSP, validating SSP with omics data, comparing SSP among multiple species and querying core SSP database with BLAST. Some cases of application are discussed to demonstrate the utility of OrysPSSP. OrysPSSP serves as a comprehensive resource to explore SSP on the genome scale and across the phylogeny of plant species. PMID:23203890

  18. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  19. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  20. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  1. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  2. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning.

  3. FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Tadashi; Fujii, Mitsugu

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of an FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277. The outburst was discovered by T. Kojima from the survey image obtained with a 85mm f/2.8 lens and Canon EOS 60D DSLR camera on 2014-11-03.821 UT at mag 11.0.

  4. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  5. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  6. 42 CFR 93.315 - Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions. 93.315 Section 93.315 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC...

  7. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. 93.309 Section 93.309 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 42 CFR 93.315 - Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions. 93.315 Section 93.315 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC...

  9. 42 CFR 93.315 - Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions. 93.315 Section 93.315 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC...

  10. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  11. 42 CFR 93.315 - Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions. 93.315 Section 93.315 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC...

  12. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  13. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. 93.309 Section 93.309 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 42 CFR 93.315 - Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to ORI of institutional findings and actions. 93.315 Section 93.315 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC...

  15. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. 93.309 Section 93.309 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. 93.309 Section 93.309 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  18. 42 CFR 93.309 - Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting to ORI on the decision to initiate an investigation. 93.309 Section 93.309 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. Using Neural Networks in Decision Making for a Reconfigurable Electro Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latino, Carl D.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate applicability and advantages of a neural network approach for evaluating the performance of an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). The EMA in question was intended for the X-37 Advanced Technology Vehicle. It will have redundant components for safety and reliability. The neural networks for this application are to monitor the operation of the redundant electronics that control the actuator in real time and decide on the operating configuration. The system we proposed consists of the actuator, sensors, control circuitry and dedicated (embedded) processors. The main purpose of the study was to develop suitable hardware and neural network capable of allowing real time reconfiguration decisions to be made. This approach was to be compared to other methods such as fuzzy logic and knowledge based systems considered for the same application. Over the course of the project a more general objective was the identification of the other neural network applications and the education of interested NASA personnel on the topic of Neural Networks.

  20. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  1. Using Neural Networks in Decision Making for a Reconfigurable Electro Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latino, Carl D.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate applicability and advantages of a neural network approach for evaluating the performance of an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). The EMA in question was intended for the X-37 Advanced Technology Vehicle. It will have redundant components for safety and reliability. The neural networks for this application are to monitor the operation of the redundant electronics that control the actuator in real time and decide on the operating configuration. The system we proposed consists of the actuator, sensors, control circuitry and dedicated (embedded) processors. The main purpose of the study was to develop suitable hardware and neural network capable of allowing real time reconfiguration decisions to be made. This approach was to be compared to other methods such as fuzzy logic and knowledge based systems considered for the same application. Over the course of the project a more general objective was the identification of the other neural network applications and the education of interested NASA personnel on the topic of Neural Networks.

  2. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  3. EMA-real-time PCR as a reliable method for detection of viable Salmonella in chicken and eggs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luxin; Mustapha, Azlin

    2010-04-01

    Culture-based Salmonella detection takes at least 4 d to complete. The use of TaqMan probes allows the real-time PCR technique to be a rapid and sensitive way to detect foodborne pathogens. However, unlike RNA-based PCR, DNA-based PCR techniques cannot differentiate between DNA from live and dead cells. Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) is a dye that can bind to DNA of dead cells and prevent its amplification by PCR. An EMA staining step prior to PCR allows for the effective inhibition of false positive results from DNA contamination by dead cells. The aim of this study was to design an accurate detection method that can detect only viable Salmonella cells from poultry products. The sensitivity of EMA staining coupled with real-time PCR was compared to that of an RNA-based reverse transcription (RT)-real-time PCR. To prevent false negative results, an internal amplification control was added to the same reaction mixture as the target Salmonella sequences. With an optimized EMA staining step, the detection range of a subsequent real-time PCR was determined to be 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/mL for pure cultures and 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/mL for food samples, which was a wider detection range than for RT-real-time PCR. After a 12-h enrichment step, EMA staining combined with real-time PCR could detect as low as 10 CFU/mL Salmonella from chicken rinses and egg broth. The use of EMA with a DNA-based real-time PCR can successfully prevent false positive results and represents a simple, yet accurate detection tool for enhancing the safety of food.

  4. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-05-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  5. On the leveling-off properties of the new bioequivalence limits for highly variable drugs of the EMA guideline.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Vangelis; Symillides, Mira; Macheras, Panos

    2011-11-20

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued a new guideline on the investigation of bioequivalence (BE). In case of highly variable drugs, this guideline proposes that the acceptance limits for C(max) can gradually be expanded as a function of within-subject variability (CV(wR)). Actually, these BE limits exhibit leveling-off properties since they are not allowed to scale continuously, but only up to CV(wR)=50%. To avoid the risk of accepting two drug products which may differ significantly, this EMA guideline also proposes the use of a secondary constraint criterion on the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of the two products under comparison. Aim of this study was to explore the leveling-off properties of the new EMA limits in comparison to other approaches, as well as to assess the impact of the complementary GMR criterion on the ability to declare bioequivalence. Simulated bioequivalence studies and extreme GMR plots were used to assess the performance of the EMA limits. Three sequence, three period (3×3) crossover studies with two treatments (T and R) were simulated. The R product was considered to be administered twice, while the T only once (i.e., TRR/RTR/RRT). Among others, this study revealed the leveling-off properties of the new EMA limits. It was also shown that the complementary GMR-constraint is only effective when a large sample size is used and at regions of CV(wR) close to 50%. This GMR-criterion begins to be effective at sample sizes around 60 and becomes more prominent as the number of subjects participating in the BE study increases. For CV(wR) values lower than 50%, the GMR-constraint has no role. In case of within-subject variabilities greater than 50%, the impact of the GMR-constraint diminishes due to the leveling-off properties of the EMA limits. Compared to the classic 0.80-1.25 or the extended 0.75-1.33 criteria, the new EMA limits are more liberal at high CV(wR) values and allow greater differences between the two drug products to be

  6. New EMA report on paliperidone 3-month injections: taking clinical and policy decisions without an adequate evidence base.

    PubMed

    Ostuzzi, G; Papola, D; Gastaldon, C; Barbui, C

    2016-12-22

    Three-month long-acting paliperidone is a new, recently marketed, formulation of paliperidone, characterised by the longest available dosing interval among long-acting antipsychotics. The clinical profile of 3-month long-acting paliperidone was recently summarised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in a public assessment report, released in April 2016. In this commentary, the main strengths and limitations of the EMA assessment report were appraised and discussed, in order to highlight possible implications for clinical practice, future research and regulatory practices for drug approval.

  7. The effectiveness of television advertising campaigns on generating calls to a national Quitline by Māori.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Grigg, M; Graham, L; Cameron, G

    2005-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of four mass media campaigns on calls to a national Quitline by Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand). Monthly Quitline call data and calls within one hour of a television commercial (TVC) being shown were analysed for the 2002-2003 period. Data on target audience rating points (TARPs) and expenditure on TVCs were also used (n = 2319 TVC placements). Māori were found to register with the Quitline at higher rates during the most intense six campaign months (15% more registrations compared to less intense months). The most effective campaign generated 115 calls per 100 TARPs by Māori callers within one hour of TVC airing (the "Every cigarette" campaign). A more Māori orientated campaign with both health and cultural themes generated 91 calls per 100 TARPs from Māori callers. For these two campaigns combined, the advertising cost per new registration with the Quitline by a Māori caller was NZD 30-48. Two second hand smoke campaigns that did not show the Quitline number were much less effective at 25 and 45 calls per 100 TARPs. These television advertising campaigns were effective and cost effective in generating calls to a national Quitline by Māori. Health authorities should continue to explore the use of both "threat appeal" style media campaigns and culturally appropriate campaigns to support Quitline use by indigenous peoples.

  8. Reversed polarity of the glandular epithelial cells in micropapillary carcinoma of the large intestine and the EMA/MUC1 immunostain.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma of the colon and rectum is associated with an adverse prognosis. This tumour type displays reverse polarity of the tumour cells and is stated to be characterised by an inside-out epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)/MUC1 staining. Nine cases of primary colorectal carcinoma and one omental metastasis were studied by means of immunohistochemistry, using antibodies to detect EMA, MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC6, CD10, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The inside-out pattern staining with EMA/MUC1 ranged from diffuse circumferential through focal and partial to negative, but in some cases CEA, MUC3 and CD10 also showed this pattern staining, sometimes more clearly than did EMA or MUC1. The reverse polarity of colorectal micropapillary carcinomas is sometimes better visualised by immunostains other than EMA/MUC1.

  9. Confidence and connectedness: Indigenous Māori women's views on personal safety in the context of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Jackson, Debra; Herd, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    ori (New Zealand) women, similar to women belonging to Indigenous and minority groups globally, have high levels of lifetime abuse, assault, and homicide, and are over-represented in events that compromise their safety. We sought insights into how Māori women view safety. Twenty Māori women's narratives revealed safety as a holistic concept involving a number of different elements. We found women had developed an acute sense of the concept of safety. They had firm views and clear strategies to maintain their own safety and that of their female family and friends. These women also provided insights into their experiences of feeling unsafe.

  10. Electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) for generating shock waves and cavitation in mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    In the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory a vessel of liquid mercury is subjected to a proton beam. The resulting nuclear interaction produces neutrons that can be used for materials research, among other things, but also launches acoustic waves with pressures in excess of 10 MPa. The acoustic waves have high enough tensile stress to generate cavitation in the mercury which results in erosion to the steel walls of the vessel. In order to study the cavitation erosion and develop mitigation schemes it would be convenient to have a way of generating similar pressures and cavitation in mercury, without the radiation concerns associated with a proton beam. Here an electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) has been developed which consisted of a coil placed close to a metal plate which is in turn is in contact with a fluid. The source is driven by discharging a capacitor through the coil and results in a repulsive force on the plate launching acoustic waves in the fluid. A theoretical model is presented to predict the acoustic field from the EMAS and compares favorably with measurements made in water. The pressure from the EMAS was reported as a function of capacitance, charging voltage, number of coils, mylar thickness, and properties of the plates. The properties that resulted in the highest pressure were employed for experiments in mercury and a maximum pressure recorded was 7.1 MPa. Cavitation was assessed in water and mercury by high speed camera and by detecting acoustic emissions. Bubble clouds with lifetimes on the order of 100 µs were observed in water and on the order of 600 µs in mercury. Based on acoustic emissions the bubble radius in mercury was estimated to be 0.98 mm. Experiments to produce damage to a stainless steel plate in mercury resulted in a minimal effect after 2000 shock waves at a rate of 0.33 Hz - likely because the pressure amplitude was not high enough. In order to replicate the conditions in the SNS it is

  11. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  12. Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Mapping of Wadaslintang Reservoir Using Landsat 8 OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, Muhammad; Wicaksono, Pramaditya

    2016-11-01

    Lakes, water reservoirs, and ponds are sources of fresh water that support the life of all living beings as well as human's social and economic activities. A common problem on reservoirs in Indonesia is the siltation due to the discharge of river materials into the reservoir. This process of sedimentation declines the function of the reservoir. Total Suspended Solid (TSS) can be used as the indicator of sediment in the reservoir, which usually consists of silt, fine sand and microorganisms. The high concentration of TSS in the water column can be used as the indication that the process of sedimentation in the reservoir is also high. This study aims to 1) map the spatial distribution of TSS and 2) estimate the TSS contained in Wadaslintang Reservoir using Landsat 8 OLI. The algorithm of TSS for Wadaslintang Reservoir was created based on the empirical relationship between field TSS data and reflectance values. Based on this research, it was found that the ratio of red and green band produced the best correlation with the TSS (r = 0.533). The resultant regression function of the regression analysis between ratio of red and green band and field TSS data was used to model the spatial distribution of the TSS on Wadaslintang Reservoir with standard error of 10.8 mg/l. The average TSS in the reservoir is estimated to be 22.61 mg/l.

  13. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  14. An EMA Analysis of the Effect of Increasing Word Length on Consonant Production in Apraxia of Speech: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded…

  15. Report from the EMA workshop on qualification and reporting of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    On Nov 21, 2016, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) hosted a workshop to discuss its draft guideline on qualification and reporting of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) analysis.1 Published on July 21, 2016, the draft PBPK guideline is currently under the period of public comments. PMID:28035755

  16. A balanced translocation disrupts SYNGAP1 in a patient with intellectual disability, speech impairment, and epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA).

    PubMed

    Klitten, Laura L; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Hjalgrim, Helle; Tommerup, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare form of generalized epilepsy occurring in childhood and is often difficult to treat. The underlying etiology of EMA is unknown in the majority of patients. Herein, we describe a patient with EMA and intellectual disability who carries a de novo balanced translocation: t(6;22)(p21.32;q11.21). We mapped the translocation breakpoints by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the breakpoint at 6p21.32 was found to truncate the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor associated gene SYNGAP1. The breakpoint at 22q11.21 was within a highly variable region without known protein-coding genes. Mutations of SYNGAP1 are associated with nonsyndromal intellectual disability (NSID). Two-thirds of the patients described so far also have generalized epilepsy. This finding, together with our report, suggests that dysfunction of SYNGAP1 contributes to the development of generalized epilepsy, including EMA.

  17. The use of immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 and EMA in distinguishing adrenocortical tumors from renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Miriam L; Lal, Priti; Ziober, Amy; Wang, Liping; Tomaszewski, John E; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-03-01

    Steroidogenic factor -1 (SF-1) is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and is considered to play an important role in the differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. In this study, we compared the immunohistochemical stains of SF-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in non-neoplastic adrenal tissue, and adrenal and renal tumors using tissue microarrays (TMAs). The adrenal tissue array included 19 cases of normal adrenal cortex, 22 cases of adrenal adenoma, and 20 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The renal tissue array included 20 cases of each of the following types of renal cell carcinoma: clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe. In addition, 20 cases of renal oncocytoma were also included in the study. SF-1 showed positive staining in all cases (100%) of normal adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical adenoma, and in 18 (90%) cases of adrenocortical carcinoma. In renal tumors, SF-1 showed negative stains in all of oncocytoma, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Only 3 out of 20 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma showed weak positivity in approximately 10% of tumor cells. EMA stained positively in 85%, 95%, 100%, and 95% of clear cell, papillary, chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, and oncocytomas, respectively. EMA was completely negative in the adrenal TMAs. In conclusion, SF-1 and EMA may be helpful in the differentiation of adrenal tumors from renal tumors in difficult cases.

  18. An EMA Analysis of the Effect of Increasing Word Length on Consonant Production in Apraxia of Speech: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded…

  19. Provider, father, and bro--Sedentary Māori men and their thoughts on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Warbrick, Isaac; Wilson, Denise; Boulton, Amohia

    2016-02-04

    ori (indigenous peoples of New Zealand) men have a disproportionate prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses and are targeted for national physical activity initiatives. While physical activity impacts on physical and mental health and overall wellbeing, current approaches to health promotion often lack cultural relevance. Having better understanding and incorporating relevant cultural values and motivators into program designs could improve the success of health initiatives for indigenous and minority men. Nevertheless, little is known about Māori men's preferences, attitudes, or perspectives about physical activity, which are often interpreted through a colonized or dominant Western lens. Understanding perspectives of those groups whose values do not align with dominant cultural approaches will better equip health promoters and trainers to develop relevant community initiatives and private programs for indigenous and minority men. An indigenous research approach informed a qualitative study with 18 sedentary, 'overweight' Māori men aged 28 to 72 years. From 2014 to 2015 these men participated in three focus group discussions aimed at understanding their views about physical activity and exercise. Data were thematically analysed and interpeted using a Māori worldview. Four key themes were identified - Cameraderie and 'Bro-ship'; Adulthood Distractions and Priorities; Problems with Contemporary Gym Culture; and Provider Orientation. Key motivators for physical activity included a sense of 'brotherhood' in sport and physical activity and accountability to others. Participants reported the need to highlight the value of people and relationships, and having an orientation to the collective to enhance physical activity experiences for Māori men in general. Modern lifestyle distractions (such as being time deficient, and family responsibilities) along with other priorities contributed to difficulties incorporating physical activity into their daily lives. In

  20. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  1. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  2. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  3. Robust flood frequency analysis: Performance of EMA with multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, J. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Yu, Xin; Whealton, C. A.; Xu, Ziyao

    2016-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis generally involves the use of simple parametric probability distributions to smooth and extrapolate the information provided by short flood records to estimate extreme flood flow quantiles. Parametric probability distributions can have difficulty simultaneously fitting both the largest and smallest floods. A danger is that the smallest observations in a record can distort the exceedance probabilities assigned to the large floods of interest. The identification and treatment of such Potentially Influential Low Floods (PILFs) frees a fitting algorithm to describe the distribution of the larger observations. This can allow parametric flood frequency analysis to be both efficient, and also robust to deviations from the proposed probability model's lower tail. Historically, PILF identification involved subjective judgement. We propose a new multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier test (MGBT) for objective PILF identification. MGBT PILF identification rates (akin to Type I errors) are reported for the lognormal (LN) distribution and the log-Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution with a variety of skew coefficients. MGBT PILF identification generally matched subjective identification from a recent California flood frequency study. Monte Carlo results show that censoring of PILFs identified by the MGBT algorithm improves the extreme quantile estimator efficiency of the expected moments algorithm (EMA) for negatively skewed LP3 distributions and has little effect for zero or positive skews; simultaneously it protects against deviations from the LP3 in the lower tail, as illustrated by distorted LN examples. Thus, MGBT generally makes flood frequency analysis based on the LP3 distribution with EMA both more accurate and more robust.

  4. Barriers to best outcomes in breastfeeding for Māori: mothers' perceptions, whānau perceptions, and services.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Waldon, John; Manaena-Biddle, Harangi; Holdaway, Maureen; Cunningham, Chris

    2009-08-01

    This research explores the perceptions of New Zealand Māori women and their whānau (customary Māori extended family) toward barriers to achieving best outcomes in infant feeding: exclusively breastfed infants at 6 months. Interviews are undertaken with 59 Māori women who have given birth in the previous 3 years and 27 whānau members. Although mothers and whānau members feel positively toward breastfeeding and generally expect to breastfeed exclusively, these expectations are unmet in many cases because of lack of support when establishing breastfeeding; lack of support when life circumstances change; lack of timely, culturally relevant, and comprehensible information; confusion about smoking while breastfeeding; uncertainty about the safety of bed-sharing, and perceived lack of acceptability of breastfeeding in public. The relatively high rates of tobacco use by Māori create a tension for breastfeeding mothers, cited by some as a reason for ending breastfeeding prematurely.

  5. Landsat-8/OLI images has the potential to estimate the CDOM absorption coefficient in tropical inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, E.; Bernardo, N.

    2016-12-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the most abundant dissolved organic matter (DOM) in many natural waters and can affect the water quality, such as the light penetration and the thermal properties of water system. So the objective of this letter was to estimate the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 440 nm, aCDOM(440), in Barra Bonita Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil) using OLI/Landsat-8 images. For this two field campaigns were conducted in May and October 2014. During the field campaigns remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) were measured using a TriOS hyperspectral radiometer. Water samples were collected and analyzed to obtain the aCDOM(440). To predict the aCDOM(440) from Rrs at two key wavelengths (650 and 480 nm) were regressed against laboratory derived aCDOM(440) values. The validation using in situ data of aCDOM(440) algorithm indicated a goodness of fit, R2 = 0.70, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 10.65%. The developed algorithm was applied to the OLI/Lansat-8 images. Distribution maps were created with OLI/Landsat-8 images based on the adjusted algorithm.

  6. Classification of Potential Water Bodies Using Landsat 8 OLI and a Combination of Two Boosted Random Forest Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Kim, Hyeong Hun; Nam, Jae Yeal

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new water body classification method using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and water indices (WIs) of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor and its corresponding random forest classifiers. In this study, multispectral images from the OLI sensor are represented as TOA reflectance and WI values because a classification result using two measures is better than raw spectral images. Two types of boosted random forest (BRF) classifiers are learned using TOA reflectance and WI values, respectively, instead of the heuristic threshold or unsupervised methods. The final probability is summed linearly using the probabilities of two different BRFs to classify image pixels to water class. This study first demonstrates that the Landsat 8 OLI sensor has higher classification rate because it provides improved signal-to-ratio radiometric by using 12-bit quantization of the data instead of 8-bit as available from other sensors. In addition, we prove that the performance of the proposed combination of two BRF classifiers shows robust water body classification results, regardless of topology, river properties, and background environment. PMID:26110405

  7. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  8. A long look at V1309 Ori: Towards an understand of the 'blobby' accretion proces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The eclipsing, long-period polar V1309 Ori is one of the most peculiar magnetic CVs. Most of its luminosity is radiated as flared soft X-rays, with no domintating contribution of a hot thermal plasma from the shock column above the white dwarf. Therefore V1309 Ori is the only clear-cut case of 'pure' blobby accretion, where the impact mechanisms and radiation processs of a single accretion 'blob' can be studied in detail. We propose one pointing of 60 ksec to cover two orbital cycles to collect data for around 300-600 flares.Primary aim is to derive a significant correlation between several important blob parameters like mass, temperature and length. Using this we will be able to discern between different impact mechanisms.

  9. Magnetic Braking of the Main Component of θ^{1} Ori C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, Yu. Yu.; Leushin, V. V.; Weigelt, G.

    θ^{1} Ori C is the nearest massive O star at the early phase of the evolution. Interferometric study of the star at the 6-m BTA telescope showed that it is a binary system with an orbital period of 11 yr (Weigelt et al., 1999). It was also found that θ^{1} Ori C is an oblique magnetic rotator (Donati et al., 2002; Wade et al., 2006). From high resolution spectra of the binary collected with the 6-m telescope we succeeded to separate week lines of the secondary component and to measure its rotation velocity. It was found that the secondary rotates three times faster than the primary. We discuss the possibility of magnetic braking of the primary star as the mechanism explaining the difference of rotation.

  10. Cancrum oris (noma): Level of education and occupation of parents of affected children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiechina, A E; Arotiba, J T; Fasola, A O

    2000-06-01

    A total of 173 cancrum oris patients who were brought by their parents to the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, were analyzed. Ninety-one (52.6%) were males and 82 (47.4%) females. Their ages ranged from 1.5 to 11 years with a mean of 4.36 (standard deviation 2.13) years. One hundred and twenty-one (69.9%) and 52 (30.1%) were from monogamous and polygamous family respectively. The average number of children per family was 7.0. The number of parents with no formal education was 148 (85.5%) and 98.3% were low-income earners. The relationships between occupation, income and educational status were highly significant. This study suggests that apart from poverty, large family units and low educational status of parents are contributing factors in the aetiology of cancrum oris.

  11. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  12. MOST OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} Ori E: CHALLENGING THE CENTRIFUGAL BREAKOUT NARRATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Rivinius, Th.; Rowe, J. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Kuschnig, R.; Bohlender, D.; Neiner, C.; Telting, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2013-05-20

    We present results from three weeks' photometric monitoring of the magnetic helium-strong star {sigma} Ori E using the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars microsatellite. The star's light curve is dominated by twice-per-rotation eclipse-like dimmings arising when magnetospheric clouds transit across and occult the stellar disk. However, no evidence is found for any abrupt centrifugal breakout of plasma from the magnetosphere, either in the residual flux or in the depths of the light minima. Motivated by this finding we compare the observationally inferred magnetospheric mass against that predicted by a breakout analysis. The large discrepancy between the values leads us to argue that centrifugal breakout does not play a significant role in establishing the magnetospheric mass budget of {sigma} Ori E.

  13. X-Ray Production by V1647 Ori During Optical Outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, William; Weintraub, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburstduring which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variabilityare well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N H 4 1022cm2), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT X 2-6keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  14. Pathogenicity of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Actinomyces oris Isolated from an Apical Abscess Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    progression of apical periodontitis . Keywords: Actinomyces oris, apical abscess, biofilm, exopolysaccharide. Received 3 February 2012; accepted 25...Yamane et al. 2009, 2010, Yamanaka et al. 2010). Capnocytophaga ochracea found in periodontal disease has been shown to pro- duce mannose-rich EPS that...reported that some clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia and P. nigrescens iso- lated from chronic periodontitis lesions produce EPSs in a sucrose

  15. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    ori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.

  16. Implementation framework for chronic disease intervention effectiveness in Māori and other indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, John; Scott, Nina; Hudson, Maui; Masters-Awatere, Bridgette; Rarere, Moana; Foote, Jeff; Beaton, Angela; Ehau, Terry

    2017-09-05

    About 40% of all health burden in New Zealand is due to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes/obesity. Outcomes for Māori (indigenous people) are significantly worse than non-Maori; these inequities mirror those found in indigenous communities elsewhere. Evidence-based interventions with established efficacy may not be effective in indigenous communities without addressing specific implementation challenges. We present an implementation framework for interventions to prevent and treat chronic conditions for Māori and other indigenous communities. The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework has indigenous self-determination at its core and consists of four elements: cultural-centeredness, community engagement, systems thinking, and integrated knowledge translation. All elements have conceptual fit with Kaupapa Māori aspirations (i.e., indigenous knowledge creation, theorizing, and methodology) and all have demonstrated evidence of positive implementation outcomes. A coding scheme derived from the Framework was applied to 13 studies of diabetes prevention in indigenous communities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States from a systematic review. Cross-tabulations demonstrated that culture-centeredness (p = .008) and community engagement (p = .009) explained differences in diabetes outcomes and community engagement (p = .098) explained difference in blood pressure outcomes. The He Pikinga Waiora Implementation Framework appears to be well suited to advance implementation science for indigenous communities in general and Māori in particular. The framework has promise as a policy and planning tool to evaluate and design effective interventions for chronic disease prevention in indigenous communities.

  17. ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Sandra M

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as "fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research". The purpose of this study was to summarize the findings and administrative actions reported in ORI notices of scientific misconduct in clinical trials occurring between May 1992 and 2002. Findings of misconduct were gathered from publicly available sources: the ORI annual reports and the NIH Guide to Grants and Contracts. Clinical trials accounted for 17 (13%) of the 136 investigations that resulted in findings of scientific misconduct, and they were noted in 12 (11%) of the 113 brief reports of investigations closed with findings of no scientific misconduct. In clinical trials, the most severe sanction, debarment from US Government funding, was applied in six (35%) of the cases of misconduct compared to 79 (66%) of 119 cases from all other types of research combined. Of individuals cited for misconduct in clinical trials, three (18%) held doctorates in contrast to 81 (68%) in other types of research. In clinical trials, junior employees may bear the burden of sanction for scientific misconduct. The most frequently applied sanction was the requirement that a plan of supervision of the sanctioned employees accompany any future application for funding which would include them. This imposition of sanction on an individual employee does not address possible causes of misconduct which may be inherent in the overall pattern of leadership, training and supervision in the trial. Furthermore, the definition of misconduct, as interpreted by the Departmental Appeals Board, excludes carelessness and other poor research practices that may lead to dissemination of more incorrect data

  18. Fabrication, characterization, and heuristic trade space exploration of magnetically actuated Miura-Ori origami structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Brett; von Lockette, Paris R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors develop magnetically actuated Miura-Ori structures through observation, experiment, and computation using an initially heuristic strategy followed by trade space visualization and optimization. The work is novel, especially within origami engineering, in that beyond final target shape approximation, Miura-Ori structures in this work are additionally evaluated for the shape approximation while folding and for their efficient use of their embedded actuators. The structures consisted of neodymium magnets placed on the panels of silicone elastomer substrates cast in the Miura-Ori folding pattern. Initially four configurations, arrangements of magnets on the panels, were selected based on heuristic arguments that (1) maximized the amount of magnetic torque applied to the creases and (2) reduced the number of magnets needed to affect all creases in the pattern. The results of experimental and computational performance metrics were used in a weighted sum model to predict the optimum configuration, which was then fabricated and experimentally characterized for comparison to the initial prototypes. As expected, optimization of magnet placement and orientation was effective at increasing the degree of theoretical useful work. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, trade space results showed that even after optimization, the configuration with the most number of magnets was least effective, per magnet, at directing its actuation to the structure’s creases. Overall, though the winning configuration experimentally outperformed its initial, non-optimal counterparts, results showed that the choice of optimum configuration was heavily dependent on the weighting factors. These results highlight both the ability of the Miura-Ori to be actuated with external magnetic stimuli, the effectiveness of a heuristic design approach that focuses on the actuation mechanism, and the need to address path-dependent metrics in assessing performance in origami folding structures.

