Science.gov

Sample records for ema oli ori

  1. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  3. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based…

  4. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  5. Development of Electrochemical Supercapacitors for EMA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, John A.; Dunning, Thomas; LaConti, Anthony B.

    1996-01-01

    A limitation of the typical electrochemical capacitor is the maximum available power and energy density, and an improvement in capacitance per unit weight and volume is needed. A solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils has been developed. This capacitor could provide high-current pulses for electromechanical actuation (EMA). Primary project objectives were to develop high-capacitance particulates, to increase capacitor gravimetric and volumetric energy densities above baseline and to fabricate a 10-V capacitor with a repeating element thickness of 6 mils or less. Specific EMA applications were identified and capacitor weight and volume projections made.

  6. Influence of the micro-physical properties of the aerosol on the atmospheric correction of OLI data acquired over desert area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of surface reflectance obtained by different atmospheric correction algorithms of the Landsat 8 OLI data considering or not the micro-physical properties of the aerosol when images are acquired in desert area located in South-West of Nile delta. The atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was shown to be sensitive to the aerosol micro-physical properties, as reported in Bassani et al., 2012. In particular, the role of the aerosol micro-physical properties on the accuracy of the atmospheric correction of remote sensing data was investigated [Bassani et al., 2015; Tirelli et al., 2015]. In this work, the OLI surface reflectance was retrieved by the developed OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) physically-based atmospheric correction which considers the aerosol micro-physical properties available from the two AERONET stations [Holben et al., 1998] close to the study area (El_Farafra and Cairo_EMA_2). The OLI@CRI algorithm is based on 6SV radiative transfer model, last generation of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer code [Kotchenova et al., 2007; Vermote et al., 1997], specifically developed for Landsat 8 OLI data. The OLI reflectance obtained by the OLI@CRI was compared with reflectance obtained by other atmospheric correction algorithms which do not consider micro-physical properties of aerosol (DOS) or take on aerosol standard models (FLAASH, implemented in ENVI software). The accuracy of the surface reflectance retrieved by different algorithms were calculated by comparing the spatially resampled OLI images with the MODIS surface reflectance products. Finally, specific image processing was applied to the OLI reflectance images in order to compare remote sensing products obtained for same scene. The results highlight the influence of the physical characterization of aerosol on the OLI data improving the retrieved atmospherically corrected

  7. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in studies of substance use.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul

    2009-12-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This article reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has been most applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data and holds promise for substance use research.

  8. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in Studies of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is particularly suitable for studying substance use, because use is episodic and thought to be related to mood and context. This paper reviews EMA methods in substance use research, focusing on tobacco and alcohol use and relapse, where EMA has most been applied. Common EMA designs combine event-based reports of substance use with time-based assessments. Approaches to data organization and analysis have been very diverse, particularly regarding their treatment of time. Compliance with signaled assessments is often high. Compliance with recording of substance use appears good, but is harder to validate. Treatment applications of EMA are emerging. EMA captures substance use patterns not measured by questionnaires or retrospective data, and hold promise for substance use research. PMID:19947783

  9. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  10. Long-term orbital period behaviour of contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Muhammed Faruk; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori based on published minima times. Using the O-C analysis, it was found that both systems indicate orbital period increase. Mass transfer from less massive component to more massive component was used to explain increases in the orbital periods. On the other hand, the secular changes in their periods can be a sign of the thermal relaxation oscillation. In the O-C diagram of FZ Ori, periodic variations also exist. Cyclic periodic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a tertiary body around the eclipsing pair. The minimum mass of probable tertiary component around FZ Ori was found to be 0.63 M⊙. In addition, the cyclic variation may be evidence of magnetic activity of the components, which are late-type stars.

  11. Optical monitoring of T Ori requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. William Herbst (Wesleyan University) and Rachel Pedersen (Bates College) have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring the Orion variable T Ori in support of spectroscopy they will be obtaining during September 2013. AAVSO nightly coverage (visual or electronic, not time series) of this star is crucial throughout the month of September. T Ori is one of the first variable stars discovered and varies by up to several magnitudes, but the cause of its variability is not fully known more than a century after its discovery. The project goal is to observe spectral changes accompanying the brightness variations that will shed light on their cause. It is critical to be able to assign a magnitude to each spectrum, so amateur astronomers could make a terrific contribution to this project by more intensively monitoring the star during September. Because of the nebulosity associated with the area around T Ori, observations need to be made very carefully and consistently. When the variable is relatively bright, as in the case of T Ori, a filtered observation is always preferred to an unfiltered one as it is much easier to integrate with data from other observers. Visual observers: be sure to use AAVSO charts. An accuracy of 0.1 or even 0.2 mag as can be achieved by (careful!) visual observers will be sufficient. CCD observers: V magnitude or even unfiltered observations will be most useful. Multicolor photometry could be helpful, but the primary need is for a magnitude estimate. Observations in the AAVSO International Database show T Ori with a visual range of magnitude 9.3-~12.6; recent visual and V magnitudes show it between ~9.7 and 11.9. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  12. Drosophila Golgi membrane protein Ema promotes autophagosomal growth and function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Naylor, Sarah A; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process in which cellular material is enclosed within autophagosomes and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosomal biogenesis is well described; however mechanisms controlling the growth and ultimate size of autophagosomes are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila membrane protein Ema is required for the growth of autophagosomes. In an ema mutant, autophagosomes form in response to starvation and developmental cues, and these autophagosomes can mature into autolysosomes; however the autophagosomes are very small, and autophagy is impaired. In fat body cells, Ema localizes to the Golgi complex and is recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes in response to starvation. The Drosophila Golgi protein Lva also is recruited to the periphery of autophagosomes in response to starvation, and this recruitment requires ema. Therefore, we propose that Golgi is a membrane source for autophagosomal growth and that Ema facilitates this process. Clec16A, the human ortholog of Ema, is a candidate autoimmune susceptibility locus. Expression of Clec16A can rescue the autophagosome size defect in the ema mutant, suggesting that regulation of autophagosome morphogenesis may be a fundamental function of this gene family.

  13. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1991-05-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materialsrelated inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The Chairman of EMaCC for FY 1990 was Scott L. Richlen; the Executive Secretary was Dr. Jerry Smith.

  14. Obstacles to transparency over pharmacovigilance data within the EMA.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In July and August 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) organised two public consultations concerning European pharmacovigilance. These two consultations reveal a number of EMA proposals that are counterproductive to the objective of improving transparency over pharmacovigilance data. The EMA's proposals offer pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to participate in public hearings held by the European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), in order to defend their drug. They also provide for the possibility of holding non-public hearings to discuss public data. There is a great risk that the drug industry might use these provisions to influence the debate. The strings attached to the access that the EMA proposes to grant researchers to data contained in the centralised European pharmacovigilance database would allow the EMA to censor the publication of their findings. The EMA seems to regard pharmacovigilance data as commercially confidential information. Responding to these consultations provided an opportunity to remind the EMA that data about adverse effects are a public good, in the common interest, and that it is unacceptable to keep this information confidential.

  15. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 OriS sequence: mapping of functional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D W; Deb, S P; Klauer, J S; Deb, S

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) OriS region resides within a 90-bp sequence that contains two binding sites for the origin-binding protein (OBP), designated sites I and II. A third presumptive OBP-binding site (III) within OriS has strong sequence similarity to sites I and II, but no sequence-specific OBP binding has yet been demonstrated at this site. We have generated mutations in sites I, II, and III and determined their replication efficiencies in a transient in vivo assay in the presence of a helper virus. Mutations in any one of the sites reduced DNA replication significantly. To study the role of OriS sequence elements in site I and the presumptive site III in DNA replication, we have also generated a series of mutations that span from site I across the presumptive binding site III. These mutants were tested for their ability to replicate and for the ability to bind OBP by using gel shift analyses. The results indicate that mutations across site I drastically reduce DNA replication. Triple-base-pair substitution mutations that fall within the crucial OBP-binding domain, 5'-YGYTCGCACT-3' (where Y represents C or T), show a reduced level of OBP binding and DNA replication. Substitution mutations in site I that are outside this crucial binding sequence show a more detrimental effect on DNA replication than on OBP binding. This suggests that these sequences are required for initiation of DNA replication but are not critical for OBP binding. Mutations across the presumptive OBP-binding site III also resulted in a loss in efficiency of DNA replication. These mutations influenced OBP binding to OriS in gel shift assays, even though the mutated sequences are not contained within known OBP-binding sites. Replacement of the wild-type site III with a perfect OBP-binding site I results in a drastic reduction of DNA replication. Thus, our DNA replication assays and in vitro DNA-binding studies suggest that the binding of the origin sequence by OBP is not the only

  16. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of depression-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Armey, Michael F; Schatten, Heather T; Haradhvala, Natasha; Miller, Ivan W

    2015-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is one research method increasingly employed to better understand the processes that underpin depression and related phenomena. In particular, EMA is well suited to the study of affect (e.g., positive and negative affect), affective responses to stress (e.g., emotion reactivity), and behaviors (e.g., activity level, sleep) that are associated with depression. Additionally, EMA can provide insights into self-harm behavior (i.e. suicide and non-suicidal self-injury), and other mood disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder) commonly associated with depressive episodes. Given the increasing availability and affordability of handheld computing devices such as smartphones, EMA is likely to play an increasingly important role in the study of depression and related phenomena in the future.

  17. A role for the membrane Golgi protein Ema in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-08-01

    Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic response that involves degradation of self-components by the double-membraned autophagosome. The biogenesis of autophagosomes has been well described, but the ensuing processes after autophagosome formation are not clear. In our recent study, we proposed a model in which the Golgi complex contributes to the growth of autophagic structures, and that the Drosophila melanogaster membrane protein Ema promotes this process. In fat body cells of the D. melanogaster ema mutant, the recruitment of the Golgi complex protein Lava lamp (Lva) to autophagic structures is impaired and autophagic structures are very small. In addition, in the ema mutant autophagic turnover of SQSTM1/p62 and mitophagy are impaired. Our study not only identifies a role for Ema in autophagy, but also supports the hypothesis that the Golgi complex may be a potential membrane source for the biogenesis and development of autophagic structures.

  18. Controller Design for EMA in TVC Incorporating Force Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schinstock, Dale E.; Scott, Douglas A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop control schemes and control design procedures for electromechanical actuators (EMA) in thrust vector control (TVC) applications. For a variety of reasons, there is a tendency within the aerospace community to use electromechanical actuators in applications where hydraulics have traditionally been employed. TVC of rocket engines is one such application. However, there is considerable research, development, and testing to be done before EMA will be accepted by the community at large for these types of applications. Besides the development of design procedures for the basic position controller, two major concerns are dealt with in this research by incorporating force feedback: 1) the effects of resonance on the performance of EMA-TVC-rocket-engine systems, and 2) the effects of engine start transients on EMA. This report only highlights the major contributions of this research.

  19. Multiple sclerosis in New Zealand Māori.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John F; Alla, Sridhar; Clarke, Glynnis; Taylor, Bruce V; Miller, David H; Richardson, Ann; Mason, Deborah F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of MS in New Zealand in 2006 was 73.2 (age standardized per 100,000) while for those with indigenous Māori ancestry it was 3.6 times lower at 20.6. Earlier regional surveys (1968-2001) all reported much lower, or zero, prevalence for Māori than European. There was no evidence for differences in MS between those with and without Māori ancestry in either clinical features or latitude, confirming that Māori ancestry does not produce the reported increase in prevalence with latitude. It is likely that prevalence is increasing in low risk Māori; however, MS prognosis is independent of Māori ancestry.

  20. Analysis of Ori-S sequence of HSV-1: identification of one functional DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Deb, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using gel retardation assays, we have detected an Ori-S binding activity in the nuclear extract of HSV-1 infected Vero cells. The sequence-specific DNA binding activity seems to be identical to that described by Elias et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6322-6326, 1986). This activity fails to retard a mutant origin DNA that has a 5 bp deletion in the reported protein binding site along with an A to T substitution at a position 16 base-pairs away from the site. This mutant also failed to replicate in a transient replication assay, thus correlating binding of the factor on the origin to replication efficiency. Using crude nuclear extracts as the source of the factor and with the help of footprint and gel retardation analyses, we confirmed that protection is only observed on the preferred site of binding on and near the left arm of the Ori-S palindrome. In order to analyze the sequence specificity of the binding we have generated a set of binding site mutants. Competition experiments with these mutant origins indicate that the sequence 5'-TTCGCACTT-3' is crucial for binding. Images PMID:2541411

  1. ori identity signatures: A latent profile analysis of the types of Māori identity.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lara M; Houkamau, Carla; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. However, the term 'Māori' can refer to a wide range of people of varying ethnic compositions and cultural identity. We present a statistical model identifying 6 distinct types, or 'Māori Identity Signatures,' and estimate their proportion in the Māori population. The model is tested using a Latent Profile Analysis of a national probability sample of 686 Māori drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We identify 6 distinct signatures: Traditional Essentialists (22.6%), Traditional Inclusives (16%), High Moderates (31.7%), Low Moderates (18.7%), Spiritually Orientated (4.1%), and Disassociated (6.9%). These distinct Identity Signatures predicted variation in deprivation, age, mixed-ethnic affiliation, and religion. This research presents the first formal statistical model assessing how people's identity as Māori is psychologically structured, documents the relative proportion of these different patterns of structures, and shows that these patterns reliably predict differences in core demographics. We identify a range of patterns of Māori identity far more diverse than has been previously proposed based on qualitative data, and also show that the majority of Māori fit a moderate or traditional identity pattern. The application of our model for studying Māori health and identity development is discussed.

  2. EMA- EISENBERGER-MAIOCCO ALGORITHM FOR SPARES PROVISIONING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.

    1994-01-01

    The Eisenberger-Maiocco algorithm (EMA) is an efficient Markov sparing algorithm to aid in the provisioning of spare parts. There are two calculations performed by EMA: 1) forecasting the availability of a system with a given spare parts pool, and 2) determining the most cost effective spares package. EMA was used in NASA's Deep Space Network project to calculate the probability that a system would be up and operational with the spares available at each location. The system to be analyzed is defined in terms of modules, which are any pieces of equipment which may fail, be repaired, or be replaced. A module can be in one of three states: working, spare, or failed and waiting for repair. For each module type in the system configuration, there is an actual number in use by the system, and a minimum number for the system to be operational. A module type is considered 'down' when there are fewer than the required minimum number working, and there are no spares in the stockpile. Input to EMA includes module data such as mean time between failure, mean time to repair, number of spares, and cost of the item. EMA determines the overall system availability, or uptime ratio, as the probability the system will be operational during a given time. EMA can also calculate the most cost effective spares package for a given range of uptime ratios. EMA is written in interpreter PC-BASIC and is for interactive execution. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS 2.0 with a central memory requirement of approximately 64K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1978.

  3. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  4. The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

  5. An oral health intervention for the Māori indigenous population of New Zealand: oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) as a component of the undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John

    2010-06-01

    ori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand having migrated across the Pacific from Hawaiki over a 500 year period from 800AD to 1300AD establishing a society based on whānau (family), hapū (subtribe) and iwi (tribe). Today, like other Indigenous populations throughout the world, New Zealand Māori do not enjoy the same oral health status as non-Māori across all age groups. An intervention strategy to improve Māori oral health and to reduce disparities is to develop a dental health workforce that has an understanding of contemporary Māori society and Māori oral health. The Faculty of Dentistry (Te Kaupeka Pūniho) of the University of Otago has a well developed undergraduate programme in Māori culture and Māori oral health. This programme has been reinforced by the adoption of a new Māori Strategic Framework (MSF) which has been designed to be "a vibrant contributor to Māori development and the realisation of Māori aspirations." Goal 5 of the MSF, Ngā Whakahaerenga Pai (Quality Programmes) has the objective to develop and integrate Māori content in the undergraduate course. This paper will discuss the oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) component of the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  6. Compound control strategy used in Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yongling; Yan, Meng

    2017-01-01

    This article briefly describes the overall structure of the loading test rig; establish mathematical model of loading EMA, analyze its stability, surplus force and other properties in MATLAB; propose a compound control strategy combined speed feedback, PID and feed-forward compensation based on structure invariance principle. To verify the effectiveness of the control strategy, do a co-simulation by designing a controller based on the control strategy above in MATLAB and building the EMA model in AMESim. The results show that the compound control strategy can significantly improve dynamic tracking accuracy and reduce surplus force.

  7. Breast cancer inequities between Māori and non-Māori women in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, R; Seneviratne, S; Scott, N; Peni, T; Brown, C; Campbell, I

    2016-03-01

    ori women have one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world. This high incidence is generally unexplained although higher rates of obesity and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors that may be important. Māori women are less likely to attend mammographic breast screening and are likely to be diagnosed with more advanced disease. This is one of the reasons for the excess mortality. Another factor is differences in the treatment pathway. Māori women are more likely to experience delay in receiving treatment, are less likely to receive radiotherapy, are more likely to be treated with a mastectomy and are less likely to adhere to long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, genetic factors in Māori women do not seem to impact significantly on mortality. This review looks at the inequity between Māori and non-Māori women and addresses the causes. It proposes ways of reducing inequity through primary prevention, increased participation in breast screening and greater standardisation of the treatment pathway for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We believe that health system improvements will decrease barriers to health care participation for Māori women and suggest that further research into identifying and modifying obstacles within health systems is required.

  8. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices.

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Māori in Aotearoa.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sarah; Stephens, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated alcohol use, hazardous and binge drinking prevalence, and their relationships to socio-demographic variables in community dwelling older Māori adults in New Zealand. Alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and binge drinking were assessed with the AUDIT-C in a cross-sectional postal survey of 1042 older Māori people randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. A total of 41.2% of all participants reported drinking at hazardous levels. Odds ratios from binomial logistic regression showed hazardous drinking was significantly more likely to occur among males, current smokers, and those with higher local self-contained network scores. Binge drinking was reported by 19.6% of the sample, with odds ratios indicating that males, current smokers, and those with higher Māori cultural identification scores were significantly more likely to report binge drinking. The high rates of hazardous and binge drinking prevalence reported in the current study raise issues of concern when considering the health of older Māori people. Results indicate that social networks, gender, smoking status, and Māori cultural identification may influence hazardous and binge drinking alcohol use. However, limitations of the present study also highlight the need for more focused and in-depth research to be conducted with older Māori people to understand the sociocultural context in which alcohol use occurs.

  10. Application of ultrasound imaging of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liao, Xin-Hong; Du, Yang-Chun; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the morphology and structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and to provide clinical evidence for evaluating the effect of repair operation in cleft lip. Subjects included 106 healthy people and 36 postoperative patients of unilateral cleft lip. The upper lip orbicularis oris muscle was scanned using ultrasound in natural closure and pout states. Our results showed that the hierarchical structure of upper lip tissue was demonstrated clearly in ultrasonic images. After reconstruction of unilateral cleft lip, the left and right philtrum columns were still obviously asymmetric, their radian displayed clearly and showed better continuity. In the place of cleft lip side equivalent to philtrum columns, orbicularis oris muscle showed discontinuity and unclear hierarchical structure, which was replaced by hyperechoic scar tissue. The superficial layer would become thicker when pouting. In reconstructed unilateral cleft lip, the superficial layer was thinner than that of healthy controls. In normal upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, the superficial layer thickness was no less than 2.89 mm in philtrum dimple and no less than 3.92 mm in philtrum column, and the deep layer thickness was no less the 1.12 mm. Otherwise, the layer thickness less than above reference values may be considered as diagnostic criteria for dysplasia of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle. In conclusions, ultrasound imaging is able to clearly show the hierarchical structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and will be beneficial in guiding the upper lip repair and reconstruction surgery.

  11. Key informant views on biobanking and genomic research with Māori.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui; Southey, Kim; Uerata, Lynley; Beaton, Angela; Milne, Moe; Russell, Khyla; Smith, Barry; Wilcox, Phillip; Toki, Valmaine; Cheung, Melanie

    2016-12-16

    The aim of the Te Mata Ira project was to explore Māori views on biobanking and genomic research, and to identify ways to address Māori concerns over the collection and use of human tissue. Key informant interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori to identify Māori views in relation to biobanking and genomic research; and, informed by these views, interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori and non-Māori key informants (Indigenous Advisory Panel (IAP) members and science communities) to explore key issues in relation to Māori participation in biobanking and genomic research. Māori key informants identified the following as key deliberations: (1) the tension for Māori between previous well-publicised negative experiences with genomic research and the potential value for whānau and communities as technologies develop, (2) protection of Māori rights and interest, (3) focus on Māori health priorities, (4) control of samples and data, (5) expectations of consultation and consent and (6) a desire for greater feedback and communication. Māori and non-Māori key informants highlighted the need to enhance levels of Māori participation in the governance of genomic research and biobanking initiatives, and acknowledged that only by increasing the level of transparency and accountability in relation to these activities will Māori communities feel that their whakapapa, rights and interests are being appropriately protected.

  12. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  13. Physiological and biochemical effects of allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-10-01

    The physiological and biochemical effects of an allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis) on bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, were investigated. EMA significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. The metabolic indices (represented by esterase and total dehydrogenase activities), the cellular redox status (represented by the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)), and the oxidative damage index (represented by the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of membrane lipid peroxidation) were used to evaluate the physiological and biochemical changes in M. aeruginosa after EMA exposure. Esterase activity in M. aeruginosa did not change (P>0.05) after 2 h of exposure to EMA, but increased greatly after 24 and 48 h (P<0.05). EMA exposure (>0.5 mg L(-1)) resulted in a remarkable loss of total dehydrogenase activity in M. aeruginosa after 4 h (P<0.01), but an increase after 40 h (P<0.05). EMA caused a great increase in ROS level of the algal cells. At high EMA concentration (4 mg L(-1)), the ROS level was remarkably elevated to 1.91 times as much as that in the controls after 2 h. Increases in the ROS level also occurred after 24 and 48 h. The increase in lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa was dependent upon EMA concentration and the exposure time. After 40 h of exposure, the MDA content at 4 mg L(-1) of EMA reached approximately 3.5 times (P<0.01) versus the controls. These results suggest that the cellular structure and metabolic activity of M. aeruginosa are influenced by EMA; the increased metabolic activity perhaps reflects the fact that the resistance of cellular response system to the stress from EMA is initiated during EMA exposure, and the oxidative damage induced by EMA via the oxidation of ROS may be an important factor responsible for the inhibition of EMA on the growth of M. aeruginosa.

  14. Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA's) for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Didier; De Coster, Francois

    2013-09-01

    The scope of this paper is to present two concepts for electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for space applications:• The first concept implements external anti-rotation devices, as well as a blocking device in order to meet the specific Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) constraints.• The second concept is a new anti-rotation device based on DIN 32712-B P4C profile.

  15. Lumped Node Thermal Modeling of EMA with FEA Validation (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    minor heat path. For forced convection, the Nusselt number for a cylinder is determined from[6], ⁄ (3) where and are based on the Reynold’s...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE...SUBTITLE LUMPED NODE THERMAL MODELING OF EMA WITH FEA VALIDATION (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-2-2940 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  16. The Open Learning Initiative: Measuring the Effectiveness of the OLI Statistics Course in Accelerating Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Marsha; Meyer, Oded; Thille, Candace

    2008-01-01

    The Open Learning Initiative (OLI) is an open educational resources project at Carnegie Mellon University that began in 2002 with a grant from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. OLI creates web-based courses that are designed so that students can learn effectively without an instructor. In addition, the courses are often used by instructors…

  17. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  18. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  19. Design of power electronics for TVC EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark

    1993-08-01

    The Composite Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. This report presents the results of an investigation into the applicability of two new technologies, MOS-controlled thyristors (MCT's) and pulse density modulation (PDM), to the control of brushless dc motors in EMA systems. MCT's are new power semiconductor devices, which combine the high voltage and current capabilities of conventional thyristors and the low gate drive requirements of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET's). The commanded signals in a PDM system are synthesized using a series of sinusoidal pulses instead of a series of square pulses as in a pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A resonant dc link inverter is employed to generate the sinusoidal pulses in the PDM system. This inverter permits zero-voltage switching of all semiconductors which reduces switching losses and switching stresses. The objectives of this project are to develop and validate an analytical model of the MCT device when used in high power motor control applications and to design, fabricate, and test a prototype electronic circuit employing both MCT and PDM technology for controlling a brushless dc motor.

  20. [Effects of allelochemical EMA from reed on the production and release of cyanotoxins in Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Men, Yu-jie; Hu, Hong-ying

    2007-09-01

    The growth inhibition of ethyl-2-methylacetoacetate (EMA) isolated from common reed (Phragmites australis Trin. or Phragmites communis Trin.) on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 was investigated and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of cyanotoxin (MC-LR) after treatment of EMA were tested. The experimental results indicated that EMA has significant inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosa PCC7806, and the value of EC(50,7d) was 2.0 mg x L(-1). However, the inhibition declined with the cultivation time. During the whole cultivation period, EMA showed no significant effect on the release of MC-LR from cells to the culture. After 7 days, the amount of intracellular MC-LR per cell unit increased with the increasing of EMA concentration. The amount of MC-LR per cell unit was 25 ng x (10(6) cells)(-1) after the treatment with 1.5 mg x L(-1) EMA, which was increased by 39% compared with the control. The total MC-LR production (including intracellular and extracellular MC-LR) first slightly increased and then decreased significantly with the increase of EMA concentration. After the treatment with 3 mg x L(-1) EMA, the total MC-LR production was 28 microg x L(-1) (only half of that in the control). After 16 days, EMA showed no significant effect on both the amount of MC-LR per cell and the total MC-LR production.

  1. Estimation on the concentration of total suspended matter in Lombok Coastal using Landsat 8 OLI, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emiyati; Manoppo, Anneke K. S.; Budhiman, Syarif

    2017-01-01

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM) are fine materials which suspended and floated in water column. Water column could be turbid due to TSM that reduces the depth of light penetration and causes low productivity in coastal waters. The objective of this study was to estimate TSM concentration using Landsat 8 OLI data in Lombok coastal waters Indonesia by using empirical and analytic approach between three visible bands of Landsat 8 OLI subsurface reflectance (OLI 2, OLI 3 and OLI 4) and field data. The accuracy of model was tested using error estimation and statistical analysis. Colour of waters, transparency and reflectance values showed, the clear water has high transparency and low reflectance while the turbid waters have low transparency and high reflectance. The estimation of TSM concentrations in Lombok coastal waters are 0.39 to 20.7 mg/l. TSM concentrations becoming high when it is on coast and low when it is far from the coast. The statistical analysis showed that TSM model from Landsat 8 OLI data could describe TSM from field measurement with correlation 91.8% and RMSE value 0.52. The t-test and f-test showed that the TSM derived from Landsat 8 OLI and TSM measured in field were not significantly different.

  2. Insufficient differentiation of live and dead Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes cells by ethidium monoazide (EMA) compromises EMA/real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Flekna, Gabriele; Stefanic, Polonca; Wagner, Martin; Smulders, Frans J M; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Hein, Ingeborg

    2007-06-01

    Recently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) has been proposed as a means of reducing the real-time PCR signal originating from free DNA and dead bacterial cells by selectively entering damaged cells and blocking the DNA for PCR amplification via photoactivation. The present study investigated the effect of EMA on viable and dead bacterial cells using real-time PCR, plate count method and microscopy. The foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes were used as a Gram-negative and a Gram-positive model organism, respectively. EMA/real-time PCR analysis of heat-treated cultures of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes containing 2.6x10(5) and 4x10(5) viable and 3x10(6) and 2x10(6) dead cells/ml, respectively, yielded 2x10(3) and 5.2x10(4) bacterial cell equivalents/ml after EMA treatment, thus underestimating the viable cell count in the samples. Similar results were obtained when analyzing late exponential phase cultures of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes. Inhibition of growth by EMA was observed. It depended on the concentration of the bacterial cells present in the sample and the EMA concentration used (100-1 microg/ml). An EMA concentration at which dead cells would stain brightly and viable cells would not stain at all or would be very pale was not identified, as revealed by comparison with the results of a commercial live/dead stain. The results suggest that EMA influences not only dead but also viable cells of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes. Thus EMA/real-time PCR is a poor indicator of cell viability.

  3. THE HERBIG BE STAR V1818 ORI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2015-03-15

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ∼900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510–1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  4. Rapid variability of the EXor star NY Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rapid brightness variability of the classical EXor star NY Ori observed with the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of our program EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056).

  5. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  6. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  7. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  8. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  9. The Herbig Be Star V1818 Ori and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ˜900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510-1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  10. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  11. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T; Arvin, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    The VZV genome has two origins of DNA replication (oriS), each of which consists of an AT-rich sequence and three origin binding protein (OBP) sites called Box A, C and B. In these experiments, the mutation in the core sequence CGC of the Box A and C not only inhibited DNA replication but also inhibited both ORF62 and ORF63 expression in reporter gene assays. In contrast the Box B mutation did not influence DNA replication or flanking gene transcription. These results suggest that efficient DNA replication enhances ORF62 and ORF63 transcription. Recombinant viruses carrying these mutations in both sites and one with a deletion of the whole oriS were constructed. Surprisingly, the recombinant virus lacking both copies of oriS retained the capacity to replicate in melanoma and HELF cells suggesting that VZV has another origin of DNA replication.

  12. Extension of EMA to address regional skew and low outliers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffis, V.W.; Stedinger, J.R.; Cohn, T.A.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    The recently developed expected moments algorithm [EMA] (Cohn et al. 1997) does as well as MLEs at estimating LP3 flood quantiles using systematic and historical information. Needed extensions include use of a regional skewness estimator and its precision to be consistent with Bulletin 17B and to make use of such hydrologic information. Another issue addressed by Bulletin 17B is the treatment of low outliers. A Monte Carlo study illustrates the performance of an extended EMA estimator compared to estimators that employ the complete data set with and without use of regional skew, conditional probability adjustment from Bulletin 17B, and an estimator that uses probability plot regression to compute substitute values for low outliers. Estimators that use a regional skew all do better than estimators that fail to use an informative regional skewness estimator. For LP3 data, the low outlier rejection procedure results in no loss of overall accuracy, and the differences between the MSEs of the estimators that used an informative regional skew were generally negligible in the skew range of real interest.

  13. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments.

  14. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  15. [Effects of allelochemical EMA isolated from Phragmites communis on algal cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-ying; Chong, Yun-xiao; Men, Yu-jie; Guo, Mei-ting

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the antialgal mechanisms of allelochemicals, effects of the allelochemical eathyl-2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulagaris were studied in this paper. The lipid fatty acids of the algal membrane were isolated following the Bligh and Dye method and quantified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure of algal cells was observed with TEM. The results showed that EMA increased the contents of linolenic acid and linolic acid with increment of 14%, while decreased the content of myristic acid and cetylic acid in C. pyrenoidosa, membrane. The content of unsaturated fatty acids C18:1 and C18:2 increased 12% and 10% in M. aeruginosa with the addition of EMA, while the content of saturated fatty acids C18:0 and C16:0 decreased. EMA showed no significant change in the fatty acid composition in C. vulagaris under the experiment condition. EMA broke off cell wall of C. pyrenoidosa and M. aeruginosa. EMA damaged the cell membrane and the inclusion of algal cell leaked out. Nuclear and mitochondrial structure was damaged with the addition of EMA. EMA showed no significant change in the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris.

  16. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  17. Biotechnology: the language of multiple views in Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Te Momo, O H Fiona

    2007-09-01

    In Aotearoa (New Zealand), the government funded studies on communicating biotechnology to different sectors in the community from 2003 to 2006. Subsequently, a researcher covering the Māori sector performed a content analysis of data gathered in the community. Qualitative analysis methods included examining text from participant interviews, focus groups, government documents, newspapers, Internet sites, and current literature. Content was coded by identifying common themes in the English and the Māori language. Words like genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE), and biotechnology were explained to provide a basic understanding between the communities and researcher. The terminology applied in the research was essential to achieve communication between the researcher and the community. The resultant themes represented seven views to interpret the communities association with biotechnology: purist Māori, religious Māori, anti Māori, pro Māori, no Māori, uncertain Māori, and middle Māori views. The themes are taken from the analysis of data compiled after 3 years of completing different stages of a research project. The views indicate that a common understanding can be achieved in the diverse range of Māori tribal communities providing those communicating biotechnology can identify the view and interpretations communities associate with biotechnology. This knowledge is essential for government agencies, researchers, community practitioners, scientist, and businesses that desire to dialogue with Māori communities in the language of biotechnology.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  19. Navigation: process of building relationships with kaumātua (Māori leaders).

    PubMed

    Dyall, Lorna; Skipper, Te Kaanga; Kēpa, Mere; Hayman, Karen; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-01-25

    In the article the authors depict relations in sociocultural navigation by Māori researchers conducting research embedded in mutual trust; rather than instrumental navigation in linear time. A longitudinal study of Māori and non Māori men and women ageing successfully was planned; this feasibility stage tested whether engaging with kōroua/older Māori men and kuia/older Māori women was possible. We document the process undertaken with Ngā Pae o te Maramatanga New Zealand's Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence (hosted by the University of Auckland) to involve Māori people in the research, engaging with kōroua and kuia aged 75 to 79 years old, developing focus groups to discuss questions specific to te reo Māori me ngā tikanga/Maori language and culture, and building research capacity in Māori tribal and primary health organisations in the Bay of Plenty. In addition, engaging with Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori/ Māori Language Commission to translate the questions; recruiting the RopuKaitiaki o Ngā Tikanga Māori/Protectors of Principles of Conduct in Māori Research, and naming the study will be discussed. The involvement of the kaumātua/older Māori people has been fundamental in laying the foundation of the Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu to study a group of Māori aged 80 to 90 years old.

  20. Oak Ridge Graph Analytics for Medical Innovation (ORiGAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Larry W.; Lee, Sangkeun

    2016-01-01

    In this era of data-driven decisions and discovery where Big Data is producing Bigger Data, data scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are leveraging unique leadership infrastructure (e.g., Urika XA and Urika GD appliances) to develop scalable algorithms for semantic, logical and statistical reasoning with Big Data (i.e., data stored in databases as well as unstructured data in documents). ORiGAMI is a next-generation knowledge-discovery framework that is: (a) knowledge nurturing (i.e., evolves seamlessly with newer knowledge and data), (b) smart and curious (i.e. using information-foraging and reasoning algorithms to digest content) and (c) synergistic (i.e., interfaces computers with what they do best to help subject-matter-experts do their best. ORiGAMI has been demonstrated using the National Library of Medicine's SEMANTIC MEDLINE (archive of medical knowledge since 1994).

  1. Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Koltsidopoulos, P; Tsea, M; Kafki, S; Skoulakis, C

    2013-10-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Sean D.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Simon, Theodore; Gibb, Erika L.; Liskowsky, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We present new high-resolution infrared echelle spectra of V1647 Ori, the young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. From the start, V1647 Ori has been an enigmatic source that has defied classification, in some ways resembling eruptive stars of the FUor class and in other respects the EXor variables. V1647 Ori underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, it underwent a new outburst. In this paper, we present high-resolution K-band and M-band spectra from the W. M. Keck Observatory that were acquired during the 2008 outburst. We compare the spectra to spectra acquired during the previous outburst and quiescent phases. We find that the luminosity and full width at half maximum power of Br γ increased as the star has brightened and decreased when the star faded, indicating that these phases are driven by variations in the accretion rate. We also show that the temperature of the CO emission has varied with the stellar accretion rate, confirming suggestions from modeling of the heating mechanisms of the inner disk. Finally, we find that the lowest energy blueshifted CO absorption lines originally reported in 2007 are no longer detected. The absence of these lines confirms the short-lived nature of the outflow launched at the start of the quiescent phase in 2006.

  3. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The EMA systems proposed for future space transportation applications are high power systems operating at voltages up to 270 Vdc and at current levels on the order of hundreds of amperes. The position of the actuator is controlled by modulating the flow of energy from the source to an electric motor with an inverter. Hard-switching of the semiconductor devices in the inverter results in considerable device switching stresses and losses and in the generation of substantial amounts of EMI. Both of these can be reduced by employing zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) techniques in the inverter. This project has focused on the development of a ZVS inverter for the Marshall Space Center EMA prototypes, which utilize brushless dc motors to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. An inverter which permitted zero-voltage switching and a quasi-PWM operation was selected for study and implementation. A waveshaping circuit is added to the front of a standard three-phase inverter to achieve the desired switching properties. This circuit causes the input voltage of the three-phase inverter to ring to zero where it is clamped for a short period of time. During this zero-voltage period, any of the semiconductor switches in the three-phase inverter are switched on or off at zero voltage resulting in a reduction in switching losses and EMI. The operation of this waveshaping circuit and its interaction with the three-phase inverter are described. The different circuit modes were analyzed using equivalent circuits. Based on this analysis, design relationships were developed for calculating component values for the circuit elements in the waveshaping circuit. Waveforms of various voltages and currents in the waveshaping circuit were plotted and used to determine the ratings of the semiconductors in the waveshaping circuit. The implementation of this inverter are described. Block diagrams for the overall control system and the waveshaping circuit control are presented and discussed

  4. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  5. Design of power electronics for TVC and EMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, R. Mark; Bell, J. Brett; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1994-11-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently developing a class of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for use in space transportation applications such as thrust vector control (TVC) and propellant control valves (PCV). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 volts. MSFC has selected the brushless dc motor for implementation in EMA's. A previous project performed by Auburn University examined the use of the resonant dc link (RDCL) inverter, pulse density modulation (PDM), and mos-controlled thyristors (MCT's) for speed control of a brushless dc motor. The speed of the brushless dc motor is proportional to the applied stator voltage. In a PDM system, the control system determines the number of resonant voltage pulses which must be applied to the stator to achieve a desired speed. The addition of a waveshaping circuit to the front end of a standard three-phase inverter yields a RDCL inverter; the resonant voltage pulses are produced through the action of this wave shaping circuit and the inverter. This project has focused on the implementation of a system which permits zero-voltage switching with the bus voltage clamped at the input voltage level. In the same manner as the RDCL inverter, the inverter selected for this implementation is a combination of waveshaping circuit and a standard three-phase inverter. In addition, this inverter allows a pulse-width modulated (PWM)-like control scheme instead of a PDM scheme. The operation of waveshaping circuit will be described through analysis and waveforms. Design relationships will also be presented.

  6. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  7. A review of Māori astronomy in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Pauline; Matamua, Rangi; Smith, Takirirangi; Kerr, Hoturoa; Waaka, Toa

    2013-11-01

    Across the world indigenous people are seeking to reclaim their traditional knowledge. Within the last fifty years the Māori of Aotearoa-New Zealand have made significant efforts to reclaim their language, arts and science. Part of this renaissance includes a growing Māori movement to reclaim their astronomical knowledge. Māori astronomical understanding was infused throughout much of pre-colonial Māori life, culture and belief. The Sun, Moon and stars were an integral part of practices pertaining to agriculture, architecture, fishing, calendrical systems and exploration. Although early ethnographers attempted to record this knowledge, their works seem to only reflect a somewhat superficial level of understanding. Thus this paper highlights some of the current research being conducted on Māori astronomy, which seeks a greater understanding of how the ancestors of the Māori perceived the heavens.

  8. Differences in survival between Māori and New Zealand Europeans with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lao, C; Obertová, Z; Brown, C; Scott, N; Edlin, R; Gilling, P; Holmes, M; Tyrie, L; Lawrenson, R

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the survival disparity between Māori men and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans diagnosed with prostate cancer. We identified men aged 40+ years in the Midland Cancer Network region registered with prostate cancer in 2007-2010 in the Cancer Registry. Data were extracted from patient notes of all Māori men and a sample of NZ Europeans. The survival disparity between Māori men and Europeans was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models after adjusting for other factors. This study included 535 men with prostate cancer (135 Māori men and 400 Europeans). The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 98.6% for men diagnosed with localised cancer, 88.8% for locally advanced disease and 19.1% for metastatic cancer. The all-cause survival and the cancer-specific survival were both significantly poorer for Māori men than for NZ Europeans (log rank test: P = 0.004, 0.006 respectively). The hazard ratio of cancer-specific survival for Māori men was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.21-3.36) compared with NZ Europeans. Māori men with prostate cancer had poorer all-cause survival and cancer-specific survival than NZ Europeans. Māori men were at risk of having more advanced disease at diagnosis, which explains most of the survival inequity between Māori men and NZ Europeans.

  9. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  10. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  11. Effects of a novel allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on the ultrastructure and pigment composition of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Huang, Jing-Jing; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2009-10-01

    Allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) can significantly inhibit the growth of bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa. In order to assess the implication of the damage of EMA on the algal photosynthetic apparatus, the effects of EMA on the algal ultrastructure and pigment composition were investigated. At initial exposure time to EMA (0-40 h), algal allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin and carotenoid degraded firstly; chlorophyll a increased, especially by 47% in the algae exposed to 2 mg L(-1) of EMA; phycocyanin was not significantly affected; lipid bodies increased remarkably. After 40 h of EMA exposure, chlorophyll a decreased gradually, especially by 45% in the algae exposed to 4 mg L(-1) of EMA; lipid bodies greatly reduced but cyanophycin granules accumulated; thylakoid structures were dissolved or disappeared with the presence of numerous vacuoles. These results showed that all ophycocyanin, phycoerythrin and carotenoid were more sensitive to EMA than other pigments, the cells of M. aeruginosa was stressed by EMA with the occurrence of cyanophycin granules and the photosynthesis pigments and ultrastructure of M. aeruginosa were quickly destroyed by EMA with exposure time increasing.

  12. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  13. Relative rates of RNA synthesis across the genome of Epstein-Barr virus are highest near oriP and oriLyt.

    PubMed Central

    Metzenberg, S

    1989-01-01

    The rates of Epstein-Barr virus transcription were measured in isolated nuclei from marmoset and human lymphoblasts transformed in vitro. In B95-8, a marmoset B-lymphoid cell line, the most frequently transcribed viral genes are the EBERs (small nuclear RNAs) and BHLF-1 (encoding a lytic-phase gene product). The EBERs and BHLF-1 genes are separated by nearly 50 kilobase pairs on the Epstein-Barr virus genome and lie adjacent to (less than 300 base pairs from) oriP and oriLyt, respectively. oriP and oriLyt are putative origins of viral DNA replication, and each is associated with a transcriptional enhancer element. Among the human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, only the transcription of EBERs predominates. Images PMID:2552173

  14. OLiMPS. OpenFlow Link-layer MultiPath Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Harvey B.; Barczyk, Artur; Bredel, Michael

    2014-11-17

    The OLiMPS project’s goal was the development of an OpenFlow controller application allowing load balancing over multiple switched paths across a complex network topology. The second goal was to integrate the controller with Dynamic Circuit Network systems such as ESnet’s OSCARS. Both goals were achieved successfully, as laid out in this report.

  15. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  16. Dissonant roles: The experience of Māori in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin; Signal, Louise; Davies, Cheryl; Tavite, Huia; Hooper, Carolyn; Sarfati, Diana; Stairmand, Jeannine; Cunningham, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous peoples have poorer health outcomes than their non-indigenous counterparts and this applies to cancer outcomes for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Differential access to and quality of healthcare contributes to poorer survival rates for Māori. This research provides insight into some of the mechanisms that hinder and facilitate care access. Thirty four people who had undergone cancer treatment (19 Māori and 15 non-Māori) were interviewed by two Māori researchers. The analysis of the interview transcripts was informed by membership categorization analysis. This form of analysis attends to the categories that are used and the activities and characteristics associated with those categories. From this analysis it is argued that the classical patient role, or sick role, inadequately captures the kind of role that some Māori take in relation to their healthcare. Māori can also have culturally specific family (whānau) influences and a greater draw towards alternative approaches to healthcare. Dissonant roles contribute to a different experience for Māori. A better understanding of the categories and roles that are relevant to those who have cancer provides opportunities to attenuate the monocultural impacts of healthcare.

  17. Premature mortality resilience and wellbeing within urban Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Waa, Andrew M; Pearson, Amber L; Ryks, John L

    2017-01-01

    ori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being. Resilient urban neighborhoods were defined as those that had lower than expected premature mortality among Māori residents despite high levels of socio-economic adversity. Selected resilience indicators theoretically linked to a Māori well-being framework were correlated with the novel Māori_RINZ resilience index. Of the selected indicators, only exposure to crime showed a clear gradient across the resilience index as predicted by the Māori well-being framework. Future research is needed as unclear trends for other indicators may reflect limitations in the indicators used or the need to develop a more comprehensive measure of well-being.

  18. Near-IR photometric monitoring of FU Ori Type Object 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Benigni, S.

    2015-05-01

    Maehara, Kojima, and Fujii (ATel #6770) discovered a recent FU Ori-type outburst in 2MASS J06593158-0405277. High resolution spectroscopic follow up by Hillenbrand (ATel #6797) confirmed its FU Ori nature, and discovered P-Cygni profile for H alpha line and blue-shifted absorption for other hydrogen lines.

  19. The complexities of designing therapy for Māori living with stroke-related communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Karen M

    2016-05-27

    Stroke-related communication disorders can have a substantial impact on Māori whānau (extended family). Timely and appropriate speech-language therapy is required, but there are many challenges in providing this. In this article we discuss the need for a kaupapa Māori approach to speech-language therapy that is designed by Māori for Māori, and undertaken in a Māori way. We report the results of a literature review that revealed a small but significant body of literature describing Māori experiences of stroke, aphasia and speech-language therapy, and evidence that a Māori-specific therapy programme can improve outcomes for people with stroke. We then consider the social and political context that impacts the design and delivery of such an approach. Informed by the literature, we propose a hierarchy of skill and resource acquisition for speech-language therapists, in which they learn why to be culturally safe, how to be culturally safe, and how to interact before creating resources to build relationships, resources for education and for therapy. The creation of a kaupapa Māori speech-language therapy approach should bring together people with stroke, whānau members and service providers to create therapy that crosses sectors and disciplines and acknowledges the wider social and political context.

  20. A comparison of glacier classification with Sentinel 2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The recently launched Sentinel 2 satellite with its sensor Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) offers unprecedented possibilities for automated and much more precise glacier mapping at global scales than other freely available sensors (e.g. the commonly used Landsat). With its 10 m spatial resolution in the VNIR bands (20 m in SWIR) and the large swath width of 290 km it will theoretically be possible to map all glaciers in a country such as Switzerland or Austria in a single day. The higher repeat frequency also offers better chances for a cloud free acquisition in a comparably short end-of-summer time-window. As the spectral ranges of the VNIR and SWIR bands of MSI and the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 are very similar, glaciers (clean ice and snow) can be mapped automatically with previously applied methods such as the TM3/5 (OLI4/6, MSI 4/11) band ratio. In this study a Sentinel 2 precursor dataset (from the commissioning phase) acquired on August 29, 2015 over the Swiss Alps is used to map glaciers with the band ratio method mentioned above and compared to outlines derived from a Landsat 8 OLI scene of the same region acquired only 2 days later (on 31.8. 2015). Additional to the classic red/SWIR band ratio, we have also used the 15 m resolution panchromatic band of OLI instead of the red band to map glaciers. Before the high-resolution band ratios were calculated, the SWIR bands of OLI and MSI were resampled with a bilinear interpolation to a two-times higher spatial resolution. The ratios were applied to the raw digital numbers of all bands without any further correction and threshold values were manually selected. First results show that the red/SWIR ratio for MSI required an additional threshold in the blue band for accurate mapping of snow and ice in shadow, whereas this was not required for OLI. In general, all outlines overlap within the geometric accuracy of the orthorectification, but the 30 m outlines from the OLI red/SWIR ratio were generally

  1. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  2. In vivo mutagenesis reveals that OriL is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Miralles Fusté, Javier; Stewart, James B; Wanrooij, Paulina H; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA replication have been hotly debated for a decade. The strand-displacement model states that lagging-strand DNA synthesis is initiated from the origin of light-strand DNA replication (OriL), whereas the strand-coupled model implies that OriL is dispensable. Mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected and the requirements of OriL in vivo have therefore not been addressed. We here use in vivo saturation mutagenesis to demonstrate that OriL is essential for mtDNA maintenance in the mouse. Biochemical and bioinformatic analyses show that OriL is functionally conserved in vertebrates. Our findings strongly support the strand-displacement model for mtDNA replication. PMID:23090476

  3. The photometric variability of ζ Ori Aa observed by BRITE* **

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.

    2016-12-01

    Using BRITE photometry, we investigated the photometric variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant ζOri Aa. We found two independent frequencies, leading to several higher harmonics and simple linear combinations. One frequency is related to the rotation period, f_{rot} = 0.15±0.02 d^{-1}. The derived rotation period from this frequency and its higher harmonics, P_{rot} = 6.65±0.28 d, is compatible with the literature value (P_{rot} = 6.83±0.08 d). Thanks to simultaneous CHIRON spectroscopy, we locate the origin of the second frequency, f_{env} = 0.10±0.02 d^{-1}, at the circumstellar environment. We propose mass-loss events as the underlying origin.

  4. Mechanics of Miura-ori Origami Lattice Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Evans, Arthur; Ginepro, Jessica; Santangelo, Christian; Hull, Thomas; Cohen, Itai

    2014-03-01

    The mechanical properties of origami-inspired materials show remarkable potential for responsive, tunable next-generation materials. For example, the Miura-ori fold is predicted to have negative Poisson ratio and anisotropic compressive properties. Using a custom mechanical testing device and 3D laser profilometry, we investigate the moduli and the role of curvature in setting these material properties. Because defects are known to dramatically alter the bulk properties in other periodic materials, we introduce defects into the folding pattern to investigate their effects on the macroscopic mechanical properties. Interestingly, we find that a single defect increases the overall material stiffness, but the introduction of a second defect in the opposite direction can cancel out the first, tending to restore the original material properties. Moreover, these defect pairs can be arranged to form edge dislocations, grain boundaries, and many other topological configurations familiar from the study of crystallographic lattice defects.

  5. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-04-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  6. Development of electrochemical super capacitors for EMA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Dunning, T.; Laconti, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    In a NASA SBIR Phase I program (Contract No. NAS8-40119), Giner, Inc. evaluated the feasibility of fabricating an all-solid-ionomer multicell electrochemical capacitor having a unit cell capacitance greater than 2 F/sq cm and a repeating element thickness of 6 mils. This capacitor can possibly be used by NASA as a high-rate energy source for electromechanical actuator (EMA) activation for advanced space missions. The high unit cell capacitance and low repeating element thickness will allow for the fabrication of a low-volume, low-weight device, favorable characteristics for space applications. These same characteristics also make the capacitor attractive for terrestrial applications, such as load-leveling batteries or fuel cells in electric vehicle applications. Although the projected energy densities for electrochemical capacitors are about two orders of magnitude lower than that of batteries, the high-power-density characteristics of these devices render them as potentially viable candidates for meeting pulse or peak electrical power requirements for some anticipated aerospace mission scenarios, especially those with discharge times on the millisecond to second time scale. On a volumetric or gravimetric basis, the advantages of utilizing electrochemical capacitors rather than batteries for meeting the peak power demands associated with a specific mission scenario will largely depend upon the total and pulse durations of the power peaks. The effect of preparation conditions on RuO(x), the active component in an all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, was evaluated during this program. Methods were identified to prepare RuO(x) having a surface areagreater than 180 sq m/g, and a capacitance of greater than 2 F/sq cm. Further efforts to reproducibly obtain these high-surface-area materials in scaled-up batches will be evaluated in Phase 2. During this Phase 1 program we identified a superior Nafion 105 membrane, having a film thickness of 5 mils, that showed

  7. White spots in pharmaceutical pipelines-EMA identifies potential areas of unmet medical needs.

    PubMed

    Papaluca, Marisa; Greco, Martina; Tognana, Enrico; Ehmann, Falk; Saint-Raymond, Agnès

    2015-05-01

    Unmet medical needs are a priority for organizations such as the WHO and major public-private initiatives, such as Innovative Medicines Initiative, were established to speed up the development of better and safer medicines for patients. To assist such projects, the EMA in its 'Road Map to 2015' considered the mapping of unmet medical needs as a priority. This study has identified medical conditions for which the EMA could not identify developments in the pharmaceutical pipelines, that is, 'white spots'. Our analysis was made using external data sources as well as mining data of the EMA. The main areas for white spots were oncology, infectious diseases and certain psychiatric conditions. According to our data and a review of literature, in a number of these white spots, diagnostic tools may even be missing. The identification of those conditions will benefit stakeholders, including regulators, research funding bodies and patients' organizations.

  8. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  9. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA).

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt's diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future.

  10. Determination of mandibular border and functional movement protocols using an electromagnetic articulograph (EMA)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Ramon; Navarro, Pablo; Curiqueo, Aldo; Ottone, Nicolas E

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic articulograph (EMA) is a device that can collect movement data by positioning sensors at multiple points, measuring displacements of the structure in real time, as well as the acoustics and mechanics of speech using a microphone connected to the measurement system. The aim of this study is to describe protocols for the generation, measurement and visualization of mandibular border and functional movements in the three spatial planes (frontal, sagittal and horizontal) using the EMA. The EMA has transmitter coils that determine magnetic fields to collect information about movements from sensors located on different structures (tongue, palate, mouth, incisors, skin, etc.) and in every direction in an area of 300 mm. After measurement with the EMA, the information is transferred to a computer and read with the Visartico software to visualize the recording of the mandibular movements registered by the EMA. The sensors placed in the space between the three axes XYZ are observed, and then the plots created from the mandibular movements included in the corresponding protocol can be visualized, enabling interpretation of these data. Four protocols for the obtaining of images of the opening and closing mandibular movements were defined and developed, as well as border movements in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes, managing to accurately reproduce Posselt’s diagram and Gothic arch on the latter two axes. Measurements with the EMA will allow more exact data to be collected in relation to the mandibular clinical physiology and morphology, which will permit more accurate diagnoses and application of more precise and adjusted treatments in the future. PMID:26884903

  11. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  12. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Merrill, Jennifer E; Monti, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in "high resolution." Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near-real time. Compared with other methods, EMA can better sample and capture changes in these phenomena that occur in relatively short time frames. EMA also has several potential applications in studying the consequences of alcohol use, including physical, interpersonal, behavioral, and legal problems. However, even with all these potential capabilities, EMA research in the alcohol field still is associated with some limitations, including the potential for measurement reactivity and problems with acceptability and compliance. Despite these limitations, electronically based EMA methods are versatile and are capable of capturing data relevant to a variety of momentary influences on both alcohol use and consequences. Therefore, it will be exciting to fully realize the potential of future applications of EMA technologies, particularly if the associated costs can be reduced.