  19. My Home is My Marae: Kaupapa Māori evaluation of an approach to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Brooke; Lyndon, Mataroria; Villa, Luis; Madell, Dominic; Elliot-Hohepa, Andrea; Le Comte, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation's (ACC) ‘My Home is My Marae’ approach to injury prevention for whānau (families). Setting Over an 18 month period from November 2013 to June 2014, 14 ‘My Home is My Marae’ trials were conducted across the South Auckland and Far North regions of New Zealand. ACC engaged with local Māori providers of healthcare, education and social services to deliver the home safety intervention. Participants Participants of this evaluation were a purposive sample of 14 staff from six provider organisations in South Auckland and the Far North regions of New Zealand. Methods Kaupapa Māori theory-based evaluation and appreciative inquiry methodologies underpinned the evaluation. Interview participants led discussions about strengths and weaknesses of the approach, and partnerships with ACC and other organisations. The evaluation was also supported by pre-existing information available in project documentation, and quantitative data collected by Māori providers. Results Five key critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’ were found from interviews: mana tangata (reputation, respect and credibility); manākitanga (showing care for people); kānohi-ki-te-kānohi (face-to-face approach); capacity building for kaimahi, whānau and providers and ‘low or no cost’ solutions to hazards in the home. Data collected for the Far North area showed that 76% of the hazards identified could be resolved through ‘low or no cost’ solutions. Unfortunately, similar data were not available for South Auckland. Conclusions Injury prevention or health promotion approaches that seek to engage with whānau and/or Māori communities would benefit from applying critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’. PMID:28320792

  20. Apsidal motion of two eclipsing binaries: V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, A.; Bulut, I.; ćiçek, C.; Erdem, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the orbital period variations of two eclipsing binary systems showing apsidal motion were studied. Their O - C diagrams were analysed using all reliable eclipse timings and the elements of apsidal motion of two systems were improved. We found periods of apsidal motion of V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori to be 32.7 ± 0.2 years and 415 ± 50 years, respectively.

  1. Effect of dam methylation on the activity of the E. coli replication origin, oriC.

    PubMed Central

    Messer, W; Bellekes, U; Lother, H

    1985-01-01

    Methylation of GATC sites by the dam methylase is required for efficient initiation of DNA replication at the replication origin, oriC, of Escherichia coli. This is demonstrated by the inability of minichromosomes to be maintained in dam mutant strains. The requirement for methylated GATC sites is less stringent in vitro than in vivo. The time required for complete methylation of the origin region apparently determines the minimal spacing of replication forks on the chromosome. PMID:3891330

  2. Multiple replication origins of Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: properties of the conserved orc7-dependent oriC1.

    PubMed

    Coker, James A; DasSarma, Priya; Capes, Melinda; Wallace, Tammitia; McGarrity, Karen; Gessler, Rachael; Liu, Jingfang; Xiang, Hua; Tatusov, Roman; Berquist, Brian R; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2009-08-01

    The eukaryote-like DNA replication system of the model haloarchaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 is encoded within a circular chromosome and two large megaplasmids or minichromosomes, pNRC100 and pNRC200. We previously showed by genetic analysis that 2 (orc2 and orc10) of the 10 genes coding for Orc-Cdc6 replication initiator proteins were essential, while a third (orc7), located near a highly conserved autonomously replicating sequence, oriC1, was nonessential for cell viability. Here we used whole-genome marker frequency analysis (MFA) and found multiple peaks, indicative of multiple replication origins. The largest chromosomal peaks were located proximal to orc7 (oriC1) and orc10 (oriC2), and the largest peaks on the extrachromosomal elements were near orc9 (oriP1) in both pNRC100 and -200 and near orc4 (oriP2) in pNRC200. MFA of deletion strains containing different combinations of chromosomal orc genes showed that replication initiation at oriC1 requires orc7 but not orc6 and orc8. The initiation sites at oriC1 were determined by replication initiation point analysis and found to map divergently within and near an AT-rich element flanked by likely Orc binding sites. The oriC1 region, Orc binding sites, and orc7 gene orthologs were conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Serial deletion of orc genes resulted in the construction of a minimal strain containing not only orc2 and orc10 but also orc9. Our results suggest that replication in this model system is intriguing and more complex than previously thought. We discuss these results from the perspective of the replication strategy and evolution of haloarchaeal genomes.

  3. Use of the angularis oris cutaneous flap for repair of a rostral mandibular skin defect in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bradford, M; Degner, D A; Bhandal, J

    2011-01-01

    The angularis oris axial pattern flap is based on the blood supply of the angularis oris artery and vein. While the use of this flap for repair of canine facial wounds is well documented, this technique has not been reported in the cat. This case report presents the reconstruction of a large ventral chin and rostral lip wound with the use of this flap. Complete survival of this flap was observed in this patient.

  4. Effects of lowering the alcohol minimum purchasing age on weekend hospitalised assaults of young Māori in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Langley, John; Connor, Jennie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the association between reducing the alcohol minimum purchasing age from 20 to 18 years in December 1999 and rates of weekend assault hospitalisation among young Māori in the following 12 years. Our previous work showed deleterious effects for young people overall. In keeping with Treaty of Waitangi principles, we sought to determine whether the policy was similarly detrimental for Māori. We used Poisson regression to examine data from 1995 to 2011 on Māori hospitalised on Friday-Sunday following assault, separately by gender among 15- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 19-year-olds, versus 20- to 21-year-olds as a control for changes in economic and environmental factors. There was no evidence to suggest weekend assault hospitalisations increased significantly more among 15- to 17-year-old or 18- to 19-year-old Māori males in the post-change periods (incidence rate ratios varied between 0.83 and 1.13; P values >0.25) compared with increases observed in 20- to 21-year-old Māori males. For Māori females, estimates were more variable, but overall, there was no evidence of the hypothesised effect (incidence rate ratios between 0.60 and 1.09; P values >0.07). Overall, we find no evidence that lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend hospitalised assaults among young Māori. Inferences are compromised by lack of statistical power which underlines the importance of planning for evaluation of important policies well before they are implemented, particularly with a view to meeting obligations to Māori arising from the Treaty of Waitangi. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Study Sex Events Among Very High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    MSM continue to represent the largest share of new HIV infections in the United States each year due to high infectivity associated with unprotected anal sex. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has the potential to provide a unique view of how high-risk sexual events occur in the real world and can impart detailed information about aspects of decision-making, antecedents, and consequences that accompany these events. EMA may also produce more accurate data on sexual behavior by assessing it soon after its occurrence. We conducted a study involving 12 high-risk MSM to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 30 day, intensive EMA procedure. Results suggest this intensive assessment strategy was both acceptable and feasible to participants. All participants provided response rates to various assessments that approached or were in excess of their targets: 81.0 % of experience sampling assessments and 93.1 % of daily diary assessments were completed. However, comparing EMA reports with a Timeline Followback (TLFB) of the same 30 day period suggested that participants reported fewer sexual risk events on the TLFB compared to EMA, and reported a number of discrepancies about specific behaviors and partner characteristics across the two methods. Overall, results support the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of using EMA to understand sexual risk events among high-risk MSM. Findings also suggest that EMA and other intensive longitudinal assessment approaches could yield more accurate data about sex events.

  6. Development of EMA-2 recombinant antigen based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for seroprevalence studies of Theileria equi infection in Indian equine population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-11-15

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-transmitted protozoan disease caused by Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi. In the present study, we expressed a 53kDa protein from the truncated EMA-2 gene of T. equi (Indian strain) and developed EMA-2ELISA using this expressed protein. This ELISA is able to detect T. equi-specific antibodies in experimentally infected animals as early as 9 days post-infection. The assay developed was validated with the OIE recommended competitive ELISA (cELISA) on 120 serum samples and significant agreement (kappa=0.93) was observed between results of both the ELISAs which indicates suitability of EMA-2ELISA for use in sero-diagnosis. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of EMA-2ELISA - as compared with cELISA - were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Analysis of 5651 equine serum samples - collected during 2007-2012 from 12 states of India representing eight agro-climatic zones - by EMA-2ELISA revealed 32.65% seroprevalence of T. equi in India. In conclusion, the EMA-2ELISA developed using the T. equi EMA-2 recombinant protein as antigen for detecting T. equi-specific antibodies has good diagnostic potential for sero-epidemiological surveys.

  7. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Orbital period variations of the eclipsing binaries TU Cnc, VZ Leo, and OS Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Variations of the orbital periods of the eclipsing binaries TU Cnc, VZ Leo, and OS Ori are analyzed. Secular period decreases were earlier believed to occur in these systems. It is demonstrated that the period variations of TU Cnc can be represented using the light-time effect corresponding to the orbital motion of the eclipsing binary with a period of 78.6 years around the center ofmass of the triple system, with the mass of the third body being M 3 > 0.82 M ⊙. With the same accuracy, the period variations of VZ Leo and OS Ori can be represented either solely using the light-time effect, or a superposition of a secular period decrease and the light-time effect. For VZ Leo, the period of the long-term orbit is 63.8 years in the former case and 67.9 years in the latter case. Similar masses for the third body are indicated in both cases: M 3 > 0.55 M ⊙ and M 3 > 0.61 M ⊙. For OS Ori, the period of the long-term orbit is 46 years and M 3 > 0.5 M ⊙ in the former case, and the period is 36 years and M 3 > 0.6 M ⊙ in the latter case.

  9. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  10. Analysis of transcription at the oriC locus in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Santosh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2011-09-20

    Details of the mechanism of DNA replication in the slow growing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) are unknown. The dnaA and dnaN gene products are essential for chromosome replication and growth of a bacterium. Here we analyzed the transcriptional activity at the oriC locus in M. tb that includes dnaA, dnaN and recF. dnaA and dnaN are each transcribed from a transcription start point (TSP) located at -261 bp and -113 bp, respectively. recF is co-transcribed with dnaN and both genes are co-induced in stationary phase cultures of M. tb. Transcription was also observed inside the oriC region and leftward transcription predominated over rightward transcription. The transcriptional activity of dnaA, dnaN and recF genes was found to be unchanged under all the stress conditions that were examined except during hypoxia when a ∼2-fold decrease in dnaA and dnaN transcription was observed. This analysis of transcription at the oriC locus would be useful for future studies to assess the link if any between transcription at this locus and DNA replication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-Wavelength Study of the 2008-2009 Outburst of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alvarez, D.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Abraham, P.; Anandarao, B. G.; Kashyap, V.; Kospal, A.; Kun, M.; Marengo, M.; Moor, A.; Peneva, S.; Semkov, E.; Venkat, V.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2011-12-01

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive variable star, illuminating a reflection nebula (McNeil's Nebula). It underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, V1647 Ori underwent a new outburst. The observed properties of the 2003-2006 event are different in several respects from both the EXor and FUor type outbursts, and suggest that this star might represent a new class of eruptive young stars, younger and more deeply embedded than EXors, and exhibiting variations on shorter time scales than FUors. In outburst, the star lights up the otherwise invisible McNeil's nebular -- a conical cloud likely accumulated from previous outbursts. We present follow-up photometric as well as optical and near-IR spectroscopy of the nebula obtainted during the 2008-2009 outburst. We will also present results from contemporaneous X-ray observations. These multi-wavelength observations of V1647 Ori, obtained at this key early stage of the outburst, provide a snapshot of the "lighting up" of the nebula, probe its evolution through the event, and enable comparison with the 2003-2006 outburst.

  12. Cloning, sequencing, and functional analysis of oriL, a herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Weller, S K; Spadaro, A; Schaffer, J E; Murray, A W; Maxam, A M; Schaffer, P A

    1985-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 genome (160 kilobases) contains three origins of DNA synthesis: two copies of oriS located within the repeated sequences flanking the short unique arm (US), and one copy of oriL located within the long unique arm (UL). Precise localization and characterization of oriL have been severely hampered by the inability to clone sequences which contain it (coordinates 0.398 to 0.413) in an undeleted form in bacteria. We report herein the successful cloning of sequences between 0.398 to 0.413 in an undeleted form, using a yeast cloning vector. Sequence analysis of a 425-base pair fragment spanning the deletion-prone region has revealed a perfect 144-base pair palindrome with striking homology to oriS. In a functional assay, the undeleted clone was amplified when functions from herpes simplex virus type 1 were supplied in trans, whereas clones with deletions of 55 base pairs or more were not amplified.

  13. Narratives of four Māori ex-inmates about their experiences and perspectives of rehabilitation programmes.

    PubMed

    Nakhid, Camille; Shorter, Lily Tairiri

    2014-06-01

    ori are overrepresented in the criminal justice system in Aotearoa New Zealand. Māori offenders comprise 53% of those serving custodial sentences and 48% serving community-based sentences. The majority of Māori offenders reoffended within 2 years of serving their sentence. A number of programmes aimed at reducing recidivism among Māori have been implemented, and there is considerable debate around the effectiveness of these programmes. This qualitative study focuses on the narratives of four Māori male ex-inmates about their reoffending and their experiences of the rehabilitation programmes during their incarceration. Using a narrative approach, the study sought to hear the shared stories from the men and to determine what they believe would have reduced their reoffending. The stories revealed that a lack of financial resources and gang connections influenced reoffending; the value of prison rehabilitation programmes varied depending on their appropriateness to the inmate and to their intended outcomes; and healing programmes incorporating kaupapa Māori principles and practices assisted the participants in understanding their cultural heritage and communicating with society in more acceptable ways.

  14. Identification of oriT and a recombination hot spot in the IncA/C plasmid backbone.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Anna; Szabó, Mónika; Olasz, Ferenc; Kiss, János

    2017-09-06

    Dissemination of multiresistance has been accelerating among pathogenic bacteria in recent decades. The broad host-range conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C family are effective vehicles of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria. Although more than 150 family members have been sequenced to date, their conjugation system and other functions encoded by the conserved plasmid backbone have been poorly characterized. The key cis-acting locus, the origin of transfer (oriT), has not yet been unambiguously identified. We present evidence that IncA/C plasmids have a single oriT locus immediately upstream of the mobI gene encoding an indispensable transfer factor. The fully active oriT spans ca. 150-bp AT-rich region overlapping the promoters of mobI and contains multiple inverted and direct repeats. Within this region, the core domain of oriT with reduced but detectable transfer activity was confined to a 70-bp segment containing two inverted repeats and one copy of a 14-bp direct repeat. In addition to oriT, a second locus consisting of a 14-bp imperfect inverted repeat was also identified, which mimicked the function of oriT but which was found to be a recombination site. Recombination between two identical copies of these sites is RecA-independent, requires a plasmid-encoded recombinase and resembles the functioning of dimer-resolution systems.

  15. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  16. Analysis of vegetation by the application of a physically-based atmospheric correction algorithm to OLI data: a case study of Leonessa Municipality, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Petracchini, Francesco; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques allow to estimate vegetation parameters related to large areas for forest health evaluation and biomass estimation. Moreover, the parametrization of specific indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) allows to study biogeochemical cycles and radiative energy transfer processes between soil/vegetation and atmosphere. This paper focuses on the evaluation of vegetation cover analysis in Leonessa Municipality, Latium Region (Italy) by the use of 2015 Landsat 8 applying the OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) algorithm developed following the procedure described in Bassani et al. 2015. The OLI@CRI is based on 6SV radiative transfer model (Kotchenova et al., 2006) ables to simulate the radiative field in the atmosphere-earth coupled system. NDVI was derived from the OLI corrected image. This index, widely used for biomass estimation and vegetation analysis cover, considers the sensor channels falling in the near infrared and red spectral regions which are sensitive to chlorophyll absorption and cell structure. The retrieved product was then spatially resampled at MODIS image resolution and then validated by the NDVI of MODIS considered as reference. The physically-based OLI@CRI algorithm also provides the incident solar radiation at ground at the acquisition time by 6SV simulation. Thus, the OLI@CRI algorithm completes the remote sensing dataset required for a comprehensive analysis of the sub-regional biomass production by using data of the new generation remote sensing sensor and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. If the OLI@CRI algorithm is applied to a temporal series of OLI data, the influence of the solar radiation on the above-ground vegetation can be analysed as well as vegetation index variation.

  17. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  18. Dietary intakes of Pacific, Māori, Asian and European adolescents: the Auckland High School Heart Survey.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, John D; Schaaf, David; Metcalf, Patricia A; Scragg, Robert K R

    2010-02-01

    To compare dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific Island and Asian adolescents living in Auckland. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess daily nutrient intakes of 2,549 14- to 21-year-old high-school students in Auckland (1,422 male and 1,127 female) in a cross-sectional survey carried out between 1997 and 1998. Compared with Europeans, Māori and Pacific Islanders consumed more energy per day. Carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were higher in Māori and Pacific Islanders than in Europeans. Cholesterol intakes were lowest in Europeans and alcohol intakes were highest in Europeans and Māori. When nutrient intakes were expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy, many ethnic differences in nutrient intakes between Europeans and Māori or Pacific Islanders were eliminated. After adjustment for energy intake and age, Europeans ate the fewest eggs, and Pacific Islanders and Asians ate more servings of chicken and fish, and fewer servings of milk and cereal than Europeans. Compared to Europeans, Pacific Islanders consumed larger portion sizes for nearly every food item. There were marked differences in nutrient intakes between Pacific, Māori, Asian and European adolescents. Ethnic differences in food selections, frequency of food servings and portion sizes contribute to the differences in nutrient intakes between these ethnic groups. These differences generally matched those of other studies in children and adults from these ethnic groups. Interventions that reduce frequency of food consumption and serving sizes and promote less-fatty food choices in Māori and Pacific adolescents are needed. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Implementing the Biopharmaceutics Classification System in Drug Development: Reconciling Similarities, Differences, and Shared Challenges in the EMA and US-FDA-Recommended Approaches.

    PubMed

    Cardot, J-M; Garcia Arieta, A; Paixao, P; Tasevska, I; Davit, B

    2016-07-01

    The US-FDA recently posted a draft guideline for industry recommending procedures necessary to obtain a biowaiver for immediate-release oral dosage forms based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). This review compares the present FDA BCS biowaiver approach, with the existing European Medicines Agency (EMA) approach, with an emphasis on similarities, difficulties, and shared challenges. Some specifics of the current EMA BCS guideline are compared with those in the recently published draft US-FDA BCS guideline. In particular, similarities and differences in the EMA versus US-FDA approaches to establishing drug solubility, permeability, dissolution, and formulation suitability for BCS biowaiver are critically reviewed. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the (i) challenges of applying for BCS biowaivers for global registration in the face of differences in the EMA and US-FDA BCS biowaiver criteria, as well as (ii) challenges inherent in applying for BCS class I or III designation and common to both jurisdictions.

  20. An EMA analysis of the effect of increasing word length on consonant production in apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bartle, Carly J; Goozée, Justine V; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2007-03-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded using the AG-200 EMA system during word-initial consonant productions in one, two, and three syllable words. Significantly deviant articulatory parameters were recorded for each of the target consonants during one, two, and three syllables words. Word length effects were most evident during the release phase of target consonant productions. The results are discussed with respect to theories of speech motor control as they relate to AOS.

  1. Fluctuating snow line altitudes in the Hunza basin (Karakoram) using Landsat OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Rittger, Karl; Brodzik, Mary J.; Painter, Thomas H.; Armstrong, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Snowline altitudes (SLAs) on glacier surfaces are needed for separating snow and ice as input for melt models. When measured at the end of the ablation season, SLAs are used for inferring stable-state glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Direct measurements of snowlines are rarely possible particularly in remote, high altitude glacierized terrain, but remote sensing data can be used to separate these snow and ice surfaces. Snow lines are commonly visible on optical satellite images acquired at the end of the ablation season if the images are contrasted enough, and are manually digitized on screen using various satellite band combinations for visual interpretation, which is a time-consuming, subjective process. Here we use Landsat OLI imagery at 30 m resolution to estimate glacier SLAs for a subset of the Hunza basin in the Upper Indus in the Karakoram. Clean glacier ice surfaces are delineated using a standardized semi-automated band ratio algorithm with image segmentation. Within the glacier surface, snow and ice are separated using supervised classification schemes based on regions of interest, and glacier SLAs are extracted on the basis of these areas. SLAs are compared with estimates from a new automated method that relies on fractional snow covered area rather than on band ratio algorithms for delineating clean glacier ice surfaces, and on grain size (instead of supervised classification) for separating snow from glacier ice on the glacier surface. The two methods produce comparable snow/ice outputs. The fSCA-derived glacierized areas are slightly larger than the band ratio estimates. Some of the additional area is the result of better detection in shadows from spectral mixture analysis (true positive) while the rest is shallow water, which is spectrally similar to snow/ice (false positive). On the glacier surface, a thresholding the snow grain size image (grain size > 500μm) results in similar glacier ice areas derived from the supervised

  2. Towards the harmonization of result presentation for the eosin-5'- maleimide (EMA) binding test in the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda; Greenwood, David; Heimpel, Hermann; Noel, Nigel; Whiteway, Alastair; King, May-Jean

    2014-09-01

    Background: The EMA Binding test measures reduced mean channel fluorescence (MCF) reading of EMA-labeled red cells (EMA-RBCs) from patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Reporting test results can be either in the actual MCF reading or as a ratio by normalization of the test MCF result to the mean MCF value of 6 normal controls. The latter format has potential for universal reporting. Methods: We analyzed three years' archival MCF data from HS and non-HS patient groups for establishment of reference ranges of ratios for normal adults and HS. A prospective study used FC500 and FACS Canto II cytometers to analyze contemporaneously EMA-RBCs from several patient groups and normal donors. Statistical analyses of the prospective data determined the cut-off values, and the sensitivity and specificity for HS respectively for the MCF and the ratio result presentations. The effect of using fewer than six normal controls for the ratio denominator was explored. Results:. The FC500 gave a mean ratio of 0.782 (SD = 0.086) in HS patients with an optimal cut-off ratio of 0.918 (98.7% specificity, 95.6% sensitivity), and grey area ratio of 0.868 - 0.918. The Canto II gave a mean ratio of 0.774 (SD = 0.085) with an optimal cut-off ratio of 0.925 (97.1% specificity and 100% sensitivity), and grey area ratio of 0.859 - 0.925. Conclusion: Harmonization of result presentation is feasible with no apparent constraint by instrument design. Interpretation of grey-area data requires an assessment of patient's clinical presentation and family history or performing a family study. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals without a randomised controlled study: analysis of EMA and FDA approvals 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Baio, Gianluca; Berlin, Jesse A; Irs, Alar; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of pharmaceuticals is most often demonstrated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, in some cases, regulatory applications lack RCT evidence. Objective To investigate the number and type of these approvals over the past 15 years by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods Drug approval data were downloaded from the EMA website and the ‘Drugs@FDA’ database for all decisions on pharmaceuticals published from 1 January 1999 to 8 May 2014. The details of eligible applications were extracted, including the therapeutic area, type of approval and review period. Results Over the period of the study, 76 unique indications were granted without RCT results (44 by the EMA and 60 by the FDA), demonstrating that a substantial number of treatments reach the market without undergoing an RCT. The majority was for haematological malignancies (34), with the next most common areas being oncology (15) and metabolic conditions (15). Of the applications made to both agencies with a comparable data package, the FDA granted more approvals (43/44 vs 35/44) and took less time to review products (8.7 vs 15.5 months). Products reached the market first in the USA in 30 of 34 cases (mean 13.1 months) due to companies making FDA submission before EMA submissions and faster FDA review time. Discussion Despite the frequency with which approvals are granted without RCT results, there is no systematic monitoring of such treatments to confirm their effectiveness or consistency regarding when this form of evidence is appropriate. We recommend a more open debate on the role of marketing authorisations granted without RCT results, and the development of guidelines on what constitutes an acceptable data package for regulators. PMID:27363818

  4. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immunoassay in horses from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Hilario, Eduardo; Nakaghi, Andréa Cristina Higa; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1), is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1). The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170) were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  5. Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) improve DNA array and high-throughput sequencing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identification.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Boyle, Brian; Charette, Steve J; Harel, Josée; L'Homme, Yvan; Masson, Luke; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-09-15

    Pan-viral DNA array (PVDA) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) are useful tools to identify novel viruses of emerging diseases. However, both techniques have difficulties to identify viruses in clinical samples because of the host genomic nucleic acid content (hg/cont). Both propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) have the capacity to bind free DNA/RNA, but are cell membrane-impermeable. Thus, both are unable to bind protected nucleic acid such as viral genomes within intact virions. However, EMA/PMA modified genetic material cannot be amplified by enzymes. In order to assess the potential of EMA/PMA to lower the presence of amplifiable hg/cont in samples and improve virus detection, serum and lung tissue homogenates were spiked with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) and were processed with EMA/PMA. In addition, PRRSV RT-qPCR positive clinical samples were also tested. EMA/PMA treatments significantly decreased amplifiable hg/cont and significantly increased the number of PVDA positive probes and their signal intensity compared to untreated spiked lung samples. EMA/PMA treatments also increased the sensitivity of HTS by increasing the number of specific PRRSV reads and the PRRSV percentage of coverage. Interestingly, EMA/PMA treatments significantly increased the sensitivity of PVDA and HTS in two out of three clinical tissue samples. Thus, EMA/PMA treatments offer a new approach to lower the amplifiable hg/cont in clinical samples and increase the success of PVDA and HTS to identify viruses.

  6. Application of EMA-qPCR as a complementary tool for the detection and monitoring of Legionella in different water systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Tian, Zhengan; Ren, Hongyu; Hu, Guangchun; Zhou, Haijian; Lu, Jinxing; Luo, Chengwang; Liu, Zunyu; Shao, Zhujun

    2012-05-01

    Legionella are prevalent in human-made water systems and cause legionellosis in humans. Conventional culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are not sufficiently accurate for the quantitative analysis of live Legionella bacteria in water samples because of the presence of viable but nonculturable cells and dead cells. Here, we report a rapid detection method for viable Legionella that combines ethidium monoazide (EMA) with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and apply this method to detect Legionella in a large number of water samples from different sources. Results yielded that samples treated with 5 μg/ml EMA for 10 min and subsequently exposed to light irradiation for 5 min were optimal for detecting Legionella. EMA treatment before qPCR could block the signal from approximately 4 log(10) of dead cells. When investigating environmental water samples, the percent-positive rate obtained by EMA-qPCR was significantly higher than conventional PCR and culture methods, and slightly lower than qPCR. The bacterial count of Legionella determined by EMA-qPCR were mostly greater than those determined by culture assays and lower than those determined by qPCR. Acceptable correlations were found between the EMA-qPCR and qPCR results for cooling towers, piped water and hot spring water samples (r = 0.849, P < 0.001) and also found between the EMA-qPCR and culture results for hot spring water samples (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). The results indicate that EMA-qPCR could be used as a complementary tool for the detection and monitoring of Legionella in water systems, especially in hot spring water samples.

  7. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids.

  8. Soil chemical factors and grassland species density in Emas National Park (central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Amorim, P K; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Studies of grasslands on specific soil types suggest that different nutrients can limit biomass production and, hence, species composition and number. The Brazilian cerrado is the major savanna region in America and once covered about 2 million km(2), mainly in the Brazilian Central Plateau, under seasonal climate, with wet summer and dry winter. In view of the importance of soil chemical factors in the distribution of the vegetation forms within the Cerrado domain and which may influence the number of species, we analyzed some soil characteristics in three herbaceous vegetation forms -- hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland -- in Emas National Park, a core cerrado site, to investigate the relationship between number of species and soil characteristics. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted the obtained data to multiple linear regression. We found out that aluminum and pH were the best predictors of species density, the former positively related to species density and the latter negatively related. Since the predictable variation in species density is important in determining areas of conservation, we can postulate that these two soil factors are indicators of high species density areas in tropical grasslands, which could be used in selecting priority sites for conservation.

  9. Economic valuation of the Emas waterfall, Mogi-Guaçu River, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peixer, Janice; Giacomini, Henrique C; Petrere Jr, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    The Emas waterfall in Mogi-Guaçu River is regionally recognized as an important fishing spot and touristic place. The first reports of the professional and sport fishing there date back from the 30's, which is the same period when the tourism took place. The present paper provides an environmental valuation of this place and an assessment of the differences among the major groups of people using the area. During 2006 we interviewed 33 professional fishers, 107 sport fishers, 45 tourists and 103 excursionists in order to estimate the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for each category and to analyze the influence of socioeconomic factors by means of logistic regressions and ANCOVAs. The WTP of professional fisher was significantly influenced by age and education, and the WTP for the sport fishers was influenced by the family income. The variables that influenced the tourists' and excursionists' WTP were sex and education. The total annual aggregated value to maintain the waterfall in the current conditions was estimated in US$ 11.432.128, and US$ 55.424.283 to restore it.

  10. A Comparative Review of Waivers Granted in Pediatric Drug Development by FDA and EMA from 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Gunter F.; Wharton, Gerold T.; Malli, Suzanne; Temeck, Jean; Murphy, M. Dianne; Tomasi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Union and the United States have different legal frameworks in place for pediatric drug development, which can potentially lead to different pediatric research requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. This manuscript compares pediatric clinical trial waivers granted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods This is a retrospective review comparing EMA’s Paediatric Committee (PDCO) decisions with FDA’s Pediatric Review Committee (PeRC) recommendations for all product-specific pediatric full waiver applications submitted to EMA from January 2007 through December 2013. Using baseline data from EMA, we matched product-specific waivers with their FDA equivalents during the study period. Results For single active substance products, PDCO and PeRC adopted similar opinions in 42 of 49 indications (86%). For fixed-dose combinations, PDCO and PeRC adopted similar opinions in 24 of 31 indications (77%). Conclusion Despite the different legal frameworks, criteria, and processes of determination, the waiver decisions of the 2 agencies were similar in the majority of cases. PMID:27274951

  11. The revised EMA guideline for the investigation of bioequivalence for immediate release oral formulations with systemic action.

    PubMed

    Verbeeck, Roger K; Musuamba, Flora T

    2012-01-01

    On August 1, 2010, a revised guidance regarding bioequivalence (BE) assessment for the approval of innovator (bridging studies, variations, line extensions) and generic medicinal products in the EU came into effect (EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence, CPMP/EWP/QWP/1401/98 Rev. 1/Corr**, London, 20 January 2010). This guideline specifies the requirements for BE assessment for immediate release oral dosage forms with systemic action. Compared to the previous BE guideline of the EMA, clearer guidance is now given on several topics including BE assessment of highly variable drugs/drug products (HVDs/HVDPs), the use of metabolite data, acceptance criteria for narrow therapeutic index drugs (NTIDs), BCS-based biowaivers, and dose strength to be used in case of application for marketing authorization of several strengths. However, the health authorities of the various EU member states do not necessarily apply the same rules as far as substitution and switchability between medicinal products are concerned. Moreover, differences still exist between the BE guidelines of the major health authorities (FDA, EMA, NIHC, ...) on topics such as HVDs/HVDPs, NTIDs and BCS-based biowaivers. Global harmonization should be the next logical step to guarantee accessibility to safe and efficacious drug products for patients in all parts of the world.

  12. The roles of surgery and EMA/CO chemotherapy regimen in primary refractory and non-refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Aydiner, Adnan; Keskin, Serkan; Berkman, Sinan; Bengisu, Ergin; Ilhan, Huseyin Ridvan; Tas, Faruk; Topuz, Erkan

    2012-06-01

    To determine the characteristics and outcome of patients with refractory gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after primary chemotherapy (CTx). The outcome of low- and high-risk patients with refractory GTN (n = 14, 37%) was compared to those with non-refractory GTN (n = 24, 63%). Methotrexate treatment was used for patients with low-risk disease and EMA/CO for patients with high-risk disease. Median follow-up time was 53 months (range 1-173 months). All non-refractory patients and 11 refractory patients (79%) survived (p = 0.015). Factors related to resistance to primary CTx was age (p = 0.012), duration between causal pregnancy and initial treatment (p = 0.003), surgery (p = 0.014), hCG level before CTx (p = 0.09) and half-life of hCG (p = 0.061). Six out of 10 low-risk refractory patients treated with EMA/CO regimen in the second-line setting had been followed by no evidence of disease. Nine of 38 (24%) patients underwent surgery (TAH ± BSO) for GTN. All of the patients treated with surgery were in the non-refractory group, but none of refractory patients underwent surgery (p = 0.014). Surgery and EMA/CO regimen are one of the main factors that play a role in the management of refractory low-risk GTN.

  13. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region. PMID:27688742

  14. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  15. Working with racism: a qualitative study of the perspectives of Māori (indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) registered nurses on a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Huria, Tania; Cuddy, Jessica; Lacey, Cameron; Pitama, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Substantial health disparities exist between Māori--the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand--and non-Māori New Zealanders. This article explores the experience and impact of racism on Māori registered nurses within the New Zealand health system. The narratives of 15 Māori registered nurses were analyzed to identify the effects of racism. This Māori nursing cohort and the data on racism form a secondary analysis drawn from a larger research project investigating the experiences of indigenous health workers in New Zealand and Canada. Jones's levels of racism were utilized as a coding frame for the structural analysis of the transcribed Māori registered nurse interviews. Participants experienced racism on institutional, interpersonal, and internalized levels, leading to marginalization and being overworked yet undervalued. Māori registered nurses identified a lack of acknowledgement of dual nursing competencies: while their clinical skills were validated, their cultural skills-their skills in Hauora Māori--were often not. Experiences of racism were a commonality. Racism--at every level--can be seen as highly influential in the recruitment, training, retention, and practice of Māori registered nurses. The nursing profession in New Zealand and other countries of indigenous peoples needs to acknowledge the presence of racism within training and clinical environments as well as supporting indigenous registered nurses to develop and implement indigenous dual cultural-clinical competencies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The impact of the EMA change in definition of "dose" on the BCS dose-solubility ratio: a review of the biowaiver monographs.

    PubMed

    Sediq, Ahmad; Kubbinga, Marlies; Langguth, Peter; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) defines the solubility characteristics of an active pharmaceutical substance based on its dose-solubility ratio: for highly soluble drugs this ratio is less than 250 mL over a defined pH range. Prior to the revision of the European Medicines Agency (EMA, formerly EMEA) guideline in 2010, the "dose" in this ratio was consistently defined by the US FDA, the EMA, and the WHO biowaiver guidelines as the highest dosage strength. However, in the revised EMA guideline, the dose is defined as the highest single dose administered according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The new EMA criterion for highly soluble may be closer to the actual conditions of use, but it is not in line with the dose that would be used in the in vivo bioequivalence study. This paper evaluates the impact on the BCS classification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients of the published biowaiver monographs and discusses the consequences of the possible change in classification on biowaiver recommendations. Using the current definition of dose by the EMA, the biowaiver recommendations for metoclopramide hydrochloride and verapamil hydrochloride are no longer valid according to EMA criteria. For prednisolone and prednisone, a reevaluation of the biowaiver recommendation, taking into account the usual dosing levels, seems appropriate.

  17. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanaro, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-06-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Interior (DOI) / United States Geological Survey (USGS), is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. It will be the eighth mission in the Landsat series. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper outlines the present development status of the two instruments.

  18. The Design and Relevance of a Computerized Gamified Depression Therapy Program for Indigenous Māori Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Stasiak, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a major health issue among Māori indigenous adolescents, yet there has been little investigation into the relevance or effectiveness of psychological treatments for them. Further, consumer views are critical for engagement and adherence to therapy. However, there is little research regarding indigenous communities’ opinions about psychological interventions for depression. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct semistructured interviews with Māori (indigenous New Zealand) young people (taitamariki) and their families to find out their opinions of a prototype computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) program called Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts (SPARX), a free online computer game intended to help young persons with mild to moderate depression, feeling down, stress or anxiety. The program will teach them how to resolve their issues on their own using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as psychotherapeutic approach. Methods There were seven focus groups on the subject of the design and cultural relevance of SPARX that were held, with a total of 26 participants (19 taitamarki, 7 parents/caregivers, all Māori). There were five of the groups that were with whānau (family groups) (n=14), one group was with Māori teenage mothers (n=4), and one group was with taitamariki (n=8). The general inductive approach was used to analyze focus group data. Results SPARX computerized therapy has good face validity and is seen as potentially effective and appealing for Māori people. Cultural relevance was viewed as being important for the engagement of Māori young people with SPARX. Whānau are important for young peoples’ well-being. Participants generated ideas for improving SPARX for Māori and for the inclusion of whānau in its delivery. Conclusions SPARX computerized therapy had good face validity for indigenous young people and families. In general, Māori participants were positive about the SPARX

  19. Sequence heterogeneity in the equi merozoite antigen gene (ema-1) of Theileria equi and development of an ema-1-specific TaqMan MGB assay for the detection of T. equi.

    PubMed

    Bhoora, Raksha; Quan, Melvyn; Matjila, Paul T; Zweygarth, Erich; Guthrie, Alan J; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-08-27

    Although a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR) assay for the detection of Theileria equi has been developed and evaluated, it is possible that additional, as yet undetected 18S rRNA gene sequence variants may exist. A qPCR assay targeting a different gene, used in conjunction with the T. equi 18S rRNA qPCR assay, could assist in the detection of all T. equi genotypes in field samples. A T. equi ema-1-specific qPCR (Ueti et al., 2003) was tested on 107 South African field samples, 90 of which tested positive for T. equi antibody using the immuno-fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The qPCR assay performed poorly, as T. equi was detected in only 67 of the 90 IFAT-positive field samples at quantification cycle (C(q)) values ranging from 27 to 39.95. Furthermore, a high C(q) value of 36.18 was obtained from DNA extracted from a South African in vitro-cultured T. equi WL isolate [1.38% parasitized erythrocytes (PE)] when a low C(q) value (indicative of a high T. equi DNA concentration) was expected. Approximately 600 bp of the ema-1 gene from 38 South African samples were sequenced and BLASTN analysis confirmed all sequences to be merozoite surface protein genes, with an identity of 87.1-100% to previously published T. equi ema-1 gene sequences. Alignment of the sequences revealed extensive sequence variations in the target regions of the primers and probes (Ueti et al., 2003), explaining the poor performance of the qPCR assay. Based on these observations, we developed a new TaqMan minor-groove binder (MGB) probe-based qPCR assay, targeting a more conserved region of the ema-1 gene. This assay was shown to be efficient and specific, and the detection limit, defined as the concentration at which 95% of T. equi-positive samples are detected, was determined to be 1.4 x 10(-4)% PE. The two ema-1 assays were compared by testing 41 South African field samples in parallel. The results suggested that the new assay was more sensitive than the original assay, as T. equi was

  20. Ancient DNA recovers the origins of Māori feather cloaks.

    PubMed

    Hartnup, K; Huynen, L; Te Kanawa, R; Shepherd, L D; Millar, C D; Lambert, D M

    2011-10-01

    Feather cloaks ("kakahu"), particularly those adorned with kiwi feathers, are treasured items or "taonga" to the Māori people of "Aotearoa"/New Zealand. They are considered iconic expression of Māori culture. Despite their status, much of our knowledge of the materials used to construct cloaks, the provenance of cloaks, and the origins of cloak making itself, has been lost. We used ancient DNA methods to recover mitochondrial DNA sequences from 849 feather samples taken from 109 cloaks. We show that almost all (>99%) of the cloaks were constructed using feathers from North Island brown kiwi. Molecular sexing of nuclear DNA recovered from 92 feather cloak samples also revealed that the sex ratio of birds deviated from a ratio of 1:1 observed in reference populations. Additionally, we constructed a database of 185 mitochondrial control region DNA sequences of kiwi feathers comprising samples collected from 26 North Island locations together with data available from the literature. Genetic subdivision (G(ST)), nucleotide subdivision (N(ST)) and Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variants (SAMOVA) analyses revealed high levels of genetic structuring in North Island brown kiwi. Together with sequence data from previously studied ancient and modern kiwi samples, we were able to determine the geographic provenance of 847 cloak feathers from 108 cloaks. A surprising proportion (15%) of cloaks were found to contain feathers from different geographic locations, providing evidence of kiwi trading among Māori tribes or organized hunting trips into other tribal areas. Our data also suggest that the east of the North Island of New Zealand was the most prolific of all kiwi cloak making areas, with over 50% of all cloaks analyzed originating from this region. Similar molecular approaches have the potential to discover a wealth of lost information from artifacts of endemic cultures worldwide.

  1. Spectral study of the irregular variables SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, L.V.

    1985-07-01

    Nineteen spectrograms for three variables with periodic fadings of the, namely, SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser, obtained on the two meter telescope of the Shemakha Astrophysical Observatory with a reciprocal dispersion of 94 A/mm in H..gamma.., were used to compile a two dimensional quantitative spectral classification of those variables. On the basis of certain classification criteria based on the lines of the metals, the mean spectral classes were determined for each star: A0 for SV Cep, A3 for UX Ori, and A5 for DD Ser. It was discovered that the spectral class of SV Cep varied from A0 to A3 from night to night; this may possibly be connected with the presence of cold regions on the surface of the star. The mean values of the absolute magnitudes found from the spectra of SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser are, respectively, M /sub V/ = -0 /sup m/ .5, M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .6, and M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .2, which corresponds to giants of luminosity class III. The depths of the hydrogen lines and of K Ca II markedly exceed the depths in the spectra of standard stars of the same spectral class and luminosity class, and the explanation for this is the contribution of the additional absorption in the envelope. A consideration of the photographic observations available in the literature for DD Ser, which cover a period of 25 years, suggests a cyclicity of the fadings of about 4 yr.

  2. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED UX Ori STAR IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Sargent, B.; Boyer, M. L.; Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Sewilo, M. E-mail: duval@stsci.ed E-mail: meixner@stsci.ed E-mail: sargent@stsci.ed

    2010-10-20

    The LMC star, SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9, was first noticed during a survey of EROS-2 light curves for stars with large irregular brightness variations typical of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) class. However, the visible spectrum showing emission lines including the Balmer and Paschen series as well as many Fe II lines is emphatically not that of an RCB star. This star has all of the characteristics of a typical UX Ori star. It has a spectral type of approximately A2 and has excited an H II region in its vicinity. However, if it is an LMC member, then it is very luminous for a Herbig Ae/Be star. It shows irregular drops in brightness of up to 2 mag, and displays the reddening and 'blueing' typical of this class of stars. Its spectrum, showing a combination of emission and absorption lines, is typical of a UX Ori star that is in a decline caused by obscuration from the circumstellar dust. SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 has a strong IR excess and significant emission is present out to 500 {mu}m. Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution requires that SSTISAGE1C J050756.44-703453.9 have both a dusty disk as well as a large extended diffuse envelope to fit both the mid- and far-IR dust emission. This star is a new member of the UX Ori subclass of the Herbig Ae/Be stars and only the second such star to be discovered in the LMC.

  3. HH 222: A Giant Herbig-Haro Flow from the Quadruple System V380 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or "the waterfall" on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ~1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  4. HH 222: A GIANT HERBIG-HARO FLOW FROM THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V380 ORI

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Bally, John; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam E-mail: caa@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu E-mail: stefan.kraus@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or ''the waterfall'' on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ∼1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  5. Characterization of allergenic epitopes of Ory s1 protein from Oryza sativa and its homologs

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruchi; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Umashankar, Vetrivel

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective technique suggested now days for allergy treatment. Recombinant-based approaches are mostly focused on genetic modification of allergens to produce molecules with reduced allergenic activity and conserved antigenicity. The molecules developed for vaccination in allergy possess significantly reduced allergenicity in terms of IgE binding, and therefore will not lead to anaphylactic reactions upon injection. This approach is probably feasible with every peptide allergen with known amino acid sequence. In this study an in silico approach was used to investigate allergenic protein sequences. Motif analysis of these sequences reveals the allergenic epitopes in the amino acid sequences. Physicochemical analysis of protein sequences shows that the homolog allergens of Ory s1 are highly correlated with the aromaticity, GRAVY and cysteine content. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of Ory s1 with other sequences reveals that Oryza sativa japonica and Zea mays are close homologs, whilst Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata are found to be remote homologs. The multiple sequence alignment reveals of Ory s1 with all its homologs in this study reveals the high conservation of residues in DPBB_1 domain (amino acid residue positions 86- 164) and was found distinctly in all the sequences. These findings support the proposal that allergenic epitopes encompass conserved residues. The consensus allergenic was found to be mainly composed of hydrophobic residues. The functional sites of allergenic proteins reported in this study shall be attenuated to develop hypoallergenic vaccine. The sequence comparison strategy adopted in this study would pave way effective evolutionary analysis of these allergens. PMID:20011147

  6. Electromyographic fatigue of orbicular oris muscles during exercises in mouth and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Busanello-Stella, Angela Ruviaro; Blanco-Dutra, Ana Paula; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the process of fatigue in orbicularis oris muscles by analyzing the median frequency of electromyographic signal and the referred fatigue time, according to the breathing mode and the facial pattern. The participants were 70 children, aged 6 to 12 years, who matched the established criteria. To be classified as 36 nasal-breathing and 34 mouth-breathing children, they underwent speech-language, otorhinolaryngologic, and cephalometric evaluation. For the electromyographic assessment, the children had to sustain lip dumbbells weighing 40, 60, and 100 g and a lip exerciser, until the feeling of fatigue. Median frequency was analyzed in 5, 10, 15, and 20 seconds of activity. The referred time of the feeling of fatigue was also recorded. Data were analyzed through the analysis of variance--repeated measures (post hoc Tukey's test), Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. A significant decrease in the median frequency from 5 seconds of activity was observed, independently from the comparison between the groups. On comparison, the muscles did not show significant decrease. The reported time for the feeling of fatigue was shorter for mouth-breathing individuals. This feeling occurred after the significant decrease in the median frequency. There were signals that indicated myoelectric fatigue for the orbicularis oris muscles, in both groups analyzed, from the first 5 seconds of activity. Myoelectric fatigue in the orbicularis oris muscles preceded the reported feeling of fatigue in all groups. The account for fatigue time was influenced by only the breathing pattern, occurring more precociously in mouth-breathing children.

  7. HU, the major histone-like protein of E. coli, modulates the binding of IHF to oriC.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, E; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1992-01-01

    HU is one of the most abundant DNA binding proteins of bacteria. Unlike IHF, integration host factor of Escherichia coli, with which HU shares many properties, including a strong sequence homology and similar predicted structure, HU seems to bind non-specifically to DNA whereas IHF binds to specific sites. In this work we compare the binding characteristics of HU and IHF to a DNA fragment containing the minimal origin of replication of E. coli (oriC) and we analyse the effect of HU on the binding capacity of IHF to this oriC fragment. We show that HU interacts randomly and non-specifically with oriC as opposed to the specific binding of IHF to this same DNA sequence. In addition, we show that HU can modulate the binding of IHF to its specific oriC site. Depending on the relative concentrations of HU and IHF, HU is able either to activate or to inhibit the binding of IHF to oriC. Images PMID:1425583

  8. Serum IGF-I levels are similar in Samoan, Māori and European populations despite differences in body composition.

    PubMed

    Bagg, W; Aoina, J; Cross, P A R; Whalley, G A; Gamble, G D; Doughty, R N; Holdaway, I M

    2006-02-01

    To determine if serum IGF-I concentrations are similar in healthy adult subjects from the Samoan, Māori and European populations in New Zealand. Serum IGF-I concentration was measured in 75 healthy adults, aged 18-50 years, of Samoan (n=23), Māori (n=22) and European (n=30) descent. Body composition was assessed using standard anthropomorphic measures. In addition all subjects had body composition assessed by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Weight, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass were significantly greater in Māori and Samoan subjects than European subjects (ANOVA p=0.006, p=0.0003, p=0.03, respectively). However, serum IGF-I concentration was similar between the groups (European 186.8 SEM 14.9 microg/l, Māori 204.8 SEM 17.1 microg/l, Samoan 180.0 SEM 17.5 microg/l, p=0.58). IGF-I levels were similar between ethnic groups after adjustment (ANCOVA) for age, sex or BMI (p=0.5) or age, sex and fat mass (p=0.44). In multivariate analysis the only independent predictor of IGF-I was age (p<0.001) and explained 22% of the variance in IGF-I level. Serum IGF-I concentrations were similar in Māori, Samoan and European population groups in New Zealand, despite significant differences in anthropomorphic variables and body composition.

  9. Innovative dual impression technique for patients with atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, G; Agarwal, Swatantra; Nirmala, B. G; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Atrophia idiopathica mucosa oris is an oral fibrosing disease resulting in marked rigidity and an eventual inability to open the mouth or had limited mouth opening. Patients with limited mouth opening are a common occurrence in prosthodontic practice. The majority of these patients can be treated with exercise and stretching movements before impressions are made. Some will not respond to these procedures because of facial scarring and surgical manipulation of the facial muscles. This article presents an impression procedure for overcoming difficulties encountered in such reduced mouth opening patients that can be assembled intraorally, disassembled intraorally, and reassembled extraorally. PMID:26929494

  10. Théorie visco-élastique non-extensive I. Théorie simplifiée à modes rotationnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, F.

    The elastic modes theory of nematics is generalized by assuming that each mode is characterized by a wave-vector dependent elastic constant and viscosity. The q dependence is a power law whose exponent v depends on temperature. This theory predicts a phase transition for v = 1 , to be identified with the nematic-isotropic transition. The mathematical form of the temperature dependence of the exponent is conjectured. The macroscopic elastic constant and viscosity as well as tensorial quantities are calculated for all temperatures. An expression for the thermal energy is proposed, which allows to calculate the contribution of the modes to the specific heat. The concept of rotational coherence length is generalized to all temperatures. The influence of applied static magnetic and electric fields is analyzed, and predictions for the field dependence of tensorial properties (such as Cotton-Mouton and Kerr effects) are made. This formalism provides a continuous description of the physical situation through the transition. All expressions depend in a non-trivial way of sample size, thus the non-extensive character. This size dependence implies that all mentioned macroscopic quantities are not intrinsic material constants, but fundamentally depend on the way they are measured. In the following paper (II), most of these predictions are tested against experimental results, using literature data concerning nematics. On présente une théorie des phases condensées formées d'objets uniaxes basée sur l'hypothèse que le désordre orientationnel est, à toute température, un phénomène essentiellement collectif, associé à des modes visco-élastiques thermiquement excités. Sous cet aspect, cette théorie peut être considérée comme une généralisation de la théorie des modes élastiques des phases nématiques, où l'existence de ce type de modes n'est admise qu'en dessous de la transition. Cette généralisation consiste à supposer que les constantes élastiques qui

  11. Influencing Factors and Applicability of the Viability EMA-qPCR for a Detection and Quantification of Campylobacter Cells from Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Seinige, Diana; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of human campylobacteriosis cases caused by contaminated water have been reported. As the culture-based detection of Campylobacter is time consuming and can yield false-negative results, the suitability of a quantitative real-time PCR method in combination with an ethidium monoazide pretreatment of samples (EMA-qPCR) for the rapid, quantitative detection of viable Campylobacter cells from water samples was investigated. EMA-qPCR has been shown to be a promising rapid method for the detection of viable Campylobacter spp. from food samples. Application of membrane filtration and centrifugation, two methods frequently used for the isolation of bacteria from water, revealed a mean loss of up to 1.08 log10 cells/ml from spiked samples. Both methods used alone lead to a loss of dead bacteria and accumulation of viable bacteria in the sample as shown by fluorescence microscopy. After filtration of samples, no significant differences could be detected in subsequent qPCR experiments with and without EMA pretreatment compared to culture-based enumeration. High correlations (R2 = 0.942 without EMA, R2 = 0.893 with EMA) were obtained. After centrifugation of samples, qPCR results overestimated Campylobacter counts, whereas results from both EMA-qPCR and the reference method were comparable. As up to 81.59% of nonviable cells were detected in pond water, EMA-qPCR failed to detect correct quantities of viable cells. However, analyses of spiked tap water samples revealed a high correlation (R2 = 0.863) between results from EMA-qPCR and the reference method. After membrane filtration, EMA-qPCR was successfully applied to Campylobacter field isolates, and results indicated an advantage over qPCR by analysing defined mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. In conclusion, EMA-qPCR is a suitable method to detect viable Campylobacter from water samples, but the isolation technique and the type/quality of the water sample impact the

  12. Influencing factors and applicability of the viability EMA-qPCR for a detection and quantification of Campylobacter cells from water samples.

    PubMed

    Seinige, Diana; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of human campylobacteriosis cases caused by contaminated water have been reported. As the culture-based detection of Campylobacter is time consuming and can yield false-negative results, the suitability of a quantitative real-time PCR method in combination with an ethidium monoazide pretreatment of samples (EMA-qPCR) for the rapid, quantitative detection of viable Campylobacter cells from water samples was investigated. EMA-qPCR has been shown to be a promising rapid method for the detection of viable Campylobacter spp. from food samples. Application of membrane filtration and centrifugation, two methods frequently used for the isolation of bacteria from water, revealed a mean loss of up to 1.08 log10 cells/ml from spiked samples. Both methods used alone lead to a loss of dead bacteria and accumulation of viable bacteria in the sample as shown by fluorescence microscopy. After filtration of samples, no significant differences could be detected in subsequent qPCR experiments with and without EMA pretreatment compared to culture-based enumeration. High correlations (R(2)= 0.942 without EMA, R(2) = 0.893 with EMA) were obtained. After centrifugation of samples, qPCR results overestimated Campylobacter counts, whereas results from both EMA-qPCR and the reference method were comparable. As up to 81.59% of nonviable cells were detected in pond water, EMA-qPCR failed to detect correct quantities of viable cells. However, analyses of spiked tap water samples revealed a high correlation (R(2) = 0.863) between results from EMA-qPCR and the reference method. After membrane filtration, EMA-qPCR was successfully applied to Campylobacter field isolates, and results indicated an advantage over qPCR by analysing defined mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. In conclusion, EMA-qPCR is a suitable method to detect viable Campylobacter from water samples, but the isolation technique and the type/quality of the water sample impact the results.

  13. The voyage to McDonalds--short and long-term factors in the etiology of obesity in Mäori children in Aotearoa.

    PubMed

    Gray, George

    2003-09-01

    In Aotearoa, it has been revealed that 14.7% of European adults are obese, compared with 27.5% for Mäori adults. It has been difficult to elucidate the recent trends in children and adolescents without large-scale population analysis, but a recent study of obesity in Auckland schoolchildren revealed a prevalence rate of 15.8% for Mäori children, compared with 8.6% for European children. This essay will review factors affecting the etiology of obesity in Mäori children. The classification of obesity will be examined before a discussion of short-term and long-term factors leading to obesity in this ethnic group. Measuring Obesity in Children It has been recommended that the BMI range for overweight in Mäori be increased to 27-32, and obesity a BMI greater than 32. Unfortunately though, there is no consensus among researchers and some studies may use the conventional obesity range of a BMI greater than 30 for both Mäori and non-Mäori children. Mäori disproportionately occupy low socioeconomic strata in Aotearoa. The significant discrepancy between obesity prevalence rates for Mäori and European children indicates that other factors are involved. Dietary fat intake, and by extension obesity, tend to be more prevalent for people in low socioeconomic groups, as numerous studies have shown. Therefore, the Mäori-European obesity discrepancy can be further explained by the discrepancy in socioeconomic status between these two groups, as national census data reveal that Mäori are disproportionately represented in all negative socioeconomic indices. However, for completeness, it is necessary to understand exactly why Mäori dominate these indices.

  14. OryR is a LuxR-family protein involved in interkingdom signaling between pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and rice.

    PubMed

    Ferluga, Sara; Venturi, Vittorio

    2009-02-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight in rice, contains a regulator that is encoded in the genome, designated OryR, which belongs to the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing LuxR subfamily of proteins. However, we previously reported that X. oryzae pv. oryzae does not make AHLs and does not possess a LuxI-family AHL synthase and that the OryR protein is solubilized by a compound present in rice. In this study we obtained further evidence that OryR interacts with a rice signal molecule (RSM) and that the OryR concentration increases when rice is infected with X. oryzae pv. oryzae. We also describe three OryR target promoters which are regulated differently: (i) the neighboring proline iminopeptidase (pip) virulence gene, which is positively regulated by OryR in the presence of the RSM; (ii) the oryR promoter, which is negatively autoregulated independent of the RSM; and (iii) the 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase cbsA gene, which is positively regulated by OryR independent of the RSM. We also found that the RSM for OryR is small, is not related to AHLs, and is not able to activate the broad-range AHL biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1(pZLQR). Furthermore, OryR does not regulate production of the quorum-sensing diffusible signal factor present in the genus Xanthomonas. Therefore, OryR has unique features and is an important regulator involved in interkingdom communication between the host and the pathogen.