  13. EMA401: an old antagonist of the AT2R for a new indication in neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Schatman, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    EMA401 is an old molecule, synthesized by Parke-Davis in the last century and characterized at that time as an AT2R antagonist. Professor Maree Smith and her group from the University of Queensland (Australia) patented the drug and many related derivatives and other compounds with high affinity for the AT2R for the indication neuropathic pain in 2004, an example of drug repositioning. After some years of university work, the Australian biotech company Spinifex Pharmaceuticals took over further research and development and characterized the S-enantiomer, code name EMA401, and related compounds in a variety of animal models for neuropathic and cancer pain. EMA401 was selected as the lead compound, based on high selectivity for the AT2R and good oral bioavailability (33%). EMA401, however, was only administered once in a chronic neuropathic pain model, and no data have been published in other pain models, or during steady state, although such data were available for the racemate EMA400 and some related compounds (EMA200, EMA400). A pilot phase IIa study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the drug taken twice daily as two capsules of 50 mg (400 mg/day). In 2015, Novartis took over the clinical development. Two phase IIb studies designed by Spinifex Pharmaceuticals were put on hold, probably because Novartis wanted to improve the clinical design or collect additional preclinical data. Further data are eagerly awaited, especially since EMA401 is first-in-class in neuropathic pain. PMID:28255254

  14. Radiometric Calibration and Stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron; Haque, Md Obaidul

    2015-01-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  15. Landsat 8 OLI radiometric calibration performance after three years (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfitt, Ron A.

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) impressed science users soon after launch in early 2013 with both its radiometric and geometric performance. After three years on-orbit, OLI continues to exceed expectations with its high signal-to-noise ratio, low striping, and stable response. The few artifacts that do exist, such as ghosting, continue to be minimal and show no signs of increasing. The on-board calibration sources showed a small decrease in response during the first six months of operations in the coastal aerosol band, but that decrease has stabilized to less than a half percent per year since that time. The other eight bands exhibit very little change over the past three years and have remained well within a half percent of their initial response to all on-board calibration sources. Analysis of lunar acquisitions also agree with the on-board calibrators. Overall, the OLI on-board the Landsat 8 spacecraft continues to provide exceptional measurements of the Earth's surface to continue the long tradition of Landsat.

  16. EMA-CO chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a clinical analysis of 54 patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, W-G; Ye, F; Shen, Y-M; Fu, Y-F; Chen, H-Z; Wan, X-Y; Xie, X

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the outcomes of chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) with EMA-CO regimen as primary and secondary protocol in China. Fifty-four patients with high-risk GTN received 292 EMA/CO treatment cycles between 1996 and 2005. Forty-five patients were primarily treated with EMA-CO, and nine were secondarily treated after failure to other combination chemotherapy. Adjuvant surgery and radiotherapy were used in the selected patients. Response, survival and related risk factors, as well as chemotherapy complications, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-five of forty-five patients (77.8%) receiving EMA-CO as first-line treatment achieved complete remission, and 77.8% (7/9) as secondary treatment. The overall survival rate was 87.0% in all high-risk GTN patients, with 93.3% (42/45) as primary therapy and 55.6% (5/9) as secondary therapy. The survival rates were significantly different between two groups (chi(2)= 6.434, P =0.011). Univariate analysis showed that the metastatic site and the number of metastatic organs were significant risk factors, but binomial distribution logistic regression analysis revealed that only the number of metastatic organs was an independent risk factor for the survival rate. No life-threatening toxicity and secondary malignancy were found. EMA-EP regimen was used for ten patients who were resistant to EMA-CO and three who relapsed after EMA-CO. Of those, 11 patients (84.6%) achieved complete remission. We conclude that EMA-CO regimen is an effective and safe primary therapy for high-risk GTN, but not an appropriate second-line protocol. The number of metastatic organs is an independent prognostic factor for the patient with high-risk GTN. EMA-EP regimen is a highly effective salvage therapy for those failing to EMA-CO.

  17. Differential polarization direct imaging of FU Ori type YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Takami, Michihiro; Scicluna, Peter; Karr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    FU Orionis objects (FUors) are distinguished from other young stellar objects due to their outbursts. They can surge in brightness by multiple magnitudes in a short time. Thus FUors have always been considered the strongest evidence which suggests unsteady accretion process in low mass young stellar objects (YSO). However the accreting process of FUors are not well understood. We present high resolution (~0.1 arcseconds) observations of 5 FUors (FU Ori, V1057cyg, V1515cyg, V1735cyg, Z Cma) in near infrared bandpasses (J,H,K) using the Subaru telescope. Through using polarization differential imaging and coronagraphy techniques, we were able to obtain high contrast images of circumstellar environment around central young stars. After image processing, we found interesting structures (stream, tail, fragment, etc) in the circumstellar disks. These structures are indications for dynamical interaction, potential outflow cavities and disk fragmentation. More importantly, these disk features can provide us with insight into the accretion process and where outbursts originate.

  18. The diagnostic value of EMA expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Zăhoi, Delia Elena; Izvernariu, D

    2011-01-01

    Renal parenchyma tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are difficult to diagnose and classify. Immunohistochemistry begun to be routinely used for the diagnosis of these tumors. Panels of antibodies are developed for the diagnostic assessment of these tumors, which include cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is expressed by most of the tumor cell types. Forty-seven specimens of renal parenchyma tumors were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of EMA. In the majority of the cases, clear cells carcinoma was positive for EMA (25/33, 75.70%). All of the papillary carcinomas were positive, with different staining patterns between the two subtypes. The two cases of chromophobe cells carcinomas were intensely positive with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. The mixed epithelial-stromal tumor was negative for EMA in both of the components. Out of the three cases of sarcomatoid carcinomas, one was negative, one was weakly positive (+1) and the last was positive (+2). Intensely positive normal tubes were caught by the tumor proliferation in the negative case and in the negative stained areas of the weakly positive case.

  19. The rosiglitazone decision process at FDA and EMA. What should we learn?

    PubMed

    Pouwels, Koen B; van Grootheest, Kees

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010 the EMA decided to suspend the market authorisation of rosiglitazone, while the FDA decided to restrict the use of rosiglitazone. These actions were taken approximately 10 years after the introduction of rosiglitazone, because rosiglitazone might be associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. It is often stated that the first signs of an increased risk of ischemic heart disease were noticed in 2004, however already in 2001 the FDA concluded, based on data available to the EMA at the time of initial approval, that rosiglitazone should not be used in combination with insulin, because this combination therapy was associated with an increased risk of cardiac failure and ischemic heart disease. Remarkably, in 2007, when the evidence against this combination therapy had increased, the EMA made a decision that encouraged the use of insulin in combination with rosiglitazone, while the FDA tried to restrict this combination therapy. Despite the publication of several studies, including a large randomized controlled study, the cardiovascular risk of rosiglitazone still has not been definitively established. The weight given to the benefits and the risks seems mainly a subjective decision. To prevent new cases like rosiglitazone, more attention should be given to evaluation of study protocols of safety trials prior to their starts. This paper gives a critical overview of the decision making process at the FDA and the EMA on the basis of public available information.

  20. Dependence on place: A source of autonomy in later life for older Māori.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Elizabeth; Breheny, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Attachment to place is an important component of ageing. Although the importance of place for older people's well-being is known, the ways in which different conceptions of place and expectations for what later life may hold depend upon cultural beliefs, values, and expectations is underexplored. This study examined the ways that place influences experiences of ageing for older Māori in New Zealand. Eight interviews with older Māori were analysed thematically alongside field notes from a research visit. Attachment to place provided the foundation for experiences of ageing for older Māori. Through their connection to place, the participants drew on a comforting and comfortable dependence on land and family to enable autonomy in later life. Rather than seeking to maintain independence in terms of avoiding reliance on others, older Māori conceptualised older age through autonomy and freedom to live in accordance with Māori values encapsulated by whakawhanaungatanga. A good old age depended on balancing competing demands of living in wider society with attachment to place and Māori identity in later life.

  1. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  2. Fu Ori outbursts and the planet-disc mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, Sergei; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that giant protoplanets migrating inwards through the disc more rapidly than they contract could be tidally disrupted when they fill their Roche lobes ˜0.1 au away from their parent protostars. Here we consider the process of mass and angular momentum exchange between the tidally disrupted planet and the surrounding disc in detail. We find that the planet's adiabatic mass-radius relation and its ability to open a deep gap in the disc determine whether the disruption proceeds as a sudden runaway or a balanced quasi-static process. In the latter case, the planet feeds the inner disc through its Lagrangian L1 point like a secondary star in a stellar binary system. As the planet loses mass, it gains specific angular momentum and normally migrates in the outward direction until the gap closes. Numerical experiments show that planet disruption outbursts are preceded by long 'quiescent' periods during which the disc inward of the planet is empty. The hole in the disc is created when the planet opens a deep gap, letting the inner disc to drain on to the star while keeping the outer one stalled behind the planet. We find that the mass-losing planet embedded in a realistic protoplanetary disc spawns an extremely rich set of variability patterns. In a subset of parameter space, there is a limit cycle behaviour caused by non-linear interaction between the planet mass-loss and the disc hydrogen ionization instability. We suggest that tidal disruptions of young massive planets near their stars may be responsible for the observed variability of young accreting protostars such as FU Ori, EXor and T Tauri stars in general.

  3. Predictors of academic success for Māori, Pacific and non-Māori non-Pacific students in health professional education: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wikaire, Erena; Curtis, Elana; Cormack, Donna; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Rob; Reid, Papaarangi

    2017-05-01

    Tertiary institutions internationally aim to increase student diversity, however are struggling to achieve equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students and detailed exploration of factors that impact on success is required. This study explored the predictive effect of admission variables on academic outcomes for health professional students by ethnic grouping. Kaupapa Māori and Pacific research methodologies were used to conduct a quantitative analysis using data for 2686 health professional students [150 Māori, 257 Pacific, 2279, non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP)]. The predictive effect of admission variables: school decile; attending school in Auckland; type of admission; bridging programme; and first-year bachelor results on academic outcomes: year 2-4 grade point average (GPA); graduating; graduating in the minimum time; and optimal completion for the three ethnic groupings and the full cohort was explored using multiple regression analyses. After adjusting for admission variables, for every point increase in first year bachelor GPA: year 2-4 GPA increased by an average of 0.46 points for Māori (p = 0.0002, 95% CI 0.22, 0.69), 0.70 points for Pacific (p < 0.0001, CI 0.52, 0.87), and 0.55 points for nMnP (p < 0.0001, CI 0.51, 0.58) students. For the total cohort, ethnic grouping was consistently the most significant predictor of academic outcomes. This study demonstrated clear differences in academic outcomes between both Māori and Pacific students when compared to nMnP students. Some (but not all) of the disparities between ethnic groupings could be explained by controlling for admission variables.

  4. oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC. This occurs via the concerted action of numerous proteins, including DnaA, which acts as an initiator. The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC, triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. The requisite information is encoded in the unique arrangement of specific sequences called DnaA boxes, which form a framework for DnaA binding and assembly. Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. We show that oriC encoded instructions allow not only for initiation but also for precise regulation of replication initiation and coordination of chromosomal replication with the cell cycle (also in response to environmental signals). We focus on Escherichia coli, and then expand our discussion to include several other microorganisms in which additional regulatory proteins have been recently shown to be involved in coordinating replication initiation to other cellular processes (e.g., Bacillus, Caulobacter, Helicobacter, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces). We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. PMID:25610430

  5. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Barbá, R. H.; Montes, D.; Pellerin, A.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sota, A.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  6. Responses of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to the allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis).

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Xie, Xing; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-08-25

    Macrophytic allelochemicals are considered an environment-friendly and promising alternative to control algal bloom. However, studies examining the potential mechanisms of inhibitory allelochemicals on algae are few. The allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA), isolated from reed (Phragmites communis), was a strong allelopathic inhibitor on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. EMA-induced antioxidant responses were investigated in the cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa to understand the mechanism of EMA inhibition on algal growth. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) of M. aeruginosa cells were analyzed after treatments with different concentrations of EMA. Exposure of M. aeruginosa to EMA caused changes in enzyme activities and contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants in different manners. The decrease in SOD activity occurred first after 4 h of EMA exposure, and more markedly after 40 h. CAT activity did not change after 4 h of EMA exposure, but increased obviously after 40 h. The contents of AsA and GSH were increased greatly by EMA after 4 h. After 60 h, low EMA concentrations still increased the CAT activity and the contents of AsA and GSH, but high EMA concentrations started to impose a marked suppression on them. EMA increased dehydroascorbate (DHAsA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents during all exposure times. After 60 h, the regeneration rates of AsA and GSH (represented by the AsA/DHAsA ratio and GSH/GSSG ratio, respectively) were reduced by high EMA concentrations. These results suggest that the activation of CAT and the availability of AsA and GSH at early exposure are important to counteract the oxidative stress induced by EMA, and the inactivation of SOD may be crucial to the growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa by EMA.

  7. The nurse's role in improving health disparities experienced by the indigenous Māori of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Katherine Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Many countries across the globe experience disparities in health between their indigenous and non-indigenous people. The indigenous Māori of New Zealand are the most marginalized and deprived ethnic group with the poorest health status overall. Factors including the historical British colonization, institutional discrimination, healthcare workforce bias and the personal attitudes and beliefs of Māori significantly contribute to disparities, differential access and receipt of quality health services. Māori experience more barriers towards accessing health services and as a result achieve poorer health outcomes. Contradicting translations of Te Tiriti o Waitangi have created much debate regarding social rights as interpreted by Oritetanga (equal British citizenship rights) and whether or not Māori are entitled to equal opportunities or equal outcomes. Inconsistent consideration of Māori culture in the New Zealand health system and social policy greatly contributes to the current health disparities. Nurses and healthcare professionals alike have the gifted opportunity to truly change attitudes toward Māori health and move forward in adopting culturally appropriate care practices. More specifically the nursing workforce provides 80% of direct patient care, thus are in a unique position to be the forefront of change in reducing health disparities experienced by Māori. Incorporating cultural safety, patient advocacy, and Māori-centred models of care will support nurses in adopting a new approach toward improving Māori health outcomes overall.

  8. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  9. A STAR-FORMING RING AROUND κ Ori 250 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250–280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5–8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  10. GHRS Observations of the Interstellar Medium toward 23 ORI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, D. E.; Hobbs, L. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; Spitzer, L.; York, D. G.

    1996-05-01

    High-resolution optical spectra, GHRS echelle and G160M spectra, and Copernicus spectra are combined to study the abundances and physical conditions in the diffuse interstellar clouds seen toward 23 Ori. High-resolution (0.3--2.0 km s(-1) ) spectra of Na I, Ca I, Ca II, and K I are used to define the underlying component structure that is unresolved in the UV spectra, enabling more accurate individual cloud abundances and physical conditions to be derived from the numerous transitions found in the UV. Multiple absorption components are present for each of several distinct types of gas. Strong low-velocity (SLV) absorption, due to cool, moderately dense neutral gas, is seen for neutral and singly ionized species at 20 km s(-1) la vsun la 30 km s(-1) . Weaker low-velocity (WLV) absorption, probably due to warmer gas, is seen primarily for singly ionized species at 0 km s(-1) la vsun la 20 km s(-1) . Weak absorption from C II, Mg II, and Si III is seen at -45 km s(-1) la vsun la 0 km s(-1) , and from more highly ionized species at -5 km s(-1) la vsun la 25 km s(-1) . Absorption from singly and doubly ionized species is seen at -110 km s(-1) la vsun la -80 km s(-1) ; this apparently shock-ionized gas is not in collisional ionization equilibrium, having cooled more quickly than it could recombine. The various types of gas present along this line of sight are characterized by different relative abundance / depletion patterns; these depletion patterns are compared with the physical conditions derived for the different components. For the SLV components, most typically depleted species are less depleted by factors of 2--4, compared to the ``cold, dense cloud'' pattern found, for example, toward zeta Oph. The depletions in the WLV gas are typically another factor of 2--3 less than in the SLV gas, similar to the ``warm cloud'' pattern seen in less reddened lines of sight. While there is some uncertainty, due to unobserved ionization stages, as to the depletions in the high

  11. An effective modified water extraction method for Landsat-8 OLI imagery of mountainous plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Wang, L.; Jing, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-04-01

    Water body extraction from remote sensing imagery is an efficient way to investigate and monitor water resources. In the study area of this research, a mountainous plateau near Kashgar, China, sparse vegetation and seasonal rivers affect water body extraction. In order to extract water bodies, a modified water body extraction method is proposed in this paper and tested using Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Following this method, binary images are first generated using a classification, a Tasseled Cap transform, and a normalized difference water index, respectively, and then combined to yield a mask. Next, water bodies are delineated by masking the Landsat-8 OLI imagery and then refined by eliminating false areas using a supervised classification. It is demonstrated from the resulting water body maps that terrain related shadows in imagery were effectively eliminated and river tributaries and artificial ditches were precisely delineated, with accuracy up to 94%. Compared with several current water body extraction methods, the modified method yielded water body maps with better visualization and slightly improved accuracy.

  12. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  13. Surgical treatment for paediatric patients with moyamoya disease by indirect revascularization procedures (EDAS, EMS, EMAS).

    PubMed

    Matsushima, T; Fujiwara, S; Nagata, S; Fujii, K; Fukui, M; Kitamura, K; Hasuo, K

    1989-01-01

    Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good collateral formation through EDAS, EMAS, or EMS in about 70-80 percent of all surgically treated sides. The symptoms such as TIA, RIND, and/or involuntary movements disappeared in the cases with a good collateral formation but not in those with insufficient development of the collateral circulation. The indirect EC-IC bypass surgery seems effective for most of the children with Moyamoya disease who present with ischaemic signs.

  14. Remotely sensed sea surface salinity in the hyper-saline Arabian Gulf: Application to landsat 8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a multivariable linear algorithm was developed to derive sea surface salinity (SSS) from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) in the hyper-saline Arabian Gulf. In situ measured Rrs at Operational Land Imager (OLI) bands 1-4 were involved in the algorithm development. Comparisons between estimated and in situ measured SSS produced R2s reaching 0.74 and RMSEs <2%. The proposed algorithm was applied to OLI scenes collected in November 2013 and March 2016 to demonstrate SSS changes from normal conditions when extreme events were encountered. The good agreement between satellite-derived and in situ Rrs suggested that the algorithm uncertainties were primarily attributed to the algorithm parameterization and more measurements were required for performance improving. Compared with OLI-derived products, numerical simulations overestimated SSS by 3.4%. Our findings demonstrate the potential of high resolution satellite products to study short-lasting events and capture fine-scale features in the marine environment.

  15. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-08-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The following text briefly describes the materials research programs of the Department of Energy. It is organized by office and organizational charts are provided to allow easy identification of the materials research programs of each office. These program descriptions have been prepared from inputs submitted by many different EMaCC members. This report is not a comprehensive summary of the Department's programs, but rather a compilation of the programs of those offices that submitted inputs.

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1992. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The DOE EMaCC serves to coordinate the department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the department. This document presents summaries of budgets and of research projects, arranged according to the offices of energy efficiency and renewable energy, energy research, environmental restoration and waste management, nuclear energy, civilian radioactive waste management, defense, and fossil energy. A directory and a keyword index are included.

  18. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-09-29

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The FY 2004 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2004 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2004 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  19. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1989-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.

  20. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Josko; Forempoher, Gea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Andjelinovic, Simun; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2011-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of leptomeninges developed during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Nestin appeared for the first time in week 7, EMA in week 8, while mesothelin appeared in week 22 of development. In the late fetal period and after birth, nestin expression decreased, whereas expression of EMA and mesothelin increased. EMA appeared in all surface epithelial cells and nodules, while mesothelin was found only in some of them. In adult meninges, all three proteins were predominantly localized in the surface epithelium and meningeal nodules. In meningothelial meningiomas (WHO grade I), EMA was detected in all tumor cells except in the endothelial cells, mesothelin characterized nests of tumor cells, while nestin was found predominantly in the walls of blood vessels. The distribution pattern of those proteins in normal meningeal and tumor cells indicates that nestin might characterize immature cells, while EMA and mesothelin appeared in maturing epithelial cells. Neoplastic transformation of these specific cell lineages contributes to the cell population in meningiomas.

  1. Distinguishing benign from malignant mesothelial cells in effusions by Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Michael; Florence, Roxanne R; Pantanowitz, Liron; Visintainer, Paul F; Cibas, Edmund S; Otis, Christopher N

    2013-02-01

    Distinguishing malignant mesothelioma (MM) from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RM) may be difficult in effusions. This study tested the hypothesis that immunocytochemistry (IC) in effusion cell blocks (CB) can distinguish MM from RM and that the results may be applied to individual specimens. External validation of a risk score (RS) model associating sensitivity and specificity was applied to an external set of MM and RM specimens from a separate institution. Forty three effusion cytology CBs of 25 confirmed malignant mesotheliomas were compared to CBs of 23 benign mesothelial effusions without inflammation and 13 reactive mesothelial proliferations associated with inflammation. Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin expression were evaluated by immunocytochemistry on CBs. Each antibody was compared using ROC values, where the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.90, 0.82, and 0.84 for Glut-1, EMA, and Desmin, respectively. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was applied to a combination of Glut-1 and EMA. A combined ROC curve was modeled for Glut-1 and EMA (AUC = 0.93). A RS = 2 × (Glut-1%) + 1 × (EMA%) was created from this ROC curve. When applied to an external set of MM and RM, the RS resulted in an ROC with AUC = 0.91. In conclusion, a RS derived from a LR of Glut-1 and EMA IC greatly improves the distinction between MM from RM cells in individual effusions. The study illustrates principles of evidence-based pathology concerning internal and external test performance in the differential diagnosis of MM versus RM.

  2. The experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; House, Meaghan E; Horne, Anne; Te Karu, Leanne; Petrie, Keith J; McQueen, Fiona M; Taylor, William J

    2013-02-01

    Although high prevalence of gout in Māori and Pacific people is well-documented, the experience of disease in these groups has not been explored in detail. The aim of this analysis was to describe the experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people. Patients with gout for <10 years were recruited from primary and secondary care settings into a prospective observational study (n = 291; 37 Māori, 35 Pacific, and 219 not Māori or Pacific). Participants attended a baseline study visit which included a comprehensive clinical assessment. Serum urate, flare frequency and activity limitation were recorded at baseline and after 1 year. Māori and Pacific participants had earlier age of onset (by 9 years), higher flare frequency and more features of joint inflammation. Serum urate concentrations were higher in the Māori and Pacific patients at baseline, despite greater use of allopurinol. Māori and Pacific patients reported greater pain and activity limitation and lower health-related quality of life. The cost of gout treatment was more than three times higher in the Māori and Pacific patients. After 1 year, the higher flare frequency and activity limitation persisted in the Māori and Pacific patients. Māori and Pacific people with gout experience early onset, severe disease with frequent flares and poorly controlled hyperuricaemia. Māori and Pacific ethnicity should be recognised as a prognostic factor for more severe outcomes in this disease, and intensive efforts should be made to work with these patients to control serum urate and prevent flares.

  3. Pounamu: E Hine: access to contraception for indigenous Mãori teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Beverley; Makowharemahihi, Charrissa; Cram, Fiona; Robson, Bridget; Ngata, Tina

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Timely and equitable access to contraception enables teenage mothers to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to contraception for Māori teenagers who become mothers. METHODS 'E Hine' is a longitudinal qualitative Kaupapa Māori (by Māori for Māori) study involving Māori women (aged 14-19 years), following them through pregnancy (n = 44) and the birth of their babies until their babies' first birthdays (n = 41). This analysis focusses on contraception access pre-and post-pregnancy. FINDINGS Pre-pregnancy most participants accessed contraception or advice. Contraception use was compromised by a lack of information, negative side effects, and limited follow up. All reported their subsequent pregnancies as unplanned. Participants gave considerable thought to post-pregnancy contraception. Despite this many experienced clinical and service delays, financial barriers, and negative contraceptive side effects. There was little focus on contraception initiation and a lack of integrated care between midwives and other primary care services, leaving many participants without timely effective contraception. The system worked well when there was a contraception plan that included navigation, free access, and provision of contraception. CONCLUSION The majority of participants actively sought contraception pre- and post-conception. Despite a publicly funded system, a lack of health sector integration resulted in multiple missed opportunities to meet the needs of these teenagers for effective contraception. Health service funding formulas should define the goal as initiation of contraception rather than advice and provide funding to improve timely access to long acting reversible contraception. KEYWORDS Indigenous teenage pregnancy; contraception; barriers to contraception; Māori mothers.

  4. Detecting Chlorophyll and Phycocyanin in Lake Texoma Using in Situ Photo from GPS Digital Camera and Landsat 8 OLI Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Hambright, K.; Xiao, X.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing the temporal and spatial change of algae blooms across lake systems is difficult through conventional sampling methodologies. The application of remote sensing to lake water quality has improved significantly over recent years. However there are seldom reports about in situ photos from GPS digital camera and the new satellite Landsat 8 OLI monitoring algae blooms in freshwater lakes. A pilot study was carried out in Lake Texoma in Oklahoma on April 25th 2013. At each site (12 sites in total), pigments (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentration), in situ spectral data and digital photos had been acquired using Hydrolab DS5X sonde (calibrated routinely against laboratory standards), ASD FieldSpec and GPS camera, respectively. The field spectral data sets were transformed to blue, green and red ranges which match the spectral resolution of Landsat 8 OLI images by average spectral reflectance signature to the first four Landsat 8 OLI bands. Comparing with other ratio indices, red/ blue was the best ratio index which can be employed in predicting phycocyanin and chlorophyll a concentration; and pigments (phycocyanin and chlorophyll a) concentration in whole depth should be selected to be detected using remote sensing method in Lake Texoam in the followed analysis. An image based darkest pixel subtraction method was used to process atmospheric correction of Landsat 8 OLI images. After atmospheric correction, the DN values were extracted and used to compute ratio of band4 (Red)/ band1(Blue). Higher correlation coefficients existed in both between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of photo DN values (R2=0.9425 n=12) and between resampled spectral reflectance and ratio of red/ blue of Landsat 8 OLI images DN values (R2=0.8476 n=12). Finally, we analyzed the correlation between pigments concentrations in whole depth and DN values ratio red/ blue of both Landsat 8 OLI images and digital photos. There were higher correlation coefficients

  5. OlyMPUS - The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffer, E.; Gleason, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Ontology-based Metadata Portal for Unified Semantics (OlyMPUS), funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Advanced Information Systems Technology program, is an end-to-end system designed to support data consumers and data providers, enabling the latter to register their data sets and provision them with the semantically rich metadata that drives the Ontology-Driven Interactive Search Environment for Earth Sciences (ODISEES). OlyMPUS leverages the semantics and reasoning capabilities of ODISEES to provide data producers with a semi-automated interface for producing the semantically rich metadata needed to support ODISEES' data discovery and access services. It integrates the ODISEES metadata search system with multiple NASA data delivery tools to enable data consumers to create customized data sets for download to their computers, or for NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility registered users, directly to NAS storage resources for access by applications running on NAS supercomputers. A core function of NASA's Earth Science Division is research and analysis that uses the full spectrum of data products available in NASA archives. Scientists need to perform complex analyses that identify correlations and non-obvious relationships across all types of Earth System phenomena. Comprehensive analytics are hindered, however, by the fact that many Earth science data products are disparate and hard to synthesize. Variations in how data are collected, processed, gridded, and stored, create challenges for data interoperability and synthesis, which are exacerbated by the sheer volume of available data. Robust, semantically rich metadata can support tools for data discovery and facilitate machine-to-machine transactions with services such as data subsetting, regridding, and reformatting. Such capabilities are critical to enabling the research activities integral to NASA's strategic plans. However, as metadata requirements increase and competing standards emerge

  6. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. Looking Māori Predicts Decreased Rates of Home Ownership: Institutional Racism in Housing Based on Perceived Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand’s home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori. PMID:25738961

  8. New Zealand youth that sexually offend: improving outcomes for Māori rangatahi and their whānau.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stacey; Lambie, Ian; Cooper, Erana

    2012-10-01

    ori youth are overrepresented in criminal justice statistics and youth forensic services. Māori youth that engage in sexual offending behaviors have a higher risk of dropping out of treatment than Pākehā(1) youth. Research into Māori mental health is important to inform ongoing service development and is essential to strive for equity in mental health outcomes and offending rates among Māori. In this study, the researchers investigated the coexisting emotional and behavioral problems and victimization histories of an age-matched sample of Māori (n = 75) and Pākehā (n = 75) youth who were referred to a community treatment program for sexual offending in Auckland between 1996 and 2008. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to investigate ethnic differences. After controlling for socioeconomic deprivation, Māori youth scored significantly higher than Pākehā youth on the Delinquent Behaviors syndrome scale. Māori youth were also more likely than Pākehā youth to have a background of physical abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed, with regard to the unique needs of Māori youth and appropriate interventions.