  15. Characterizing the Uncertainty of Vegetation Moisture Content Retrieval through Radiative Transfer Model Inversion with Landsat 8 OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, E. J.; Boschetti, L.; Johnson, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic monitoring of vegetation moisture content (VMC) would improve early warning systems for conditions of water-stress (leading to decreased crop yield, increased fire risk, and amplified pest outbreaks and wildfires) as well as increase the accuracy of the retrieval of biomass consumed from satellite fire radiative power (FRP) (Smith et al. 2013). VMC is defined as the ratio between water content (weight of live biomass - weight of dry biomass) and either dry or living biomass weight. Despite the wide range of potential applications for systematic estimates of VMC, no VMC thematic product is currently generated (Yebra et al. 2013). The present paper presents the initial steps toward developing a modeling framework for the retrieval of VMC. A suite of field and laboratory measurements were collected weekly for various crop species throughout the 2014 and 2015 summer growing periods in the Southern Palouse region of Idaho. Measurements included: VMC, leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture content, leaf area, canopy height, and ground measured spectroradiometer data (350-2500 nm) of leaf and canopy reflectance. Field measurements were coincident with Landsat 8 OLI overpasses. PROSPECT- 5 and SAIL radiative transfer models were used to generate spectral signatures, simulating a variety of conditions and constrained by field and laboratory observations. Landsat 8 OLI data from coincident overpasses were used in an inversion approach to characterize VMC from field sites. The sources of uncertainty were characterized and examined for future model ensemble development.

  16. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  17. Redesigning the architecture of policy-making: Engaging with Māori on nanotechnology in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Debashish; Kurian, Priya A; Morrison, Talei; Morrison, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on public engagement on the use of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, there is little evidence of the participation of marginalised indigenous communities in processes of such engagement. How do particular cultural values and worldviews shape the perceptions of new technologies among such indigenous peoples? This article addresses this question through an analysis of the deliberations of an indigenous Māori citizens' panel on nanotechnology in Aotearoa New Zealand. An active process of public engagement with the nation's Māori stakeholders, and their conversations with nanotechnology experts, sustainability activists and Māori researchers, helps map an alternative, culture-based architecture of public engagement on policies around new technologies. The analysis is grounded in a concept of active citizenship that we term 'sustainable citizenship'.

  18. Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: Māori oral traditions and natural hazards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of Mātauranga Māori [Māori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map Māori oral traditions (pūrākau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering pūrākau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional Māori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which Mātauranga Taiao [Māori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with Māori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

  19. Tracking Young Adults' Attitudes Toward Tobacco Marketing Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan E; Lu, Bo; Browning, Christopher R; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-07-29

    Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it. During 2015-2016, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which 44 young adults (aged 18-28) carried smartphones equipped with a survey app. Seventy-seven percent were ever-users of tobacco and 29.5% were intermittent users of tobacco (someday users of cigarettes and/or those who used another tobacco product >5 times within the past year). For ten days, participants were prompted at three random times/day to complete a brief survey about their exposures and responses to tobacco-related advertising. Analyses used t-test and multilevel modeling. Intermittent users reported greater exposure than non-intermittent users to tobacco advertising. Further, both intermittent and ever-users reported more positive attitudes toward the tobacco advertising. Of the tobacco advertisements reported, 22% were for products unregulated by the FDA at the time of data collection. Conclusions/Importance: These findings indicate that young adults, and especially young adults who use tobacco, are exposed to a fair amount of tobacco advertising on a weekly basis. As the tobacco users in our sample were largely experimental and occasional users, these marketing exposures could put young adults at risk for progression toward regular use.

  20. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

  1. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  2. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in Its Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C.

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ˜1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ˜1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000-2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013-2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ˜12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ˜14.6 km s-1 and is ˜4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  3. Climate change and the right to health for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys; Bennett, Hayley; Keating, Gay; Blaiklock, Alison

    2014-06-14

    Climate change is widely regarded as one of the most serious global health threats of the 21st century. Its impacts will be disproportionately borne by the most disadvantaged populations, including indigenous peoples. For Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, as with other indigenous peoples worldwide, colonization has led to dispossession of land, destabilization of cultural foundations, and social, economic, and political marginalization. Climate change threatens to exacerbate these processes, adding future insult to historical and contemporary injury. Yet the challenges posed by climate change are accompanied by considerable opportunities to advance indigenous rights and reduce health disparities. In this paper, we examine issues related to climate change and Māori health using a right to health analytical framework, which identifies obligations for the New Zealand government. Copyright © 2014 Jones, Bennett, Keating, Blaiklock. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  4. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  5. Metallurgy of Miura-ori: lattice theory for inhomogeneous deformations of origami tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In nature, as well as in art, one often encounters thin materials that have been deformed by their environment or their creator into complex folded states; examples include the folds of the endoplasmic reticulum, the villi in the intestinal tract, and tessellated patterns in the ancient Japanese art of origami. One (engineering) advantage of creating a folded structure is that the geometric constraints associated with creasing imbues the construction with exotic mechanical properties, such as generating a material with a negative Poisson's ratio. Materials exhibiting novel behavior of this type, arising from the special properties of the unit cell, are generally classified as metamaterials. In this talk I consider a mechanical metamaterial known as Miura-ori, an origami tessellation pattern that displays soft modes and crystallographic defects not accounted for by a purely geometric theory of an infinitely thin material. I will discuss a method for deriving how inhomogeneous deformations arise from bending within Miura-ori, and show that this leads to a natural coherence length over which the inhomogeneity decays. Additionally, I will show how the modular nature of origami unit cells lends additional richness to the mechanical properties associated with deformation.

  6. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  7. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle).

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-01-01

    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  8. Indigenous injury outcomes: life satisfaction among injured Māori in New Zealand three months after injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, experience numerous and consistent health disparities when compared to non-Māori. Injury is no exception, yet there is a paucity of published literature that examines outcomes following a wide variety of injury types and severities for this population. This paper aims to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of life satisfaction three months after injury for a group of injured Māori. Methods The Māori sample (n = 566) were all participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study (POIS). POIS is a longitudinal study of 2856 injured New Zealanders aged 18–64 years who were on an injury entitlement claims’ register with New Zealand’s no-fault compensation insurer. The well-known Te Whare Tapa Whā model of overall health and well-being was used to help inform the selection of post-injury life satisfaction predictor variables. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between potential predictors and life satisfaction. Results Of the 566 Māori participants, post-injury life satisfaction data was available for 563 (99%) participants. Of these, 71% reported satisfaction with life three months after injury (compared to 93% pre-injury). Those with a higher injury severity score, not satisfied with pre-injury social relationships or poor self-efficacy pre-injury were less likely to be satisfied with life three months after injury. Conclusions The large majority of Māori participants reported being satisfied with life three months after injury; however, nearly a third did not. This suggests that further research investigating outcomes after injury for Māori, and predictors of these, is necessary. Results show that healthcare providers could perhaps put greater effort into working alongside injured Māori who have more severe injuries, report poor self-efficacy and were not satisfied with their pre-injury social relationships to ensure increased likelihood of

  9. An indigenous approach to explore health-related experiences among Māori parents: the Pukapuka Hauora asthma study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma for Indigenous New Zealand Māori is amongst the highest in the world. Recent evidence shows ethnic differences in asthma symptom prevalence in New Zealand have widened, with asthma symptoms and hospitalisation rates consistently higher for Māori across all age-groups, especially children and adolescents. This paper: outlines our qualitative, longitudinal research exploring the practical issues Māori children and their families face trying to achieve optimum asthma outcomes; details the research methods used within this study; and discusses the process evaluation findings of the features that made this approach successful in engaging and retaining participants in the study. Methods Thirty-two Māori families were recruited using a Kaupapa Māori (Māori way) Research approach. Each participated in a series of four in-depth interviews that were carried out at seasonal intervals over the course of one year. Families also took part in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and participated in a Photovoice exercise. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers. The research team then conducted the analysis and theme development. The questionnaires were analysed separately, with explanations for findings explored within the qualitative data. Results The methodology produced a 100 percent retention rate of the participating families over the course of the follow-up. This was attributed to the research collaboration, the respectful research relationships established with families, and the families’ judgement that the methods used enabled them to tell their stories. The acceptability of the methodology will add to the validity and trustworthiness of the findings. Conclusion Given the extent and persistence of ethnic disparities in childhood asthma management, it is imperative that an indigenous approach be taken to understanding the core issues facing Māori families. By

  10. Indigenous injury outcomes: life satisfaction among injured Māori in New Zealand three months after injury.

    PubMed

    Wyeth, Emma H; Derrett, Sarah; Hokowhitu, Brendan; Samaranayaka, Ari

    2013-07-17

    ori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, experience numerous and consistent health disparities when compared to non-Māori. Injury is no exception, yet there is a paucity of published literature that examines outcomes following a wide variety of injury types and severities for this population. This paper aims to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of life satisfaction three months after injury for a group of injured Māori. The Māori sample (n = 566) were all participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study (POIS). POIS is a longitudinal study of 2856 injured New Zealanders aged 18-64 years who were on an injury entitlement claims' register with New Zealand's no-fault compensation insurer. The well-known Te Whare Tapa Whā model of overall health and well-being was used to help inform the selection of post-injury life satisfaction predictor variables. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between potential predictors and life satisfaction. Of the 566 Māori participants, post-injury life satisfaction data was available for 563 (99%) participants. Of these, 71% reported satisfaction with life three months after injury (compared to 93% pre-injury). Those with a higher injury severity score, not satisfied with pre-injury social relationships or poor self-efficacy pre-injury were less likely to be satisfied with life three months after injury. The large majority of Māori participants reported being satisfied with life three months after injury; however, nearly a third did not. This suggests that further research investigating outcomes after injury for Māori, and predictors of these, is necessary. Results show that healthcare providers could perhaps put greater effort into working alongside injured Māori who have more severe injuries, report poor self-efficacy and were not satisfied with their pre-injury social relationships to ensure increased likelihood of satisfaction with life soon after injury.

  11. Discrimination of viable and dead Vibrio vulnificus after refrigerated and frozen storage using EMA, sodium deoxycholate and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Lim; Levin, Robert E

    2009-11-01

    The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the viability of Vibrio vulnificus was evaluated using cell suspensions (1x10(8) CFU/ml). Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) was utilized to selectively allow real-time (Rti) PCR amplification of target DNA from viable but not dead cells. Bacterial survivors from the EMA Rti-PCR were evaluated by comparison with the plate count assay following different temperature exposures (-20 and 4 degrees C) every 24 h for 72 h. The log CFU values from the EMA Rti-PCR assays were erroneously higher than that from plate counts. DNA amplification was not completely suppressed by EMA treatment of low temperature destroyed cells suggesting that membrane damage was not sufficient to allow effective EMA penetration into the cells. The optimal concentration of sodium deoxycholate (SD) was also determined to enhance discrimination of viable and dead cells following exposure of cells to low temperatures. The use of 0.01% or less of SD did not inhibit the Rti-PCR amplification derived from viable bacterial cells. A rapid decrease of the log CFU was observed with cell suspensions subjected to frozen storage and a slow decline in the log CFU occurred at 4 degrees C. The combination of SD and EMA treatments applied to cells of V. vulnificus held at -20 degrees C and 4 degrees C resulted in a high level of correlation between the log of CFU (plate counts) and the log of the number of viable cells determined from SD+EMA Rti-PCR.

  12. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA helicase at the Staphylococcus aureus pC221 plasmid replication origin, oriD

    PubMed Central

    Machón, C.; Lynch, G. P.; Thomson, N. H.; Scott, D. J.; Thomas, C. D.; Soultanas, P.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid encoded replication initiation (Rep) proteins recruit host helicases to plasmid replication origins. Previously, we showed that RepD recruits directionally the PcrA helicase to the pC221 oriD, remains associated with it, and increases its processivity during plasmid unwinding. Here we show that RepD forms a complex extending upstream and downstream of the core oriD. Binding of RepD causes remodelling of a region upstream from the core oriD forming a ‘landing pad’ for the PcrA. PcrA is recruited by this extended RepD–DNA complex via an interaction with RepD at this upstream site. PcrA appears to have weak affinity for this region even in the absence of RepD. Upon binding of ADPNP (non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP), by PcrA, a conformational rearrangement of the RepD–PcrA–ATP initiation complex confines it strictly within the boundaries of the core oriD. We conclude that RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA at oriD is a three step process. First, an extended RepD–oriD complex includes a region upstream from the core oriD; second, the PcrA is recruited to this upstream region and thirdly upon ATP-binding PcrA relocates within the core oriD. PMID:20044350

  14. A particular DNA structure is required for the function of a cis-acting component of the Epstein-Barr virus OriLyt origin of replication.

    PubMed Central

    Portes-Sentis, S; Sergeant, A; Gruffat, H

    1997-01-01

    OriLyt, thecis-acting element of Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of replication, consists of upstream and downstream components. The upstream component plays a dual role in transcription and replication. The downstream component contains a homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence which forms an H palindrome. We show that the downstream component can adopt a triple helix structure in vitro, that the 5' border of the homopyrimidine sequence is sensitive to P1 nuclease when carried by a supercoiled plasmid and that an oligonucleotide complementary to the homopyrimidine strand is taken up by a plasmid carrying the OriLyt H palindrome. We also show that all mutations which alter the H palindrome impair both oligonucleotide uptake and OriLyt-dependent replication. Interestingly, compensatory mutations which restore an H palindrome also restore oligonucleotide uptake by the mutated plasmids and their OriLyt-dependent replication. Thus, there is a strong correlation between the inability of the OriLyt H palindrome to form a non-B-DNA structure in vitro and impairment of OriLyt-dependent replication. This suggests that the presence of a non-B-DNA structure in the OriLyt downstream component is required for OriLyt-dependent replication. PMID:9060428

  15. Strategies to reduce the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users).

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie PhD; Cooper, Erana PhD; Wiki, Nick Rn; Field, Trudie Rn; Haitana, Jason; Toko, Mike; Edwards, Erika; McKenna, Brian Rn Ba MHSc PhD

    2016-06-01

    ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have the highest crude population-based rate of seclusion events reported internationally (McLeod et al. ). This qualitative study explored Māori clinical, cultural and consumer perspectives on potential strategies and initiatives considered likely to facilitate prevention of, and reduction in, the use of seclusion, with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users) in mental health inpatient services. A hui (gathering) over 2 days was held with 16 Māori participants with high levels of clinical, cultural and consumer expertise. The gathering was taped and the tapes transcribed. A thematic analysis of the hui data generated three key categories: Te Ao Māori (access to a Māori worldview); Te Ao Hurihuri (transforming practice); and Rangatiratanga (leadership, power, and control). The findings of this study align with the "six core strategies" for best practice to reduce the use of seclusion (Huckshorn ). A comprehensive approach to the reduction of the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora is required, which is clearly based on a Māori model of care and a vision for transformation of practice in mental health inpatient services, which involves Māori leadership.

  16. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    ScienceCinema

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-07-12

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  17. Interaction of HCMV UL84 with C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kagele, Dominique; Gao, Yang; Smallenburg, Kate; Pari, Gregory S

    2009-09-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the cis-acting oriLyt region and requires six core replication proteins along with UL84 and IE2. Although UL84 is thought to be the replication initiator protein, little is known about its interaction with oriLyt. We have now performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) using antibodies specific to UL84, IE2, UL44, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha) and PCR primers that span the entire oriLyt region to reveal an evaluation of specific protein binding across oriLyt. UL84 interacted with several regions of oriLyt that contain C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of either of one of C/EBPalpha (92,526 or 92,535) sites inactivated oriLyt and resulted in the loss of binding of UL84. These data reveal the regions of interaction within oriLyt for several key replication proteins and show that the interaction between UL84 and C/EBPalpha sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

  18. Changes to smoking habits and addiction following tobacco excise tax increases: a comparison of Māori, Pacific and New Zealand European smokers.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Megan R; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-02-01

    To compare changes in smoking habit and psychological addiction in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers in response to two annual excise tax increases from 2012 to 2014. Smokers from New Zealand cities completed questionnaires at three time points before and after two excise tax increases. There were no significant differences in cigarettes per day or psychological addiction at baseline, but a linear decline in both measures was observed in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers. Cigarettes per day reduced at a greater rate for Māori/Pacific than NZ European smokers but dependence did not. Results indicated that Māori/Pacific smokers' demand for cigarettes may be more price sensitive than NZ European smokers. Implications for Public Health: Tobacco excise tax may be particularly effective for Māori/Pacific smokers and may contribute to reductions in smoking-related health inequalities in NZ. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Multiple origin usage for DNA replication in sdrA(rnh) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. Initiation in the absence of oriC.

    PubMed

    de Massy, B; Fayet, O; Kogoma, T

    1984-09-15

    In stable DNA replication (sdrA/rnh) mutants of Escherichia coli, initiation of rounds of DNA replication occurs in the absence of the normal origin of replication, oriC. To determine whether or not the initiation occurs at a fixed site(s) on the chromosome in sdrA mutants, the DNA from exponentially growing sdrA mutant cells with or without the oriC site (delta oriC) was analyzed for the relative copy numbers of various genes along the chromosome. The results suggest that there are at least four fixed sites or regions of the sdrA delta oriC chromosome from which DNA replication can be initiated in the absence of the oriC sequence.

  20. No haste, more taste: An EMA study of the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Reichenberger, Julia; Kuppens, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Ginzinger, Simon; Blechert, Jens

    2016-09-18

    Stress and emotions alter eating behavior in several ways: While experiencing negative or positive emotions typically leads to increased food intake, stress may result in either over- or undereating. Several participant characteristics, like gender, BMI and restrained, emotional, or external eating styles seem to influence these relationships. Thus far, most research relied on experimental laboratory studies, thereby reducing the complexity of real-life eating episodes. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on two key facets of eating behavior, namely taste- and hunger-based eating, in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Furthermore, the already mentioned individual differences as well as time pressure during eating, an important but unstudied construct in EMA studies, were examined. Fifty-nine participants completed 10days of signal-contingent sampling and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results revealed that higher stress led to decreased taste-eating which is in line with physiological stress-models. Time pressure during eating resulted in less taste- and more hunger-eating. In line with previous research, stronger positive emotions went along with increased taste-eating. Emotional eating style moderated the relationship between negative emotions and taste-eating as well as hunger-eating. BMI moderated the relationship between negative as well as positive emotions and hunger-eating. These findings emphasize the importance of individual differences for understanding eating behavior in daily life. Experienced time pressure may be an important aspect for future EMA eating studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Rajkumar S. Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  2. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing & transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  3. Determining the Impacts of Land Cover/use Categories on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT8-OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Ergene, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  4. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  5. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  6. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  7. Interactions between Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces oris, and Candida albicans in the development of multispecies oral microbial biofilms on salivary pellicle.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, I M G; Del Bel Cury, A A; Jenkinson, H F; Nobbs, A H

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is carried orally and causes a range of superficial infections that may become systemic. Oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque and on oral mucosa. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanisms by which S. oralis and A. oris interact with each other and with C. albicans in biofilm development. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms labeled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Actinomyces oris and S. oralis formed robust dual-species biofilms, or three-species biofilms with C. albicans. The bacterial components tended to dominate the lower levels of the biofilms while C. albicans occupied the upper levels. Non-fimbriated A. oris was compromised in biofilm formation in the absence or presence of streptococci, but was incorporated into upper biofilm layers through binding to C. albicans. Biofilm growth and hyphal filament production by C. albicans was enhanced by S. oralis. It is suggested that the interkingdom biofilms are metabolically coordinated to house all three components, and this study demonstrates that adhesive interactions between them determine spatial distribution and biofilm architecture. The physical and chemical communication processes occurring in these communities potentially augment C. albicans persistence at multiple oral cavity sites.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oris J-1, a Potential Probiotic Isolated from the Human Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli can exert health-promoting effects in the human oral microbiome through many mechanisms, including pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus oris J-1, that was isolated from the oral cavity of a health child. PMID:27634996

  9. Risk of stomach cancer in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A Māori population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Sporle, Andrew; Corbin, Marine; Cheng, Soo; Harawira, Pauline; Gray, Michelle; Whaanga, Tracey; Guilford, Parry; Koea, Jonathan; Pearce, Neil

    2017-01-01

    ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, experience disproportionate rates of stomach cancer, compared to non-Māori. The overall aim of the study was to better understand the reasons for the considerable excess of stomach cancer in Māori and to identify priorities for prevention. Māori stomach cancer cases from the New Zealand Cancer Registry between 1 February 2009 and 31 October 2013 and Māori controls, randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll were matched by 5-year age bands to cases. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between exposures and stomach cancer risk. Post-stratification weighting of controls was used to account for differential non-response by deprivation category. The study comprised 165 cases and 480 controls. Nearly half (47.9%) of cases were of the diffuse subtype. There were differences in the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Of interest were the strong relationships seen with increased stomach risk and having >2 people sharing a bedroom in childhood (OR 3.30, 95%CI 1.95–5.59), testing for H pylori (OR 12.17, 95%CI 6.15–24.08), being an ex-smoker (OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.44–3.54) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adulthood (OR 3.29, 95%CI 1.94–5.59). Some results were attenuated following post-stratification weighting. This is the first national study of stomach cancer in any indigenous population and the first Māori-only population-based study of stomach cancer undertaken in New Zealand. We emphasize caution in interpreting the findings given the possibility of selection bias. Population-level strategies to reduce the incidence of stomach cancer in Māori include expanding measures to screen and treat those infected with H pylori and a continued policy focus on reducing tobacco consumption and uptake. PMID:28732086

  10. Risk of stomach cancer in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A Māori population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Sporle, Andrew; Corbin, Marine; Cheng, Soo; Harawira, Pauline; Gray, Michelle; Whaanga, Tracey; Guilford, Parry; Koea, Jonathan; Pearce, Neil

    2017-01-01

    ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, experience disproportionate rates of stomach cancer, compared to non-Māori. The overall aim of the study was to better understand the reasons for the considerable excess of stomach cancer in Māori and to identify priorities for prevention. Māori stomach cancer cases from the New Zealand Cancer Registry between 1 February 2009 and 31 October 2013 and Māori controls, randomly selected from the New Zealand electoral roll were matched by 5-year age bands to cases. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between exposures and stomach cancer risk. Post-stratification weighting of controls was used to account for differential non-response by deprivation category. The study comprised 165 cases and 480 controls. Nearly half (47.9%) of cases were of the diffuse subtype. There were differences in the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Of interest were the strong relationships seen with increased stomach risk and having >2 people sharing a bedroom in childhood (OR 3.30, 95%CI 1.95-5.59), testing for H pylori (OR 12.17, 95%CI 6.15-24.08), being an ex-smoker (OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.44-3.54) and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in adulthood (OR 3.29, 95%CI 1.94-5.59). Some results were attenuated following post-stratification weighting. This is the first national study of stomach cancer in any indigenous population and the first Māori-only population-based study of stomach cancer undertaken in New Zealand. We emphasize caution in interpreting the findings given the possibility of selection bias. Population-level strategies to reduce the incidence of stomach cancer in Māori include expanding measures to screen and treat those infected with H pylori and a continued policy focus on reducing tobacco consumption and uptake.

  11. The lytic origin of herpesvirus papio is highly homologous to Epstein-Barr virus ori-Lyt: evolutionary conservation of transcriptional activation and replication signals.

    PubMed Central

    Ryon, J J; Fixman, E D; Houchens, C; Zong, J; Lieberman, P M; Chang, Y N; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1993-01-01

    Herpesvirus papio (HVP) is a B-lymphotropic baboon virus with an estimated 40% homology to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We have cloned and sequenced ori-Lyt of herpesvirus papio and found a striking degree of nucleotide homology (89%) with ori-Lyt of EBV. Transcriptional elements form an integral part of EBV ori-Lyt. The promoter and enhancer domains of EBV ori-Lyt are conserved in herpesvirus papio. The EBV ori-Lyt promoter contains four binding sites for the EBV lytic cycle transactivator Zta, and the enhancer includes one Zta and two Rta response elements. All five of the Zta response elements and one of the Rta motifs are conserved in HVP ori-Lyt, and the HVP DS-L leftward promoter and the enhancer were activated in transient transfection assays by the EBV Zta and Rta transactivators. The EBV ori-Lyt enhancer contains a palindromic sequence, GGTCAGCTGACC, centered on a PvuII restriction site. This sequence, with a single base change, is also present in the HVP ori-Lyt enhancer. DNase I footprinting demonstrated that the PvuII sequence was bound by a protein present in a Raji nuclear extract. Mobility shift and competition assays using oligonucleotide probes identified this sequence as a binding site for the cellular transcription factor MLTF. Mutagenesis of the binding site indicated that MLTF contributes significantly to the constitutive activity of the ori-Lyt enhancer. The high degree of conservation of cis-acting signal sequences in HVP ori-Lyt was further emphasized by the finding that an HVP ori-Lyt-containing plasmid was replicated in Vero cells by a set of cotransfected EBV replication genes. The central domain of EBV ori-Lyt contains two related AT-rich palindromes, one of which is partially duplicated in the HVP sequence. The AT-rich palindromes are functionally important cis-acting motifs. Deletion of these palindromes severely diminished replication of an ori-Lyt target plasmid. Images PMID:8389916

  12. Special article: airway management in reconstructive surgery for noma (cancrum oris).

    PubMed

    Coupe, Michael Howard; Johnson, Doug; Seigne, Patrick; Hamlin, Bill

    2013-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a disease of poverty and malnutrition, which predominantly affects children younger than 10 years in developing countries. Although the majority of sufferers die of sepsis at the time of the initial infection, or of subsequent starvation due to severe trismus and an inability to eat, a small minority of patients survive and require reconstructive surgery for severe facial scarring and deformity. These patients present significant problems to the anesthesiologist with regard to airway management. We present a series of 26 patients undergoing primary and subsequent reconstructive surgery, with particular focus on airway management. We show that airway management, while challenging, can be performed safely and successfully by using individualized airway plans but may require advanced techniques and equipment. Traditional tests focusing on the anterior/superior airway are helpful in assessing patients with facial deformity due to noma.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic properties of ω Ori (Neiner+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Grunhut, J. H.; Petit, V.; Ud-Doula, A.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J.; de Batz, B.; Cochard, F.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Huat, A.-L.

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution (R~68000) circular polarization (Stokes V) spectra of omega Ori were obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, mounted on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) in Hawaii, and the Narval spectropolarimeter, mounted on the 2-m Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France, as part of the commissioning ESPaDOnS runs (04BE80, 04BE37 and 04BD51), PI programmes (Neiner on Narval L062N05 and L072N08, and Landstreet on ESPaDOnS 07BC08) and of the MiMeS project (Wade on ESPaDOnS 08BP13). Six different epochs of spectropolarimetric data were obtained in 2004, 2007 January, 2007 November, 2008 January, 2008 October and 2009 January that resulted in 125 polarimetric observations. (1 data file).

  14. A Herschel View of Protoplanetary Disks in the σ Ori Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maucó, Karina; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Briceño, César; McClure, Melissa; D'Alessio, Paola; Anderson, Kassandra; Ali, Babar

    2016-09-01

    We present new Herschel observations using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer of 32 T Tauri stars in the young (˜3 Myr) σ Ori cluster. Most of our objects are K and M stars with large excesses at 24 μm. We used irradiated accretion disk models of D’Alessio et al. to compare their spectral energy distributions with our observational data. We arrive at the following six conclusions. (i) The observed disks are consistent with irradiated accretion disk systems. (ii) Most of our objects (60%) can be explained by significant dust depletion from the upper disk layers. (iii) Similarly, 61% of our objects can be modeled with large disk sizes (R d ≥ 100 au). (iv) The masses of our disks range between 0.03 and 39 M Jup, where 35% of our objects have disk masses less than 1 M Jup. Although these are lower limits, high-mass (>0.05 {M}⊙ ) disks, which are present in, e.g., Taurus, are missing. (v) By assuming a uniform distribution of objects around the brightest stars at the center of the cluster, we found that 80% of our disks are exposed to external FUV radiation of 300≤slant {G}0≤slant 1000, which can be strong enough to photoevaporate the outer edges of the closer disks. (vi) Within 0.6 pc from σ Ori we found forbidden emission lines of [N ii] in the spectrum of one of our large disks (SO662), but no emission in any of our small ones. This suggests that this object may be an example of a photoevaporating disk.