  9. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-06-17

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  10. Looking Māori predicts decreased rates of home ownership: institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance.

    PubMed

    Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand's home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori.

  11. Thermal imaging of the FU Ori type object 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Kerr, T. H.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Milne, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) was discovered by Maehara, Kojima and Fujii (ATel #6770). Further observational studies (ATel #6797, #6838, #6862, #6901, #7025, #7578) and archival data research (Jurdana- & #138;epi & #263; & Munari, 2016, NewA, 43, 87) confirmed the FU Ori nature of this object.

  12. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  13. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies.

  14. ori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".

    PubMed

    McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

    2014-10-01

    This study explored Māori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" Māori with aphasia and their whānau (extended family). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa Māori research (a Māori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 Māori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated whānau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some Māori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for Māori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and whānau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and whānau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia.

  15. A Preliminary Comparison Between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI for Geological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Papoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary comparison of multispectral data from Landsat 8 OLI to the respective data from Sentinel-2 for geological applications is performed and the results are presented in this study. The behaviour of different classical Landsat Thematic Mapper band ratios sensitive on mineral (TM5/7, TM5/4, TM3/1) or hydrothermal anomalies (TM5/7, TM3/1, TM4/3) detection were used in synergy with digital processing techniques like the Principal Component Analysis. Data fusion techniques were also applied in order to ameliorate the spatial resolution of the data. In order to assess the performance of these band ratio images different quantitative criteria are used such as, the standard deviation of the image, and the coefficient of variation of each pixel.

  16. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  17. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860-1900.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.

  18. River plumes investigation using Sentinel-2A MSI and Landsat-8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Soloviev, Dmitry M.; Strochkov, Mikhail A.; Bocharova, Tatiana Y.; Kashnitsky, Alexandr V.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of using Sentinel-2A Multispectral Imager Instrument (MSI/S2) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI/L8) data to monitor river plumes in the eastern Black Sea and from the Rhône River in the Mediterranean Sea. The focus is on exploring the possibility to investigate hydrodynamic processes associated with river outflows, in particular internal waves (IWs). Submesoscale IWs having wavelengths less than 50 m and generated by unstable sharp front of a river plume were revealed and their parameters were assessed. A map of surface manifestation of IW trains in the Gulf of Lions was created based on MSI/S2 images. There are different mechanisms of IW generation in river outflow zones, they are determined by a number of parameters including river discharge, bottom topography and presence of tidal currents or inertial period IWs in the shelf zone. A new phenomenon manifested as a chain of quasi circles was discovered. Inertial water motions were suggested as its prime cause, however, this hypothesis is yet to be investigated. An analysis of OLI/L8 and MSI/S2 data enabled us to consider in detail river debouchment streams. For the first time a wave pattern of such stream in the eastern Black Sea was observed in conditions of foehn winds. Usually, foehn winds are distinctly manifested in radar images. A joint analysis of quasi simultaneous ocean color MSI/S2 and Sentinel-1A SAR images demonstrated how water stream wave-like signatures differ from those of foehn winds.

  19. Differentiation of the DnaA-oriC subcomplex for DNA unwinding in a replication initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shogo; Noguchi, Yasunori; Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Miyazaki, Erika; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2012-10-26

    In Escherichia coli, ATP-DnaA multimers formed on the replication origin oriC promote duplex unwinding, which leads to helicase loading. Based on a detailed functional analysis of the oriC sequence motifs, we previously proposed that the left half of oriC forms an ATP-DnaA subcomplex competent for oriC unwinding, whereas the right half of oriC forms a distinct ATP-DnaA subcomplex that facilitates helicase loading. However, the molecular basis for the functional difference between these ATP-DnaA subcomplexes remains unclear. By analyzing a series of novel DnaA mutants, we found that structurally distinct DnaA multimers form on each half of oriC. DnaA AAA+ domain residues Arg-227 and Leu-290 are specifically required for oriC unwinding. Notably, these residues are required for the ATP-DnaA-specific structure of DnaA multimers in complex with the left half of oriC but not for that with the right half. These results support the idea that the ATP-DnaA multimers formed on oriC are not uniform and that they can adopt different conformations. Based on a structural model, we propose that Arg-227 and Leu-290 play a crucial role in inter-ATP-DnaA interaction and are a prerequisite for the formation of unwinding-competent DnaA subcomplexes on the left half of oriC. These residues are not required for the interaction with DnaB, nucleotide binding, or regulatory DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, which further supports their important role in inter-DnaA interaction. The corresponding residues are evolutionarily conserved and are required for unwinding in the initial complexes of Thermotoga maritima, an ancient hyperthermophile. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel and common mechanism for ATP-DnaA-dependent activation of initial complexes.

  20. Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) Sheets Decorated with OLi, ONa, and Li2 F Molecules for Enhanced Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syeda Rabab; Rao, Gollu Sankar; Luo, Wei; Ahuja, Rajeev; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-03-03

    First-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets functionalized with small molecules, such as OLi, ONa, and Li2 F, to study their hydrogen (H2 ) storage properties. We found that OLi and ONa strongly adsorb on h-BN sheets with reasonably large inter-adsorbent separations, which is desirable for H2 storage. Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further confirmed the structural stability of OLi-BN and ONa-BN systems at 400 K. On the other hand, Li2 F molecules form clusters over the surface of h-BN at higher temperatures. We performed a Bader charge investigation to explore the nature of binding between the functionalized molecules and h-BN sheets. The density of states (DOS) revealed that functionalized h-BN sheets become metallic with two-sided coverage of each type of molecules. Hydrogenation of OLi-BN and ONa-BN revealed that the functionalized systems adsorb multiple H2 molecules around the Li and Na atoms, with H2 adsorption energies ranging from 0.20 to 0.28 eV, which is desirable for an efficient H2 storage material.

  1. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  2. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  3. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  4. OrysPSSP: a comparative Platform for Small Secreted Proteins from rice and other plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bohu; Sheng, Jia; Sun, Weining; Zhao, Yinhong; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have large diverse families of small secreted proteins (SSPs) that play critical roles in the processes of development, differentiation, defense, flowering, stress response, symbiosis, etc. Oryza sativa is one of the major crops worldwide and an excellent model for monocotyledonous plants. However, there had not been any effort to systematically analyze rice SSPs. Here, we constructed a comparative platform, OrysPSSP (http://www.genoportal.org/PSSP/index.do), involving >100 000 SSPs from rice and 25 plant species. OrysPSSP is composed of a core SSP database and a dynamic web interface that integrates a variety of user tools and resources. The current release (v0530) of core SSP database contains a total of 101 048 predicted SSPs, which were generated through a rigid computation/curation pipeline. The web interface consists of eight different modules, providing users with rich resources/functions, e.g. browsing SSP by chromosome, searching and filtering SSP, validating SSP with omics data, comparing SSP among multiple species and querying core SSP database with BLAST. Some cases of application are discussed to demonstrate the utility of OrysPSSP. OrysPSSP serves as a comprehensive resource to explore SSP on the genome scale and across the phylogeny of plant species. PMID:23203890

  5. FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Tadashi; Fujii, Mitsugu

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of an FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277. The outburst was discovered by T. Kojima from the survey image obtained with a 85mm f/2.8 lens and Canon EOS 60D DSLR camera on 2014-11-03.821 UT at mag 11.0.

  6. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning.

  7. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Delaney, Martha Ann; Fravel, Vanessa Ashley; Gulland, Frances; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-07-01

    We document the first associations of two recently described species of Pasteurellaceae bacteria with lesions in wild pinnipeds in rehabilitation. Samples were collected from nine lesions in four California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and two Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) during necropsy or admission examinations at a rehabilitation facility in northern California. Seven Pasteurellaceae isolates were identified using phenotypic tests and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Six strains of Otariodibacter oris were isolated from California sea lions. Otariodibacter oris was isolated in pure culture from four abscesses, an affected lymph node, and a bone lesion consistent with osteomyelitis. Otariodibacter oris was also cultured with Arcanobacterium phocae and β-hemolytic streptococci. A pure culture of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 was obtained from an abscess in a harbor seal. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that O. oris has been associated with infection. Isolation of these bacteria in pure culture from abscesses and osteomyelitis strongly indicates a pathogenic potential of this organism. Likewise, the isolation of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 in pure culture from an abscess in a harbor seal implies causality.

  8. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  9. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  10. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  11. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  12. Surface wind speed estimation over open ocean using bidirectional observation by Sentinel-2/MSI and Landsat-8/OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Hagolle, Olivier; Lachérade, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Large stripes, observed on first Sentinel-2/MSI images over ocean, are not due to instrumental artifacts but to the target itself. The same kind of signature can be observed on Landsat-8/OLI. Both MSI and OLI instruments are known for their excellent radiometric quality for land observation. The MSI's focal plane is composed by 12 elements to cover the 300km-swath, respectively 14 elements for a 185km-swath for OLI. For technical reason, elements were slightly shifted forward/backward alternatively in the focal plane. As a consequence, each element has a different viewing angle than the next/previous one, leading for a considered target on the ground to a significant difference in zenith/azimuthal viewing angles. These angular variations, fully acceptable for the land mission, become sensitive for specific targets such as sunglint, a highly directional signal. It was already demonstrated the possibility to retrieve surface wind speed from bidirectional space measurements with POLDER/PARASOL instruments. Indeed, using multiple viewing angles is a good way to better constrain the inversion because it doesn't fully rely on the absolute estimation of a unique measurement. Somehow, MSI or OLI can be seen as bidirectional sensors for targets located between 2 elements of the focal plane. Knowing the exact acquisition geometry, the observed radiometric gap can be directly related to the surface wind speed. Because it is a relative estimation, this inversion becomes more robust to aerosol contamination. Finally, an improved retrieval can be foreseen thanks to the multiple spectral bands provided by MSI and OLI.

  13. Immunolocalization of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult serous membranes and mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Josko; Punda, Hrvoje; Brakus, Snjezana Mardesic; Vukojevic, Katarina; Govorko, Danijela Kalibovic; Alfirevic, Darko; Kvesic, Ante; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2012-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), mesothelin and nestin was immunohistochemically analyzed in developing and adult human serous membranes and mesotheliomas in order to detect possible differences in the course of mesenchymal to epithelial transformation, which is associated with differentiation of mesothelial cells during normal development and tumorigenesis. Pleura and pericardium developing from the visceral mesoderm gradually transform into mesothelial cells and connective tissue. EMA appeared in mesothelium of both serous membranes during the early fetal period, whereas during further development, EMA expression was retained only in the pericardial mesothelium. It increased in both pleural mesothelium and connective tissue. Mesothelin appeared first in pericardial submesothelial cells and later in surface mesothelium, while in pleura it was immediately localized in mesothelium. In adult serous membranes, EMA and mesothelin were predominantly expressed in mesothelium. Nestin never appeared in mesothelium, but in connective tissues and myocardial cells and subsequently decreased during development, apart from in the walls of blood vessels. Mesothelial cells in the two serous membranes developed in two separate developmental pathways. We speculate that submesothelial pericardial and mesothelial pleural cells might belong to a population of stem cells. In epithelioid mesotheliomas, 13% of cells expressed nestin, 39% EMA and 7% mesothelin.

  14. The novel endosomal membrane protein Ema interacts with the class C Vps-HOPS complex to promote endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Wairkar, Yogesh P; Daniels, Richard W; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2010-03-08

    Endosomal maturation is critical for accurate and efficient cargo transport through endosomal compartments. Here we identify a mutation of the novel Drosophila gene, ema (endosomal maturation defective) in a screen for abnormal synaptic overgrowth and defective protein trafficking. Ema is an endosomal membrane protein required for trafficking of fluid-phase and receptor-mediated endocytic cargos. In the ema mutant, enlarged endosomal compartments accumulate as endosomal maturation fails, with early and late endosomes unable to progress into mature degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Defective endosomal down-regulation of BMP signaling is responsible for the abnormal synaptic overgrowth. Ema binds to and genetically interacts with Vps16A, a component of the class C Vps-HOPS complex that promotes endosomal maturation. The human orthologue of ema, Clec16A, is a candidate susceptibility locus for autoimmune disorders, and its expression rescues the Drosophila mutant demonstrating conserved function. Characterizing this novel gene family identifies a new component of the endosomal pathway and provides insights into class C Vps-HOPS complex function.

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) annual technical report, fiscal year 1984 with fiscal year 1985 data

    SciTech Connect

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Energy funded about 374 million dollars of materials science and technology activities in both fiscal years 1984 and 1985. These funds and the commensurate program management responsibilities resided in 21 DOE program offices, each of which has its own mission and responsibilities. The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) provides a formal mechanism to insure coordinated planning and maximum programmatic effectiveness for the Department's 374 million dollar per year materials effort. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research who in turn has oversight responsibilities for proper coordination of the technical programs of the Department. In carrying out this responsibility, EMaCC hosts meetings, organizes working groups, and publishes an annual technical report. This report is mandated by the EMaCC Terms of Reference. Its purpose is to disseminate information on the DOE materials programs for more effective coordination. It describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department for FY 1984, contains funding information for FYs 1984 and 1985, and summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1985.

  16. BCS Biowaivers: Similarities and Differences Among EMA, FDA, and WHO Requirements.

    PubMed

    Davit, Barbara M; Kanfer, Isadore; Tsang, Yu Chung; Cardot, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability, has enjoyed wide use since 1995 as a mechanism for waiving in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. In 2000, the US-FDA was the first regulatory agency to publish guidance for industry describing how to meet criteria for requesting a waiver of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for highly soluble, highly permeable (BCS Class I) drugs. Subsequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) published guidelines recommending how to obtain BCS biowaivers for BCS Class III drugs (high solubility, low permeability), in addition to Class I drugs. In 2015, the US-FDA became better harmonized with the EMA and WHO following publication of two guidances for industry outlining criteria for obtaining BCS biowaivers for both Class I and Class III drugs. A detailed review and comparison of the BCS Class I and Class III criteria currently recommended by the US-FDA, EMA, and WHO revealed good convergence of the three agencies with respect to BCS biowaiver criteria. The comparison also suggested that, by applying the most conservative of the three jurisdictional approaches, it should be possible for a sponsor to design the same set of BCS biowaiver studies in preparing a submission for worldwide filing to satisfy US, European, and emerging market regulators. It is hoped that the availability of BCS Class I and Class III biowaivers in multiple jurisdictions will encourage more sponsors to request waivers of in vivo bioavailability/bioequivalence testing using the BCS approach.

  17. Maintaining postreproductive health: A care pathway from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Armeni, Eleni; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    This position statement from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) provides a care pathway for the maintenance of women's health during and after the menopause. It is designed for use by all those involved in women's health. It covers assessment, screening for diseases in later life, treatment and follow-up. Strategies need to be optimised to maintain postreproductive health, in part because of increased longevity. They encompass optimising diet and lifestyle, menopausal hormone therapy and non-estrogen-based treatment options for climacteric symptoms and skeletal conservation, personalised to individual needs.

  18. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p < 0.0001. Interpretation of EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p < 0.05. Mean fluorescence of EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  19. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema).

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented.

  20. EMA-real-time PCR as a reliable method for detection of viable Salmonella in chicken and eggs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luxin; Mustapha, Azlin

    2010-04-01

    Culture-based Salmonella detection takes at least 4 d to complete. The use of TaqMan probes allows the real-time PCR technique to be a rapid and sensitive way to detect foodborne pathogens. However, unlike RNA-based PCR, DNA-based PCR techniques cannot differentiate between DNA from live and dead cells. Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) is a dye that can bind to DNA of dead cells and prevent its amplification by PCR. An EMA staining step prior to PCR allows for the effective inhibition of false positive results from DNA contamination by dead cells. The aim of this study was to design an accurate detection method that can detect only viable Salmonella cells from poultry products. The sensitivity of EMA staining coupled with real-time PCR was compared to that of an RNA-based reverse transcription (RT)-real-time PCR. To prevent false negative results, an internal amplification control was added to the same reaction mixture as the target Salmonella sequences. With an optimized EMA staining step, the detection range of a subsequent real-time PCR was determined to be 10(3) to 10(9) CFU/mL for pure cultures and 10(5) to 10(9) CFU/mL for food samples, which was a wider detection range than for RT-real-time PCR. After a 12-h enrichment step, EMA staining combined with real-time PCR could detect as low as 10 CFU/mL Salmonella from chicken rinses and egg broth. The use of EMA with a DNA-based real-time PCR can successfully prevent false positive results and represents a simple, yet accurate detection tool for enhancing the safety of food.

  1. Using Neural Networks in Decision Making for a Reconfigurable Electro Mechanical Actuator (EMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latino, Carl D.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate applicability and advantages of a neural network approach for evaluating the performance of an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA). The EMA in question was intended for the X-37 Advanced Technology Vehicle. It will have redundant components for safety and reliability. The neural networks for this application are to monitor the operation of the redundant electronics that control the actuator in real time and decide on the operating configuration. The system we proposed consists of the actuator, sensors, control circuitry and dedicated (embedded) processors. The main purpose of the study was to develop suitable hardware and neural network capable of allowing real time reconfiguration decisions to be made. This approach was to be compared to other methods such as fuzzy logic and knowledge based systems considered for the same application. Over the course of the project a more general objective was the identification of the other neural network applications and the education of interested NASA personnel on the topic of Neural Networks.

  2. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), fiscal year 1985. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meeting/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees on Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Steel are established and are continuing their own program. The FY 1985 and FY 1986 meeting program is given. The EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Brief summaries of the materials research programs associated with each office and division are presented, including tables listing individual projects and the FY 1985 budgets for each. More details on the individual projects within the divisions and the specific tasks or subcontracts within the various projects are given in the paragraph descriptions.

  3. On the leveling-off properties of the new bioequivalence limits for highly variable drugs of the EMA guideline.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Vangelis; Symillides, Mira; Macheras, Panos

    2011-11-20

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued a new guideline on the investigation of bioequivalence (BE). In case of highly variable drugs, this guideline proposes that the acceptance limits for C(max) can gradually be expanded as a function of within-subject variability (CV(wR)). Actually, these BE limits exhibit leveling-off properties since they are not allowed to scale continuously, but only up to CV(wR)=50%. To avoid the risk of accepting two drug products which may differ significantly, this EMA guideline also proposes the use of a secondary constraint criterion on the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of the two products under comparison. Aim of this study was to explore the leveling-off properties of the new EMA limits in comparison to other approaches, as well as to assess the impact of the complementary GMR criterion on the ability to declare bioequivalence. Simulated bioequivalence studies and extreme GMR plots were used to assess the performance of the EMA limits. Three sequence, three period (3×3) crossover studies with two treatments (T and R) were simulated. The R product was considered to be administered twice, while the T only once (i.e., TRR/RTR/RRT). Among others, this study revealed the leveling-off properties of the new EMA limits. It was also shown that the complementary GMR-constraint is only effective when a large sample size is used and at regions of CV(wR) close to 50%. This GMR-criterion begins to be effective at sample sizes around 60 and becomes more prominent as the number of subjects participating in the BE study increases. For CV(wR) values lower than 50%, the GMR-constraint has no role. In case of within-subject variabilities greater than 50%, the impact of the GMR-constraint diminishes due to the leveling-off properties of the EMA limits. Compared to the classic 0.80-1.25 or the extended 0.75-1.33 criteria, the new EMA limits are more liberal at high CV(wR) values and allow greater differences between the two drug products to be

  4. New EMA report on paliperidone 3-month injections: taking clinical and policy decisions without an adequate evidence base.

    PubMed

    Ostuzzi, G; Papola, D; Gastaldon, C; Barbui, C

    2016-12-22

    Three-month long-acting paliperidone is a new, recently marketed, formulation of paliperidone, characterised by the longest available dosing interval among long-acting antipsychotics. The clinical profile of 3-month long-acting paliperidone was recently summarised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in a public assessment report, released in April 2016. In this commentary, the main strengths and limitations of the EMA assessment report were appraised and discussed, in order to highlight possible implications for clinical practice, future research and regulatory practices for drug approval.

  5. Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Mapping of Wadaslintang Reservoir Using Landsat 8 OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, Muhammad; Wicaksono, Pramaditya

    2016-11-01

    Lakes, water reservoirs, and ponds are sources of fresh water that support the life of all living beings as well as human's social and economic activities. A common problem on reservoirs in Indonesia is the siltation due to the discharge of river materials into the reservoir. This process of sedimentation declines the function of the reservoir. Total Suspended Solid (TSS) can be used as the indicator of sediment in the reservoir, which usually consists of silt, fine sand and microorganisms. The high concentration of TSS in the water column can be used as the indication that the process of sedimentation in the reservoir is also high. This study aims to 1) map the spatial distribution of TSS and 2) estimate the TSS contained in Wadaslintang Reservoir using Landsat 8 OLI. The algorithm of TSS for Wadaslintang Reservoir was created based on the empirical relationship between field TSS data and reflectance values. Based on this research, it was found that the ratio of red and green band produced the best correlation with the TSS (r = 0.533). The resultant regression function of the regression analysis between ratio of red and green band and field TSS data was used to model the spatial distribution of the TSS on Wadaslintang Reservoir with standard error of 10.8 mg/l. The average TSS in the reservoir is estimated to be 22.61 mg/l.

  6. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  7. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  8. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  9. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  10. MOST OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} Ori E: CHALLENGING THE CENTRIFUGAL BREAKOUT NARRATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Rivinius, Th.; Rowe, J. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Kuschnig, R.; Bohlender, D.; Neiner, C.; Telting, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2013-05-20

    We present results from three weeks' photometric monitoring of the magnetic helium-strong star {sigma} Ori E using the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars microsatellite. The star's light curve is dominated by twice-per-rotation eclipse-like dimmings arising when magnetospheric clouds transit across and occult the stellar disk. However, no evidence is found for any abrupt centrifugal breakout of plasma from the magnetosphere, either in the residual flux or in the depths of the light minima. Motivated by this finding we compare the observationally inferred magnetospheric mass against that predicted by a breakout analysis. The large discrepancy between the values leads us to argue that centrifugal breakout does not play a significant role in establishing the magnetospheric mass budget of {sigma} Ori E.

  11. Reversed polarity of the glandular epithelial cells in micropapillary carcinoma of the large intestine and the EMA/MUC1 immunostain.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor

    2014-10-01

    Micropapillary carcinoma of the colon and rectum is associated with an adverse prognosis. This tumour type displays reverse polarity of the tumour cells and is stated to be characterised by an inside-out epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)/MUC1 staining. Nine cases of primary colorectal carcinoma and one omental metastasis were studied by means of immunohistochemistry, using antibodies to detect EMA, MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC6, CD10, CA125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The inside-out pattern staining with EMA/MUC1 ranged from diffuse circumferential through focal and partial to negative, but in some cases CEA, MUC3 and CD10 also showed this pattern staining, sometimes more clearly than did EMA or MUC1. The reverse polarity of colorectal micropapillary carcinomas is sometimes better visualised by immunostains other than EMA/MUC1.

  12. My Home is My Marae: Kaupapa Māori evaluation of an approach to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Brooke; Lyndon, Mataroria; Villa, Luis; Madell, Dominic; Elliot-Hohepa, Andrea; Le Comte, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation's (ACC) ‘My Home is My Marae’ approach to injury prevention for whānau (families). Setting Over an 18 month period from November 2013 to June 2014, 14 ‘My Home is My Marae’ trials were conducted across the South Auckland and Far North regions of New Zealand. ACC engaged with local Māori providers of healthcare, education and social services to deliver the home safety intervention. Participants Participants of this evaluation were a purposive sample of 14 staff from six provider organisations in South Auckland and the Far North regions of New Zealand. Methods Kaupapa Māori theory-based evaluation and appreciative inquiry methodologies underpinned the evaluation. Interview participants led discussions about strengths and weaknesses of the approach, and partnerships with ACC and other organisations. The evaluation was also supported by pre-existing information available in project documentation, and quantitative data collected by Māori providers. Results Five key critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’ were found from interviews: mana tangata (reputation, respect and credibility); manākitanga (showing care for people); kānohi-ki-te-kānohi (face-to-face approach); capacity building for kaimahi, whānau and providers and ‘low or no cost’ solutions to hazards in the home. Data collected for the Far North area showed that 76% of the hazards identified could be resolved through ‘low or no cost’ solutions. Unfortunately, similar data were not available for South Auckland. Conclusions Injury prevention or health promotion approaches that seek to engage with whānau and/or Māori communities would benefit from applying critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’. PMID:28320792

  13. Apsidal motion of two eclipsing binaries: V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, A.; Bulut, I.; ćiçek, C.; Erdem, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the orbital period variations of two eclipsing binary systems showing apsidal motion were studied. Their O - C diagrams were analysed using all reliable eclipse timings and the elements of apsidal motion of two systems were improved. We found periods of apsidal motion of V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori to be 32.7 ± 0.2 years and 415 ± 50 years, respectively.

  14. Fabrication, characterization, and heuristic trade space exploration of magnetically actuated Miura-Ori origami structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Brett; von Lockette, Paris R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors develop magnetically actuated Miura-Ori structures through observation, experiment, and computation using an initially heuristic strategy followed by trade space visualization and optimization. The work is novel, especially within origami engineering, in that beyond final target shape approximation, Miura-Ori structures in this work are additionally evaluated for the shape approximation while folding and for their efficient use of their embedded actuators. The structures consisted of neodymium magnets placed on the panels of silicone elastomer substrates cast in the Miura-Ori folding pattern. Initially four configurations, arrangements of magnets on the panels, were selected based on heuristic arguments that (1) maximized the amount of magnetic torque applied to the creases and (2) reduced the number of magnets needed to affect all creases in the pattern. The results of experimental and computational performance metrics were used in a weighted sum model to predict the optimum configuration, which was then fabricated and experimentally characterized for comparison to the initial prototypes. As expected, optimization of magnet placement and orientation was effective at increasing the degree of theoretical useful work. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, trade space results showed that even after optimization, the configuration with the most number of magnets was least effective, per magnet, at directing its actuation to the structure’s creases. Overall, though the winning configuration experimentally outperformed its initial, non-optimal counterparts, results showed that the choice of optimum configuration was heavily dependent on the weighting factors. These results highlight both the ability of the Miura-Ori to be actuated with external magnetic stimuli, the effectiveness of a heuristic design approach that focuses on the actuation mechanism, and the need to address path-dependent metrics in assessing performance in origami folding structures.