  15. The Radio Jet Associated with the Multiple V380 Ori System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Yam, J. Omar; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; Trejo, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    The giant Herbig-Haro object 222 extends over ˜6‧ in the plane of the sky, with a bow shock morphology. The identification of its exciting source has remained uncertain over the years. A non-thermal radio source located at the core of the shock structure was proposed to be the exciting source. However, Very Large Array studies showed that the radio source has a clear morphology of radio galaxy and a lack of flux variations or proper motions, favoring an extragalactic origin. Recently, an optical-IR study proposed that this giant HH object is driven by the multiple stellar system V380 Ori, located about 23‧ to the SE of HH 222. The exciting sources of HH systems are usually detected as weak free-free emitters at centimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the detection of an elongated radio source associated with the Herbig Be star or with its close infrared companion in the multiple V380 Ori system. This radio source has the characteristics of a thermal radio jet and is aligned with the direction of the giant outflow defined by HH 222 and its suggested counterpart to the SE, HH 1041. We propose that this radio jet traces the origin of the large scale HH outflow. Assuming that the jet arises from the Herbig Be star, the radio luminosity is a few times smaller than the value expected from the radio-bolometric correlation for radio jets, confirming that this is a more evolved object than those used to establish the correlation.

  16. A Spectroscopic Study of the Secondary Star of BM Ori: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitrichenko, E. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2001-05-01

    Two CCD spectra of the star BM Ori were obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope. In one of the spectra, a large proportion of lines are distorted by emission. The emission component is blueshifted by 50 km/s, suggesting hot-gas outflow from the atmosphere. The equivalent-width ratio of measured lines in the spectra outside and during eclipse is consistent with the assumption that ~2/3 of the primary star's area is obscured during eclipse, as follows from light curves. Measured line equivalent widths were used to estimate atmospheric parameters of the secondary star, T_eff = 7300 K, log g = 5.2, and microturbulence xi_t = 6 km/s, and to determine its chemical composition. The C, Na, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Zn abundances are solar, within the error limits. Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Y are overabundant, while Mg, Cu, and Ba are underabundant. In general, the secondary is similar in chemical composition to the star V1016 Ori. Based on the secondary's mass determined by solving the radial-velocity curve and on log g estimated spectroscopically from iron ionization equilibrium, we calculated its photospheric radius, R_2 = 0.5 R_solar. However, the spectroscopic log g = 5.2 disagrees with log g = 3.5 calculated from the luminosity and effective temperature and with log g = 3.0 calculated from light and radial-velocity curves. If the secondary's photospheric radius is indeed small, this argues for the hypothesis that the eclipsing body is a dust envelope. The radial velocities measured from the two spectra are systematically higher than those calculated from the radial-velocity curve by +34 and +24 km/s. It is likely that the secondary's atmosphere occasionally shrinks.

  17. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  18. Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  19. KIR diversity in Māori and Polynesians: populations in which HLA-B is not a significant KIR ligand.

    PubMed

    Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Edinur, Hisham A; Hollenbach, Jill A; Traherne, James A; Dunn, Paul P J; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    HLA class I molecules and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) form a diverse system of ligands and receptors that individualize human immune systems in ways that improve the survival of individuals and populations. Human settlement of Oceania by island-hopping East and Southeast Asian migrants started ~3,500 years ago. Subsequently, New Zealand was reached ~750 years ago by ancestral Māori. To examine how this history impacted KIR and HLA diversity, and their functional interaction, we defined at high resolution the allelic and haplotype diversity of the 13 expressed KIR genes in 49 Māori and 34 Polynesians. Eighty KIR variants, including four 'new' alleles, were defined, as were 35 centromeric and 22 telomeric KIR region haplotypes, which combine to give >50 full-length KIR haplotypes. Two new and divergent variant KIR form part of a telomeric KIR haplotype, which appears derived from Papua New Guinea and was probably obtained by the Asian migrants en route to Polynesia. Māori and Polynesian KIR are very similar, but differ significantly from African, European, Japanese, and Amerindian KIR. Māori and Polynesians have high KIR haplotype diversity with corresponding allotype diversity being maintained throughout the KIR locus. Within the population, each individual has a unique combination of HLA class I and KIR. Characterizing Māori and Polynesians is a paucity of HLA-B allotypes recognized by KIR. Compensating for this deficiency are high frequencies (>50 %) of HLA-A allotypes recognized by KIR. These HLA-A allotypes are ones that modern humans likely acquired from archaic humans at a much earlier time.

  20. KIR Diversity in Māori and Polynesians: Populations in which HLA-B is not a Significant KIR Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Edinur, Hisham A.; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Traherne, James A.; Dunn, Paul P. J.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    HLA class I molecules and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) form a diverse system of ligands and receptors that individualize human immune systems in ways that improve the survival of individuals and populations. Human settlement of Oceania by island-hopping East and Southeast Asian migrants started ~3,500 years ago. Subsequently, New Zealand was reached ~750 years ago by ancestral Māori. To examine how this history impacted KIR and HLA diversity, and their functional interaction, we defined at high resolution the allelic and haplotype diversity of the 13 expressed KIR genes in 49 Māori and 34 Polynesians. Eighty KIR variants, including four ‘new’ alleles, were defined; as were 35 centromeric and 22 telomeric KIR region haplotypes, which combine to give >50 full-length KIR haplotypes. Two new and divergent variant KIR form part of a telomeric KIR haplotype, which appears derived from Papua New Guinea and was probably obtained by the Asian migrants en route to Polynesia. Māori and Polynesian KIR are very similar, but differ significantly from African, European, Japanese and Amerindian KIR. Māori and Polynesians have high KIR haplotype diversity with corresponding allotype diversity being maintained throughout the KIR locus. Within the population each individual has a unique combination of HLA class I and KIR. Characterizing Māori and Polynesians is a paucity of HLA-B allotypes recognized by KIR. Compensating for this deficiency are high frequencies (>50%) of HLA-A allotypes recognized by KIR. These HLA-A allotypes are ones that modern humans likely acquired from archaic humans at a much earlier time. PMID:25139336

  1. Comparison of immunohistology using pan-CK and EMA in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer, particularly micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Mao, Shanhua; Zhu, Hongguang

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a suitable method for detecting lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer (GCA) by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We investigated lymph node metastasis using pan-cytokeratin (CK) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) IHC staining in a total of 1,422 lymph nodes from 100 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy between 2007 and 2009. Of 700 intestinal and 722 diffuse type GCA lymph nodes, the metastasis rates were significantly different when using conventional HE staining only or HE supplemented with IHC (P<0.01). The metastasis rate of the intestinal type was 31.71% using HE staining, 35.71% with HE and pan-CK, 35.57% with HE and EMA and 35.71% with combination examinations of all three. The false-positive rate was zero with pan-CK, 12.67% with EMA and 18.57% with all three. The metastasis rate of the diffuse type was 27.70% using HE staining, 36.01% with HE and pan-CK, 35.04% with HE and EMA and 36.01% with all three. The false-positive rate was zero with pan-CK, 7.58% with EMA and 11.86% with all three. For both types, the true-positive and -negative rates of pan-CK were higher than those of EMA. IHC staining is unnecessary if lymph node metastasis is detected in HE staining. If HE staining does not reveal metastasis, pan-CK staining should be performed for further diagnosis.

  2. Diagnostic usefulness of EMA, IMP3, and GLUT-1 for the immunocytochemical distinction of malignant cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusion cytology using cytospin preparations.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Katsuhide; Tate, Genshu; Suzuki, Takao; Kitamura, Takashi; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2011-06-01

    To differentiate reactive mesothelial cells (RMs) from metastatic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma (MM) in effusion cytology is crucial for the cytologic diagnosis and the management of the patients. In the present study, the immunocytochemical staining profile of the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), and the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined to distinguish RMs from malignant cells. A total of 171 pleural (n = 87) and peritoneal (n = 84) effusion specimens, including 50 benign effusions with RMs, 11 MM effusions, and 110 metastatic malignant effusions, were evaluated for immunocytochemistry. EMA, IMP3, monoclonal GLUT-1, and polyclonal GLUT-1 immunoreactivity were observed in 26.0%, 6.0%, 20.0%, and 18.0% of RMs, respectively. In contrast to RMs, the immunoreactivity in MM was 100%, 36.4%, 100%, and 90.9%; adenocarcinoma (AC) was 100%, 80.8%, 81.7%, and 72.1%; squamous-cell carcinoma was 83.3%, 83.3%, 83.3%, and 66.7%. EMA, IMP3, mGLUT-1, and pGLUT-1 expressions were observed in 98.4%, 65.6%, 88.5%, and 75.4% in the pleural effusion with malignant cells, and 100%, 88.3%, 78.3%, and 71.7% in ascites containing malignant cells, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the immunocytochemical staining for EMA, IMP3, and GLUT-1 is a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing effusions containing malignant cells from those that contain benign cells, and in particular, we suggest that the combination of mGLUT-1 and EMA, and IMP3 and EMA are extremely useful in pleural effusion and in ascites, respectively.

  3. Absolute vicarious calibration of Landsat-8 OLI and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensors over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sridhar, V. N.; Prajapati, R. P.; Rao, K. M.; Mathur, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, vicarious calibration coefficients for all the four bands (green, red, NIR and SWIR) of Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensor for four dates during Dec 2013-Nov 2014 and for seven bands (blue, green, red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2 and PAN) of OLI sensor onboard Landsat-8 for six dates during Dec 2013-Feb 2015 were estimated using field measured reflectance and measured atmospheric parameters during sensor image acquisition over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat. The top of atmosphere (TOA) at-satellite radiances for all the bands were simulated using 6S radiative transfer code with field measured reflectance, synchronous atmospheric measurements and respective sensor's spectral response functions as an input. These predicted spectral radiances were compared with the radiances from the respective sensor's image in the respective band over the calibration site. Cross-calibration between the sensors AWiFS and OLI was also attempted using near-simultaneous same day image acquisition. Effect of spectral band adjustment factor was also studied with OLI sensor taken as reference sensor. Results show that the variation in average estimated radiance ratio for the AWiFS sensor was found to be within 10% for all the bands, whereas, for OLI sensor, the variation was found to be within 6% for all the bands except green and SWIR2 for which the variation was 8% and 11% respectively higher than the 5% uncertainty of the OLI sensor specification for TOA spectral radiance. At the 1σ level, red, NIR, SWIR1 and Panchromatic bands of OLI sensor showed close agreement between sensor-measured and vicarious TOA radiance resulting no change in calibration coefficient and hence indicating no sensor degradation. Two sets of near-simultaneous SBAFs were derived from respective ground measured target reflectance profiles and applied to the AWiFS and it was observed that overall, SBAF compensation provides a significant improvement in sensor agreement. The reduction in the difference between AWiFS and

  4. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus OriP function by tankyrase, a telomere-associated poly-ADP ribose polymerase that binds and modifies EBNA1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Atanasiu, Constandache; Zhao, Kehao; Marmorstein, Ronen; Sbodio, Juan I; Chi, Nai-Wen; Lieberman, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    Tankyrase (TNKS) is a telomere-associated poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) that has been implicated along with several telomere repeat binding factors in the regulation of Epstein-Barr virus origin of plasmid replication (OriP). We now show that TNKS1 can bind to the family of repeats (FR) and dyad symmetry regions of OriP by using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and DNA affinity purification. TNKS1 and TNKS2 bound to EBNA1 in coimmunoprecipitation experiments with transfected cell lysates and with purified recombinant proteins in vitro. Two RXXPDG-like TNKS-interacting motifs in the EBNA1 amino-terminal domain mediated binding with the ankyrin repeat domain of TNKS. Mutations of both motifs at EBNA1 G81 and G425 abrogated TNKS binding and enhanced EBNA1-dependent replication of OriP. Small hairpin RNA targeted knock-down of TNKS1 enhanced OriP-dependent DNA replication. Overexpression of TNKS1 or TNKS2 inhibited OriP-dependent DNA replication, while a PARP-inactive form of TNKS2 (M1045V) was compromised for this inhibition. We show that EBNA1 is subject to PAR modification in vivo and to TNKS1-mediated PAR modification in vitro. These results indicate that TNKS proteins can interact directly with the EBNA1 protein, associate with the FR region of OriP in vivo, and inhibit OriP replication in a PARP-dependent manner.

  5. Radiometric Comparison between Sentinel 2A (S2A) Multispectral Imager (MSI) and Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, E.; Haque, M. O.

    2016-12-01

    With its forty-four year continuous data record, the Landsat image archive provides an invaluable source of information for essential climate variables, global land change studies and a variety of other applications. The latest in the series, Landsat 8, carries the Operational Land Imager (OLI), the sensor with an improved design compared to its predecessors, but with similar radiometric, spatial and spectral characteristics, to provide image data continuity. Sentinel 2A (S2A), launched in June 2015, carries the Multispectral Imager (MSI) that has a number of bands with spectral and radiometric characteristics similar to L8 OLI. As such, it offers an opportunity to augment the Landsat data record through increased frequency of acquisitions, when combined with OLI. In this study, we compared Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance of matching spectral bands in MSI and OLI products. Comparison between S2A MSI and L8 OLI sensors was performed using image data acquired near simultaneously primarily over Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site (PICS) Libya 4, but also over other calibration test sites. Spectral differences between the two sensors were accounted for using their spectral filter profiles and a spectral signature of the site derived from EO1 Hyperion hyperspectral imagery. Temporal stability was also assessed through temporal trending of Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance measured by the two sensors over PICS. The performed analysis suggests good agreement between the two sensors, within 5% for the costal aerosol band and better than 3% for other matching bands. It is important to note that whenever data from different sensors are used together in a study, the special attention need to be paid to the spectral band differences between the sensors because the necessary spectral difference adjustment is target dependent and may vary a lot from target to target.

  6. The two Cis-acting sites, parS1 and oriC1, contribute to the longitudinal organisation of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I.

    PubMed

    David, Ariane; Demarre, Gaëlle; Muresan, Leila; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, François-Xavier; Possoz, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The segregation of bacterial chromosomes follows a precise choreography of spatial organisation. It is initiated by the bipolar migration of the sister copies of the replication origin (ori). Most bacterial chromosomes contain a partition system (Par) with parS sites in close proximity to ori that contribute to the active mobilisation of the ori region towards the old pole. This is thought to result in a longitudinal chromosomal arrangement within the cell. In this study, we followed the duplication frequency and the cellular position of 19 Vibrio cholerae genome loci as a function of cell length. The genome of V. cholerae is divided between two chromosomes, chromosome I and II, which both contain a Par system. The ori region of chromosome I (oriI) is tethered to the old pole, whereas the ori region of chromosome II is found at midcell. Nevertheless, we found that both chromosomes adopted a longitudinal organisation. Chromosome I extended over the entire cell while chromosome II extended over the younger cell half. We further demonstrate that displacing parS sites away from the oriI region rotates the bulk of chromosome I. The only exception was the region where replication terminates, which still localised to the septum. However, the longitudinal arrangement of chromosome I persisted in Par mutants and, as was reported earlier, the ori region still localised towards the old pole. Finally, we show that the Par-independent longitudinal organisation and oriI polarity were perturbed by the introduction of a second origin. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par system is the major contributor to the longitudinal organisation of chromosome I but that the replication program also influences the arrangement of bacterial chromosomes.

  7. A Systematic Review of Methods and Procedures Used in Ecological Momentary Assessments of Diet and Physical Activity Research in Youth: An Adapted STROBE Checklist for Reporting EMA Studies (CREMAS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting real-time data based on careful timing, repeated measures, and observations that take place in a participant’s typical environment. Due to methodological advantages and rapid advancement in mobile technologies in recent years, more studies have adopted EMA in addressing topics of nutrition and physical activity in youth. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to describe EMA methodology that has been used in studies addressing nutrition and physical activity in youth and provide a comprehensive checklist for reporting EMA studies. Methods Thirteen studies were reviewed and analyzed for the following 5 areas of EMA methodology: (1) sampling and measures, (2) schedule, (3) technology and administration, (4) prompting strategy, and (5) response and compliance. Results Results of this review showed a wide variability in the design and reporting of EMA studies in nutrition and physical activity among youth. The majority of studies (69%) monitored their participants during one period of time, although the monitoring period ranged from 4 to 14 days, and EMA surveys ranged from 2 to 68 times per day. More than half (54%) of the studies employed some type of electronic technology. Most (85%) of the studies used interval-contingent prompting strategy. For studies that utilized electronic devices with interval-contingent prompting strategy, none reported the actual number of EMA prompts received by participants out of the intended number of prompts. About half (46%) of the studies failed to report information about EMA compliance rates. For those who reported, compliance rates ranged from 44-96%, with an average of 71%. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest that in order to identify best practices for EMA methodology in nutrition and physical activity research among youth, more standardized EMA reporting is needed. Missing the key information about EMA design features and participant

  8. Wāhine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand Māori and non-Māori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of Māori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for Māori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-Māori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of Māori and non-Māori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for Māori and non-Māori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (≤ 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both Māori and non-Māori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to Māori women and infants born to non-Māori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which

  9. Dramatic Evolution of the Disk-shaped Secondary in the Orion Trapezium Star θ1 Ori B1 (BM Ori): MOST Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windemuth, Diana; Herbst, William; Tingle, Evan; Fuechsl, Rachel; Kilgard, Roy; Pinette, Melanie; Templeton, Matthew; Henden, Arne

    2013-05-01

    The eclipsing binary θ1 Orionis B1, variable star designation BM Ori, is the faintest of the four well-known Trapezium stars at the heart of the Orion Nebula. The primary is a B3 star (~6 M ⊙) but the nature of the secondary (~2 M ⊙) has long been mysterious, since the duration and shape of primary eclipse are inappropriate for any sort of ordinary star. Here we report nearly continuous photometric observations obtained with the MOST satellite over ~4 cycles of the 6.47 d binary period. The light curve is of unprecedented quality, revealing a deep, symmetric primary eclipse as well as a clear reflection effect and secondary eclipse. In addition, there are other small disturbances, some of which repeat at the same phase over the four cycles monitored. The shape of the primary light curve has clearly evolved significantly over the past 40 years. While its overall duration and depth have remained roughly constant, the slopes of the descent and ascent phases are significantly shallower now than in the past and its distinctive flat-bottomed "pseudo-totality" is much less obvious or even absent in the most recent data. We further demonstrate that the primary eclipse was detected at X-ray wavelengths during the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) study. The light curve continues to be well modeled by a self-luminous and reflective disk-shaped object seen nearly edge-on orbiting the B3 primary. The dramatic change in shape over four decades is modeled as an opacity variation in a tenuous outer envelope or disk of the secondary object. We presume that the secondary is an extremely young protostar at an earlier evolutionary phase than can be commonly observed elsewhere in the Galaxy and that the opacity variations observed are related to its digestion of some accreted matter over the last 50-100 years. Indeed, this object deserves continued observational and theoretical attention as the youngest known eclipsing binary system.

  10. DRAMATIC EVOLUTION OF THE DISK-SHAPED SECONDARY IN THE ORION TRAPEZIUM STAR {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1} (BM Ori): MOST SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Windemuth, Diana; Herbst, William; Tingle, Evan; Fuechsl, Rachel; Kilgard, Roy; Pinette, Melanie; Templeton, Matthew; Henden, Arne

    2013-05-01

    The eclipsing binary {theta}{sup 1} Orionis B{sub 1}, variable star designation BM Ori, is the faintest of the four well-known Trapezium stars at the heart of the Orion Nebula. The primary is a B3 star ({approx}6 M{sub Sun }) but the nature of the secondary ({approx}2 M{sub Sun }) has long been mysterious, since the duration and shape of primary eclipse are inappropriate for any sort of ordinary star. Here we report nearly continuous photometric observations obtained with the MOST satellite over {approx}4 cycles of the 6.47 d binary period. The light curve is of unprecedented quality, revealing a deep, symmetric primary eclipse as well as a clear reflection effect and secondary eclipse. In addition, there are other small disturbances, some of which repeat at the same phase over the four cycles monitored. The shape of the primary light curve has clearly evolved significantly over the past 40 years. While its overall duration and depth have remained roughly constant, the slopes of the descent and ascent phases are significantly shallower now than in the past and its distinctive flat-bottomed ''pseudo-totality'' is much less obvious or even absent in the most recent data. We further demonstrate that the primary eclipse was detected at X-ray wavelengths during the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) study. The light curve continues to be well modeled by a self-luminous and reflective disk-shaped object seen nearly edge-on orbiting the B3 primary. The dramatic change in shape over four decades is modeled as an opacity variation in a tenuous outer envelope or disk of the secondary object. We presume that the secondary is an extremely young protostar at an earlier evolutionary phase than can be commonly observed elsewhere in the Galaxy and that the opacity variations observed are related to its digestion of some accreted matter over the last 50-100 years. Indeed, this object deserves continued observational and theoretical attention as the youngest known eclipsing

  11. La mécanique du point matériel en théorie de relativité et en théorie des quanta [56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ne légère modification de la mécanique d'EmsTEiN (remplacant l'extrémum de int {m d s = } int {m sqrt { - dot q_μ dot q^μ } } dλ par celui de tfrac{1} {2} int {dot q_μ dot q^μ } dλ ) permet d'établir une nouvelle mécanique relativiste. Ses résultata ne diffèrent pas des résultate obtenus par la forme habituelle, si l'on ne fait intervenir que des champs gravifiques et électromàgnétiques. Mais, tout en gardant la covariance de la théorie, on peut introdurre des champs nouveaux qui ont pour consequence la création de partientes dans la théorie classique.

  12. The Aplication of Landsat 8 OLI for Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Mapping in Gajahmungkur Reservoir Wonogiri Regency 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanti, Apriwida; Susilo, Bowo; Wicaksono, Pramaditya

    2016-11-01

    Gajahmungkur reservoir is administratively located in Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, with the main function as a flood control in the upstream of Bengawan Solo River. Other functions of the reservoir are as hydroelectric power plant (PLTA), water supply, irrigation, fisheries and tourism. Economic utilization of the reservoir is estimated until 100 years, but it is begun to be threatened by the silting of the reservoir. Eroded materials entering water body will be suspended and accumulated. Suspended Material or TSS (Total Suspended Solid) will increase the turbidity of water, which can affect the quality of water and silting the reservoir. Remote sensing technology can be used to determine the spatial distribution of TSS. The purposes of this study were to 1) utilize and compare the accuracy of single band Landsat 8 OLI for mapping the spatial distribution of TSS and 2) estimate the TSS on Gajahmungkur reservoir surface waters up to the depth of 30 cm. The method used for modelling the TSS spatial distribution is the empirical modelling that integrates image pixel values and field data using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The data used in the empirical modelling are single band of visible, NIR, and SWIR of Landsat 8 OLI, which was acquired on 8 May 2016, and field-measured TSS values based on the field data collection conducted on 12 April 2016. The results revealed that mapping the distribution and the estimated value of TSS in Reservoir Gajahmungkur can be performed more accurately using band 4 (red band). The determinant coefficient between TSS field and TSS value of image using band 4 is 0.5431. The Standard Error (SE) of the predicted TSS value is 16.16 mg/L. The results also showed that the estimated total TSS of May 2016 according to band 4 is 1.087,56 tons. The average estimation of TSS value in up to the depth of 30 cm is 61.61 mg/L. The highest TSS distribution is in the northern parts, which was dominated by eroded materials from Keduang

  13. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  14. The expansion of a hypervariable, non-hr ori-like region in the genome of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus provides in vivo evidence for the utilization of baculovirus non-hr oris during replication.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Johannes A

    2002-08-01

    In this report a naturally occurring hypervariable region within the genome of different Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus genotypes is characterized. The region consists of a stretch of direct repeats, short palindromes and an unusual AT-rich region. Although the organization of these repeat sequences is unique to baculoviruses, it has the structural features of a 'non-hr' origin of DNA replication (ori). Restriction analysis and Southern hybridization revealed that this region is expanded during virus replication. Sequence comparison of different isolated genotypes indicated that the expansion is caused by concatenation of short repeats within the region or by concatenation of the complete region. These findings indicate that the expansion of non-hr origin-like regions is not restricted to defective-interfering particles, as was found previously for baculoviruses propagated in cell culture. Moreover, it appears that non-hr complexity contributes to the natural heterogeneity and genetic plasticity of baculovirus genomes. Also, circumstantial evidence is discussed that hr oris might have developed from internal rearrangement and multiplication of a non-hr ori during baculovirus evolution.

  15. Comparison of EMA,CEA, CD10 and Bcl-2 Biomarkers by Immunohistochemistry in Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mazaher; Mohamadzaheri, Elham; Khazaei, Sedigheh; Najafi, Farid; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Rahbar, Mahtab; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC) are the most common skin cancers worldwide and distinction between the two may sometimes be very difficult in routine histopathology. The present study was aimed to evaluate a reliable diagnostic method for these cancers based on immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was used with antibodies to Bcl-2, CD10, CEA, and EMA biomarkers, which despite non-specificity are easily available for detection of various types of tumors in pathology sections and can be used as a panel for differentiation. In this descriptive and analytic study, paraffin- embedded blocks of 29 SCC patients and 29 BCC patients were collected and sectioned for IHC staining. The results were analyzed by the STATA (version 8) statistical package using the Chi-square test. BCC patients were 100%, 75.8%, 0% and 0% positive for Bcl-2, CD10, CEA and EMA markers, respectively, and for SCC patients were 3.5%, 0%, 34.5% and 82.7% positive, respectively. Using simultaneously Bcl-2 and CD10 as positive markers, detection of BCC with 88% accuracy and 100% specificity was possible, while application of CEA and EMA positivity could detect SCC with 67% accuracy and 100% specificity. SCC and BCC have different immunostaining profiles; therefore, Bcl-2, CD10, CEA and EMA markers can be helpful to distinguish between them.

  16. ori science education in Aotearoa New Zealand. He pūtea whakarawe: aspirations and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anaru; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the first two phases of a multiphase science education development project in predominantly Māori kura (school communities) in the central region of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. The development project in its entirety employs an action research methodology and by so doing endeavors to support the improvement of science education delivery in accordance with school community aspirations. The full project (a) establishes the current situation in Year 1-8 science education in the communities; (b) identifies developmental aspirations for stakeholders within the communities and identifies potential contributors and constraints to these aspirations; (c) implements mechanisms for achieving identified aspirations; and finally; (d) evaluates the effectiveness of such mechanisms. In its focus on the first two phases, this article incorporates the analytical lenses of Kaupapa Māori Theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model. It concludes by outlining some priorities to consider for science education development based on the outcomes of our preliminary discussions.

  17. Dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific and Asian adults living in Auckland: the Diabetes, Heart and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Patricia A; Scragg, Robert R K; Schaaf, David; Dyall, Lorna; Black, Peter N; Jackson, Rod

    2008-10-01

    To compare dietary intakes of European, Māori, Pacific, and Asian men and women living in Auckland. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire from participants in a cross-sectional health screening study carried out between 2002 and 2003. Participants were 4,007 Māori, Pacific, Asian and European people (1,915 men, 2,092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Compared with Europeans, Māori and Pacific men had higher total energy intakes per day, while Asians had lower intakes. A similar pattern was observed for carbohydrate and fat consumption. While protein and cholesterol consumption tended to be lower in Europeans than the other three ethnic groups, alcohol consumption and calcium intakes were highest among Europeans. Many of the differences between ethnic groups were attenuated when nutrient consumption was expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intake suggesting that total food consumption was the major determinant of ethnic differences in nutrient intakes. There were substantial differences in dietary habits, food selections and cooking practices between European, Māori, Pacific and Asian participants. However, the observed differences were in the area of serving sizes and frequency of consumption of certain foods than to major differences in the range of foods and nutrients consumed or the percentage contribution of carbohydrate, fat or protein to total energy intake. The development of strategies to reduce serving sizes and the frequency of consumption of certain foods will be required to help address the major nutrition-related health problems in New Zealand.