  15. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    ori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.

  16. X-Ray Production by V1647 Ori During Optical Outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, William; Weintraub, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburstduring which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variabilityare well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N H 4 1022cm2), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT X 2-6keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  17. Use of the angularis oris cutaneous flap for repair of a rostral mandibular skin defect in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bradford, M; Degner, D A; Bhandal, J

    2011-01-01

    The angularis oris axial pattern flap is based on the blood supply of the angularis oris artery and vein. While the use of this flap for repair of canine facial wounds is well documented, this technique has not been reported in the cat. This case report presents the reconstruction of a large ventral chin and rostral lip wound with the use of this flap. Complete survival of this flap was observed in this patient.

  18. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  19. THE STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF THE ENVELOPE AROUND U ORI FROM IOTA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Ragland, Sam; Le Coroller, Herve; Danchi, William C.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2009-07-20

    Many of the Mira stars observed with adequate spatial resolution show detectable asymmetry. This asymmetry can be caused by an asymmetric stellar photosphere and/or asymmetric envelope around the star and can be the origin of asymmetries in the subsequent planetary nebula. In this paper, we present the results of long baseline interferometric observations of the Mira-type star U Ori at 1.51 (H{sub 2}O band), 1.64 (pseudocontinuum), and 1.78 (H{sub 2}O band) {mu}m in 2005. We performed model-independent image reconstruction of the envelope around the star using measured visibilities and closure phases. The images show asymmetric structure of the U Ori envelope that is similar to the structure of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers obtained by Vlemmings et al. in 2003. Further comparison of near infrared images with available radio maps gives some evidence for differential rotation of the envelope with rotational velocities varying between 3 and 5 km s{sup -1}. Finally, we discuss the geometric and kinematic structure of the U Ori envelope based on a model of an almost face-on expanding and rotating disk around the star.

  20. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population.

  1. Multi-Wavelength Study of the 2008-2009 Outburst of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alvarez, D.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Abraham, P.; Anandarao, B. G.; Kashyap, V.; Kospal, A.; Kun, M.; Marengo, M.; Moor, A.; Peneva, S.; Semkov, E.; Venkat, V.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2011-12-01

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive variable star, illuminating a reflection nebula (McNeil's Nebula). It underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, V1647 Ori underwent a new outburst. The observed properties of the 2003-2006 event are different in several respects from both the EXor and FUor type outbursts, and suggest that this star might represent a new class of eruptive young stars, younger and more deeply embedded than EXors, and exhibiting variations on shorter time scales than FUors. In outburst, the star lights up the otherwise invisible McNeil's nebular -- a conical cloud likely accumulated from previous outbursts. We present follow-up photometric as well as optical and near-IR spectroscopy of the nebula obtainted during the 2008-2009 outburst. We will also present results from contemporaneous X-ray observations. These multi-wavelength observations of V1647 Ori, obtained at this key early stage of the outburst, provide a snapshot of the "lighting up" of the nebula, probe its evolution through the event, and enable comparison with the 2003-2006 outburst.

  2. Classification of Potential Water Bodies Using Landsat 8 OLI and a Combination of Two Boosted Random Forest Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Kim, Hyeong Hun; Nam, Jae Yeal

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new water body classification method using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and water indices (WIs) of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor and its corresponding random forest classifiers. In this study, multispectral images from the OLI sensor are represented as TOA reflectance and WI values because a classification result using two measures is better than raw spectral images. Two types of boosted random forest (BRF) classifiers are learned using TOA reflectance and WI values, respectively, instead of the heuristic threshold or unsupervised methods. The final probability is summed linearly using the probabilities of two different BRFs to classify image pixels to water class. This study first demonstrates that the Landsat 8 OLI sensor has higher classification rate because it provides improved signal-to-ratio radiometric by using 12-bit quantization of the data instead of 8-bit as available from other sensors. In addition, we prove that the performance of the proposed combination of two BRF classifiers shows robust water body classification results, regardless of topology, river properties, and background environment. PMID:26110405

  3. Narratives of four Māori ex-inmates about their experiences and perspectives of rehabilitation programmes.

    PubMed

    Nakhid, Camille; Shorter, Lily Tairiri

    2014-06-01

    ori are overrepresented in the criminal justice system in Aotearoa New Zealand. Māori offenders comprise 53% of those serving custodial sentences and 48% serving community-based sentences. The majority of Māori offenders reoffended within 2 years of serving their sentence. A number of programmes aimed at reducing recidivism among Māori have been implemented, and there is considerable debate around the effectiveness of these programmes. This qualitative study focuses on the narratives of four Māori male ex-inmates about their reoffending and their experiences of the rehabilitation programmes during their incarceration. Using a narrative approach, the study sought to hear the shared stories from the men and to determine what they believe would have reduced their reoffending. The stories revealed that a lack of financial resources and gang connections influenced reoffending; the value of prison rehabilitation programmes varied depending on their appropriateness to the inmate and to their intended outcomes; and healing programmes incorporating kaupapa Māori principles and practices assisted the participants in understanding their cultural heritage and communicating with society in more acceptable ways.

  4. Electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) for generating shock waves and cavitation in mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    In the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory a vessel of liquid mercury is subjected to a proton beam. The resulting nuclear interaction produces neutrons that can be used for materials research, among other things, but also launches acoustic waves with pressures in excess of 10 MPa. The acoustic waves have high enough tensile stress to generate cavitation in the mercury which results in erosion to the steel walls of the vessel. In order to study the cavitation erosion and develop mitigation schemes it would be convenient to have a way of generating similar pressures and cavitation in mercury, without the radiation concerns associated with a proton beam. Here an electromagnetic acoustic source (EMAS) has been developed which consisted of a coil placed close to a metal plate which is in turn is in contact with a fluid. The source is driven by discharging a capacitor through the coil and results in a repulsive force on the plate launching acoustic waves in the fluid. A theoretical model is presented to predict the acoustic field from the EMAS and compares favorably with measurements made in water. The pressure from the EMAS was reported as a function of capacitance, charging voltage, number of coils, mylar thickness, and properties of the plates. The properties that resulted in the highest pressure were employed for experiments in mercury and a maximum pressure recorded was 7.1 MPa. Cavitation was assessed in water and mercury by high speed camera and by detecting acoustic emissions. Bubble clouds with lifetimes on the order of 100 µs were observed in water and on the order of 600 µs in mercury. Based on acoustic emissions the bubble radius in mercury was estimated to be 0.98 mm. Experiments to produce damage to a stainless steel plate in mercury resulted in a minimal effect after 2000 shock waves at a rate of 0.33 Hz - likely because the pressure amplitude was not high enough. In order to replicate the conditions in the SNS it is

  5. Analysis of vegetation by the application of a physically-based atmospheric correction algorithm to OLI data: a case study of Leonessa Municipality, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Petracchini, Francesco; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques allow to estimate vegetation parameters related to large areas for forest health evaluation and biomass estimation. Moreover, the parametrization of specific indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) allows to study biogeochemical cycles and radiative energy transfer processes between soil/vegetation and atmosphere. This paper focuses on the evaluation of vegetation cover analysis in Leonessa Municipality, Latium Region (Italy) by the use of 2015 Landsat 8 applying the OLI@CRI (OLI ATmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) algorithm developed following the procedure described in Bassani et al. 2015. The OLI@CRI is based on 6SV radiative transfer model (Kotchenova et al., 2006) ables to simulate the radiative field in the atmosphere-earth coupled system. NDVI was derived from the OLI corrected image. This index, widely used for biomass estimation and vegetation analysis cover, considers the sensor channels falling in the near infrared and red spectral regions which are sensitive to chlorophyll absorption and cell structure. The retrieved product was then spatially resampled at MODIS image resolution and then validated by the NDVI of MODIS considered as reference. The physically-based OLI@CRI algorithm also provides the incident solar radiation at ground at the acquisition time by 6SV simulation. Thus, the OLI@CRI algorithm completes the remote sensing dataset required for a comprehensive analysis of the sub-regional biomass production by using data of the new generation remote sensing sensor and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. If the OLI@CRI algorithm is applied to a temporal series of OLI data, the influence of the solar radiation on the above-ground vegetation can be analysed as well as vegetation index variation.

  6. Report from the EMA workshop on qualification and reporting of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    On Nov 21, 2016, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) hosted a workshop to discuss its draft guideline on qualification and reporting of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) analysis.1 Published on July 21, 2016, the draft PBPK guideline is currently under the period of public comments. PMID:28035755

  7. A balanced translocation disrupts SYNGAP1 in a patient with intellectual disability, speech impairment, and epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA).

    PubMed

    Klitten, Laura L; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Hjalgrim, Helle; Tommerup, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare form of generalized epilepsy occurring in childhood and is often difficult to treat. The underlying etiology of EMA is unknown in the majority of patients. Herein, we describe a patient with EMA and intellectual disability who carries a de novo balanced translocation: t(6;22)(p21.32;q11.21). We mapped the translocation breakpoints by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the breakpoint at 6p21.32 was found to truncate the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor associated gene SYNGAP1. The breakpoint at 22q11.21 was within a highly variable region without known protein-coding genes. Mutations of SYNGAP1 are associated with nonsyndromal intellectual disability (NSID). Two-thirds of the patients described so far also have generalized epilepsy. This finding, together with our report, suggests that dysfunction of SYNGAP1 contributes to the development of generalized epilepsy, including EMA.

  8. The use of immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 and EMA in distinguishing adrenocortical tumors from renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Miriam L; Lal, Priti; Ziober, Amy; Wang, Liping; Tomaszewski, John E; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-03-01

    Steroidogenic factor -1 (SF-1) is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and is considered to play an important role in the differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. In this study, we compared the immunohistochemical stains of SF-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in non-neoplastic adrenal tissue, and adrenal and renal tumors using tissue microarrays (TMAs). The adrenal tissue array included 19 cases of normal adrenal cortex, 22 cases of adrenal adenoma, and 20 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The renal tissue array included 20 cases of each of the following types of renal cell carcinoma: clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe. In addition, 20 cases of renal oncocytoma were also included in the study. SF-1 showed positive staining in all cases (100%) of normal adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical adenoma, and in 18 (90%) cases of adrenocortical carcinoma. In renal tumors, SF-1 showed negative stains in all of oncocytoma, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Only 3 out of 20 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma showed weak positivity in approximately 10% of tumor cells. EMA stained positively in 85%, 95%, 100%, and 95% of clear cell, papillary, chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, and oncocytomas, respectively. EMA was completely negative in the adrenal TMAs. In conclusion, SF-1 and EMA may be helpful in the differentiation of adrenal tumors from renal tumors in difficult cases.

  9. An EMA Analysis of the Effect of Increasing Word Length on Consonant Production in Apraxia of Speech: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle, Carly J.; Goozee, Justine V.; Murdoch, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded…

  10. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  11. PREFACE: EMAS 2013 Workshop: 13th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier, Dr; Matthews, Mr Michael B.; Brisset, François, Dr; Guimarães, Fernanda, Dr; Vieira, Professor Joaquim M., Dr

    2014-03-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 13th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 12th to the 16th of May 2013 in the Centro de Congressos do Alfândega, Porto, Portugal. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia and SPMICROS - Sociedade Portuguesa de Microscopia. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, future technologies, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), particle analysis, and applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Hartford, Connecticut. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled ''Plastic deformation studies with electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattered diffraction''. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 21 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A

  12. PREFACE: EMAS 2011: 12th European Workshop on Modern Developments in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, François; Dugne, Olivier; Robaut, Florence; Lábár, János L.; Walker, Clive T.

    2012-03-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 12th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis, which took place from the 15-19 May 2011 in the Angers Congress Centre, Angers, France. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very specific format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. This workshop was organized in collaboration with GN-MEBA - Groupement National de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et de microAnalysis, France. The technical programme included the following topics: the limits of EPMA, new techniques, developments and concepts in microanalysis, microanalysis in the SEM, and new and less common applications of micro- and nanoanalysis. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2012 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The prize went to Pierre Burdet, of the Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), for his talk entitled '3D EDS microanalysis by FIB-SEM: enhancement of elemental quantification'. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 74 posters from 18 countries were on display at the meeting, and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada and the USA. A selection of participants with posters were invited to give a short oral

  13. Robust flood frequency analysis: Performance of EMA with multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, J. R.; Stedinger, J. R.; Yu, Xin; Whealton, C. A.; Xu, Ziyao

    2016-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis generally involves the use of simple parametric probability distributions to smooth and extrapolate the information provided by short flood records to estimate extreme flood flow quantiles. Parametric probability distributions can have difficulty simultaneously fitting both the largest and smallest floods. A danger is that the smallest observations in a record can distort the exceedance probabilities assigned to the large floods of interest. The identification and treatment of such Potentially Influential Low Floods (PILFs) frees a fitting algorithm to describe the distribution of the larger observations. This can allow parametric flood frequency analysis to be both efficient, and also robust to deviations from the proposed probability model's lower tail. Historically, PILF identification involved subjective judgement. We propose a new multiple Grubbs-Beck outlier test (MGBT) for objective PILF identification. MGBT PILF identification rates (akin to Type I errors) are reported for the lognormal (LN) distribution and the log-Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution with a variety of skew coefficients. MGBT PILF identification generally matched subjective identification from a recent California flood frequency study. Monte Carlo results show that censoring of PILFs identified by the MGBT algorithm improves the extreme quantile estimator efficiency of the expected moments algorithm (EMA) for negatively skewed LP3 distributions and has little effect for zero or positive skews; simultaneously it protects against deviations from the LP3 in the lower tail, as illustrated by distorted LN examples. Thus, MGBT generally makes flood frequency analysis based on the LP3 distribution with EMA both more accurate and more robust.

  14. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  15. Development of EMA-2 recombinant antigen based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for seroprevalence studies of Theileria equi infection in Indian equine population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Singh, Raj K

    2013-11-15

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-transmitted protozoan disease caused by Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi. In the present study, we expressed a 53kDa protein from the truncated EMA-2 gene of T. equi (Indian strain) and developed EMA-2ELISA using this expressed protein. This ELISA is able to detect T. equi-specific antibodies in experimentally infected animals as early as 9 days post-infection. The assay developed was validated with the OIE recommended competitive ELISA (cELISA) on 120 serum samples and significant agreement (kappa=0.93) was observed between results of both the ELISAs which indicates suitability of EMA-2ELISA for use in sero-diagnosis. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of EMA-2ELISA - as compared with cELISA - were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Analysis of 5651 equine serum samples - collected during 2007-2012 from 12 states of India representing eight agro-climatic zones - by EMA-2ELISA revealed 32.65% seroprevalence of T. equi in India. In conclusion, the EMA-2ELISA developed using the T. equi EMA-2 recombinant protein as antigen for detecting T. equi-specific antibodies has good diagnostic potential for sero-epidemiological surveys.

  16. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Study Sex Events Among Very High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    MSM continue to represent the largest share of new HIV infections in the United States each year due to high infectivity associated with unprotected anal sex. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has the potential to provide a unique view of how high-risk sexual events occur in the real world and can impart detailed information about aspects of decision-making, antecedents, and consequences that accompany these events. EMA may also produce more accurate data on sexual behavior by assessing it soon after its occurrence. We conducted a study involving 12 high-risk MSM to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 30 day, intensive EMA procedure. Results suggest this intensive assessment strategy was both acceptable and feasible to participants. All participants provided response rates to various assessments that approached or were in excess of their targets: 81.0 % of experience sampling assessments and 93.1 % of daily diary assessments were completed. However, comparing EMA reports with a Timeline Followback (TLFB) of the same 30 day period suggested that participants reported fewer sexual risk events on the TLFB compared to EMA, and reported a number of discrepancies about specific behaviors and partner characteristics across the two methods. Overall, results support the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of using EMA to understand sexual risk events among high-risk MSM. Findings also suggest that EMA and other intensive longitudinal assessment approaches could yield more accurate data about sex events.

  17. Fluctuating snow line altitudes in the Hunza basin (Karakoram) using Landsat OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Rittger, Karl; Brodzik, Mary J.; Painter, Thomas H.; Armstrong, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Snowline altitudes (SLAs) on glacier surfaces are needed for separating snow and ice as input for melt models. When measured at the end of the ablation season, SLAs are used for inferring stable-state glacier equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Direct measurements of snowlines are rarely possible particularly in remote, high altitude glacierized terrain, but remote sensing data can be used to separate these snow and ice surfaces. Snow lines are commonly visible on optical satellite images acquired at the end of the ablation season if the images are contrasted enough, and are manually digitized on screen using various satellite band combinations for visual interpretation, which is a time-consuming, subjective process. Here we use Landsat OLI imagery at 30 m resolution to estimate glacier SLAs for a subset of the Hunza basin in the Upper Indus in the Karakoram. Clean glacier ice surfaces are delineated using a standardized semi-automated band ratio algorithm with image segmentation. Within the glacier surface, snow and ice are separated using supervised classification schemes based on regions of interest, and glacier SLAs are extracted on the basis of these areas. SLAs are compared with estimates from a new automated method that relies on fractional snow covered area rather than on band ratio algorithms for delineating clean glacier ice surfaces, and on grain size (instead of supervised classification) for separating snow from glacier ice on the glacier surface. The two methods produce comparable snow/ice outputs. The fSCA-derived glacierized areas are slightly larger than the band ratio estimates. Some of the additional area is the result of better detection in shadows from spectral mixture analysis (true positive) while the rest is shallow water, which is spectrally similar to snow/ice (false positive). On the glacier surface, a thresholding the snow grain size image (grain size > 500μm) results in similar glacier ice areas derived from the supervised

  18. HH 222: A GIANT HERBIG-HARO FLOW FROM THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V380 ORI

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Bally, John; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam E-mail: caa@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu E-mail: stefan.kraus@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or ''the waterfall'' on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ∼1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  19. HH 222: A Giant Herbig-Haro Flow from the Quadruple System V380 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or "the waterfall" on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ~1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  20. The Design and Relevance of a Computerized Gamified Depression Therapy Program for Indigenous Māori Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Stasiak, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a major health issue among Māori indigenous adolescents, yet there has been little investigation into the relevance or effectiveness of psychological treatments for them. Further, consumer views are critical for engagement and adherence to therapy. However, there is little research regarding indigenous communities’ opinions about psychological interventions for depression. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct semistructured interviews with Māori (indigenous New Zealand) young people (taitamariki) and their families to find out their opinions of a prototype computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) program called Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts (SPARX), a free online computer game intended to help young persons with mild to moderate depression, feeling down, stress or anxiety. The program will teach them how to resolve their issues on their own using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as psychotherapeutic approach. Methods There were seven focus groups on the subject of the design and cultural relevance of SPARX that were held, with a total of 26 participants (19 taitamarki, 7 parents/caregivers, all Māori). There were five of the groups that were with whānau (family groups) (n=14), one group was with Māori teenage mothers (n=4), and one group was with taitamariki (n=8). The general inductive approach was used to analyze focus group data. Results SPARX computerized therapy has good face validity and is seen as potentially effective and appealing for Māori people. Cultural relevance was viewed as being important for the engagement of Māori young people with SPARX. Whānau are important for young peoples’ well-being. Participants generated ideas for improving SPARX for Māori and for the inclusion of whānau in its delivery. Conclusions SPARX computerized therapy had good face validity for indigenous young people and families. In general, Māori participants were positive about the SPARX

  1. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  2. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between RiceLandsat and RiceNLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region. PMID:27688742

  3. HU, the major histone-like protein of E. coli, modulates the binding of IHF to oriC.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, E; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1992-01-01

    HU is one of the most abundant DNA binding proteins of bacteria. Unlike IHF, integration host factor of Escherichia coli, with which HU shares many properties, including a strong sequence homology and similar predicted structure, HU seems to bind non-specifically to DNA whereas IHF binds to specific sites. In this work we compare the binding characteristics of HU and IHF to a DNA fragment containing the minimal origin of replication of E. coli (oriC) and we analyse the effect of HU on the binding capacity of IHF to this oriC fragment. We show that HU interacts randomly and non-specifically with oriC as opposed to the specific binding of IHF to this same DNA sequence. In addition, we show that HU can modulate the binding of IHF to its specific oriC site. Depending on the relative concentrations of HU and IHF, HU is able either to activate or to inhibit the binding of IHF to oriC. Images PMID:1425583

  4. Implementing the Biopharmaceutics Classification System in Drug Development: Reconciling Similarities, Differences, and Shared Challenges in the EMA and US-FDA-Recommended Approaches.

    PubMed

    Cardot, J-M; Garcia Arieta, A; Paixao, P; Tasevska, I; Davit, B

    2016-07-01

    The US-FDA recently posted a draft guideline for industry recommending procedures necessary to obtain a biowaiver for immediate-release oral dosage forms based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). This review compares the present FDA BCS biowaiver approach, with the existing European Medicines Agency (EMA) approach, with an emphasis on similarities, difficulties, and shared challenges. Some specifics of the current EMA BCS guideline are compared with those in the recently published draft US-FDA BCS guideline. In particular, similarities and differences in the EMA versus US-FDA approaches to establishing drug solubility, permeability, dissolution, and formulation suitability for BCS biowaiver are critically reviewed. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the (i) challenges of applying for BCS biowaivers for global registration in the face of differences in the EMA and US-FDA BCS biowaiver criteria, as well as (ii) challenges inherent in applying for BCS class I or III designation and common to both jurisdictions.

  5. High Voltage EEE Parts for EMA/EHA Applications on Manned Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Trent; Young, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an assessment of high voltage electronic components required for high horsepower electric thrust vector control (TVC) systems for human spaceflight launch critical application. The scope consists of creating of a database of available Grade 1 electrical, electronic and electromechanical (EEE) parts suited to this application, a qualification path for potential non-Grade 1 EEE parts that could be used in these designs, and pathfinder testing to validate aspects of the proposed qualification plan. Advances in the state of the art in high power electric power systems enable high horsepower electric actuators, such as the electromechnical actuator (EMA) and the electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), to be used in launch vehicle TVC systems, dramaticly reducing weight, complexity and operating costs. Designs typically use high voltage insulated gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT). However, no Grade 1 HV-IGBT exists and it is unlikely that market factors alone will produce such high quality parts. Furthermore, the perception of risk, the lack of qualification methodoloy, the absence of manned space flight heritage and other barriers impede the adoption of commercial grade parts onto the critical path. The method of approach is to identify high voltage electronic component types and key parameters for parts currently used in high horsepower EMA/EHA applications, to search for higher quality substitutes and custom manufacturers, to create a database for these parts, and then to explore ways to qualify these parts for use in human spaceflight launch critical application, including grossly derating and possibly treating hybrid parts as modules. This effort is ongoing, but results thus far include identification of over 60 HV-IGBT from four manufacturers, including some with a high reliability process flow. Voltage ranges for HV-IGBT have been identified, as has screening tests used to characterize HV-IGBT. BSI BS ISO 21350 Space systems Off

  6. Redesigning the architecture of policy-making: Engaging with Māori on nanotechnology in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Debashish; Kurian, Priya A; Morrison, Talei; Morrison, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on public engagement on the use of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, there is little evidence of the participation of marginalised indigenous communities in processes of such engagement. How do particular cultural values and worldviews shape the perceptions of new technologies among such indigenous peoples? This article addresses this question through an analysis of the deliberations of an indigenous Māori citizens' panel on nanotechnology in Aotearoa New Zealand. An active process of public engagement with the nation's Māori stakeholders, and their conversations with nanotechnology experts, sustainability activists and Māori researchers, helps map an alternative, culture-based architecture of public engagement on policies around new technologies. The analysis is grounded in a concept of active citizenship that we term 'sustainable citizenship'.

  7. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices.

  8. An EMA analysis of the effect of increasing word length on consonant production in apraxia of speech: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bartle, Carly J; Goozée, Justine V; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2007-03-01

    The effect of increasing word length on the articulatory dynamics (i.e. duration, distance, maximum acceleration, maximum deceleration, and maximum velocity) of consonant production in acquired apraxia of speech was investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement of one apraxic patient was recorded using the AG-200 EMA system during word-initial consonant productions in one, two, and three syllable words. Significantly deviant articulatory parameters were recorded for each of the target consonants during one, two, and three syllables words. Word length effects were most evident during the release phase of target consonant productions. The results are discussed with respect to theories of speech motor control as they relate to AOS.

  9. OryR is a LuxR-family protein involved in interkingdom signaling between pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and rice.

    PubMed

    Ferluga, Sara; Venturi, Vittorio

    2009-02-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight in rice, contains a regulator that is encoded in the genome, designated OryR, which belongs to the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing LuxR subfamily of proteins. However, we previously reported that X. oryzae pv. oryzae does not make AHLs and does not possess a LuxI-family AHL synthase and that the OryR protein is solubilized by a compound present in rice. In this study we obtained further evidence that OryR interacts with a rice signal molecule (RSM) and that the OryR concentration increases when rice is infected with X. oryzae pv. oryzae. We also describe three OryR target promoters which are regulated differently: (i) the neighboring proline iminopeptidase (pip) virulence gene, which is positively regulated by OryR in the presence of the RSM; (ii) the oryR promoter, which is negatively autoregulated independent of the RSM; and (iii) the 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase cbsA gene, which is positively regulated by OryR independent of the RSM. We also found that the RSM for OryR is small, is not related to AHLs, and is not able to activate the broad-range AHL biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1(pZLQR). Furthermore, OryR does not regulate production of the quorum-sensing diffusible signal factor present in the genus Xanthomonas. Therefore, OryR has unique features and is an important regulator involved in interkingdom communication between the host and the pathogen.

  10. Production of recombinant EMA-1 protein and its application for the diagnosis of Theileria equi using an enzyme immunoassay in horses from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Hilario, Eduardo; Nakaghi, Andréa Cristina Higa; Bertolini, Maria Célia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-01-01

    The erythrocytic-stage surface protein, Equi Merozoite Antigen 1 (EMA-1), is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In order to establish an effective diagnostic method for practical use, the gene encoding the entire EMA-1 of Theileria equi Jaboticabal strain was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a histidine-tagged protein (His6-EMA1). The expressed EMA-1 reacted with specific antibodies in Western blot and had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa which was largely consistent with its theoretical value. The nucleotide sequence of the EMA-1 gene of Jaboticabal strain was comparatively analyzed with other published sequences. The results indicated a high degree of homology with EMA-1 genes of all other strains isolated from various countries. The recombinant purified His6-EMA1 protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies anti-T. equi in horses. The ELISA clearly differentiated T. equi-infected from Babesia caballi-infected horse sera or normal horse sera. Field serum samples collected from horses in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were examined for the diagnosis of T. equi infection by ELISA. Of 170 samples analyzed, 95.88% (163/170) were positive for T. equi infection. These results suggest that the His6-EMA1 protein expressed in E. coli could be a reliable immunodiagnostic antigen for ELISA test and that T. equi infection is a serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) improve DNA array and high-throughput sequencing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identification.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Boyle, Brian; Charette, Steve J; Harel, Josée; L'Homme, Yvan; Masson, Luke; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-09-15

    Pan-viral DNA array (PVDA) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) are useful tools to identify novel viruses of emerging diseases. However, both techniques have difficulties to identify viruses in clinical samples because of the host genomic nucleic acid content (hg/cont). Both propidium monoazide (PMA) and ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) have the capacity to bind free DNA/RNA, but are cell membrane-impermeable. Thus, both are unable to bind protected nucleic acid such as viral genomes within intact virions. However, EMA/PMA modified genetic material cannot be amplified by enzymes. In order to assess the potential of EMA/PMA to lower the presence of amplifiable hg/cont in samples and improve virus detection, serum and lung tissue homogenates were spiked with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) and were processed with EMA/PMA. In addition, PRRSV RT-qPCR positive clinical samples were also tested. EMA/PMA treatments significantly decreased amplifiable hg/cont and significantly increased the number of PVDA positive probes and their signal intensity compared to untreated spiked lung samples. EMA/PMA treatments also increased the sensitivity of HTS by increasing the number of specific PRRSV reads and the PRRSV percentage of coverage. Interestingly, EMA/PMA treatments significantly increased the sensitivity of PVDA and HTS in two out of three clinical tissue samples. Thus, EMA/PMA treatments offer a new approach to lower the amplifiable hg/cont in clinical samples and increase the success of PVDA and HTS to identify viruses.