  18. ori patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease: a New Zealand qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rachael C; Walker, Shayne; Morton, Rachael L; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten; Palmer, Suetonia C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as these are largely unknown for indigenous groups with CKD. Design Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with purposive sampling and thematic analysis. Setting 3 dialysis centres in New Zealand (NZ), all of which offered all forms of dialysis modalities. Participants 13 Māori patients with CKD and who were either nearing the need for dialysis or had started dialysis within the previous 12 months. Results The Māori concepts of whakamā (disempowerment and embarrassment) and whakamana (sense of self-esteem and self-determination) provided an overarching framework for interpreting the themes identified: disempowered by delayed CKD diagnosis (resentment of late diagnosis; missed opportunities for preventive care; regret and self-blame); confronting the stigma of kidney disease (multigenerational trepidation; shame and embarrassment; fear and denial); developing and sustaining relationships to support treatment decision-making (importance of family/whānau; valuing peer support; building clinician–patient trust); and maintaining cultural identity (spiritual connection to land; and upholding inner strength/mana). Conclusions Māori patients with CKD experienced marginalisation within the NZ healthcare system due to delayed diagnosis, a focus on individuals rather than family, multigenerational fear of dialysis, and an awareness that clinicians are not aware of cultural considerations and values during decision-making. Prompt diagnosis to facilitate self-management and foster trust between patients and clinicians, involvement of family and peers in dialysis care, and acknowledging patient values could strengthen patient engagement and align decision-making with patient priorities. PMID:28104711

  19. ori patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease: a New Zealand qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachael C; Walker, Shayne; Morton, Rachael L; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten; Palmer, Suetonia C

    2017-01-19

    To explore and describe Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as these are largely unknown for indigenous groups with CKD. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with purposive sampling and thematic analysis. 3 dialysis centres in New Zealand (NZ), all of which offered all forms of dialysis modalities. 13 Māori patients with CKD and who were either nearing the need for dialysis or had started dialysis within the previous 12 months. The Māori concepts of whakamā (disempowerment and embarrassment) and whakamana (sense of self-esteem and self-determination) provided an overarching framework for interpreting the themes identified: disempowered by delayed CKD diagnosis (resentment of late diagnosis; missed opportunities for preventive care; regret and self-blame); confronting the stigma of kidney disease (multigenerational trepidation; shame and embarrassment; fear and denial); developing and sustaining relationships to support treatment decision-making (importance of family/whānau; valuing peer support; building clinician-patient trust); and maintaining cultural identity (spiritual connection to land; and upholding inner strength/mana). Māori patients with CKD experienced marginalisation within the NZ healthcare system due to delayed diagnosis, a focus on individuals rather than family, multigenerational fear of dialysis, and an awareness that clinicians are not aware of cultural considerations and values during decision-making. Prompt diagnosis to facilitate self-management and foster trust between patients and clinicians, involvement of family and peers in dialysis care, and acknowledging patient values could strengthen patient engagement and align decision-making with patient priorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in Māori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) Māori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk Māori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

  1. Multiple Replication Origins of Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Properties of the Conserved orc7-Dependent oriC1▿

    PubMed Central

    Coker, James A.; DasSarma, Priya; Capes, Melinda; Wallace, Tammitia; McGarrity, Karen; Gessler, Rachael; Liu, Jingfang; Xiang, Hua; Tatusov, Roman; Berquist, Brian R.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2009-01-01

    The eukaryote-like DNA replication system of the model haloarchaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 is encoded within a circular chromosome and two large megaplasmids or minichromosomes, pNRC100 and pNRC200. We previously showed by genetic analysis that 2 (orc2 and orc10) of the 10 genes coding for Orc-Cdc6 replication initiator proteins were essential, while a third (orc7), located near a highly conserved autonomously replicating sequence, oriC1, was nonessential for cell viability. Here we used whole-genome marker frequency analysis (MFA) and found multiple peaks, indicative of multiple replication origins. The largest chromosomal peaks were located proximal to orc7 (oriC1) and orc10 (oriC2), and the largest peaks on the extrachromosomal elements were near orc9 (oriP1) in both pNRC100 and -200 and near orc4 (oriP2) in pNRC200. MFA of deletion strains containing different combinations of chromosomal orc genes showed that replication initiation at oriC1 requires orc7 but not orc6 and orc8. The initiation sites at oriC1 were determined by replication initiation point analysis and found to map divergently within and near an AT-rich element flanked by likely Orc binding sites. The oriC1 region, Orc binding sites, and orc7 gene orthologs were conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Serial deletion of orc genes resulted in the construction of a minimal strain containing not only orc2 and orc10 but also orc9. Our results suggest that replication in this model system is intriguing and more complex than previously thought. We discuss these results from the perspective of the replication strategy and evolution of haloarchaeal genomes. PMID:19502403

  2. A fresh perspective on comparing the FDA and the CHMP/EMA: approval of antineoplastic tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R; Roberts, Samantha A; Shah, Devron R

    2013-09-01

    We compared and determined the reasons for any differences in the review and approval times of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European EMA/CHMP. Applications for these novel cancer drugs were submitted to them within a mean of 31.2 days of each other, providing a fair basis for comparison. The FDA had granted priority review to 12 TKIs but the EMA/CHMP did not grant the equivalent accelerated assessment to any. The FDA granted accelerated approvals to six (38%) and CHMP granted (the equivalent) conditional approvals to four (29%) of these agents. On average, the review and approval times were 205.3 days in the US compared with 409.6 days in the European Union (EU). The active review times, however, were comparable (225.4 days in the EU and 205.3 days in the US). Since oncology drug development lasts about 7 years, the 20 days difference in review times between the two agencies is inconsequential. Clock stops during review and the time required to issue an approval had added the extra 184.2 days to review time in the EU. We suggest possible solutions to expedite the EU review and approval processes. However, post-marketing emergence of adverse efficacy and safety data on gefitinib and lapatinib, respectively, indicate potential risks of expedited approvals. We challenge the widely prevalent myth that early approval translates into early access or beneficial impact on public health. Both the agencies collaborate closely but conduct independent assessments and make decisions based on distinct legislation, procedures, precedents and societal expectations.

  3. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-feng; Wang, Xiu-zhen; Jin, Meng-ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-ying; Zhao, Zhe-wen; Huang, Wei-jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-dong

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available.

  4. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Jin, Meng-Ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-Ying; Zhao, Zhe-Wen; Huang, Wei-Jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available. PMID:26465131

  5. Li3-O-Li3 molecule: a metal-nonmetal-metal sandwichlike compound with a distending electron cloud.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2005-10-22

    The D3d and D2d isomers of the Li3-O-Li3 molecule are metal-nonmetal-metal sandwichlike structures that contain two Li3 superalkali atoms. Their geometries and the real frequencies are obtained at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level. They are different from the traditional types of the nonmetal-metal-nonmetal sandwich compounds. The natural bond orbital calculation and the topological property nabla2rho(r) calculation indicate that they are typical ionic compounds. In two isomers, the O2- anion is sandwiched in between two Li3+ cation rings. However, the different orientations of two Li3+ planes give the D3d isomer its own special characteristics. Under the action of the O2- anion in the center, the valence electrons of the D3d isomer are pushed out from two Li3+ triangle rings. This special interaction causes three phenomena. First, the valence electron clouds are distended. Second, the vertical ionization energy of the D3d isomer is considerably low, 4.39 eV, so that it may also be viewed as a superalkali atom. Third, we find that the D3d isomer owns the out-of-plane aromaticity and the largest negative nucleus-independent chemical shift value (-10.8 ppm) exists at 2.5 A above the center of the Li3+ ring, not at the center of the Li3+ ring like the isolated aromatic Li3+ cation.

  6. Reduced LPS phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella; Bratcher, Preston; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Summary The seqA defect in E. coli increases the ori/ter ratio and causes chromosomal fragmentation, making seqA mutants dependent on recombinational repair (the seqA recA co-lethality). To understand the nature of this chromosomal fragmentation, we characterized ΔseqA mutants and isolated suppressors of the ΔseqA recA lethality. We demonstrate that our ΔseqA alleles have normal function of the downstream pgm gene and normal ratios of the major phospholipids in the membranes, but increased surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphorylation. The predominant class of ΔseqA recA suppressors disrupts the rfaQGP genes, reducing phosphorylation of the inner core region of LPS. The rfaQGP suppressors also reduce the elevated ori/ter ratio of the ΔseqA mutants, but, unexpectedly, the suppressed mutants still exhibit the high levels of chromosomal fragmentation and SOS induction, characteristic of the ΔseqA mutants. We also found that co-lethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal replication, suggesting that LPS phosphorylation stimulates replication initiation. The rfaQGP suppression of the seqA recA lethality provides genetic support for the surprising physical evidence that the oriC DNA forms complexes with the outer membrane. PMID:19432803

  7. How efficient are New Zealand's District Health Boards at producing life expectancy gains for Māori and Europeans?

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Peter; Consuelo, David Juan José Vivas; Rouse, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of New Zealand's District Health Boards (DHBs) at achieving gains in Māori and European life expectancy (LE). Using life tables for 2006 and 2013, a two-output DEA model established the production possibility frontier for Māori and European LE gain. Confidence limits were generated from a 10,000 replicate Monte Carlo simulation. Results support the use of LE change as an indicator of DHB efficiency. DHB mean income and education were related to initial LE but not to its rate of change. LE gains were unrelated to either the initial level of life expectancy or to the proportion of Māori in the population. DHB efficiency ranged from 79% to 100%. Efficiency was significantly correlated with DHB financial performance. Changes in LE did not depend on the social characteristics of the DHB. The statistically significant association between efficiency and financial performance supports its use as an indicator of managerial effectiveness. Implications for public health: Efficient health systems achieve better population health outcomes. DEA can be used to measure the relative efficiency of sub-national health authorities at achieving health gain and equity outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. In vivo dynamics of EBNA1-oriP interaction during latent and lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tohru; Kudoh, Ayumi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sugaya, Yutaka; Isomura, Hiroki; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2004-12-24

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is required for maintenance of the viral genome DNA during the latent phase of EBV replication but continues to be synthesized after the induction of viral productive replication. An EBV genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that EBNA1 constantly binds to oriP of the EBV genome during not only latent but also lytic infection. Although the total levels of EBNA1 proved constant throughout the latter, the levels of the oriP-bound form were increased as lytic infection proceeded. EBV productive DNA replication occurs at discrete sites in nuclei, called replication compartments, where viral replication proteins are clustered. Confocal laser microscopic analyses revealed that whereas EBNA1 was distributed broadly in nuclei as fine punctate dots during the latent phase of infection, the protein became redistributed to the viral replication compartments and localized as distinct spots within and/or nearby the compartments after the induction of lytic replication. Taking these findings into consideration, oriP regions of the EBV genome might be organized by EBNA1 into replication domains that may set up scaffolding for lytic replication and transcription.

  9. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - III. The slow and wide outflow of V883 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Principe, D.; Tobin, J. J.; Zhu, Z.; Zurlo, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array observations of V883 Ori, an FU Ori object. We describe the molecular outflow and envelope of the system based on the 12CO and 13CO emissions, which together trace a bipolar molecular outflow. The C18O emission traces the rotational motion of the circumstellar disc. From the 12CO blueshifted emission, we estimate a wide-opening angle of ˜150° for the outflow cavities. Also, we find that the outflow is very slow (characteristic velocity of only 0.65 km s-1), which is unique for an FU Ori object. We calculate the kinematic properties of the outflow in the standard manner using the 12CO and 13CO emissions. In addition, we present a P Cygni profile observed in the high-resolution optical spectrum, evidence of a wind driven by the accretion and being the cause for the particular morphology of the outflows. We discuss the implications of our findings and the rise of these slow outflows during and/or after the formation of a rotationally supported disc.

  10. Dietary protein intake may reduce hospitalisation due to infection in Māori of advanced age: LiLACS NZ.

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Baggett, Fiona; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Kēpa, Mere; Connolly, Martin; Jatrana, Santosh; Kerse, Ngaire

    2015-08-01

    To investigate factors related to hospital admission for infection, specifically examining nutrient intakes of Māori in advanced age (80+ years). Face-to-face interviews with 200 Māori (85 men) to obtain demographic, social and health information. Diagnoses were validated against medical records. Detailed nutritional assessment using the 24-hour multiple-pass recall method was collected on two separate days. FOODfiles was used to analyse nutrient intake. National Health Index (NHI) numbers were matched to hospitalisations over a two-year period (12 months prior and 12 months following dietary assessment). Selected International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes were used to identify admissions related to infection. A total of 18% of participants were hospitalised due to infection, most commonly lower respiratory tract infection. Controlling for age, gender, NZ deprivation index, diabetes, CVD and chronic lung disease, a lower energy-adjusted protein intake was independently associated with hospitalisation due to infection: OR (95%CI) 1.14 (1.00-1.29), p=0.046. Protein intake may have a protective effect on the nutrition-related morbidity of older Māori. Improving dietary protein intake is a simple strategy for dietary modification aiming to decrease the risk of infections that lead to hospitalisation and other morbidities. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Interkingdom cooperation between Candida albicans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces oris modulates early biofilm development on denture material.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Indira M G; Nobbs, Angela H; Ricomini-Filho, Antônio Pedro; Jenkinson, Howard F; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces.

  12. The 'warrior gene' and the Mãori people: the responsibility of the geneticists.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-09-01

    The 'gene of' is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the 'crime gene', 'poverty gene', 'IQ gene', 'gay gene' or 'gene of alcoholism'. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a 'warrior gene' exists in the Mãori community. This claim came from a geneticist working on the MAOA gene. This article is interested in the responsibility of that researcher regarding the origin of the controversy. Several errors were made: overestimation of results, abusive use of the 'gene of' kind of expression, poor communication with the media and a lack of scientific culture. The issues of the debate were not taken into account sufficiently, either from the political, social, ethical or even the genetic points of view. After more than 100 years of debates around 'genes of' all kinds (here, the 'warrior gene'), geneticists may not hide themselves behind the media when a controversy occurs. Responsibilities have to be assumed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. HST/STIS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MASSIVE TRIPLE STAR δ ORI A

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Lindler, Don J.; Gies, Douglas R.; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2015-07-20

    The multiple star system of δ Orionis is one of the closest examples of a system containing a luminous O-type, bright giant star (component Aa1). It is often used as a spectral-type standard and has the highest observed X-ray flux of any hot-star binary. The main component Aa1 is orbited by two lower mass stars, faint Aa2 in a 5.7 day eclipsing binary, and Ab, an astrometric companion with an estimated period of 346 years. Generally the flux from all three stars is recorded in ground-based spectroscopy, and the spectral decomposition of the components has proved difficult. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectroscopy of δ Ori A that provides us with spatially separated spectra of Aa and Ab for the first time. We measured radial velocities for Aa1 and Ab in two observations made near the velocity extrema of Aa1. We show tentative evidence for the detection of the Aa2 component in cross-correlation functions of the observed and model spectra. We discuss the appearance of the UV spectra of Aa1 and Ab with reference to model spectra. Both stars have similar effective temperatures, but Ab is fainter and is a rapid rotator. The results will help in the interpretation of ground-based spectroscopy and in understanding the physical and evolutionary parameters of these massive stars.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 25 Ori group low-mass stars (Downes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, J. J.; Briceno, C.; Mateu, C.; Hernandez, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Allen, L.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-epoch optical V-, R-, I-band and Hα observations across the entire Orion OB1 association (spanning ~180deg2) were obtained as part of the CVSO (Briceno et al., 2005AJ....129..907B, Cat. J/AJ/129/907), being conducted since 1998 with the Jurgen Stock 1.0/1.5 Schmidt-type telescope and the 8000x8000-pixel QUEST-I CCD Mosaic camera, at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. During 2009 a new dedicated 4m survey telescope, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), located at ESO's Paranal Observatory, was commissioned by the VISTA consortium. For the Galactic Science Verification of VISTA, an ~30deg2 area of the Orion OB1 association, which included the Orion Belt region, part of the Orion A cloud, the 25 Orionis and σ Ori clusters, was imaged in the Z, Y, J, H and Ks filters, during 2009 October 16 to November 2. (3 data files).

  15. The impact of Māori cultural values on forensic science practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui L; Allan, Christine A; Bedford, Keith R; Buckleton, John S; Stuart, Keriata

    2008-03-01

    Forensic science aims to serve society by advancing justice. It is accepted that some actions taken by the state in the interests of advancing justice, such as postmortem examinations, may impinge on values held by members of groups within society. Such actions have the potential to cause cultural offense. It is important that forensic scientists are aware of these issues and that as a profession we should take actions, where possible, to reduce any potential offense and consequently reduce unnecessary distress. This paper examines the impact of these issues on forensic practice in New Zealand, and, in particular, in relation to the cultural values of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Interviews and workshops were used to identify forensic practices involving a risk of cultural offense. Particular issues were identified in regard to crime scene attendance and examination, postmortem attendance and sample storage, disposal, and return. This paper describes the response developed by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) to address these issues, including a cultural awareness training package and reference brochure.

  16. V2494 Cyg: a unique FU Ori type object in the Cygnus OB7 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.; Movsessian, Tigran; Moiseev, Alexei; Aspin, Colin; Davis, Chris J.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Froebrich, Dirk; Smith, Michael D.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Beck, Tracy L.

    2013-07-01

    A photometric and spectral study of the variable star V2494 Cyg in the L 1003 dark cloud is presented. The brightness of the star, formerly known as HH 381 IRS, increased by 2.5 mag in R (probably in the 1980s) and since then has remained nearly constant. Since the brightness increase, V2494 Cyg has illuminated a bipolar cometary nebula. The stellar spectrum has several features typical of the FU Ori (FUor) type, plus it exhibits very strong Hα and forbidden emission lines with high-velocity components. These emission lines originate in the Herbig-Haro (HH) jet near the star. The kinematic age of the jet is consistent with it forming at the time of the outburst leading to the luminosity increase. V2494 Cyg also produces a rather extended outflow; it is the first known FUor with both an observed outburst and a parsec-sized HH flow. The nebula, illuminated by V2494 Cyg, possesses similar morphological and spectral characteristics to Hubble's variable nebula (R Monocerotis/NGC 2261).

  17. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼–¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  18. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    SciTech Connect

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet . E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

    2004-10-25

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

  19. Cis-element, oriR, involved in the initiation of (-) strand poliovirus RNA: a quasi-globular multi-domain RNA structure maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, E V; Poperechny, K V; Maslova, S V; Melchers, W J; Slot, H J; Agol, V I

    1996-01-01

    The key steps in the replication of the poliovirus genome, initiation of (-) and (+) strands, require two different cis-acting elements, oriR and oriL, respectively. It has been proposed that the spatial organization of these elements is maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions between the loops of two constituent hairpins. Here, the putative partners of the kissing interaction within the oriR of the full-length poliovirus RNA were modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The destabilization of this interaction resulted in a severe suppression of the viral RNA synthesis, but the mutant transcripts proved to be infectious. With a single exception, the potential for the kissing interaction within the oriR of the recovered viruses was partially or completely restored due to either true reversions or second-site compensatory mutations. There was a good correlation between the restoration of this potential and the phenotypic properties of the viruses. It was concluded that the kissing interaction in the poliovirus oriR is functionally important. Using the above experimental data, a three-dimensional structure was derived by molecular modeling techniques, which demonstrated the overall feasibility of the proposed interactions and displayed the poliovirus oriR as a quasi-globular multi-domain structure. Images PMID:8895586

  20. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break-induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5'-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ(-) mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ(-) cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ(+) cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5.

  1. Cancer in Māori: lessons from prostate, colorectal and gastric cancer and progress in hereditary stomach cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Blair, Vanessa; Kahokehr, Arman; Sammour, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Persisting ethnic disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes exist between Māori and non-Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It is difficult to disentangle the complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the variation in cancer statistics between these two groups. In Māori, the sites of highest cancer incidence are the prostate in men, breast in women and lung in both - the next most common cancers in Māori are colorectal and stomach cancer. This paper discusses colorectal, prostate and stomach cancer in Māori to illustrate selected issues that impact on cancer care. Colorectal cancer is discussed to illustrate the importance of accurate cancer statistics to focus management strategies. Prostate cancer in Māori is reviewed - an area where cultural factors impact on care delivery. Sporadic stomach cancer in New Zealand is used to show how sub-classification of different types of cancer can be important and illustrate the breadth of putative causal factors. Then follows an overview of developments in hereditary gastric cancer in New Zealand in the last 15 years, showing how successful clinical and research partnerships can improve patient outcomes. One example is the Kimi Hauora Clinic, which provides support to cancer patients, mutation carriers and their families, helping them navigate the interface with the many health-care professionals involved in the multidisciplinary care of cancer patients in the 21st century. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. migS, a cis-acting site that affects bipolar positioning of oriC on the Escherichia coli chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Niki, Hironori

    2004-01-01

    During replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome, the replicated Ori domains migrate towards opposite cell poles, suggesting that a cis-acting site for bipolar migration is located in this region. To identify this cis-acting site, a series of mutants was constructed by splitting subchromosomes from the original chromosome. One mutant, containing a 720 kb subchromosome, was found to be defective in the bipolar positioning of oriC. The creation of deletion mutants allowed the identification of migS, a 25 bp sequence, as the cis-acting site for the bipolar positioning of oriC. When migS was located at the replication terminus, the chromosomal segment showed bipolar positioning. migS was able to rescue bipolar migration of plasmid DNA containing a mutation in the SopABC partitioning system. Interestingly, multiple copies of the migS sequence on a plasmid in trans inhibited the bipolar positioning of oriC. Taken together, these findings indicate that migS plays a crucial role in the bipolar positioning of oriC. In addition, real-time analysis of the dynamic morphological changes of nucleoids in wild-type and migS mutants suggests that bipolar positioning of the replicated oriC contributes to nucleoid organization. PMID:14685268

  3. Let's kōrero (talk): the practice and functions of reminiscing among mothers and children in Māori families.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Neha, Tia

    2015-01-01

    ori adults recall earlier memories than New Zealand European or Chinese adults, highlighting the importance of memory in Māori culture. In this study, Māori preschool children and their mothers (N = 41) reminisced about a diverse range of past events, including everyday events, the child's birth, cultural rituals and the child's misbehaviour. Mothers also reported how frequently they discussed past events with their children, as well as their level of affiliation with Māori culture. Mothers who reported higher levels of cultural affiliation also reported reminiscing more frequently about a diverse range of past events. Mothers reminisced in more elaborative ways about everyday events with their children compared to birth stories, cultural rituals and misbehaviours. Maternal reminiscing about cultural rituals and misbehaviours, however, along with maternal reminiscing about everyday events and birth stories, were significantly correlated with children's memory across conversations. These results underscore the continued importance of reminiscing about culturally relevant events in Māori culture, and the newfound importance for Māori families of reminiscing about everyday events.

  4. Multiple EBNA1-binding sites within oriPI are required for EBNA1-dependent transactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus C promoter.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Boreström, Cecilia; Nilsson, Tina; Rymo, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The transactivating function of the oriPI-EBNA1 complex is essential for activation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) C promoter (Cp) in lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing the viral growth programme. Furthermore, the oriPI-EBNA1 complex is believed to play an important role during promoter switching upon primary infection of B-lymphocytes and establishment of latent infection in vivo. Previously, it was shown that six EBNA1-binding sites within oriPI were required for transactivation of the heterologous thymidine kinase promoter. Here, we define the number of EBNA1-binding sites within oriPI necessary for its biological function as EBNA1-dependent Cp enhancer. We show that four EBNA1-binding sites within oriPI lead to significant upregulation of Cp in response to EBNA1 and eight or more to full activation. Thus, multiple EBNA1 homodimers at oriPI are required for the formation of a transcriptionally active Cp complex, a process that involves EBNA1-induced changes in the chromatin structure including DNA looping and nucleosome destabilization.

  5. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break–induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5′-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ− mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ− cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ+ cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5. PMID:23598996

  6. An investigation of spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration induced by a bay bridge based on Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, LiNa; Tang, DanLing; Li, CongYing

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) induced by Hangzhou Bay Bridge (HBB) in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and in-situ measurements, spectral characteristics of waters in Hangzhou Bay and SSC retrieved from near infrared single band have been analyzed. The results revealed significant difference of SSC in the water on two sides of HBB. SSC increases downstream of the bridge under conditions of low turbidity (SSC < 300 mg l-1) upstream water, while SSC decreases when high turbidity water (SSC > 400 mg l-1) upstream. This study shows that the interaction of bridge piers and currents has important influences on SSC distribution by inducing hydrodynamic factors and by changing suspended sediment transport. Remotely sensed data with high spatial resolution as TM and OLI can be applied to investigate SSC variations induced by a bridge in the bay area.

  7. Estimation of Lake Water Temperature with ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS Thermal Infrared Bands: A Case Study Beysehir Lake (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    Beyşehir Lake is the largest fresh water lake in our country with the 653 km2 surface area. Lake water have used for drinking water of several settlements in the basin. Beyşehir Lake is a shallow lake and, especially in recent years its water level was dropped due to unplanned usage and effects of climate change.In this study, determination of the water temperature in Lake Beyşehir is aimed using 90m resolution thermal infrared bands of ASTER (Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite and 30m resolution thermal infrared bands of Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite. The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied to ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite images to determine lake surface area. Accordingly, the lake water temperature is generally proportional to the depth and it relatively higher in the shallow area.

  8. Effects of mouth rehabilitation with removable complete dentures on stimulus perception and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oris muscle.

    PubMed

    de Caxias, Fernanda P; Dos Santos, Daniela M; Goiato, Marcelo C; Bitencourt, Sandro B; da Silva, Emily V F; Laurindo-Junior, Murilo C B; Turcio, Karina H L

    2017-09-26

    Many elderly individuals are rehabilitated with removable complete dentures, which require an initial adaptation period for both oral perception and the perioral muscles. Studies assessing the changes in stimulus perception and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the orbicularis oris muscle shortly after conventional complete denture insertion are lacking. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of mouth rehabilitation with removable complete dentures on stimulus perception and the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Araçatuba Dental School (São Paulo State University). Fifteen participants who had worn their removable complete dentures for at least 5 years and needed rehabilitation with new prostheses were enrolled in the study. A perception questionnaire was applied, and surface EMG examinations of the orbicularis oris muscle during rest, suction of water with a straw, and pronunciation of the syllables /bah/, /mah/, /pah/, and the word 'Mississippi' were performed before (T0) and 30 (T1) and 100 (T2) days after insertion of the new prostheses. The data were analyzed with the Cochran Q test, McNemar test, 2-way repeated measures ANOVA, and honestly significant difference (HSD) Tukey test (α=.05). Significant improvement was reported in the perception questionnaire in terms of the oral discomfort sensation in the T2 period. EMG activity decreased during rest and suction after insertion of the new prostheses. A statistical difference between the upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle was detected, with a decrease of EMG activity between the T0 and T1 periods on the lower fascicle, except for when pronouncing the /pah/ syllable. Mouth rehabilitation with removable complete dentures decreased oral discomfort and, depending on the oral function, decreased or increased EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle. In addition, the lower fascicle

  9. Whakawhanaungatanga: the importance of culturally meaningful connections to improve uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Levack, William MM; Jones, Bernadette; Grainger, Rebecca; Boland, Pauline; Brown, Melanie; Ingham, Tristram R

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation is known to improve function and quality of life for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little research has been conducted on the influence of culture on experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study examined factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD in New Zealand. Method Grounded theory nested within kaupapa Māori methodology. Transcripts were analyzed from interviews and focus groups with 15 Māori and ten New Zealand non-Māori invited to attend pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD. Māori participants had either attended a mainstream hospital-based program, a community-based program designed “by Māori, for Māori”, or had experienced both. Results Several factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation were common to all participants regardless of ethnicity: 1) participants’ past experiences (eg, of exercise; of health care systems), 2) attitudes and expectations, 3) access issues (eg, time, transport, and conflicting responsibilities), and 4) initial program experiences. These factors were moderated by the involvement of family and peers, interactions with health professionals, the way information on programs was presented, and by new illness events. For Māori, however, several additional factors were also identified relating to cultural experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. In particular, Māori participants placed high value on whakawhanaungatanga: the making of culturally meaningful connections with others. Culturally appropriate communication and relationship building was deemed so important by some Māori participants that when it was absent, they felt strongly discouraged to attend pulmonary rehabilitation. Only the more holistic services offered a program in which they felt culturally safe and to which they were willing to return for ongoing rehabilitation. Conclusion Lack of attention to cultural factors in the delivery of

  10. HCF1 and OCT2 Cooperate with EBNA1 To Enhance OriP-Dependent Transcription and Episome Maintenance of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Cassel, Joel; Messick, Troy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infections as multicopy episomes with complex patterns of viral gene transcription and chromatin structure. The EBV origin of plasmid replication (OriP) has been implicated as a critical control element for viral transcription, as well as viral DNA replication and episome maintenance. Here, we examine cellular factors that bind OriP and regulate histone modification, transcription regulation, and episome maintenance. We found that OriP is enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation in multiple cell types and latency types. Host cell factor 1 (HCF1), a component of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) histone methyltransferase complex, and transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding transcription factor 2) bound cooperatively with EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1) at OriP. Depletion of OCT2 or HCF1 deregulated latency transcription and histone modifications at OriP, as well as the OriP-regulated latency type-dependent C promoter (Cp) and Q promoter (Qp). HCF1 depletion led to a loss of histone H3K4me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4) and H3 acetylation at Cp in type III latency and Qp in type I latency, as well as an increase in heterochromatic H3K9me3 at these sites. HCF1 depletion resulted in the loss of EBV episomes from Burkitt's lymphoma cells with type I latency and reactivation from lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) with type III latency. These findings indicate that HCF1 and OCT2 function at OriP to regulate viral transcription, histone modifications, and episome maintenance. As HCF1 is best known for its function in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early gene transcription, our findings suggest that EBV latency transcription shares unexpected features with HSV gene regulation. IMPORTANCE EBV latency is associated with several human cancers. Viral latent cycle gene expression is regulated by the epigenetic control of the OriP enhancer region. Here, we show that cellular factors

  11. HCF1 and OCT2 Cooperate with EBNA1 To Enhance OriP-Dependent Transcription and Episome Maintenance of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus.

    PubMed

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Wiedmer, Andreas; Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Cassel, Joel; Messick, Troy; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infections as multicopy episomes with complex patterns of viral gene transcription and chromatin structure. The EBV origin of plasmid replication (OriP) has been implicated as a critical control element for viral transcription, as well as viral DNA replication and episome maintenance. Here, we examine cellular factors that bind OriP and regulate histone modification, transcription regulation, and episome maintenance. We found that OriP is enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation in multiple cell types and latency types. Host cell factor 1 (HCF1), a component of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) histone methyltransferase complex, and transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding transcription factor 2) bound cooperatively with EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1) at OriP. Depletion of OCT2 or HCF1 deregulated latency transcription and histone modifications at OriP, as well as the OriP-regulated latency type-dependent C promoter (Cp) and Q promoter (Qp). HCF1 depletion led to a loss of histone H3K4me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4) and H3 acetylation at Cp in type III latency and Qp in type I latency, as well as an increase in heterochromatic H3K9me3 at these sites. HCF1 depletion resulted in the loss of EBV episomes from Burkitt's lymphoma cells with type I latency and reactivation from lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) with type III latency. These findings indicate that HCF1 and OCT2 function at OriP to regulate viral transcription, histone modifications, and episome maintenance. As HCF1 is best known for its function in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early gene transcription, our findings suggest that EBV latency transcription shares unexpected features with HSV gene regulation. EBV latency is associated with several human cancers. Viral latent cycle gene expression is regulated by the epigenetic control of the OriP enhancer region. Here, we show that cellular factors OCT2 and HCF1 bind Ori

  12. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  13. Multiscale object-based drought monitoring and comparison in rainfed and irrigated agriculture from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Chen, Gang; Ustundag, Burak Berk

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a rapidly rising environmental issue that can cause hardly repaired or unrepaired damages to the nature and socio-economy. This is especially true for a region that features arid/semi-arid climate, including the Turkey's most important agricultural district - Southeast Anatolia. In this area, we examined the uncertainties of applying Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) NDVI data to estimate meteorological drought - Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) - measured from 31 in-situ agro-meteorological monitoring stations during spring and summer of 2013 and 2014. Our analysis was designed to address two important, yet under-examined questions: (i) how does the co-existence of rainfed and irrigated agriculture affect remote sensing drought monitoring in an arid/semi-arid region? (ii) What is the role of spatial scale in drought monitoring using a GEOBIA (geographic object-based image analysis) framework? Results show that spatial scale exerted a higher impact on drought monitoring especially in the drier year 2013, during which small scales were found to outperform large scales in general. In addition, consideration of irrigated and rainfed areas separately ensured a better performance in drought analysis. Compared to the positive correlations between SPI and NDVI over the rainfed areas, negative correlations were determined over the irrigated agricultural areas. Finally, the time lag effect was evident in the study, i.e., strong correlations between spring SPI and summer NDVI in both 2013 and 2014. This reflects the fact that spring watering is crucial for the growth and yield of the major crops (i.e., winter wheat, barley and lentil) cultivated in the region.

  14. Host Range of the Conjugative Transfer System of IncP-9 Naphthalene-Catabolic Plasmid NAH7 and Characterization of Its oriT Region and Relaxase

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kouhei; Inoue, Kei; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT NAH7 and pWW0 from gammaproteobacterial Pseudomonas putida strains are IncP-9 conjugative plasmids that carry the genes for degradation of naphthalene and toluene, respectively. Although such genes on these plasmids are well-characterized, experimental investigation of their conjugation systems remains at a primitive level. To clarify these conjugation systems, in this study, we investigated the NAH7-encoded conjugation system by (i) analyzing the origin of its conjugative transfer (oriT)-containing region and its relaxase, which specifically nicks within the oriT region for initiation of transfer, and (ii) comparing the conjugation systems between NAH7 and pWW0. The NAH7 oriT (oriTN) region was located within a 430-bp fragment, and the strand-specific nicking (nic) site and its upstream sequences that were important for efficient conjugation in the oriTN region were identified. Unlike many other relaxases, the NAH7 relaxase exhibited unique features in its ability to catalyze, in a conjugation-independent manner, the site-specific intramolecular recombination between two copies of the oriTN region, between two copies of the pWW0 oriT (oriTW) region (which is clearly different from the oriTN region), and between the oriTN and oriTW regions. The pWW0 relaxase, which is also clearly different from the NAH7 relaxase, was strongly suggested to have the ability to conjugatively and efficiently mobilize the oriTN-containing plasmid. Such a plasmid was, in the presence of the NAH7Δnic derivative, conjugatively transferable to alphaproteobacterial and betaproteobacterial strains in which the NAH7 replication machinery is nonfunctional, indicating that the NAH7 conjugation system has a broader host range than its replication system. IMPORTANCE Various studies have strongly suggested an important contribution of conjugative transfer of catabolic plasmids to the rapid and wide dissemination of the plasmid-loaded degradation genes to microbial populations

  15. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1. I. The Low-Mass Population of Ori OB1a and 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Hernández, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Hartmann, Lee; Downes, J. J.; Berlind, Perry

    2005-02-01

    We present results of a large-scale, multiepoch optical survey of the Orion OB1 association, carried out with the QUEST camera at the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory. We identify for the first time the widely spread low-mass, young population in the Ori OB1a and OB1b subassociations. Candidate members were picked up by their variability in the V band and position in color-magnitude diagrams. We obtained spectra to confirm membership. In a region spanning ~68 deg2, we found 197 new young stars; of these, 56 are located in the Ori OB1a subassociation and 141 in Ori OB1b. The spatial distribution of the low-mass young stars is spatially coincident with that of the high-mass members but suggests a much sharper edge to the association. Comparison with the spatial extent of molecular gas and extinction maps indicates that the subassociation Ori OB1b is concentrated within a ringlike structure of radius ~2°(~15 pc at 440 pc), centered roughly on the star ɛ Ori in the Orion belt. The ring is apparent in 13CO and corresponds to a region with an extinction AV>=1. The stars exhibiting strong Hα emission, an indicator of active accretion, are found along this ring, whereas the center is populated with weak Hα-emitting stars. In contrast, Ori OB1a is located in a region devoid of gas and dust. We identify a grouping of stars within a ~3 deg2 area located in Ori OB1a, roughly clustered around the B2 star 25 Ori. The Herbig Ae/Be star V346 Ori is also associated with this grouping, which could be an older analog of σ Ori. Using several sets of evolutionary tracks, we find an age of 7-10 Myr for Ori OB1a and of ~4-6 Myr for Ori OB1b, consistent with previous estimates from OB stars. Indicators such as the equivalent width of Hα and near-IR excesses show that the number of accreting low-mass stars decreases sharply between Ori OB1b and Ori OB1a. These results indicate that although a substantial fraction of accreting disks remain at ages ~5 Myr, inner disks are

  16. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regression Curve for Predicting Response to EMA/CO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine) Regimen in Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rattanaburi, Athithan; Boonyapipat, Sathana; Supasinth, Yuthasak

    2015-01-01

    An hCG regression curve has been used to predict the natural history and response to chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease. We constructed hCG regression curves in high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) treated with EMA/CO and identified an optimal hCG level to detect EMA/CO resistance in GTN. Eighty-one women with GTN treated with EMA/CO were classified as primary high-risk GTN (n=65) and single agent-resistance GTN (n=16). The hCG levels prior to each course of chemotherapy were plotted in the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles to construct the hCG regression curves. Diagnostic performance was evaluated for an optimal cut-off value. The median hCG levels were 264,482 mIU/mL mIU/mL and 495.5 mIU/mL mIU/mL for primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance GTN, respectively. The 50th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 4th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The 90th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 9th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The hCG level of ≥118.6 mIU/mL mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of EMA/CO predicted the EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN patients with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN can be predicted by using an hCG regression curve in combination with the cut-off value of 118.6 mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of chemotherapy.

  17. The 2015-2016 Outburst of the Classical EXor V1118 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Munari, U.; Li Causi, G.; Manara, C. F.; Nisini, B.; Arkharov, A. A.; Dallaporta, S.; Di Paola, A.; Giunta, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Klimanov, S. A.; Marchetti, A.; Righetti, G. L.; Rossi, A.; Strafella, F.; Testa, V.

    2017-04-01

    After a quiescence period of about 10 years, the classical EXor source V1118 Ori has undergone an accretion outburst in 2015 September. The maximum brightness ({{Δ }}V≳ 4 mag) was reached in 2015 December and was maintained for several months. Since 2016 September, the source is in a declining phase. Photometry and low/high-resolution spectroscopy were obtained with MODS and LUCI2 at the Large Binocular Telescope, with the facilities at the Asiago 1.22 and 1.82 m telescopes, and with GIANO at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. The spectra are dominated by emission lines of H i and neutral metallic species. From line and continuum analysis we derive the mass accretion rate and its evolution during the outburst. Considering that extinction may vary between 1.5 and 2.9 mag, we obtain {\\dot{M}}{acc} = 0.3-2.0 10-8 M {}⊙ yr-1 in quiescence and {\\dot{M}}{acc} = 0.2-1.9 10-6 M {}⊙ yr-1 at the outburst peak. The Balmer decrement shape has been interpreted by means of line excitation models, finding that from quiescence to outburst peak, the electron density has increased from ˜2 109 cm-3 to ˜4 1011 cm-3. The profiles of the metallic lines are symmetric and narrower than 100 km s-1, while H i and He i lines show prominent wings extending up to ±500 km s-1. The metallic lines likely originate at the base of the accretion columns, where neutrals are efficiently shielded against the ionizing photons, while faster ionized gas is closer to the star. Outflowing activity is testified by the detection of a variable P Cyg-like profile of the Hα and He i 1.08 μm lines.

  18. Scientific considerations concerning the EMA change in the definition of "dose" of the BCS-based biowaiver guideline and implications for bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Daousani, Chrysa; Macheras, Panos

    2015-01-30

    This work discusses the scientific aspects of the definition of dose as the 'highest single oral IR dose' recommended for administration in the SmPC (summary of product characteristics) in the current European Medicines Agency (EMA) 2010 Guideline, for the purpose of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS)-based biowaiver decision making. Analysis of theoretical and experimental data dealing with drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic drug classification reveals that the drug dose is an important parameter for both drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic classification. The relevant implications for the dose considerations in bioequivalence studies are also discussed briefly. It is suggested that the concept of "the highest single dose oral IR dose recommended for administration in the SmPC" of the EMA 2010 Guideline be abolished. It is advisable, each dose strength be considered separately i.e., whether or not it meets the solubility-dissolution regulatory criteria.

  19. Transfer Protein TraY of Plasmid R1 Stimulates TraI-Catalyzed oriT Cleavage In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Wolfgang; Bamberger, Martina; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of TraY protein on TraI-catalyzed strand scission at the R1 transfer origin (oriT) in vivo was investigated. As expected, the cleavage reaction was not detected in Escherichia coli cells expressing tral and the integration host factor (IHF) in the absence of other transfer proteins. The TraM dependence of strand scission was found to be inversely correlated with the presence of TraY. Thus, the TraY and TraM proteins could each enhance cleaving activity at oriT in the absence of the other. In contrast, no detectable intracellular cleaving activity was exhibited by TraI in an IHF mutant strain despite the additional presence of both TraM and TraY. An essential role for IHF in this reaction in vivo is, therefore, implied. Mobilization experiments employing recombinant R1 oriT constructions and a heterologous conjugative helper plasmid were used to investigate the independent contributions of TraY and TraM to the R1 relaxosome during bacterial conjugation. In accordance with earlier observations, traY was dispensable for mobilization in the presence of traM, but mobilization did not occur in the absence of both traM and traY. Interestingly, although the cleavage assays demonstrate that TraM and TraY independently promote strand scission in vivo, TraM remained essential for mobilization of the R1 origin even in the presence of TraY. These findings suggest that, whereas TraY and TraM function may overlap to a certain extent in the R1 relaxosome, TraM additionally performs a second function that is essential for successful conjugative transmission of plasmid DNA. PMID:11208788

  20. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  1. The Proximity of Ribosomal Protein Genes to oriC Enhances Vibrio cholerae Fitness in the Absence of Multifork Replication

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Timmermans, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent works suggest that bacterial gene order links chromosome structure to cell homeostasis. Comparative genomics showed that, in fast-growing bacteria, ribosomal protein genes (RP) locate near the replication origin (oriC). We recently showed that Vibrio cholerae employs this positional bias as a growth optimization strategy: under fast-growth conditions, multifork replication increases RP dosage and expression. However, RP location may provide advantages in a dosage-independent manner: for example, the physical proximity of the many ribosomal components, in the context of a crowded cytoplasm, may favor ribosome biogenesis. To uncover putative dosage-independent effects, we studied isogenic V. cholerae derivatives in which the major RP locus, S10-spc-α (S10), was relocated to alternative genomic positions. When bacteria grew fast, bacterial fitness was reduced according to the S10 relative distance to oriC. The growth of wild-type V. cholerae could not be improved by additional copies of the locus, suggesting a physiologically optimized genomic location. Slow growth is expected to uncouple RP position from dosage, since multifork replication does not occur. Under these conditions, we detected a fitness impairment when S10 was far from oriC. Deep sequencing followed by marker frequency analysis in the absence of multifork replication revealed an up to 30% S10 dosage reduction associated with its relocation that closely correlated with fitness alterations. Hence, the impact of S10 location goes beyond a growth optimization strategy during feast periods. RP location may be important during the whole life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28246358

  2. Investigation of the behaviour of the eruptive young stellar object V1647 Ori since its outburst in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, V.

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive low mass pre-main sequence star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. The object has undergone two outbursts in the recent years - first in November 2003 and the second in mid 2008. While the first outburst lasted for about 2 years before it briefly recovered to its quiescent state, the object is still active since its second eruption in 2008. The nature of the V1647 ori outburst and its similarity with other pre-main sequence eruptive objects, namely FUors and EXors, are still debated. Both types of outburst are thought to be driven by a sudden increase of accretion through a circumstellar disk that feeds through a circumstellar envelope. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations in the near-IR(NIR) JHK bands were being made at Mt. Abu observatory using NICS and NICMOS. The NIR observations taken on several occasions during 2008 to 2012 show mean values of brightness in J, H and K bands of 10.82(sigma=0.146), 9.02(0.189) and 7.58(0.234) mags respectively. During the period, occasional brightening or fading by about 2-3 sigma was also noticed which can be attributed to disk accretion rate variations. The NIR spectra obtained in the K band showed Brackett gamma in emission with non-systematic variability. Our observations indicate slight fading out of V1647 ori during the early part of 2012. Modelling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in visible to sub-mm region (compiled from archival data) suggests increased disk mass accretion rate as compared to its quiescent state. The model parameters are in good agreement with those derived from observations. These results will be discussed in detail.

  3. Evaluation of Crack Arrest Fracture Toughness of Parent Plate, Weld Metal and Heat Affected Zone of BIS 812 EMA Ship Plate Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    34- EVALUATION OF CRACK ARREST FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF PARENT PLATE, WELD METAL 0 AND HEAT AFFECTED ZONE OF BIS 812 EMA SHIP PLATE STEEL IA BURCH MRL-TR...had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel . Tests on each of these regions revealed that, far the combination of...fracture toughness assessment is not a requirement for qualification for this steel , crack arrest fracture toughness, Kj, can be used to • 0 characterise the

  4. How do the EMA and FDA decide which anticancer drugs make it to the market? A comparative qualitative study on decision makers' views.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, G; Stolk, P; Trotta, F; Putzeist, M; Leufkens, H G; Laing, R O; De Allegri, M

    2014-01-01

    The process leading to a regulatory outcome is guided by factors both related and unrelated to the data package, defined in this analysis as 'formal and informal factors', respectively. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse which formal and informal factors drive the decision-making process of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulators with regard to anticancer drugs, using in-depth semi-structured interviews with regulators of the two agencies. In line with the theory and practice of qualitative research, no set sample size was defined a priori. Respondent enrolment continued until saturation and redundancy were reached. Data were collected through means of in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted either in a face-to-face setting or via Skype(®) with each regulator. The interviews were audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed. The analysis was manually carried out on the transcribed text. Data were independently coded and categorized by two researchers. Interpretation of the findings emerged through a process of triangulation between the two. Seven EMA and six FDA regulators, who had extensive experience with making decisions about anticancer medicines, were interviewed between April and June 2012. There is an open dialogue between the FDA and EMA, with the two moving closer and exchanging information, not opinions. Differences in decision-making between the agencies may be due to a different evaluation of end points. Different interaction modalities with industry and patients represent an additional source of divergence with a potential impact on decision-making. The key message of our respondents was that the agencies manage uncertainty in a different way: unlike the EMA, the FDA has a prevailing attitude to take risks in order to guarantee quicker access to new treatments. Although formal factors are the main drivers for regulatory decisions, the influence of informal factors plays an important role in

  5. Identification of Bile Duct Paucity in Alagille Syndrome: Using CK7 and EMA Immunohistochemistry as a Reliable Panel for Accurate Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Haley K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Caltharp, Shelley; Metry, Diana; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Romero, Rene; Gillespie, Scott E; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct paucity is the absence or marked reduction in the number of interlobular bile ducts (ILBD) within portal tracts. Its syndromic variant, Alagille syndrome (ALGS), is a multisystem disorder with effects on the liver, cardiovascular system, skeleton, face, and eyes. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait due to defects in NOTCH signaling pathway. ALGS is characterized by vanishing ILBD with subsequent chronic obstructive cholestasis in approximately 89% of cases. Cholestasis stimulates formation of new bile ductules through a process of neoductular reaction, making it difficult to evaluate the presence or absence of ILBD. Therefore, finding a method to differentiate clearly between ILBD and the ductular proliferation is essential for accurate diagnosis. A database search identified 28 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ALGS between 1992 and 2014. Additionally, 7 controls were used. A panel of two immunostains, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), was performed. CK7 highlighted the bile duct epithelium of ILBD and ductular proliferation, while EMA stained only the brush border of ILBD. In our ALGS group, the ratio of EMA-positive ILBD to identified portal tracts was 12.6% (range, 0%-41%). However, this same ratio was 95.0% (range, 90%-100%) among control cases (P < 0.001). We propose a panel of two immunostains, CK7 and EMA, to differentiate ILBD from ductular proliferation in patients with cholestasis. With this panel, identification of bile duct paucity can be achieved. Additional studies, including molecular confirmation and clinical correlation, would provide a definitive diagnosis of ALGS.

  6. FUENTES Infrarrojas EN 2.2 lim EN la Region Asociada AL GLOBULO ORI-1-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ramos, M. P.

    1987-05-01

    Se ha mapeado en el cercano infrarrojo a 2.2 micras, una región de 2 x 5 minutos de arco asociada al glóbulo ORI-I-2. Se ha detectado emisión infrarroja de fuentes puntuales y emisión extendida de bajo brillo superficial. Se discute la asociación de fuentes de 2.2 micras con la emisión detectada en IRAS y en moléculas de radio frecuencias.

  7. Web-based alcohol intervention for Māori university students: double-blind, multi-site randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; McCambridge, Jim; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J

    2013-02-01

    Like many indigenous peoples, New Zealand Māori bear a heavy burden of alcohol-related harm relative to their non-indigenous compatriots, and disparities are greatest among young adults. We tested the effectiveness of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for reducing hazardous drinking among Māori university students. Parallel, double-blind, multi-site, randomized controlled trial. Seven of New Zealand's eight universities. In April 2010, we sent e-mail invitations to all 6697 17-24-year-old Māori students to complete a brief web questionnaire including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C, a screening tool for hazardous and harmful drinking. Those screening positive were computer randomized to: <10 minutes of web-based alcohol assessment and personalized feedback (intervention) or screening alone (control). We conducted a fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment with observers and participants blinded to study hypotheses, design and intervention delivery. Pre-determined primary outcomes were: (i) frequency of drinking, (ii) amount consumed per typical drinking occasion, (iii) overall volume of alcohol consumed and (iv) academic problems. Of the participants, 1789 were hazardous or harmful drinkers (AUDIT-C ≥ 4) and were randomized: 850 to control, 939 to intervention. Follow-up assessments were completed by 682 controls (80%) and 733 intervention group members (78%). Relative to controls, participants receiving intervention drank less often [RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-0.97], less per drinking occasion (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84-1.00), less overall (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69-0.89) and had fewer academic problems (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95). Web-based screening and brief intervention reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among non-help-seeking Māori students in a large-scale pragmatic trial. The study has wider implications for behavioural intervention in the important but

  8. Web-based alcohol intervention for Mäori university students: double-blind, multi-site randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kypri, Kypros; McCambridge, Jim; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Aims Like many indigenous peoples, New Zealand Māori bear a heavy burden of alcohol-related harm relative to their non-indigenous compatriots, and disparities are greatest among young adults. We tested the effectiveness of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for reducing hazardous drinking among Māori university students. Design Parallel, double-blind, multi-site, randomized controlled trial. Setting Seven of New Zealand's eight universities. Participants In April 2010, we sent e-mail invitations to all 6697 17–24-year-old Māori students to complete a brief web questionnaire including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C, a screening tool for hazardous and harmful drinking. Those screening positive were computer randomized to: <10 minutes of web-based alcohol assessment and personalized feedback (intervention) or screening alone (control). Measurements We conducted a fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment with observers and participants blinded to study hypotheses, design and intervention delivery. Pre-determined primary outcomes were: (i) frequency of drinking, (ii) amount consumed per typical drinking occasion, (iii) overall volume of alcohol consumed and (iv) academic problems. Findings Of the participants, 1789 were hazardous or harmful drinkers (AUDIT-C ≥ 4) and were randomized: 850 to control, 939 to intervention. Follow-up assessments were completed by 682 controls (80%) and 733 intervention group members (78%). Relative to controls, participants receiving intervention drank less often [RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82–0.97], less per drinking occasion (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84–1.00), less overall (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69–0.89) and had fewer academic problems (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69–0.95). Conclusions Web-based screening and brief intervention reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among non-help-seeking Māori students in a large-scale pragmatic trial. The study has wider

  9. Effect of speech rate manipulations on articulatory dynamics in severe traumatic brain injury: an EMA and EPG study.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Bruce E; Kuruvilla, Mili S; Goozée, Justine V

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of speech rate forms an integral part of the treatment of dysarthria and the effects of changes in speech rate on articulatory dynamics in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly documented. To determine the effects of manipulations of speech rate (habitual vs fast) on lingual kinematics and tongue-to-palate contacts in adult speakers with severe TBI and matched normal controls. Six adults with severe TBI and five matched non-neurologically impaired controls underwent testing of their articulatory function using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) and electropalatography (EPG). The results demonstrated that the TBI and control groups selected different strategies for increasing speech rate, with the TBI group showing an increase in articulatory effort estimated from an increase in maximum velocity and maximum acceleration/deceleration of tongue movement when speaking at the fast rate. The control group demonstrated no effects of a fast speech rate on articulatory kinematics for sentence productions. When speaking at a fast rate, individuals with severe TBI appear to use greater articulatory effort, possibly to preserve the distinctiveness of phonetic segments in order to avoid articulatory undershoot. In contrast, control subjects show a greater economy of effort when speaking at a fast rate, possibly to preserve articulatory precision.

  10. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  11. Removal of Contaminant DNA by Combined UV-EMA Treatment Allows Low Copy Number Detection of Clinically Relevant Bacteria Using Pan-Bacterial Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Bruce; McLeod, Neil; Turner, Carrie; Sutton, J. Mark; Dark, Paul M.; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background More than two decades after its discovery, contaminant microbial DNA in PCR reagents continues to impact the sensitivity and integrity of broad-range PCR diagnostic techniques. This is particularly relevant to their use in the setting of human sepsis, where a successful diagnostic on blood samples needs to combine universal bacterial detection with sensitivity to 1-2 genome copies, because low levels of a broad range of bacteria are implicated. Results We investigated the efficacy of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment as emerging methods for the decontamination of PCR reagents. Both treatments were able to inactivate contaminating microbial DNA but only at concentrations that considerably affected assay sensitivity. Increasing amplicon length improved EMA/PMA decontamination efficiency but at the cost of assay sensitivity. The same was true for UV exposure as an alternative decontamination strategy, likely due to damage sustained by oligonucleotide primers which were a significant source of contamination. However, a simple combination strategy with UV-treated PCR reagents paired with EMA-treated primers produced an assay capable of two genome copy detection and a <5% contamination rate. This decontamination strategy could have important utility in developing improved pan-bacterial assays for rapid diagnosis of low pathogen burden conditions such as in the blood of patients with suspected blood stream infection. PMID:26172943

  12. Removal of Contaminant DNA by Combined UV-EMA Treatment Allows Low Copy Number Detection of Clinically Relevant Bacteria Using Pan-Bacterial Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Bruce; McLeod, Neil; Turner, Carrie; Sutton, J Mark; Dark, Paul M; Warhurst, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    More than two decades after its discovery, contaminant microbial DNA in PCR reagents continues to impact the sensitivity and integrity of broad-range PCR diagnostic techniques. This is particularly relevant to their use in the setting of human sepsis, where a successful diagnostic on blood samples needs to combine universal bacterial detection with sensitivity to 1-2 genome copies, because low levels of a broad range of bacteria are implicated. We investigated the efficacy of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment as emerging methods for the decontamination of PCR reagents. Both treatments were able to inactivate contaminating microbial DNA but only at concentrations that considerably affected assay sensitivity. Increasing amplicon length improved EMA/PMA decontamination efficiency but at the cost of assay sensitivity. The same was true for UV exposure as an alternative decontamination strategy, likely due to damage sustained by oligonucleotide primers which were a significant source of contamination. However, a simple combination strategy with UV-treated PCR reagents paired with EMA-treated primers produced an assay capable of two genome copy detection and a <5% contamination rate. This decontamination strategy could have important utility in developing improved pan-bacterial assays for rapid diagnosis of low pathogen burden conditions such as in the blood of patients with suspected blood stream infection.