  12. Application of EMA-qPCR as a complementary tool for the detection and monitoring of Legionella in different water systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Tian, Zhengan; Ren, Hongyu; Hu, Guangchun; Zhou, Haijian; Lu, Jinxing; Luo, Chengwang; Liu, Zunyu; Shao, Zhujun

    2012-05-01

    Legionella are prevalent in human-made water systems and cause legionellosis in humans. Conventional culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are not sufficiently accurate for the quantitative analysis of live Legionella bacteria in water samples because of the presence of viable but nonculturable cells and dead cells. Here, we report a rapid detection method for viable Legionella that combines ethidium monoazide (EMA) with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and apply this method to detect Legionella in a large number of water samples from different sources. Results yielded that samples treated with 5 μg/ml EMA for 10 min and subsequently exposed to light irradiation for 5 min were optimal for detecting Legionella. EMA treatment before qPCR could block the signal from approximately 4 log(10) of dead cells. When investigating environmental water samples, the percent-positive rate obtained by EMA-qPCR was significantly higher than conventional PCR and culture methods, and slightly lower than qPCR. The bacterial count of Legionella determined by EMA-qPCR were mostly greater than those determined by culture assays and lower than those determined by qPCR. Acceptable correlations were found between the EMA-qPCR and qPCR results for cooling towers, piped water and hot spring water samples (r = 0.849, P < 0.001) and also found between the EMA-qPCR and culture results for hot spring water samples (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). The results indicate that EMA-qPCR could be used as a complementary tool for the detection and monitoring of Legionella in water systems, especially in hot spring water samples.

  13. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  14. Metallurgy of Miura-ori: lattice theory for inhomogeneous deformations of origami tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In nature, as well as in art, one often encounters thin materials that have been deformed by their environment or their creator into complex folded states; examples include the folds of the endoplasmic reticulum, the villi in the intestinal tract, and tessellated patterns in the ancient Japanese art of origami. One (engineering) advantage of creating a folded structure is that the geometric constraints associated with creasing imbues the construction with exotic mechanical properties, such as generating a material with a negative Poisson's ratio. Materials exhibiting novel behavior of this type, arising from the special properties of the unit cell, are generally classified as metamaterials. In this talk I consider a mechanical metamaterial known as Miura-ori, an origami tessellation pattern that displays soft modes and crystallographic defects not accounted for by a purely geometric theory of an infinitely thin material. I will discuss a method for deriving how inhomogeneous deformations arise from bending within Miura-ori, and show that this leads to a natural coherence length over which the inhomogeneity decays. Additionally, I will show how the modular nature of origami unit cells lends additional richness to the mechanical properties associated with deformation.

  15. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in Its Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C.

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ˜1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ˜1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000-2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013-2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ˜12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ˜14.6 km s-1 and is ˜4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  16. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  17. Regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals without a randomised controlled study: analysis of EMA and FDA approvals 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Baio, Gianluca; Berlin, Jesse A; Irs, Alar; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of pharmaceuticals is most often demonstrated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, in some cases, regulatory applications lack RCT evidence. Objective To investigate the number and type of these approvals over the past 15 years by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods Drug approval data were downloaded from the EMA website and the ‘Drugs@FDA’ database for all decisions on pharmaceuticals published from 1 January 1999 to 8 May 2014. The details of eligible applications were extracted, including the therapeutic area, type of approval and review period. Results Over the period of the study, 76 unique indications were granted without RCT results (44 by the EMA and 60 by the FDA), demonstrating that a substantial number of treatments reach the market without undergoing an RCT. The majority was for haematological malignancies (34), with the next most common areas being oncology (15) and metabolic conditions (15). Of the applications made to both agencies with a comparable data package, the FDA granted more approvals (43/44 vs 35/44) and took less time to review products (8.7 vs 15.5 months). Products reached the market first in the USA in 30 of 34 cases (mean 13.1 months) due to companies making FDA submission before EMA submissions and faster FDA review time. Discussion Despite the frequency with which approvals are granted without RCT results, there is no systematic monitoring of such treatments to confirm their effectiveness or consistency regarding when this form of evidence is appropriate. We recommend a more open debate on the role of marketing authorisations granted without RCT results, and the development of guidelines on what constitutes an acceptable data package for regulators. PMID:27363818

  18. Towards the harmonization of result presentation for the eosin-5'- maleimide (EMA) binding test in the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda; Greenwood, David; Heimpel, Hermann; Noel, Nigel; Whiteway, Alastair; King, May-Jean

    2014-09-01

    Background: The EMA Binding test measures reduced mean channel fluorescence (MCF) reading of EMA-labeled red cells (EMA-RBCs) from patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Reporting test results can be either in the actual MCF reading or as a ratio by normalization of the test MCF result to the mean MCF value of 6 normal controls. The latter format has potential for universal reporting. Methods: We analyzed three years' archival MCF data from HS and non-HS patient groups for establishment of reference ranges of ratios for normal adults and HS. A prospective study used FC500 and FACS Canto II cytometers to analyze contemporaneously EMA-RBCs from several patient groups and normal donors. Statistical analyses of the prospective data determined the cut-off values, and the sensitivity and specificity for HS respectively for the MCF and the ratio result presentations. The effect of using fewer than six normal controls for the ratio denominator was explored. Results:. The FC500 gave a mean ratio of 0.782 (SD = 0.086) in HS patients with an optimal cut-off ratio of 0.918 (98.7% specificity, 95.6% sensitivity), and grey area ratio of 0.868 - 0.918. The Canto II gave a mean ratio of 0.774 (SD = 0.085) with an optimal cut-off ratio of 0.925 (97.1% specificity and 100% sensitivity), and grey area ratio of 0.859 - 0.925. Conclusion: Harmonization of result presentation is feasible with no apparent constraint by instrument design. Interpretation of grey-area data requires an assessment of patient's clinical presentation and family history or performing a family study. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: Māori oral traditions and natural hazards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of Mātauranga Māori [Māori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map Māori oral traditions (pūrākau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering pūrākau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional Māori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which Mātauranga Taiao [Māori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with Māori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

  20. Characterizing the Uncertainty of Vegetation Moisture Content Retrieval through Radiative Transfer Model Inversion with Landsat 8 OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, E. J.; Boschetti, L.; Johnson, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic monitoring of vegetation moisture content (VMC) would improve early warning systems for conditions of water-stress (leading to decreased crop yield, increased fire risk, and amplified pest outbreaks and wildfires) as well as increase the accuracy of the retrieval of biomass consumed from satellite fire radiative power (FRP) (Smith et al. 2013). VMC is defined as the ratio between water content (weight of live biomass - weight of dry biomass) and either dry or living biomass weight. Despite the wide range of potential applications for systematic estimates of VMC, no VMC thematic product is currently generated (Yebra et al. 2013). The present paper presents the initial steps toward developing a modeling framework for the retrieval of VMC. A suite of field and laboratory measurements were collected weekly for various crop species throughout the 2014 and 2015 summer growing periods in the Southern Palouse region of Idaho. Measurements included: VMC, leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture content, leaf area, canopy height, and ground measured spectroradiometer data (350-2500 nm) of leaf and canopy reflectance. Field measurements were coincident with Landsat 8 OLI overpasses. PROSPECT- 5 and SAIL radiative transfer models were used to generate spectral signatures, simulating a variety of conditions and constrained by field and laboratory observations. Landsat 8 OLI data from coincident overpasses were used in an inversion approach to characterize VMC from field sites. The sources of uncertainty were characterized and examined for future model ensemble development.

  1. The impact of the EMA change in definition of "dose" on the BCS dose-solubility ratio: a review of the biowaiver monographs.

    PubMed

    Sediq, Ahmad; Kubbinga, Marlies; Langguth, Peter; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) defines the solubility characteristics of an active pharmaceutical substance based on its dose-solubility ratio: for highly soluble drugs this ratio is less than 250 mL over a defined pH range. Prior to the revision of the European Medicines Agency (EMA, formerly EMEA) guideline in 2010, the "dose" in this ratio was consistently defined by the US FDA, the EMA, and the WHO biowaiver guidelines as the highest dosage strength. However, in the revised EMA guideline, the dose is defined as the highest single dose administered according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The new EMA criterion for highly soluble may be closer to the actual conditions of use, but it is not in line with the dose that would be used in the in vivo bioequivalence study. This paper evaluates the impact on the BCS classification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients of the published biowaiver monographs and discusses the consequences of the possible change in classification on biowaiver recommendations. Using the current definition of dose by the EMA, the biowaiver recommendations for metoclopramide hydrochloride and verapamil hydrochloride are no longer valid according to EMA criteria. For prednisolone and prednisone, a reevaluation of the biowaiver recommendation, taking into account the usual dosing levels, seems appropriate.

  2. A Comparative Review of Waivers Granted in Pediatric Drug Development by FDA and EMA from 2007-2013

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Gunter F.; Wharton, Gerold T.; Malli, Suzanne; Temeck, Jean; Murphy, M. Dianne; Tomasi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Union and the United States have different legal frameworks in place for pediatric drug development, which can potentially lead to different pediatric research requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. This manuscript compares pediatric clinical trial waivers granted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods This is a retrospective review comparing EMA’s Paediatric Committee (PDCO) decisions with FDA’s Pediatric Review Committee (PeRC) recommendations for all product-specific pediatric full waiver applications submitted to EMA from January 2007 through December 2013. Using baseline data from EMA, we matched product-specific waivers with their FDA equivalents during the study period. Results For single active substance products, PDCO and PeRC adopted similar opinions in 42 of 49 indications (86%). For fixed-dose combinations, PDCO and PeRC adopted similar opinions in 24 of 31 indications (77%). Conclusion Despite the different legal frameworks, criteria, and processes of determination, the waiver decisions of the 2 agencies were similar in the majority of cases. PMID:27274951

  3. Indigenous injury outcomes: life satisfaction among injured Māori in New Zealand three months after injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, experience numerous and consistent health disparities when compared to non-Māori. Injury is no exception, yet there is a paucity of published literature that examines outcomes following a wide variety of injury types and severities for this population. This paper aims to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of life satisfaction three months after injury for a group of injured Māori. Methods The Māori sample (n = 566) were all participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study (POIS). POIS is a longitudinal study of 2856 injured New Zealanders aged 18–64 years who were on an injury entitlement claims’ register with New Zealand’s no-fault compensation insurer. The well-known Te Whare Tapa Whā model of overall health and well-being was used to help inform the selection of post-injury life satisfaction predictor variables. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between potential predictors and life satisfaction. Results Of the 566 Māori participants, post-injury life satisfaction data was available for 563 (99%) participants. Of these, 71% reported satisfaction with life three months after injury (compared to 93% pre-injury). Those with a higher injury severity score, not satisfied with pre-injury social relationships or poor self-efficacy pre-injury were less likely to be satisfied with life three months after injury. Conclusions The large majority of Māori participants reported being satisfied with life three months after injury; however, nearly a third did not. This suggests that further research investigating outcomes after injury for Māori, and predictors of these, is necessary. Results show that healthcare providers could perhaps put greater effort into working alongside injured Māori who have more severe injuries, report poor self-efficacy and were not satisfied with their pre-injury social relationships to ensure increased likelihood of

  4. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle).

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-01-01

    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  5. Economic valuation of the Emas waterfall, Mogi-Guaçu River, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peixer, Janice; Giacomini, Henrique C; Petrere Jr, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    The Emas waterfall in Mogi-Guaçu River is regionally recognized as an important fishing spot and touristic place. The first reports of the professional and sport fishing there date back from the 30's, which is the same period when the tourism took place. The present paper provides an environmental valuation of this place and an assessment of the differences among the major groups of people using the area. During 2006 we interviewed 33 professional fishers, 107 sport fishers, 45 tourists and 103 excursionists in order to estimate the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for each category and to analyze the influence of socioeconomic factors by means of logistic regressions and ANCOVAs. The WTP of professional fisher was significantly influenced by age and education, and the WTP for the sport fishers was influenced by the family income. The variables that influenced the tourists' and excursionists' WTP were sex and education. The total annual aggregated value to maintain the waterfall in the current conditions was estimated in US$ 11.432.128, and US$ 55.424.283 to restore it.

  6. Searching chromosomal landmarks in Indian lentils through EMA-based Giemsa staining method.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Halder, Mihir

    2016-09-01

    Lentil is one of the oldest protein-rich food crop with only one cultivated and six wild species. India is one important cultivator, producer and consumer of lentils and possesses a large number of germplasms. All species of lentil show 2n = 14 chromosomes. The primary objective of the present paper is to search chromosomal landmarks through enzymatic maceration and air drying (EMA)-based Giemsa staining method in five Indian lentil species not reported elsewhere at a time. Additionally, gametic chromosome analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology have been studied to ascertain interspecific relationships in lentils. Chromosome analysis in Lens culinaris, Lens orientalis and Lens odemensis revealed that they contain intercalary sat chromosome and similar karyotypic formula, while Lens nigricans and Lens lamottei showed presence of terminal sat chromosomes not reported earlier. This distinct morphological feature in L. nigricans and L. lamottei may be considered as chromosomal landmark. Meiotic analysis showed n = 7 bivalents in L. culinaris, L. nigricans and L. lamottei. No tendril formation was observed in L. culinaris, L. orientalis and L. odemensis while L. nigricans and L. lamottei developed very prominent tendrils. Based on chromosomal analysis, tendril formation and seed morphology, the five lentil species can be separated into two distinct groups. The outcome of this research may enrich conventional and biotechnological breeding programmes in lentil and may facilitate an easy and alternative method for identification of interspecific hybrids.

  7. Soil chemical factors and grassland species density in Emas National Park (central Brazil).

    PubMed

    Amorim, P K; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Studies of grasslands on specific soil types suggest that different nutrients can limit biomass production and, hence, species composition and number. The Brazilian cerrado is the major savanna region in America and once covered about 2 million km(2), mainly in the Brazilian Central Plateau, under seasonal climate, with wet summer and dry winter. In view of the importance of soil chemical factors in the distribution of the vegetation forms within the Cerrado domain and which may influence the number of species, we analyzed some soil characteristics in three herbaceous vegetation forms -- hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland -- in Emas National Park, a core cerrado site, to investigate the relationship between number of species and soil characteristics. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted the obtained data to multiple linear regression. We found out that aluminum and pH were the best predictors of species density, the former positively related to species density and the latter negatively related. Since the predictable variation in species density is important in determining areas of conservation, we can postulate that these two soil factors are indicators of high species density areas in tropical grasslands, which could be used in selecting priority sites for conservation.

  8. Sequence heterogeneity in the equi merozoite antigen gene (ema-1) of Theileria equi and development of an ema-1-specific TaqMan MGB assay for the detection of T. equi.

    PubMed

    Bhoora, Raksha; Quan, Melvyn; Matjila, Paul T; Zweygarth, Erich; Guthrie, Alan J; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-08-27

    Although a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR) assay for the detection of Theileria equi has been developed and evaluated, it is possible that additional, as yet undetected 18S rRNA gene sequence variants may exist. A qPCR assay targeting a different gene, used in conjunction with the T. equi 18S rRNA qPCR assay, could assist in the detection of all T. equi genotypes in field samples. A T. equi ema-1-specific qPCR (Ueti et al., 2003) was tested on 107 South African field samples, 90 of which tested positive for T. equi antibody using the immuno-fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The qPCR assay performed poorly, as T. equi was detected in only 67 of the 90 IFAT-positive field samples at quantification cycle (C(q)) values ranging from 27 to 39.95. Furthermore, a high C(q) value of 36.18 was obtained from DNA extracted from a South African in vitro-cultured T. equi WL isolate [1.38% parasitized erythrocytes (PE)] when a low C(q) value (indicative of a high T. equi DNA concentration) was expected. Approximately 600 bp of the ema-1 gene from 38 South African samples were sequenced and BLASTN analysis confirmed all sequences to be merozoite surface protein genes, with an identity of 87.1-100% to previously published T. equi ema-1 gene sequences. Alignment of the sequences revealed extensive sequence variations in the target regions of the primers and probes (Ueti et al., 2003), explaining the poor performance of the qPCR assay. Based on these observations, we developed a new TaqMan minor-groove binder (MGB) probe-based qPCR assay, targeting a more conserved region of the ema-1 gene. This assay was shown to be efficient and specific, and the detection limit, defined as the concentration at which 95% of T. equi-positive samples are detected, was determined to be 1.4 x 10(-4)% PE. The two ema-1 assays were compared by testing 41 South African field samples in parallel. The results suggested that the new assay was more sensitive than the original assay, as T. equi was

  9. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'.

  10. Strategies to reduce the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users).

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie PhD; Cooper, Erana PhD; Wiki, Nick Rn; Field, Trudie Rn; Haitana, Jason; Toko, Mike; Edwards, Erika; McKenna, Brian Rn Ba MHSc PhD

    2016-06-01

    ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have the highest crude population-based rate of seclusion events reported internationally (McLeod et al. ). This qualitative study explored Māori clinical, cultural and consumer perspectives on potential strategies and initiatives considered likely to facilitate prevention of, and reduction in, the use of seclusion, with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users) in mental health inpatient services. A hui (gathering) over 2 days was held with 16 Māori participants with high levels of clinical, cultural and consumer expertise. The gathering was taped and the tapes transcribed. A thematic analysis of the hui data generated three key categories: Te Ao Māori (access to a Māori worldview); Te Ao Hurihuri (transforming practice); and Rangatiratanga (leadership, power, and control). The findings of this study align with the "six core strategies" for best practice to reduce the use of seclusion (Huckshorn ). A comprehensive approach to the reduction of the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora is required, which is clearly based on a Māori model of care and a vision for transformation of practice in mental health inpatient services, which involves Māori leadership.

  11. RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA helicase at the Staphylococcus aureus pC221 plasmid replication origin, oriD

    PubMed Central

    Machón, C.; Lynch, G. P.; Thomson, N. H.; Scott, D. J.; Thomas, C. D.; Soultanas, P.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid encoded replication initiation (Rep) proteins recruit host helicases to plasmid replication origins. Previously, we showed that RepD recruits directionally the PcrA helicase to the pC221 oriD, remains associated with it, and increases its processivity during plasmid unwinding. Here we show that RepD forms a complex extending upstream and downstream of the core oriD. Binding of RepD causes remodelling of a region upstream from the core oriD forming a ‘landing pad’ for the PcrA. PcrA is recruited by this extended RepD–DNA complex via an interaction with RepD at this upstream site. PcrA appears to have weak affinity for this region even in the absence of RepD. Upon binding of ADPNP (non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP), by PcrA, a conformational rearrangement of the RepD–PcrA–ATP initiation complex confines it strictly within the boundaries of the core oriD. We conclude that RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA at oriD is a three step process. First, an extended RepD–oriD complex includes a region upstream from the core oriD; second, the PcrA is recruited to this upstream region and thirdly upon ATP-binding PcrA relocates within the core oriD. PMID:20044350

  12. A particular DNA structure is required for the function of a cis-acting component of the Epstein-Barr virus OriLyt origin of replication.

    PubMed Central

    Portes-Sentis, S; Sergeant, A; Gruffat, H

    1997-01-01

    OriLyt, thecis-acting element of Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of replication, consists of upstream and downstream components. The upstream component plays a dual role in transcription and replication. The downstream component contains a homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence which forms an H palindrome. We show that the downstream component can adopt a triple helix structure in vitro, that the 5' border of the homopyrimidine sequence is sensitive to P1 nuclease when carried by a supercoiled plasmid and that an oligonucleotide complementary to the homopyrimidine strand is taken up by a plasmid carrying the OriLyt H palindrome. We also show that all mutations which alter the H palindrome impair both oligonucleotide uptake and OriLyt-dependent replication. Interestingly, compensatory mutations which restore an H palindrome also restore oligonucleotide uptake by the mutated plasmids and their OriLyt-dependent replication. Thus, there is a strong correlation between the inability of the OriLyt H palindrome to form a non-B-DNA structure in vitro and impairment of OriLyt-dependent replication. This suggests that the presence of a non-B-DNA structure in the OriLyt downstream component is required for OriLyt-dependent replication. PMID:9060428

  13. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    ScienceCinema

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-07-12

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  14. Interaction of HCMV UL84 with C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kagele, Dominique; Gao, Yang; Smallenburg, Kate; Pari, Gregory S

    2009-09-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the cis-acting oriLyt region and requires six core replication proteins along with UL84 and IE2. Although UL84 is thought to be the replication initiator protein, little is known about its interaction with oriLyt. We have now performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) using antibodies specific to UL84, IE2, UL44, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha) and PCR primers that span the entire oriLyt region to reveal an evaluation of specific protein binding across oriLyt. UL84 interacted with several regions of oriLyt that contain C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of either of one of C/EBPalpha (92,526 or 92,535) sites inactivated oriLyt and resulted in the loss of binding of UL84. These data reveal the regions of interaction within oriLyt for several key replication proteins and show that the interaction between UL84 and C/EBPalpha sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

  15. Influencing Factors and Applicability of the Viability EMA-qPCR for a Detection and Quantification of Campylobacter Cells from Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Seinige, Diana; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of human campylobacteriosis cases caused by contaminated water have been reported. As the culture-based detection of Campylobacter is time consuming and can yield false-negative results, the suitability of a quantitative real-time PCR method in combination with an ethidium monoazide pretreatment of samples (EMA-qPCR) for the rapid, quantitative detection of viable Campylobacter cells from water samples was investigated. EMA-qPCR has been shown to be a promising rapid method for the detection of viable Campylobacter spp. from food samples. Application of membrane filtration and centrifugation, two methods frequently used for the isolation of bacteria from water, revealed a mean loss of up to 1.08 log10 cells/ml from spiked samples. Both methods used alone lead to a loss of dead bacteria and accumulation of viable bacteria in the sample as shown by fluorescence microscopy. After filtration of samples, no significant differences could be detected in subsequent qPCR experiments with and without EMA pretreatment compared to culture-based enumeration. High correlations (R2 = 0.942 without EMA, R2 = 0.893 with EMA) were obtained. After centrifugation of samples, qPCR results overestimated Campylobacter counts, whereas results from both EMA-qPCR and the reference method were comparable. As up to 81.59% of nonviable cells were detected in pond water, EMA-qPCR failed to detect correct quantities of viable cells. However, analyses of spiked tap water samples revealed a high correlation (R2 = 0.863) between results from EMA-qPCR and the reference method. After membrane filtration, EMA-qPCR was successfully applied to Campylobacter field isolates, and results indicated an advantage over qPCR by analysing defined mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. In conclusion, EMA-qPCR is a suitable method to detect viable Campylobacter from water samples, but the isolation technique and the type/quality of the water sample impact the

  16. Influencing factors and applicability of the viability EMA-qPCR for a detection and quantification of Campylobacter cells from water samples.

    PubMed

    Seinige, Diana; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of human campylobacteriosis cases caused by contaminated water have been reported. As the culture-based detection of Campylobacter is time consuming and can yield false-negative results, the suitability of a quantitative real-time PCR method in combination with an ethidium monoazide pretreatment of samples (EMA-qPCR) for the rapid, quantitative detection of viable Campylobacter cells from water samples was investigated. EMA-qPCR has been shown to be a promising rapid method for the detection of viable Campylobacter spp. from food samples. Application of membrane filtration and centrifugation, two methods frequently used for the isolation of bacteria from water, revealed a mean loss of up to 1.08 log10 cells/ml from spiked samples. Both methods used alone lead to a loss of dead bacteria and accumulation of viable bacteria in the sample as shown by fluorescence microscopy. After filtration of samples, no significant differences could be detected in subsequent qPCR experiments with and without EMA pretreatment compared to culture-based enumeration. High correlations (R(2)= 0.942 without EMA, R(2) = 0.893 with EMA) were obtained. After centrifugation of samples, qPCR results overestimated Campylobacter counts, whereas results from both EMA-qPCR and the reference method were comparable. As up to 81.59% of nonviable cells were detected in pond water, EMA-qPCR failed to detect correct quantities of viable cells. However, analyses of spiked tap water samples revealed a high correlation (R(2) = 0.863) between results from EMA-qPCR and the reference method. After membrane filtration, EMA-qPCR was successfully applied to Campylobacter field isolates, and results indicated an advantage over qPCR by analysing defined mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. In conclusion, EMA-qPCR is a suitable method to detect viable Campylobacter from water samples, but the isolation technique and the type/quality of the water sample impact the results.

  17. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  18. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  19. Interactions between Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces oris, and Candida albicans in the development of multispecies oral microbial biofilms on salivary pellicle.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, I M G; Del Bel Cury, A A; Jenkinson, H F; Nobbs, A H

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is carried orally and causes a range of superficial infections that may become systemic. Oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque and on oral mucosa. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanisms by which S. oralis and A. oris interact with each other and with C. albicans in biofilm development. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms labeled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Actinomyces oris and S. oralis formed robust dual-species biofilms, or three-species biofilms with C. albicans. The bacterial components tended to dominate the lower levels of the biofilms while C. albicans occupied the upper levels. Non-fimbriated A. oris was compromised in biofilm formation in the absence or presence of streptococci, but was incorporated into upper biofilm layers through binding to C. albicans. Biofilm growth and hyphal filament production by C. albicans was enhanced by S. oralis. It is suggested that the interkingdom biofilms are metabolically coordinated to house all three components, and this study demonstrates that adhesive interactions between them determine spatial distribution and biofilm architecture. The physical and chemical communication processes occurring in these communities potentially augment C. albicans persistence at multiple oral cavity sites.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oris J-1, a Potential Probiotic Isolated from the Human Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli can exert health-promoting effects in the human oral microbiome through many mechanisms, including pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus oris J-1, that was isolated from the oral cavity of a health child. PMID:27634996

  1. Discrimination of viable and dead Vibrio vulnificus after refrigerated and frozen storage using EMA, sodium deoxycholate and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Lim; Levin, Robert E

    2009-11-01

    The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the viability of Vibrio vulnificus was evaluated using cell suspensions (1x10(8) CFU/ml). Ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) was utilized to selectively allow real-time (Rti) PCR amplification of target DNA from viable but not dead cells. Bacterial survivors from the EMA Rti-PCR were evaluated by comparison with the plate count assay following different temperature exposures (-20 and 4 degrees C) every 24 h for 72 h. The log CFU values from the EMA Rti-PCR assays were erroneously higher than that from plate counts. DNA amplification was not completely suppressed by EMA treatment of low temperature destroyed cells suggesting that membrane damage was not sufficient to allow effective EMA penetration into the cells. The optimal concentration of sodium deoxycholate (SD) was also determined to enhance discrimination of viable and dead cells following exposure of cells to low temperatures. The use of 0.01% or less of SD did not inhibit the Rti-PCR amplification derived from viable bacterial cells. A rapid decrease of the log CFU was observed with cell suspensions subjected to frozen storage and a slow decline in the log CFU occurred at 4 degrees C. The combination of SD and EMA treatments applied to cells of V. vulnificus held at -20 degrees C and 4 degrees C resulted in a high level of correlation between the log of CFU (plate counts) and the log of the number of viable cells determined from SD+EMA Rti-PCR.

  2. The Radio Jet Associated with the Multiple V380 Ori System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Yam, J. Omar; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; Trejo, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    The giant Herbig-Haro object 222 extends over ˜6‧ in the plane of the sky, with a bow shock morphology. The identification of its exciting source has remained uncertain over the years. A non-thermal radio source located at the core of the shock structure was proposed to be the exciting source. However, Very Large Array studies showed that the radio source has a clear morphology of radio galaxy and a lack of flux variations or proper motions, favoring an extragalactic origin. Recently, an optical-IR study proposed that this giant HH object is driven by the multiple stellar system V380 Ori, located about 23‧ to the SE of HH 222. The exciting sources of HH systems are usually detected as weak free-free emitters at centimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the detection of an elongated radio source associated with the Herbig Be star or with its close infrared companion in the multiple V380 Ori system. This radio source has the characteristics of a thermal radio jet and is aligned with the direction of the giant outflow defined by HH 222 and its suggested counterpart to the SE, HH 1041. We propose that this radio jet traces the origin of the large scale HH outflow. Assuming that the jet arises from the Herbig Be star, the radio luminosity is a few times smaller than the value expected from the radio-bolometric correlation for radio jets, confirming that this is a more evolved object than those used to establish the correlation.

  3. A Spectroscopic Study of the Secondary Star of BM Ori: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitrichenko, E. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2001-05-01

    Two CCD spectra of the star BM Ori were obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope. In one of the spectra, a large proportion of lines are distorted by emission. The emission component is blueshifted by 50 km/s, suggesting hot-gas outflow from the atmosphere. The equivalent-width ratio of measured lines in the spectra outside and during eclipse is consistent with the assumption that ~2/3 of the primary star's area is obscured during eclipse, as follows from light curves. Measured line equivalent widths were used to estimate atmospheric parameters of the secondary star, T_eff = 7300 K, log g = 5.2, and microturbulence xi_t = 6 km/s, and to determine its chemical composition. The C, Na, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Zn abundances are solar, within the error limits. Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Y are overabundant, while Mg, Cu, and Ba are underabundant. In general, the secondary is similar in chemical composition to the star V1016 Ori. Based on the secondary's mass determined by solving the radial-velocity curve and on log g estimated spectroscopically from iron ionization equilibrium, we calculated its photospheric radius, R_2 = 0.5 R_solar. However, the spectroscopic log g = 5.2 disagrees with log g = 3.5 calculated from the luminosity and effective temperature and with log g = 3.0 calculated from light and radial-velocity curves. If the secondary's photospheric radius is indeed small, this argues for the hypothesis that the eclipsing body is a dust envelope. The radial velocities measured from the two spectra are systematically higher than those calculated from the radial-velocity curve by +34 and +24 km/s. It is likely that the secondary's atmosphere occasionally shrinks.

  4. A Herschel View of Protoplanetary Disks in the σ Ori Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maucó, Karina; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Briceño, César; McClure, Melissa; D'Alessio, Paola; Anderson, Kassandra; Ali, Babar

    2016-09-01

    We present new Herschel observations using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer of 32 T Tauri stars in the young (˜3 Myr) σ Ori cluster. Most of our objects are K and M stars with large excesses at 24 μm. We used irradiated accretion disk models of D’Alessio et al. to compare their spectral energy distributions with our observational data. We arrive at the following six conclusions. (i) The observed disks are consistent with irradiated accretion disk systems. (ii) Most of our objects (60%) can be explained by significant dust depletion from the upper disk layers. (iii) Similarly, 61% of our objects can be modeled with large disk sizes (R d ≥ 100 au). (iv) The masses of our disks range between 0.03 and 39 M Jup, where 35% of our objects have disk masses less than 1 M Jup. Although these are lower limits, high-mass (>0.05 {M}⊙ ) disks, which are present in, e.g., Taurus, are missing. (v) By assuming a uniform distribution of objects around the brightest stars at the center of the cluster, we found that 80% of our disks are exposed to external FUV radiation of 300≤slant {G}0≤slant 1000, which can be strong enough to photoevaporate the outer edges of the closer disks. (vi) Within 0.6 pc from σ Ori we found forbidden emission lines of [N ii] in the spectrum of one of our large disks (SO662), but no emission in any of our small ones. This suggests that this object may be an example of a photoevaporating disk.

  5. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  6. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

  7. Determining the Impacts of Land Cover/use Categories on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT8-OLI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Ergene, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  8. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  9. Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  10. Absolute vicarious calibration of Landsat-8 OLI and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensors over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sridhar, V. N.; Prajapati, R. P.; Rao, K. M.; Mathur, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, vicarious calibration coefficients for all the four bands (green, red, NIR and SWIR) of Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensor for four dates during Dec 2013-Nov 2014 and for seven bands (blue, green, red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2 and PAN) of OLI sensor onboard Landsat-8 for six dates during Dec 2013-Feb 2015 were estimated using field measured reflectance and measured atmospheric parameters during sensor image acquisition over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat. The top of atmosphere (TOA) at-satellite radiances for all the bands were simulated using 6S radiative transfer code with field measured reflectance, synchronous atmospheric measurements and respective sensor's spectral response functions as an input. These predicted spectral radiances were compared with the radiances from the respective sensor's image in the respective band over the calibration site. Cross-calibration between the sensors AWiFS and OLI was also attempted using near-simultaneous same day image acquisition. Effect of spectral band adjustment factor was also studied with OLI sensor taken as reference sensor. Results show that the variation in average estimated radiance ratio for the AWiFS sensor was found to be within 10% for all the bands, whereas, for OLI sensor, the variation was found to be within 6% for all the bands except green and SWIR2 for which the variation was 8% and 11% respectively higher than the 5% uncertainty of the OLI sensor specification for TOA spectral radiance. At the 1σ level, red, NIR, SWIR1 and Panchromatic bands of OLI sensor showed close agreement between sensor-measured and vicarious TOA radiance resulting no change in calibration coefficient and hence indicating no sensor degradation. Two sets of near-simultaneous SBAFs were derived from respective ground measured target reflectance profiles and applied to the AWiFS and it was observed that overall, SBAF compensation provides a significant improvement in sensor agreement. The reduction in the difference between AWiFS and

  11. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing & transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  12. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Rajkumar S. Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  13. Wāhine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand Māori and non-Māori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of Māori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for Māori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-Māori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of Māori and non-Māori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for Māori and non-Māori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (≤ 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both Māori and non-Māori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to Māori women and infants born to non-Māori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which

  14. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  15. Comparison of immunohistology using pan-CK and EMA in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer, particularly micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Mao, Shanhua; Zhu, Hongguang

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a suitable method for detecting lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer (GCA) by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We investigated lymph node metastasis using pan-cytokeratin (CK) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) IHC staining in a total of 1,422 lymph nodes from 100 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy between 2007 and 2009. Of 700 intestinal and 722 diffuse type GCA lymph nodes, the metastasis rates were significantly different when using conventional HE staining only or HE supplemented with IHC (P<0.01). The metastasis rate of the intestinal type was 31.71% using HE staining, 35.71% with HE and pan-CK, 35.57% with HE and EMA and 35.71% with combination examinations of all three. The false-positive rate was zero with pan-CK, 12.67% with EMA and 18.57% with all three. The metastasis rate of the diffuse type was 27.70% using HE staining, 36.01% with HE and pan-CK, 35.04% with HE and EMA and 36.01% with all three. The false-positive rate was zero with pan-CK, 7.58% with EMA and 11.86% with all three. For both types, the true-positive and -negative rates of pan-CK were higher than those of EMA. IHC staining is unnecessary if lymph node metastasis is detected in HE staining. If HE staining does not reveal metastasis, pan-CK staining should be performed for further diagnosis.

  16. Diagnostic usefulness of EMA, IMP3, and GLUT-1 for the immunocytochemical distinction of malignant cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusion cytology using cytospin preparations.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Katsuhide; Tate, Genshu; Suzuki, Takao; Kitamura, Takashi; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2011-06-01

    To differentiate reactive mesothelial cells (RMs) from metastatic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma (MM) in effusion cytology is crucial for the cytologic diagnosis and the management of the patients. In the present study, the immunocytochemical staining profile of the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), and the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined to distinguish RMs from malignant cells. A total of 171 pleural (n = 87) and peritoneal (n = 84) effusion specimens, including 50 benign effusions with RMs, 11 MM effusions, and 110 metastatic malignant effusions, were evaluated for immunocytochemistry. EMA, IMP3, monoclonal GLUT-1, and polyclonal GLUT-1 immunoreactivity were observed in 26.0%, 6.0%, 20.0%, and 18.0% of RMs, respectively. In contrast to RMs, the immunoreactivity in MM was 100%, 36.4%, 100%, and 90.9%; adenocarcinoma (AC) was 100%, 80.8%, 81.7%, and 72.1%; squamous-cell carcinoma was 83.3%, 83.3%, 83.3%, and 66.7%. EMA, IMP3, mGLUT-1, and pGLUT-1 expressions were observed in 98.4%, 65.6%, 88.5%, and 75.4% in the pleural effusion with malignant cells, and 100%, 88.3%, 78.3%, and 71.7% in ascites containing malignant cells, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the immunocytochemical staining for EMA, IMP3, and GLUT-1 is a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing effusions containing malignant cells from those that contain benign cells, and in particular, we suggest that the combination of mGLUT-1 and EMA, and IMP3 and EMA are extremely useful in pleural effusion and in ascites, respectively.

  17. ori science education in Aotearoa New Zealand. He pūtea whakarawe: aspirations and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anaru; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the first two phases of a multiphase science education development project in predominantly Māori kura (school communities) in the central region of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. The development project in its entirety employs an action research methodology and by so doing endeavors to support the improvement of science education delivery in accordance with school community aspirations. The full project (a) establishes the current situation in Year 1-8 science education in the communities; (b) identifies developmental aspirations for stakeholders within the communities and identifies potential contributors and constraints to these aspirations; (c) implements mechanisms for achieving identified aspirations; and finally; (d) evaluates the effectiveness of such mechanisms. In its focus on the first two phases, this article incorporates the analytical lenses of Kaupapa Māori Theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model. It concludes by outlining some priorities to consider for science education development based on the outcomes of our preliminary discussions.

  18. The Aplication of Landsat 8 OLI for Total Suspended Solid (TSS) Mapping in Gajahmungkur Reservoir Wonogiri Regency 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanti, Apriwida; Susilo, Bowo; Wicaksono, Pramaditya

    2016-11-01

    Gajahmungkur reservoir is administratively located in Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, with the main function as a flood control in the upstream of Bengawan Solo River. Other functions of the reservoir are as hydroelectric power plant (PLTA), water supply, irrigation, fisheries and tourism. Economic utilization of the reservoir is estimated until 100 years, but it is begun to be threatened by the silting of the reservoir. Eroded materials entering water body will be suspended and accumulated. Suspended Material or TSS (Total Suspended Solid) will increase the turbidity of water, which can affect the quality of water and silting the reservoir. Remote sensing technology can be used to determine the spatial distribution of TSS. The purposes of this study were to 1) utilize and compare the accuracy of single band Landsat 8 OLI for mapping the spatial distribution of TSS and 2) estimate the TSS on Gajahmungkur reservoir surface waters up to the depth of 30 cm. The method used for modelling the TSS spatial distribution is the empirical modelling that integrates image pixel values and field data using correlation analysis and regression analysis. The data used in the empirical modelling are single band of visible, NIR, and SWIR of Landsat 8 OLI, which was acquired on 8 May 2016, and field-measured TSS values based on the field data collection conducted on 12 April 2016. The results revealed that mapping the distribution and the estimated value of TSS in Reservoir Gajahmungkur can be performed more accurately using band 4 (red band). The determinant coefficient between TSS field and TSS value of image using band 4 is 0.5431. The Standard Error (SE) of the predicted TSS value is 16.16 mg/L. The results also showed that the estimated total TSS of May 2016 according to band 4 is 1.087,56 tons. The average estimation of TSS value in up to the depth of 30 cm is 61.61 mg/L. The highest TSS distribution is in the northern parts, which was dominated by eroded materials from Keduang

  19. ori patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease: a New Zealand qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rachael C; Walker, Shayne; Morton, Rachael L; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten; Palmer, Suetonia C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as these are largely unknown for indigenous groups with CKD. Design Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with purposive sampling and thematic analysis. Setting 3 dialysis centres in New Zealand (NZ), all of which offered all forms of dialysis modalities. Participants 13 Māori patients with CKD and who were either nearing the need for dialysis or had started dialysis within the previous 12 months. Results The Māori concepts of whakamā (disempowerment and embarrassment) and whakamana (sense of self-esteem and self-determination) provided an overarching framework for interpreting the themes identified: disempowered by delayed CKD diagnosis (resentment of late diagnosis; missed opportunities for preventive care; regret and self-blame); confronting the stigma of kidney disease (multigenerational trepidation; shame and embarrassment; fear and denial); developing and sustaining relationships to support treatment decision-making (importance of family/whānau; valuing peer support; building clinician–patient trust); and maintaining cultural identity (spiritual connection to land; and upholding inner strength/mana). Conclusions Māori patients with CKD experienced marginalisation within the NZ healthcare system due to delayed diagnosis, a focus on individuals rather than family, multigenerational fear of dialysis, and an awareness that clinicians are not aware of cultural considerations and values during decision-making. Prompt diagnosis to facilitate self-management and foster trust between patients and clinicians, involvement of family and peers in dialysis care, and acknowledging patient values could strengthen patient engagement and align decision-making with patient priorities. PMID:28104711

  20. The Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in Māori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) Māori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk Māori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

  1. HST/STIS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MASSIVE TRIPLE STAR δ ORI A

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Lindler, Don J.; Gies, Douglas R.; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2015-07-20

    The multiple star system of δ Orionis is one of the closest examples of a system containing a luminous O-type, bright giant star (component Aa1). It is often used as a spectral-type standard and has the highest observed X-ray flux of any hot-star binary. The main component Aa1 is orbited by two lower mass stars, faint Aa2 in a 5.7 day eclipsing binary, and Ab, an astrometric companion with an estimated period of 346 years. Generally the flux from all three stars is recorded in ground-based spectroscopy, and the spectral decomposition of the components has proved difficult. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectroscopy of δ Ori A that provides us with spatially separated spectra of Aa and Ab for the first time. We measured radial velocities for Aa1 and Ab in two observations made near the velocity extrema of Aa1. We show tentative evidence for the detection of the Aa2 component in cross-correlation functions of the observed and model spectra. We discuss the appearance of the UV spectra of Aa1 and Ab with reference to model spectra. Both stars have similar effective temperatures, but Ab is fainter and is a rapid rotator. The results will help in the interpretation of ground-based spectroscopy and in understanding the physical and evolutionary parameters of these massive stars.

  2. The impact of Māori cultural values on forensic science practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui L; Allan, Christine A; Bedford, Keith R; Buckleton, John S; Stuart, Keriata

    2008-03-01

    Forensic science aims to serve society by advancing justice. It is accepted that some actions taken by the state in the interests of advancing justice, such as postmortem examinations, may impinge on values held by members of groups within society. Such actions have the potential to cause cultural offense. It is important that forensic scientists are aware of these issues and that as a profession we should take actions, where possible, to reduce any potential offense and consequently reduce unnecessary distress. This paper examines the impact of these issues on forensic practice in New Zealand, and, in particular, in relation to the cultural values of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Interviews and workshops were used to identify forensic practices involving a risk of cultural offense. Particular issues were identified in regard to crime scene attendance and examination, postmortem attendance and sample storage, disposal, and return. This paper describes the response developed by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) to address these issues, including a cultural awareness training package and reference brochure.

  3. V2494 Cyg: a unique FU Ori type object in the Cygnus OB7 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.; Movsessian, Tigran; Moiseev, Alexei; Aspin, Colin; Davis, Chris J.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Froebrich, Dirk; Smith, Michael D.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Beck, Tracy L.

    2013-07-01

    A photometric and spectral study of the variable star V2494 Cyg in the L 1003 dark cloud is presented. The brightness of the star, formerly known as HH 381 IRS, increased by 2.5 mag in R (probably in the 1980s) and since then has remained nearly constant. Since the brightness increase, V2494 Cyg has illuminated a bipolar cometary nebula. The stellar spectrum has several features typical of the FU Ori (FUor) type, plus it exhibits very strong Hα and forbidden emission lines with high-velocity components. These emission lines originate in the Herbig-Haro (HH) jet near the star. The kinematic age of the jet is consistent with it forming at the time of the outburst leading to the luminosity increase. V2494 Cyg also produces a rather extended outflow; it is the first known FUor with both an observed outburst and a parsec-sized HH flow. The nebula, illuminated by V2494 Cyg, possesses similar morphological and spectral characteristics to Hubble's variable nebula (R Monocerotis/NGC 2261).

  4. The 'warrior gene' and the Mãori people: the responsibility of the geneticists.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-09-01

    The 'gene of' is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the 'crime gene', 'poverty gene', 'IQ gene', 'gay gene' or 'gene of alcoholism'. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a 'warrior gene' exists in the Mãori community. This claim came from a geneticist working on the MAOA gene. This article is interested in the responsibility of that researcher regarding the origin of the controversy. Several errors were made: overestimation of results, abusive use of the 'gene of' kind of expression, poor communication with the media and a lack of scientific culture. The issues of the debate were not taken into account sufficiently, either from the political, social, ethical or even the genetic points of view. After more than 100 years of debates around 'genes of' all kinds (here, the 'warrior gene'), geneticists may not hide themselves behind the media when a controversy occurs. Responsibilities have to be assumed.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 25 Ori group low-mass stars (Downes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, J. J.; Briceno, C.; Mateu, C.; Hernandez, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Allen, L.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-epoch optical V-, R-, I-band and Hα observations across the entire Orion OB1 association (spanning ~180deg2) were obtained as part of the CVSO (Briceno et al., 2005AJ....129..907B, Cat. J/AJ/129/907), being conducted since 1998 with the Jurgen Stock 1.0/1.5 Schmidt-type telescope and the 8000x8000-pixel QUEST-I CCD Mosaic camera, at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. During 2009 a new dedicated 4m survey telescope, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), located at ESO's Paranal Observatory, was commissioned by the VISTA consortium. For the Galactic Science Verification of VISTA, an ~30deg2 area of the Orion OB1 association, which included the Orion Belt region, part of the Orion A cloud, the 25 Orionis and σ Ori clusters, was imaged in the Z, Y, J, H and Ks filters, during 2009 October 16 to November 2. (3 data files).

  6. A Systematic Review of Methods and Procedures Used in Ecological Momentary Assessments of Diet and Physical Activity Research in Youth: An Adapted STROBE Checklist for Reporting EMA Studies (CREMAS)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting real-time data based on careful timing, repeated measures, and observations that take place in a participant’s typical environment. Due to methodological advantages and rapid advancement in mobile technologies in recent years, more studies have adopted EMA in addressing topics of nutrition and physical activity in youth. Objective The aim of this systematic review is to describe EMA methodology that has been used in studies addressing nutrition and physical activity in youth and provide a comprehensive checklist for reporting EMA studies. Methods Thirteen studies were reviewed and analyzed for the following 5 areas of EMA methodology: (1) sampling and measures, (2) schedule, (3) technology and administration, (4) prompting strategy, and (5) response and compliance. Results Results of this review showed a wide variability in the design and reporting of EMA studies in nutrition and physical activity among youth. The majority of studies (69%) monitored their participants during one period of time, although the monitoring period ranged from 4 to 14 days, and EMA surveys ranged from 2 to 68 times per day. More than half (54%) of the studies employed some type of electronic technology. Most (85%) of the studies used interval-contingent prompting strategy. For studies that utilized electronic devices with interval-contingent prompting strategy, none reported the actual number of EMA prompts received by participants out of the intended number of prompts. About half (46%) of the studies failed to report information about EMA compliance rates. For those who reported, compliance rates ranged from 44-96%, with an average of 71%. Conclusions Findings from this review suggest that in order to identify best practices for EMA methodology in nutrition and physical activity research among youth, more standardized EMA reporting is needed. Missing the key information about EMA design features and participant

  7. Interkingdom cooperation between Candida albicans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces oris modulates early biofilm development on denture material.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Indira M G; Nobbs, Angela H; Ricomini-Filho, Antônio Pedro; Jenkinson, Howard F; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces.

  8. In vivo dynamics of EBNA1-oriP interaction during latent and lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tohru; Kudoh, Ayumi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sugaya, Yutaka; Isomura, Hiroki; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2004-12-24

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is required for maintenance of the viral genome DNA during the latent phase of EBV replication but continues to be synthesized after the induction of viral productive replication. An EBV genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that EBNA1 constantly binds to oriP of the EBV genome during not only latent but also lytic infection. Although the total levels of EBNA1 proved constant throughout the latter, the levels of the oriP-bound form were increased as lytic infection proceeded. EBV productive DNA replication occurs at discrete sites in nuclei, called replication compartments, where viral replication proteins are clustered. Confocal laser microscopic analyses revealed that whereas EBNA1 was distributed broadly in nuclei as fine punctate dots during the latent phase of infection, the protein became redistributed to the viral replication compartments and localized as distinct spots within and/or nearby the compartments after the induction of lytic replication. Taking these findings into consideration, oriP regions of the EBV genome might be organized by EBNA1 into replication domains that may set up scaffolding for lytic replication and transcription.

  9. Reduced LPS phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella; Bratcher, Preston; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Summary The seqA defect in E. coli increases the ori/ter ratio and causes chromosomal fragmentation, making seqA mutants dependent on recombinational repair (the seqA recA co-lethality). To understand the nature of this chromosomal fragmentation, we characterized ΔseqA mutants and isolated suppressors of the ΔseqA recA lethality. We demonstrate that our ΔseqA alleles have normal function of the downstream pgm gene and normal ratios of the major phospholipids in the membranes, but increased surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphorylation. The predominant class of ΔseqA recA suppressors disrupts the rfaQGP genes, reducing phosphorylation of the inner core region of LPS. The rfaQGP suppressors also reduce the elevated ori/ter ratio of the ΔseqA mutants, but, unexpectedly, the suppressed mutants still exhibit the high levels of chromosomal fragmentation and SOS induction, characteristic of the ΔseqA mutants. We also found that co-lethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal replication, suggesting that LPS phosphorylation stimulates replication initiation. The rfaQGP suppression of the seqA recA lethality provides genetic support for the surprising physical evidence that the oriC DNA forms complexes with the outer membrane. PMID:19432803

  10. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break-induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5'-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ(-) mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ(-) cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ(+) cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5.

  11. Let's kōrero (talk): the practice and functions of reminiscing among mothers and children in Māori families.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Neha, Tia

    2015-01-01

    ori adults recall earlier memories than New Zealand European or Chinese adults, highlighting the importance of memory in Māori culture. In this study, Māori preschool children and their mothers (N = 41) reminisced about a diverse range of past events, including everyday events, the child's birth, cultural rituals and the child's misbehaviour. Mothers also reported how frequently they discussed past events with their children, as well as their level of affiliation with Māori culture. Mothers who reported higher levels of cultural affiliation also reported reminiscing more frequently about a diverse range of past events. Mothers reminisced in more elaborative ways about everyday events with their children compared to birth stories, cultural rituals and misbehaviours. Maternal reminiscing about cultural rituals and misbehaviours, however, along with maternal reminiscing about everyday events and birth stories, were significantly correlated with children's memory across conversations. These results underscore the continued importance of reminiscing about culturally relevant events in Māori culture, and the newfound importance for Māori families of reminiscing about everyday events.

  12. Cancer in Māori: lessons from prostate, colorectal and gastric cancer and progress in hereditary stomach cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Blair, Vanessa; Kahokehr, Arman; Sammour, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Persisting ethnic disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes exist between Māori and non-Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It is difficult to disentangle the complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the variation in cancer statistics between these two groups. In Māori, the sites of highest cancer incidence are the prostate in men, breast in women and lung in both - the next most common cancers in Māori are colorectal and stomach cancer. This paper discusses colorectal, prostate and stomach cancer in Māori to illustrate selected issues that impact on cancer care. Colorectal cancer is discussed to illustrate the importance of accurate cancer statistics to focus management strategies. Prostate cancer in Māori is reviewed - an area where cultural factors impact on care delivery. Sporadic stomach cancer in New Zealand is used to show how sub-classification of different types of cancer can be important and illustrate the breadth of putative causal factors. Then follows an overview of developments in hereditary gastric cancer in New Zealand in the last 15 years, showing how successful clinical and research partnerships can improve patient outcomes. One example is the Kimi Hauora Clinic, which provides support to cancer patients, mutation carriers and their families, helping them navigate the interface with the many health-care professionals involved in the multidisciplinary care of cancer patients in the 21st century.

  13. migS, a cis-acting site that affects bipolar positioning of oriC on the Escherichia coli chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Niki, Hironori

    2004-01-01

    During replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome, the replicated Ori domains migrate towards opposite cell poles, suggesting that a cis-acting site for bipolar migration is located in this region. To identify this cis-acting site, a series of mutants was constructed by splitting subchromosomes from the original chromosome. One mutant, containing a 720 kb subchromosome, was found to be defective in the bipolar positioning of oriC. The creation of deletion mutants allowed the identification of migS, a 25 bp sequence, as the cis-acting site for the bipolar positioning of oriC. When migS was located at the replication terminus, the chromosomal segment showed bipolar positioning. migS was able to rescue bipolar migration of plasmid DNA containing a mutation in the SopABC partitioning system. Interestingly, multiple copies of the migS sequence on a plasmid in trans inhibited the bipolar positioning of oriC. Taken together, these findings indicate that migS plays a crucial role in the bipolar positioning of oriC. In addition, real-time analysis of the dynamic morphological changes of nucleoids in wild-type and migS mutants suggests that bipolar positioning of the replicated oriC contributes to nucleoid organization. PMID:14685268

  14. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    SciTech Connect

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet . E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

    2004-10-25

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

  15. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼–¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  16. Cis-element, oriR, involved in the initiation of (-) strand poliovirus RNA: a quasi-globular multi-domain RNA structure maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, E V; Poperechny, K V; Maslova, S V; Melchers, W J; Slot, H J; Agol, V I

    1996-01-01

    The key steps in the replication of the poliovirus genome, initiation of (-) and (+) strands, require two different cis-acting elements, oriR and oriL, respectively. It has been proposed that the spatial organization of these elements is maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions between the loops of two constituent hairpins. Here, the putative partners of the kissing interaction within the oriR of the full-length poliovirus RNA were modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The destabilization of this interaction resulted in a severe suppression of the viral RNA synthesis, but the mutant transcripts proved to be infectious. With a single exception, the potential for the kissing interaction within the oriR of the recovered viruses was partially or completely restored due to either true reversions or second-site compensatory mutations. There was a good correlation between the restoration of this potential and the phenotypic properties of the viruses. It was concluded that the kissing interaction in the poliovirus oriR is functionally important. Using the above experimental data, a three-dimensional structure was derived by molecular modeling techniques, which demonstrated the overall feasibility of the proposed interactions and displayed the poliovirus oriR as a quasi-globular multi-domain structure. Images PMID:8895586

  17. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-feng; Wang, Xiu-zhen; Jin, Meng-ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-ying; Zhao, Zhe-wen; Huang, Wei-jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-dong

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available.