  13. Snow fraction products evaluation with Landsat-8/OLI data and its spatial scale effects over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is one of important elements in the water supply of large populations, especially in those downstream from mountainous watershed. The cryosphere process in the Tibetan Plateau is paid much attention due to rapid change of snow amount and cover extent. Snow mapping from MODIS has been increased attention in the study of climate change and hydrology. But the lack of intensive validation of different snow mapping methods especially at Tibetan Plateau hinders its application. In this work, we examined three MODIS snow products, including standard MODIS fractional snow product (MOD10A1) (Kaufman et al., 2002; Salomonson & Appel, 2004, 2006), two other fractional snow product, MODSCAG (Painter et al., 2009) and MOD_MESMA (Shi, 2012). Both these two methods are based on spectral mixture analysis. The difference between MODISCAG and MOD_MESMA was the endmember selection. For MODSCAG product, snow spectral endmembers of varying grain size was obtained both from a radiative transfer model and spectra of vegetation, rock and soil collected in the field and laboratory. MOD_MESMA was obtained from automated endmember extraction method using linear spectral mixture analysis. Its endmembers are selected in each image to enhance the computational efficiency of MESMA (Multiple Endmember Spectral Analysis). Landsat-8 Operatinal Land Imager (OLI) data from 2013-2015 was used to evaluate the performance of these three snow fraction products in Tibetan Plateau. The effect of land cover types including forest, grass and bare soil was analyzed to evaluate three products. In addition, the effects of relatively flat surface in internal plateau and high mountain areas of Himalaya were also evaluated on the impact of these snow fraction products. From our comparison, MODSCAG and MOD10A1 overestimated snow cover, while MOD_MESMA underestimated snow cover. And RMSE of MOD_MESMA at each land cover type including forest, grass and mountain area decreased with the spatial resolution

  14. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  15. Effect of Weakening of Ipsilateral Depressor Anguli Oris on Smile Symmetry in Postparalysis Facial Palsy.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Nate; Malka, Ronit; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant depressor anguli oris (DAO) activity may arise after recovery from acute facial paralysis and restrict movement of the oral commissure. To quantify the degree to which DAO inhibition affects smile dynamics and perceived emotional state. In this prospective, pretest-posttest study performed at an academic tertiary referral hospital, patients with unilateral postparalysis facial palsy were studied from January 16 through April 30, 2016. Local anesthetic injection into the ipsilateral DAO. Healthy- and paretic-side commissure displacements from the midline lower vermillion border referenced to the horizontal plane were calculated from random-ordered photographs of full-effort smile before and after injection, and random-ordered hemifacial photographs of the paretic side were assessed as expressing positive, negative, or indiscernible emotion. Twenty patients were identified as having unilateral postparalysis facial palsy with marked synkinesis of the ipsilateral DAO. Patient mean age was 46 years (range, 24-67 years), with a male to female ratio of 1:3. Mean paretic-side commissure displacement increased from 27.45 mm at 21.65° above the horizontal plane to 29.35 mm at 23.58° after DAO weakening (mean difference, 1.90 mm; 95% CI, 1.26-2.54 mm; and 1.93°; 95% CI, 0.34°-3.51°; P < .001 and P = .20, respectively). Symmetry of excursion between sides improved by 2.00 mm (95% CI, 1.16-2.83 mm; P < .001) and 2.71° (95% CI, 1.38°-4.03°; P < .001). At baseline, observers assessed 7 of 20 paretic hemifaces (35%) as expressing positive emotion; this proportion increased to 13 of 20 (65%) after DAO weakening (P = .03). Ipsilateral DAO weakening results in significant improvements in smile dynamics and perceived expression of positive emotion on the paretic hemiface in postparalysis facial palsy. A trial of DAO weakening should be offered to patients with this disfiguring complication of Bell palsy and similar facial nerve insults. 3.

  16. X-Raying the Beating Heart of a Newborn Star: Rotational Modulation of High-Energy Radiation from V1647 Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael; Petre, Robert; Teets, William K.; Principe, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a periodicity of approx.1 day in the highly elevated X-ray emission from the protostar V1647 Ori during its two recent multiple-year outbursts of mass accretion. This periodicity is indicative of protostellar rotation at near-breakup speed. Modeling of the phased X-ray light curve indicates the high-temperature ( 50 MK), X-ray-emitting plasma, which is most likely heated by accretion-induced magnetic reconnection, resides in dense ( 5 1010 cm.3), pancake-shaped magnetic footprints where the accretion stream feeds the newborn star. The sustained X-ray periodicity of V1647 Ori demonstrates that such protostellar magnetospheric accretion configurations can be stable over timescales of years. Subject headings: stars: formation stars: individual (V1647 Ori) stars: pre-main sequence X-rays: stars

  17. An origin of transfer (oriT) on the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3.

    PubMed

    Mills, D A; Phister, T G; Dunny, G M; McKay, L L

    1998-04-01

    Previous analysis of the Tra1 region of the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 suggested that an origin of transfer (oriT) was present. Deletion derivatives of this cloned Tra1 region were assayed for mobilization in the presence of the wild-type pRS01 element in trans. The pRS01 oriT was localized to a 446-nucleotide segment in the intergenic region between open reading frames ltrD and ltrE. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a cluster of direct and inverted repeat structures characteristic of oriT regions associated with other conjugative systems.

  18. Streptococcus gordonii DL1 adhesin SspB V-region mediates coaggregation via receptor polysaccharide of Actinomyces oris T14V.

    PubMed

    Back, C R; Douglas, S K; Emerson, J E; Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB proteins, members of the antigen I/II (AgI/II) family of Streptococcus adhesins, mediate adherence to cysteine-rich scavenger glycoprotein gp340 and cells of other oral microbial species. In this article we investigated further the mechanism of coaggregation between S. gordonii DL1 and Actinomyces oris T14V. Previous mutational analysis of S. gordonii suggested that SspB was necessary for coaggregation with A. oris T14V. We have confirmed this by showing that Lactococcus lactis surrogate host cells expressing SspB coaggregated with A. oris T14V and PK606 cells, while L. lactis cells expressing SspA did not. Coaggregation occurred independently of expression of A. oris type 1 (FimP) or type 2 (FimA) fimbriae. Polysaccharide was prepared from cells of A. oris T14V and found to contain 1,4-, 4,6- and 3,4-linked glucose, 1,4-linked mannose, and 2,4-linked galactose residues. When immobilized onto plastic wells this polysaccharide supported binding of L. lactis expressing SspB, but not binding of L. lactis expressing other AgI/II family proteins. Purified recombinant NAVP region of SspB, comprising amino acid (aa) residues 41-847, bound A. oris polysaccharide but the C-domain (932-1470 aa residues) did not. A site-directed deletion of 29 aa residues (Δ691-718) close to the predicted binding cleft within the SspB V-region ablated binding of the NAVP region to polysaccharide. These results infer that the V-region head of SspB recognizes an actinomyces polysaccharide ligand, so further characterizing a lectin-like coaggregation mechanism occurring between two important primary colonizers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 'It's not all just about the dying'. Kaumātua Māori attitudes towards physician aid-in dying: A narrative enquiry.

    PubMed

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Anderson, Anneka; Jacobs, Pio; Jacobs, Takawai; Luinstra, Danielle; Paul, Dolly; Rauwhero, Jim; Wade, Julie; Wharemate, David

    2017-06-01

    To explore kaumātua attitudes towards physician aid-in dying, to gain a clear understanding of how such attitudes may influence and shape their expectations of medical care at the end of life and to assist health professionals in Aotearoa/New Zealand to address the healthcare needs of older Māori near the end of life. A kaupapa Māori consistent approach was undertaken. A systematic narrative technique was employed for the qualitative data analysis. Data were triangulated through independent data coding by three researchers (two of whom identified as Māori researchers), to ensure a robust and consistent method of analysis as well as adhering to a kaupapa Māori research approach. Recruitment of participants was through kaumātua of Te Kupenga Hauora Māori (Māori leadership within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences), University of Auckland and local Auckland marae. Focus group or individual interviews (as per their preference) were undertaken with 20 Kaumātua from the Auckland region. Five closely interrelated themes were identified from kaumātua narratives regarding physician aid-in dying. These were (1) attitudes and understandings of physician aid-in dying, (2) influence of power, (3) significance of kawa, (4) whānau relationships and the (5) significance of wairua. The study demonstrated that for these kaumātua, medical practices that hasten death such as physician aid-in dying are 'not all just about the dying'. Tikanga and kawa are important processes and concepts to understand during death and dying, and whānau are central to such processes being respected by those involved in the dying process. These factors are so closely intertwined that they cannot be considered in separation of each other.

  20. Advance care planning for Māori, Pacific and Asian people: the views of New Zealand healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Frey, Rosemary; Raphael, Deborah; Bellamy, Gary; Gott, Merryn

    2014-05-01

    Despite the benefits of advance care planning (ACP), international research has suggested that in pluralistic and multicultural societies such as New Zealand, significant differences exist in the uptake of ACP between European-based populations and other cultural groups [Crawley (2005)]. The purpose of this study was to therefore explore the views of generalist palliative care providers in both the community and hospital settings regarding the barriers to ACP adoption as well as methods to increase knowledge about ACP among Māori, Pacific and Asian cultural groups within New Zealand society. Eleven individual interviews, two joint interviews and three focus groups were conducted with health and social care professionals with a wide range of knowledge and experience in palliative care. Challenges were related to a number of issues based on culture, including family decision-making style, a need to 'do everything' and a reluctance to discuss issues surrounding dying and death. Suggestions to increase the knowledge of ACP included techniques to improve information access and the utilisation of shared norms and values to assist with discussions between Māori, Pacific and Asian health professionals and their patients and families/whānau. Findings indicate a need for more family/whānau-centred models of ACP, addressed much earlier in the healthcare process and within the community setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sugar, dental caries and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever: a cohort study of Māori and Pacific children.

    PubMed

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger J; Bach, Katie; Koopu, Pauline; Reynolds, Gary; Sundborn, Gerhard; Ei, Win Le Shwe Sin

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether dental caries, as an indicator of cumulative exposure to sugar, is associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, in Māori and Pacific children aged 5 and 6 years at their first dental visit. A cohort study was undertaken which linked school dental service records of caries with national hospital discharge and mortality records. Cox models were used to investigate the strength of the association between dental caries and rheumatic fever incidence. A total of 20 333 children who were free of rheumatic heart disease at enrolment were available for analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 96 children developed acute rheumatic fever or chronic rheumatic heart disease. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with five or more primary teeth affected by caries were 57% (95% CI: 20% to 106%) more likely to develop disease during follow-up, compared to children whose primary teeth were caries free. The population attributable to the risk for caries in this cohort was 22%. Dental caries is positively associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in Māori and Pacific children. Sugar intake, an important risk factor for dental caries, is also likely to influence the aetiology of rheumatic fever. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. First BVR light curves and preliminary results of a recently discovered W UMa-type binary: V1848 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Poojon, P.

    2014-04-01

    First complete photometric light curves of a recently discovered contact binary, V1848 Ori, are presented. BVR imaging data were used to derive photometric solutions, using Wilson-Devinney code. We discovered that this system is a weak-contact binary, with a fillout factor of f = 13.14%(±1.44%). Preliminary results showed that V1848 Ori is an A-type W UMa system, with a mass ratio of q = 0.7615. The more massive component was found about 400 K hotter than the other one. This system has varied from W-type to A-type during the last decade. According to the preliminary physical parameters, the weak-contact configuration of this system, with the mass ratio close to unity, and no sign of long-term orbital period change yet, is unlikely to be broken. The contact configuration is expected to be maintained and become deeper or not, depending on effect of the AML mechanism.

  3. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kogoma, T; von Meyenburg, K

    1983-01-01

    The sdrA224 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), tolerate inactivation of the dnaA gene by insertion of transposon Tn10. Furthermore, oriC, the origin of E. coli chromosome replication, can be deleted from the chromosome of sdrA mutants without loss of viability. The results suggest the presence of a second, normally repressed, initiation system for chromosome replication alternative to the 'normal' dnaA+ oriC+-dependent initiation mechanism.

  4. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kogoma, T; von Meyenburg, K

    1983-01-01

    The sdrA224 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), tolerate inactivation of the dnaA gene by insertion of transposon Tn10. Furthermore, oriC, the origin of E. coli chromosome replication, can be deleted from the chromosome of sdrA mutants without loss of viability. The results suggest the presence of a second, normally repressed, initiation system for chromosome replication alternative to the 'normal' dnaA+ oriC+-dependent initiation mechanism. Images Fig. 2. PMID:11894964

  5. EMA401, an orally administered highly selective angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist, as a novel treatment for postherpetic neuralgia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew S C; Dworkin, Robert H; McCarthy, Tom D; Anand, Praveen; Bountra, Chas; McCloud, Philip I; Hill, Julie; Cutter, Gary; Kitson, Geoff; Desem, Nuket; Raff, Milton

    2014-05-10

    Existing treatments for postherpetic neuralgia, and for neuropathic pain in general, are limited by modest efficacy and unfavourable side-effects. The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) is a new target for neuropathic pain. EMA401, a highly selective AT2R antagonist, is under development as a novel neuropathic pain therapeutic agent. We assessed the therapeutic potential of EMA401 in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. In this multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, phase 2 clinical trial, we enrolled patients (aged 22-89 years) with postherpetic neuralgia of at least 6 months' duration from 29 centres across six countries. We randomly allocated 183 participants to receive either oral EMA401 (100 mg twice daily) or placebo for 28 days. Randomisation was done according to a centralised randomisation schedule, blocked by study site, which was generated by an independent, unmasked statistician. Patients and staff at each site were masked to treatment assignment. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of EMA401. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in mean pain intensity between baseline and the last week of dosing (days 22-28), measured on an 11-point numerical rating scale. The primary efficacy analysis was intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12611000822987. 92 patients were assigned to EMA401 and 91 were assigned to placebo. The patients given EMA401 reported significantly less pain compared with baseline values in the final week of treatment than did those given placebo (mean reductions in pain scores -2.29 [SD 1.75] vs -1.60 [1.66]; difference of adjusted least square means -0.69 [SE 0.25]; 95% CI -1.19 to -0.20; p=0.0066). No serious adverse events related to EMA401 occurred. Overall, 32 patients reported 56 treatment-emergent adverse events in the EMA401 group compared with 45 such events reported by 29 patients given placebo. EMA401 (100 mg

  6. Water sorption characteristics of light-cured dental resins and composites based on Bis-EMA/PCDMA.

    PubMed

    Sideridou, Irini; Achilias, Dimitris S; Spyroudi, Chrysa; Karabela, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The water uptake characteristics of resins and composites based on an ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-EMA) and a polycarbonate dimethacrylate (PCDMA) were studied in detail. Polydimethacrylate resins were prepared by photopolymerization of the neat monomers and mixtures of them with various weight ratios, using the camphoroquinone/N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate system as initiator, while the composites were prepared from the light-curing of commercial samples (Sculpt-It and Alert). Water sorption/desorption was examined both in equilibrium and dynamic conditions in two adjacent sorption-desorption cycles. The equilibrium water uptake from all resins was very small with a trend to increase as the amount of PCDMA was increased. The inverse effect was observed in the solubility values. The composites studied exhibited also very low water uptake values in comparison to other composite materials reported in the literature. It was also observed that the equilibrium uptake decreased with increasing filler loading. Slightly larger equilibrium water uptake and much smaller solubility values were obtained during the second sorption-desorption cycle in comparison to the first one. Concerning the sorption rate data, it was observed that the resin materials followed Fickian diffusion during almost the whole sorption or desorption curve, while the composites showed this behavior until only M(t)/M( infinity ) congruent with 0.5. The diffusion coefficients calculated for the resins were larger than those of the composites and always higher during desorption compared to sorption. The values of the diffusion coefficients for both resins and composites were in the same order of magnitude with the values of the corresponding materials reported in the literature.

  7. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s-1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ˜190 R near the center to ˜10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ˜0.5 to ˜1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s-1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from this

  8. Electromyographic analysis of upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals, in mandibular rest position, compared to hearers.

    PubMed

    Regalo, S C H; Vitti, M; Hallak, J E C; Siéssere, S; Pagnano, V O; Semprini, M

    2006-01-01

    This study had the aim to analyze electromyographically, the upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in bilingual, oralist deaf individuals, comparing them with clinically healthy volunteers in mandibular rest position. This was performed in 50 patients of both sexes with an average age of 18.5 years, divided into 4 groups. 1. Ten deaf bilingual, nasal-breathing patients; 2. Ten deaf bilingual, buccal-breathing patients; 3. Ten deaf oralist, nasal-breathing patients; 4. Twenty healthy volunteers, nasal-breathing patients. An electromyograph K6-I EMG Light Channel Surface Electromyography (Myo-tronics Co. Seattle, WA, EUA) of eight channels was used. The electrodes applied were duotrodes, silver-chloride surface, disposable. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 10.0 (Chicago, IL). Continuos data with normal distribution were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was set at alpha= 0.01. Comparing the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle made it possible to verify that, during clinical mandibular rest position, all four groups presented various levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity with statistically significant differences (F = 8.81, p < 0.01). Based this study's data, it was possible to conclude that the electromyography analysis of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals showed that deaf individuals presented higher levels of EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle than normal controls during mandibular rest position.

  9. Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James

    2006-06-17

    Inequalities in health between different ethnic groups in New Zealand are most pronounced between Māori and Europeans. Our aim was to assess the effect of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on health inequalities in these two ethnic groups. We used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey to assess prevalence of experiences of self-reported racial discrimination in Māori (n=4108) and Europeans (n=6269) by analysing the responses to five questions about: verbal attacks, physical attacks, and unfair treatment by a health professional, at work, or when buying or renting housing. We did logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of adjustment for experience of racial discrimination and deprivation on ethnic inequalities for various health outcomes. Māori were more likely to report experiences of self-reported racial discrimination in all instances assessed, and were almost ten times more likely to experience discrimination in three or more settings than were Europeans (4.5% [95% CI 3.2-5.8] vs 0.5% [0.3-0.7]). After adjustment for discrimination and deprivation, odds ratios (95% CI) comparing Māori and European ethnic groups were reduced from 1.67 (1.35-2.08) to 1.18 (0.92-1.50) for poor or fair self-rated health, 1.70 (1.42-2.02) to 1.21 (1.00-1.47) for low physical functioning, 1.30 (1.11-1.54) to 1.02 (0.85-1.22) for low mental health, and 1.46 (1.12-1.91) to 1.11 (0.82-1.51) for cardiovascular disease. Racism, both interpersonal and institutional, contributes to Māori health losses and leads to inequalities in health between Māori and Europeans in New Zealand. Interventions and policies to improve Māori health and address these inequalities should take into account the health effects of racism.

  10. Reduction of [VO2(ma)2]- and [VO2(ema)2]- by ascorbic acid and glutathione: kinetic studies of pro-drugs for the enhancement of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Aebischer, Nicolas; Orvig, Chris

    2002-03-25

    To shed light on the role of V(V) complexes as pro-drugs for their V(IV) analogues, the kinetics of the reduction reactions of [VO2(ma)2]- or [VO2(ema)2]- (Hma = maltol, Hema = ethylmaltol), with ascorbic acid or glutathione, have been studied in aqueous solution by spectrophotometric and magnetic resonance methods. EPR and 51V NMR studies suggested that the vanadium(V) in each complex was reduced to vanadium(IV) during the reactions. All the reactions studied showed first-order kinetics when the concentration of ascorbic acid or glutathione was in large excess and the observed first-order rate constants have a linear relationship with the concentrations of reductant (ascorbic acid or glutathione). Potentiometric results revealed that the most important species in the neutral pH range is [VO2(L)2]- for the V(V) system where L is either ma- or ema-. An acid dependence mechanism was proposed from kinetic studies with varying pH and varying maltol concentration. The good fits of the second order rate constant versus pH or the total concentration of maltol, and the good agreement of the constants obtained between fittings, strongly supported the mechanism. Under the same conditions, the reaction rate of [VO2(ma)2]- with glutathione is about 2000 times slower than that of [VO2(ma)2]- with ascorbic acid, but an acid dependence mechanism can also be used to explain the results for the reduction with glutathione. Replacing the methyl group in maltol with an ethyl group has little influence on the reduction rate with ascorbic acid, and the kinetics are the same no matter whether [VO2(ma)2]- or [VO2(ema)2]- is reduced.

  11. Regulatory review time and post-market safety events for novel medicines approved by the EMA between 2001 and 2010: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Lefèvre, Jérémie H; Downing, Nicholas S; Bergeron, Henri; Ross, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Aims Regulatory review time has been associated with post-market medication safety issues in the United States. Our objective was to evaluate whether regulatory review time and near deadline approval are associated with post-market safety events (PMSEs) for novel medicines approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of all novel medicines approved by the EMA through the centralized authorization procedure between 2001 and 2010. PMSEs were defined as withdrawals and communications identified through Dear Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs). Regulatory review time was defined as the time that elapsed between the start of the assessment procedure and approval. Near regulatory deadline approval was defined as approval within the 30 days before the EMA’s 210 day regulatory deadline. Results Among 161 eligible medicines, PMSEs were identified for 49 (30.4%), 44 of which were DHPCs, five of which were withdrawals. Median regulatory review time was 337 days (IQR 276–406) and was not associated with PMSEs (P = 0.57). However, when categorized by regulatory review speed tertile, there were differences in risk of PMSEs, with higher rates among medicines in the middle tertile (25 of 55, 45.4%; P = 0.01). Finally, 26 medicines were approved near the 210 day regulatory deadline, but were not more likely to have PMSEs (38.5% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.32). Conclusions Neither faster EMA regulatory review speed nor approval near regulatory deadlines was associated with greater likelihood of PMSEs among recently approved novel medicines. PMID:25808713

  12. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  13. Planetary influence in the gap of a protoplanetary disk: structure formation and an application to V1247 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Meraz, R.; Nagel, E.; Rendon, F.; Barragan, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical models of a planetary system embedded in a protoplanetary disk in order to extract the number of dust structures formed in the disk, their masses and sizes, within optical depth ranges τ≤0.5, 0.5<τ<2 and τ≥2. The study of the structures shows: (1) an increase in the number of planets implies an increase in the creation rate of massive structures; (2) a lower planetary mass accretion corresponds to slower time effects for optically thin structures; (3) an increase in the number of planets allows a faster evolution of the structures in the Hill radius for the different optical depth ranges of the inner planets. An ad-hoc simulation was run using the available information of the stellar system V1247 Ori, leading to a model of a planetary system which explains the SED and is consistent with interferometric observations of structures.

  14. Spectroscopy of the M Supergiant α Ori in the 1 2.5 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Martin; Wahlgren, Glenn

    The study of elemental abundances in cool stars via atomic lines in the optical region is made di.cult by stellar molecular absorption. At infrared wavelengths this problem is diminished, but ground-based observations suffer from absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. Fortunately, there are spectral windows through which we can observe. We have explored several such windows in the spectral region from 1 2.5 μm, coinciding with the wavelength domain of the new VLT instrument CRIRES, for atomic lines suitable for the study of cool luminous stars, in particular α Ori (M2Iab). We present preliminary results from this search along with our first results on abundances of iron and the weak s-process elements Sr, Y, Zr.

  15. Excellence in Family Paediatricians: the FIMP-MCRN (Medicines for Children Research Network) becomes a member of ENPR-EMA (European Network of Paediatric Research at the European Medicines Agency).

    PubMed

    Napoleone, Ettore

    2011-01-19

    One of the objectives of the Paediatric Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006, is to foster high quality ethical research on medicinal products to be used in children. To achieve this objective, the EMA is responsible for developing a European paediatric network of existing national and European networks and centres with specific expertise in research and clinical trials relating to paediatric medicines. The purpose of this article is to disseminate knowledge of the structure and goals of ENPR-EMA and to highlight the cultural and organizational difficulties for its implementation.Following the publication of research quality requirements, a set of recognition criteria, which have to be fulfilled to become a member of ENPR-EMA were agreed. So far, 32 networks and centres (of 62 identified networks) submitted self-assessment reports indicating whether or not they fulfill the agreed minimum criteria. Sixteen networks (26% of 62 identified networks) fulfilled all minimum criteria and became therefore members of ENPR-EMA. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN), established with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials, became member of the ENPR-EMA responding satisfactorily to all the points of the self-assessment report.

  16. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  17. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity.

  18. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF V2775 Ori, AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR IN L 1641: EXPLORING THE EDGE OF THE FU ORIONIS REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Kounkel, Marina; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Stanke, Thomas; Osorio, Mayra; Wilson, T. L.

    2012-09-01

    Individual outbursting young stars are important laboratories for studying the physics of episodic accretion and the extent to which this phenomenon can explain the luminosity distribution of protostars. We present new and archival data for V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a protostar in the L 1641 region of the Orion molecular clouds that was discovered by Caratti o Garatti et al. to have recently undergone an order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity. Our near-infrared spectra of the source have strong blueshifted He I {lambda}10830 absorption, strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption, and no H I emission, all typical of FU Orionis sources. With data from the Infrared Telescope Facility, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment that span from 1 to 70 {mu}m pre-outburst and from 1 to 870 {mu}m post-outburst, we estimate that the outburst began between 2005 April and 2007 March. We also model the pre- and post-outburst spectral energy distributions of the source, finding it to be in the late stages of accreting its envelope with a disk-to-star accretion rate that increased from {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} to {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} during the outburst. The post-outburst luminosity at the epoch of the FU Orionis-like near-IR spectra is 28 L{sub Sun }, making V2775 Ori the least luminous documented FU Orionis outburster with a protostellar envelope. The existence of low-luminosity outbursts supports the notion that a range of episiodic accretion phenomena can partially explain the observed spread in protostellar luminosities.

  19. Revisiting the rigidly rotating magnetosphere model for σ Ori E - II. Magnetic Doppler imaging, arbitrary field RRM, and light variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kochukhov, O.; Krtička, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Prvák, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Silvester, J.; Owocki, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    The initial success of the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model application to the B2Vp star σ Ori E by Townsend, Owocki & Groote triggered a renewed era of observational monitoring of this archetypal object. We utilize high-resolution spectropolarimetry and the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) technique to simultaneously determine the magnetic configuration, which is predominately dipolar, with a polar strength Bd = 7.3-7.8 kG and a smaller non-axisymmetric quadrupolar contribution, as well as the surface distribution of abundance of He, Fe, C, and Si. We describe a revised RRM model that now accepts an arbitrary surface magnetic field configuration, with the field topology from the MDI models used as input. The resulting synthetic H α emission and broad-band photometric observations generally agree with observations, however, several features are poorly fit. To explore the possibility of a photospheric contribution to the observed photometric variability, the MDI abundance maps were used to compute a synthetic photospheric light curve to determine the effect of the surface inhomogeneities. Including the computed photospheric brightness modulation fails to improve the agreement between the observed and computed photometry. We conclude that the discrepancies cannot be explained as an effect of inhomogeneous surface abundance. Analysis of the UV light variability shows good agreement between observed variability and computed light curves, supporting the accuracy of the photospheric light variation calculation. We thus conclude that significant additional physics is necessary for the RRM model to acceptably reproduce observations of not only σ Ori E, but also other similar stars with significant stellar wind-magnetic field interactions.

  20. X-RAY EMISSION AND CORONA OF THE YOUNG INTERMEDIATE-MASS BINARY theta{sup 1} Ori E

    SciTech Connect

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Kesich, Anthony; Canizares, Claude R.; Testa, Paola

    2009-12-20

    theta{sup 1} Ori E is a young, moderate mass binary system, a rarely observed case of spectral-type G-giants of about 3 solar masses, which are still collapsing toward the main sequence, where they presumably become X-ray faint. We have obtained high-resolution X-ray spectra with Chandra and find that the system is very active and similar to coronal sources, having emission typical of magnetically confined plasma. It has a broad temperature distribution with a hot component and significant high energy continuum; narrow emission lines from H- and He-like ions, as well as a range of Fe ions, and relative luminosity, L{sub x} /L{sub bol} = 10{sup -3}, at the saturation limit. Density, while poorly constrained, is consistent with the low density limits, our upper limits being n{sub e} < 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for Mg XI and n{sub e} < 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} for Ne IX. Coronal elemental abundances are sub-solar, with Ne being the highest at about 0.4 times solar. We find a possible trend in Trapezium hot plasmas toward low relative abundances of Fe, O, and Ne, which is hard to explain in terms of the dust depletion scenarios of low-mass young stars. Variability was unusually low during our observations relative to other coronally active stars. Qualitatively, the emission is similar to post-main-sequence G-stars. Coronal structures could be compact or comparable to the dimensions of the stellar radii. From comparison to X-ray emission from similar mass stars at various evolutionary epochs, we conclude that the X-rays in theta{sup 1} Ori E are generated by a convective dynamo, present during contraction, but which will vanish during the main-sequence epoch possibly to be resurrected during post-main-sequence evolution.