  18. Li3-O-Li3 molecule: a metal-nonmetal-metal sandwichlike compound with a distending electron cloud.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2005-10-22

    The D3d and D2d isomers of the Li3-O-Li3 molecule are metal-nonmetal-metal sandwichlike structures that contain two Li3 superalkali atoms. Their geometries and the real frequencies are obtained at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level. They are different from the traditional types of the nonmetal-metal-nonmetal sandwich compounds. The natural bond orbital calculation and the topological property nabla2rho(r) calculation indicate that they are typical ionic compounds. In two isomers, the O2- anion is sandwiched in between two Li3+ cation rings. However, the different orientations of two Li3+ planes give the D3d isomer its own special characteristics. Under the action of the O2- anion in the center, the valence electrons of the D3d isomer are pushed out from two Li3+ triangle rings. This special interaction causes three phenomena. First, the valence electron clouds are distended. Second, the vertical ionization energy of the D3d isomer is considerably low, 4.39 eV, so that it may also be viewed as a superalkali atom. Third, we find that the D3d isomer owns the out-of-plane aromaticity and the largest negative nucleus-independent chemical shift value (-10.8 ppm) exists at 2.5 A above the center of the Li3+ ring, not at the center of the Li3+ ring like the isolated aromatic Li3+ cation.

  19. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Jin, Meng-Ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-Ying; Zhao, Zhe-Wen; Huang, Wei-Jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available. PMID:26465131

  20. An investigation of spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration induced by a bay bridge based on Landsat TM and OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, LiNa; Tang, DanLing; Li, CongYing

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) induced by Hangzhou Bay Bridge (HBB) in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and in-situ measurements, spectral characteristics of waters in Hangzhou Bay and SSC retrieved from near infrared single band have been analyzed. The results revealed significant difference of SSC in the water on two sides of HBB. SSC increases downstream of the bridge under conditions of low turbidity (SSC < 300 mg l-1) upstream water, while SSC decreases when high turbidity water (SSC > 400 mg l-1) upstream. This study shows that the interaction of bridge piers and currents has important influences on SSC distribution by inducing hydrodynamic factors and by changing suspended sediment transport. Remotely sensed data with high spatial resolution as TM and OLI can be applied to investigate SSC variations induced by a bridge in the bay area.

  1. Estimation of Lake Water Temperature with ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS Thermal Infrared Bands: A Case Study Beysehir Lake (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    Beyşehir Lake is the largest fresh water lake in our country with the 653 km2 surface area. Lake water have used for drinking water of several settlements in the basin. Beyşehir Lake is a shallow lake and, especially in recent years its water level was dropped due to unplanned usage and effects of climate change.In this study, determination of the water temperature in Lake Beyşehir is aimed using 90m resolution thermal infrared bands of ASTER (Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite and 30m resolution thermal infrared bands of Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite. The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied to ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite images to determine lake surface area. Accordingly, the lake water temperature is generally proportional to the depth and it relatively higher in the shallow area.

  2. Whakawhanaungatanga: the importance of culturally meaningful connections to improve uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Levack, William MM; Jones, Bernadette; Grainger, Rebecca; Boland, Pauline; Brown, Melanie; Ingham, Tristram R

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation is known to improve function and quality of life for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little research has been conducted on the influence of culture on experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study examined factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD in New Zealand. Method Grounded theory nested within kaupapa Māori methodology. Transcripts were analyzed from interviews and focus groups with 15 Māori and ten New Zealand non-Māori invited to attend pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD. Māori participants had either attended a mainstream hospital-based program, a community-based program designed “by Māori, for Māori”, or had experienced both. Results Several factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation were common to all participants regardless of ethnicity: 1) participants’ past experiences (eg, of exercise; of health care systems), 2) attitudes and expectations, 3) access issues (eg, time, transport, and conflicting responsibilities), and 4) initial program experiences. These factors were moderated by the involvement of family and peers, interactions with health professionals, the way information on programs was presented, and by new illness events. For Māori, however, several additional factors were also identified relating to cultural experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. In particular, Māori participants placed high value on whakawhanaungatanga: the making of culturally meaningful connections with others. Culturally appropriate communication and relationship building was deemed so important by some Māori participants that when it was absent, they felt strongly discouraged to attend pulmonary rehabilitation. Only the more holistic services offered a program in which they felt culturally safe and to which they were willing to return for ongoing rehabilitation. Conclusion Lack of attention to cultural factors in the delivery of

  3. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1. I. The Low-Mass Population of Ori OB1a and 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Hernández, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Hartmann, Lee; Downes, J. J.; Berlind, Perry

    2005-02-01

    We present results of a large-scale, multiepoch optical survey of the Orion OB1 association, carried out with the QUEST camera at the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory. We identify for the first time the widely spread low-mass, young population in the Ori OB1a and OB1b subassociations. Candidate members were picked up by their variability in the V band and position in color-magnitude diagrams. We obtained spectra to confirm membership. In a region spanning ~68 deg2, we found 197 new young stars; of these, 56 are located in the Ori OB1a subassociation and 141 in Ori OB1b. The spatial distribution of the low-mass young stars is spatially coincident with that of the high-mass members but suggests a much sharper edge to the association. Comparison with the spatial extent of molecular gas and extinction maps indicates that the subassociation Ori OB1b is concentrated within a ringlike structure of radius ~2°(~15 pc at 440 pc), centered roughly on the star ɛ Ori in the Orion belt. The ring is apparent in 13CO and corresponds to a region with an extinction AV>=1. The stars exhibiting strong Hα emission, an indicator of active accretion, are found along this ring, whereas the center is populated with weak Hα-emitting stars. In contrast, Ori OB1a is located in a region devoid of gas and dust. We identify a grouping of stars within a ~3 deg2 area located in Ori OB1a, roughly clustered around the B2 star 25 Ori. The Herbig Ae/Be star V346 Ori is also associated with this grouping, which could be an older analog of σ Ori. Using several sets of evolutionary tracks, we find an age of 7-10 Myr for Ori OB1a and of ~4-6 Myr for Ori OB1b, consistent with previous estimates from OB stars. Indicators such as the equivalent width of Hα and near-IR excesses show that the number of accreting low-mass stars decreases sharply between Ori OB1b and Ori OB1a. These results indicate that although a substantial fraction of accreting disks remain at ages ~5 Myr, inner disks are

  4. A fresh perspective on comparing the FDA and the CHMP/EMA: approval of antineoplastic tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R; Roberts, Samantha A; Shah, Devron R

    2013-09-01

    We compared and determined the reasons for any differences in the review and approval times of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European EMA/CHMP. Applications for these novel cancer drugs were submitted to them within a mean of 31.2 days of each other, providing a fair basis for comparison. The FDA had granted priority review to 12 TKIs but the EMA/CHMP did not grant the equivalent accelerated assessment to any. The FDA granted accelerated approvals to six (38%) and CHMP granted (the equivalent) conditional approvals to four (29%) of these agents. On average, the review and approval times were 205.3 days in the US compared with 409.6 days in the European Union (EU). The active review times, however, were comparable (225.4 days in the EU and 205.3 days in the US). Since oncology drug development lasts about 7 years, the 20 days difference in review times between the two agencies is inconsequential. Clock stops during review and the time required to issue an approval had added the extra 184.2 days to review time in the EU. We suggest possible solutions to expedite the EU review and approval processes. However, post-marketing emergence of adverse efficacy and safety data on gefitinib and lapatinib, respectively, indicate potential risks of expedited approvals. We challenge the widely prevalent myth that early approval translates into early access or beneficial impact on public health. Both the agencies collaborate closely but conduct independent assessments and make decisions based on distinct legislation, procedures, precedents and societal expectations.

  5. Multiscale object-based drought monitoring and comparison in rainfed and irrigated agriculture from Landsat 8 OLI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozelkan, Emre; Chen, Gang; Ustundag, Burak Berk

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a rapidly rising environmental issue that can cause hardly repaired or unrepaired damages to the nature and socio-economy. This is especially true for a region that features arid/semi-arid climate, including the Turkey's most important agricultural district - Southeast Anatolia. In this area, we examined the uncertainties of applying Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) NDVI data to estimate meteorological drought - Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) - measured from 31 in-situ agro-meteorological monitoring stations during spring and summer of 2013 and 2014. Our analysis was designed to address two important, yet under-examined questions: (i) how does the co-existence of rainfed and irrigated agriculture affect remote sensing drought monitoring in an arid/semi-arid region? (ii) What is the role of spatial scale in drought monitoring using a GEOBIA (geographic object-based image analysis) framework? Results show that spatial scale exerted a higher impact on drought monitoring especially in the drier year 2013, during which small scales were found to outperform large scales in general. In addition, consideration of irrigated and rainfed areas separately ensured a better performance in drought analysis. Compared to the positive correlations between SPI and NDVI over the rainfed areas, negative correlations were determined over the irrigated agricultural areas. Finally, the time lag effect was evident in the study, i.e., strong correlations between spring SPI and summer NDVI in both 2013 and 2014. This reflects the fact that spring watering is crucial for the growth and yield of the major crops (i.e., winter wheat, barley and lentil) cultivated in the region.

  6. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  7. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  8. Investigation of the behaviour of the eruptive young stellar object V1647 Ori since its outburst in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, V.

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive low mass pre-main sequence star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. The object has undergone two outbursts in the recent years - first in November 2003 and the second in mid 2008. While the first outburst lasted for about 2 years before it briefly recovered to its quiescent state, the object is still active since its second eruption in 2008. The nature of the V1647 ori outburst and its similarity with other pre-main sequence eruptive objects, namely FUors and EXors, are still debated. Both types of outburst are thought to be driven by a sudden increase of accretion through a circumstellar disk that feeds through a circumstellar envelope. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations in the near-IR(NIR) JHK bands were being made at Mt. Abu observatory using NICS and NICMOS. The NIR observations taken on several occasions during 2008 to 2012 show mean values of brightness in J, H and K bands of 10.82(sigma=0.146), 9.02(0.189) and 7.58(0.234) mags respectively. During the period, occasional brightening or fading by about 2-3 sigma was also noticed which can be attributed to disk accretion rate variations. The NIR spectra obtained in the K band showed Brackett gamma in emission with non-systematic variability. Our observations indicate slight fading out of V1647 ori during the early part of 2012. Modelling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in visible to sub-mm region (compiled from archival data) suggests increased disk mass accretion rate as compared to its quiescent state. The model parameters are in good agreement with those derived from observations. These results will be discussed in detail.

  9. The Proximity of Ribosomal Protein Genes to oriC Enhances Vibrio cholerae Fitness in the Absence of Multifork Replication

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Timmermans, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent works suggest that bacterial gene order links chromosome structure to cell homeostasis. Comparative genomics showed that, in fast-growing bacteria, ribosomal protein genes (RP) locate near the replication origin (oriC). We recently showed that Vibrio cholerae employs this positional bias as a growth optimization strategy: under fast-growth conditions, multifork replication increases RP dosage and expression. However, RP location may provide advantages in a dosage-independent manner: for example, the physical proximity of the many ribosomal components, in the context of a crowded cytoplasm, may favor ribosome biogenesis. To uncover putative dosage-independent effects, we studied isogenic V. cholerae derivatives in which the major RP locus, S10-spc-α (S10), was relocated to alternative genomic positions. When bacteria grew fast, bacterial fitness was reduced according to the S10 relative distance to oriC. The growth of wild-type V. cholerae could not be improved by additional copies of the locus, suggesting a physiologically optimized genomic location. Slow growth is expected to uncouple RP position from dosage, since multifork replication does not occur. Under these conditions, we detected a fitness impairment when S10 was far from oriC. Deep sequencing followed by marker frequency analysis in the absence of multifork replication revealed an up to 30% S10 dosage reduction associated with its relocation that closely correlated with fitness alterations. Hence, the impact of S10 location goes beyond a growth optimization strategy during feast periods. RP location may be important during the whole life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28246358

  10. FUENTES Infrarrojas EN 2.2 lim EN la Region Asociada AL GLOBULO ORI-1-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ramos, M. P.

    1987-05-01

    Se ha mapeado en el cercano infrarrojo a 2.2 micras, una región de 2 x 5 minutos de arco asociada al glóbulo ORI-I-2. Se ha detectado emisión infrarroja de fuentes puntuales y emisión extendida de bajo brillo superficial. Se discute la asociación de fuentes de 2.2 micras con la emisión detectada en IRAS y en moléculas de radio frecuencias.

  11. Ability of LANDSAT-8 Oli Derived Texture Metrics in Estimating Aboveground Carbon Stocks of Coppice Oak Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, A.; Sohrabi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The role of forests as a reservoir for carbon has prompted the need for timely and reliable estimation of aboveground carbon stocks. Since measurement of aboveground carbon stocks of forests is a destructive, costly and time-consuming activity, aerial and satellite remote sensing techniques have gained many attentions in this field. Despite the fact that using aerial data for predicting aboveground carbon stocks has been proved as a highly accurate method, there are challenges related to high acquisition costs, small area coverage, and limited availability of these data. These challenges are more critical for non-commercial forests located in low-income countries. Landsat program provides repetitive acquisition of high-resolution multispectral data, which are freely available. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of multispectral Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) derived texture metrics in quantifying aboveground carbon stocks of coppice Oak forests in Zagros Mountains, Iran. We used four different window sizes (3×3, 5×5, 7×7, and 9×9), and four different offsets ([0,1], [1,1], [1,0], and [1,-1]) to derive nine texture metrics (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, dissimilar, entropy, homogeneity, inverse difference, mean, and variance) from four bands (blue, green, red, and infrared). Totally, 124 sample plots in two different forests were measured and carbon was calculated using species-specific allometric models. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate biomass from derived metrics. Results showed that, in general, larger size of window for deriving texture metrics resulted models with better fitting parameters. In addition, the correlation of the spectral bands for deriving texture metrics in regression models was ranked as b4>b3>b2>b5. The best offset was [1,-1]. Amongst the different metrics, mean and entropy were entered in most of the regression models. Overall, different models based on derived texture metrics

  12. X-Raying the Beating Heart of a Newborn Star: Rotational Modulation of High-Energy Radiation from V1647 Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael; Petre, Robert; Teets, William K.; Principe, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a periodicity of approx.1 day in the highly elevated X-ray emission from the protostar V1647 Ori during its two recent multiple-year outbursts of mass accretion. This periodicity is indicative of protostellar rotation at near-breakup speed. Modeling of the phased X-ray light curve indicates the high-temperature ( 50 MK), X-ray-emitting plasma, which is most likely heated by accretion-induced magnetic reconnection, resides in dense ( 5 1010 cm.3), pancake-shaped magnetic footprints where the accretion stream feeds the newborn star. The sustained X-ray periodicity of V1647 Ori demonstrates that such protostellar magnetospheric accretion configurations can be stable over timescales of years. Subject headings: stars: formation stars: individual (V1647 Ori) stars: pre-main sequence X-rays: stars

  13. An origin of transfer (oriT) on the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3.

    PubMed

    Mills, D A; Phister, T G; Dunny, G M; McKay, L L

    1998-04-01

    Previous analysis of the Tra1 region of the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 suggested that an origin of transfer (oriT) was present. Deletion derivatives of this cloned Tra1 region were assayed for mobilization in the presence of the wild-type pRS01 element in trans. The pRS01 oriT was localized to a 446-nucleotide segment in the intergenic region between open reading frames ltrD and ltrE. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a cluster of direct and inverted repeat structures characteristic of oriT regions associated with other conjugative systems.

  14. First BVR light curves and preliminary results of a recently discovered W UMa-type binary: V1848 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Poojon, P.

    2014-04-01

    First complete photometric light curves of a recently discovered contact binary, V1848 Ori, are presented. BVR imaging data were used to derive photometric solutions, using Wilson-Devinney code. We discovered that this system is a weak-contact binary, with a fillout factor of f = 13.14%(±1.44%). Preliminary results showed that V1848 Ori is an A-type W UMa system, with a mass ratio of q = 0.7615. The more massive component was found about 400 K hotter than the other one. This system has varied from W-type to A-type during the last decade. According to the preliminary physical parameters, the weak-contact configuration of this system, with the mass ratio close to unity, and no sign of long-term orbital period change yet, is unlikely to be broken. The contact configuration is expected to be maintained and become deeper or not, depending on effect of the AML mechanism.

  15. Scientific considerations concerning the EMA change in the definition of "dose" of the BCS-based biowaiver guideline and implications for bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Daousani, Chrysa; Macheras, Panos

    2015-01-30

    This work discusses the scientific aspects of the definition of dose as the 'highest single oral IR dose' recommended for administration in the SmPC (summary of product characteristics) in the current European Medicines Agency (EMA) 2010 Guideline, for the purpose of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS)-based biowaiver decision making. Analysis of theoretical and experimental data dealing with drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic drug classification reveals that the drug dose is an important parameter for both drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic classification. The relevant implications for the dose considerations in bioequivalence studies are also discussed briefly. It is suggested that the concept of "the highest single dose oral IR dose recommended for administration in the SmPC" of the EMA 2010 Guideline be abolished. It is advisable, each dose strength be considered separately i.e., whether or not it meets the solubility-dissolution regulatory criteria.

  16. Identification of Bile Duct Paucity in Alagille Syndrome: Using CK7 and EMA Immunohistochemistry as a Reliable Panel for Accurate Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herman, Haley K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Caltharp, Shelley; Metry, Diana; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Romero, Rene; Gillespie, Scott E; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct paucity is the absence or marked reduction in the number of interlobular bile ducts (ILBD) within portal tracts. Its syndromic variant, Alagille syndrome (ALGS), is a multisystem disorder with effects on the liver, cardiovascular system, skeleton, face, and eyes. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait due to defects in NOTCH signaling pathway. ALGS is characterized by vanishing ILBD with subsequent chronic obstructive cholestasis in approximately 89% of cases. Cholestasis stimulates formation of new bile ductules through a process of neoductular reaction, making it difficult to evaluate the presence or absence of ILBD. Therefore, finding a method to differentiate clearly between ILBD and the ductular proliferation is essential for accurate diagnosis. A database search identified 28 patients with confirmed diagnosis of ALGS between 1992 and 2014. Additionally, 7 controls were used. A panel of two immunostains, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), was performed. CK7 highlighted the bile duct epithelium of ILBD and ductular proliferation, while EMA stained only the brush border of ILBD. In our ALGS group, the ratio of EMA-positive ILBD to identified portal tracts was 12.6% (range, 0%-41%). However, this same ratio was 95.0% (range, 90%-100%) among control cases (P < 0.001). We propose a panel of two immunostains, CK7 and EMA, to differentiate ILBD from ductular proliferation in patients with cholestasis. With this panel, identification of bile duct paucity can be achieved. Additional studies, including molecular confirmation and clinical correlation, would provide a definitive diagnosis of ALGS.

  17. Evaluation of Crack Arrest Fracture Toughness of Parent Plate, Weld Metal and Heat Affected Zone of BIS 812 EMA Ship Plate Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    34- EVALUATION OF CRACK ARREST FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF PARENT PLATE, WELD METAL 0 AND HEAT AFFECTED ZONE OF BIS 812 EMA SHIP PLATE STEEL IA BURCH MRL-TR...had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel . Tests on each of these regions revealed that, far the combination of...fracture toughness assessment is not a requirement for qualification for this steel , crack arrest fracture toughness, Kj, can be used to • 0 characterise the

  18. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  19. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s-1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ˜190 R near the center to ˜10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ˜0.5 to ˜1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s-1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from this

  20. Electromyographic analysis of upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals, in mandibular rest position, compared to hearers.

    PubMed

    Regalo, S C H; Vitti, M; Hallak, J E C; Siéssere, S; Pagnano, V O; Semprini, M

    2006-01-01

    This study had the aim to analyze electromyographically, the upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in bilingual, oralist deaf individuals, comparing them with clinically healthy volunteers in mandibular rest position. This was performed in 50 patients of both sexes with an average age of 18.5 years, divided into 4 groups. 1. Ten deaf bilingual, nasal-breathing patients; 2. Ten deaf bilingual, buccal-breathing patients; 3. Ten deaf oralist, nasal-breathing patients; 4. Twenty healthy volunteers, nasal-breathing patients. An electromyograph K6-I EMG Light Channel Surface Electromyography (Myo-tronics Co. Seattle, WA, EUA) of eight channels was used. The electrodes applied were duotrodes, silver-chloride surface, disposable. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 10.0 (Chicago, IL). Continuos data with normal distribution were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was set at alpha= 0.01. Comparing the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle made it possible to verify that, during clinical mandibular rest position, all four groups presented various levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity with statistically significant differences (F = 8.81, p < 0.01). Based this study's data, it was possible to conclude that the electromyography analysis of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals showed that deaf individuals presented higher levels of EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle than normal controls during mandibular rest position.

  1. Spectroscopy of the M Supergiant α Ori in the 1 2.5 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Martin; Wahlgren, Glenn

    The study of elemental abundances in cool stars via atomic lines in the optical region is made di.cult by stellar molecular absorption. At infrared wavelengths this problem is diminished, but ground-based observations suffer from absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. Fortunately, there are spectral windows through which we can observe. We have explored several such windows in the spectral region from 1 2.5 μm, coinciding with the wavelength domain of the new VLT instrument CRIRES, for atomic lines suitable for the study of cool luminous stars, in particular α Ori (M2Iab). We present preliminary results from this search along with our first results on abundances of iron and the weak s-process elements Sr, Y, Zr.

  2. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF V2775 Ori, AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR IN L 1641: EXPLORING THE EDGE OF THE FU ORIONIS REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Kounkel, Marina; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Stanke, Thomas; Osorio, Mayra; Wilson, T. L.

    2012-09-01

    Individual outbursting young stars are important laboratories for studying the physics of episodic accretion and the extent to which this phenomenon can explain the luminosity distribution of protostars. We present new and archival data for V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a protostar in the L 1641 region of the Orion molecular clouds that was discovered by Caratti o Garatti et al. to have recently undergone an order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity. Our near-infrared spectra of the source have strong blueshifted He I {lambda}10830 absorption, strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption, and no H I emission, all typical of FU Orionis sources. With data from the Infrared Telescope Facility, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment that span from 1 to 70 {mu}m pre-outburst and from 1 to 870 {mu}m post-outburst, we estimate that the outburst began between 2005 April and 2007 March. We also model the pre- and post-outburst spectral energy distributions of the source, finding it to be in the late stages of accreting its envelope with a disk-to-star accretion rate that increased from {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} to {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} during the outburst. The post-outburst luminosity at the epoch of the FU Orionis-like near-IR spectra is 28 L{sub Sun }, making V2775 Ori the least luminous documented FU Orionis outburster with a protostellar envelope. The existence of low-luminosity outbursts supports the notion that a range of episiodic accretion phenomena can partially explain the observed spread in protostellar luminosities.

  3. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity.

  4. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  5. Revisiting the rigidly rotating magnetosphere model for σ Ori E - II. Magnetic Doppler imaging, arbitrary field RRM, and light variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kochukhov, O.; Krtička, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Prvák, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Silvester, J.; Owocki, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    The initial success of the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model application to the B2Vp star σ Ori E by Townsend, Owocki & Groote triggered a renewed era of observational monitoring of this archetypal object. We utilize high-resolution spectropolarimetry and the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) technique to simultaneously determine the magnetic configuration, which is predominately dipolar, with a polar strength Bd = 7.3-7.8 kG and a smaller non-axisymmetric quadrupolar contribution, as well as the surface distribution of abundance of He, Fe, C, and Si. We describe a revised RRM model that now accepts an arbitrary surface magnetic field configuration, with the field topology from the MDI models used as input. The resulting synthetic H α emission and broad-band photometric observations generally agree with observations, however, several features are poorly fit. To explore the possibility of a photospheric contribution to the observed photometric variability, the MDI abundance maps were used to compute a synthetic photospheric light curve to determine the effect of the surface inhomogeneities. Including the computed photospheric brightness modulation fails to improve the agreement between the observed and computed photometry. We conclude that the discrepancies cannot be explained as an effect of inhomogeneous surface abundance. Analysis of the UV light variability shows good agreement between observed variability and computed light curves, supporting the accuracy of the photospheric light variation calculation. We thus conclude that significant additional physics is necessary for the RRM model to acceptably reproduce observations of not only σ Ori E, but also other similar stars with significant stellar wind-magnetic field interactions.

  6. Mobilization of Chimeric oriT Plasmids by F and R100-1: Role of Relaxosome Formation in Defining Plasmid Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Richard A.; Frost, Laura S.

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage at the F plasmid nic site within the origin of transfer (oriT) requires the F-encoded proteins TraY and TraI and the host-encoded protein integration host factor in vitro. We confirm that F TraY, but not F TraM, is required for cleavage at nic in vivo. Chimeric plasmids were constructed which contained either the entire F or R100-1 oriT regions or various combinations of nic, TraY, and TraM binding sites, in addition to the traM gene. The efficiency of cleavage at nic and the frequency of mobilization were assayed in the presence of F or R100-1 plasmids. The ability of these chimeric plasmids to complement an F traM mutant or affect F transfer via negative dominance was also measured using transfer efficiency assays. In cases where cleavage at nic was detected, R100-1 TraI was not sensitive to the two-base difference in sequence immediately downstream of nic, while F TraI was specific for the F sequence. Plasmid transfer was detected only when TraM was able to bind to its cognate sites within oriT. High-affinity binding of TraY in cis to oriT allowed detection of cleavage at nic but was not required for efficient mobilization. Taken together, our results suggest that stable relaxosomes, consisting of TraI, -M, and -Y bound to oriT are preferentially targeted to the transfer apparatus (transferosome). PMID:10869081

  7. A Functional oriT in the Ptw Plasmid of Burkholderia cenocepacia Can Be Recognized by the R388 Relaxase TrwC

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Esther; Bakioui, Sawsane; Gomes, Margarida C.; O'Callaghan, David; Vergunst, Annette C.; Sangari, Félix J.; Llosa, Matxalen

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is both a plant pathogen and the cause of serious opportunistic infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia K56-2 harbors a native plasmid named Ptw for its involvement in the Plant Tissue Watersoaking phenotype. Ptw has also been reported to be important for survival in human cells. Interestingly, the presence of PtwC, a homolog of the conjugative relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388, suggests a possible function for Ptw in conjugative DNA transfer. The ptw region includes Type IV Secretion System genes related to those of the F plasmid. However, genes in the adjacent region shared stronger homology with the R388 genes involved in conjugative DNA metabolism. This region included the putative relaxase ptwC, a putative coupling protein and accessory nicking protein, and a DNA segment with high number of inverted repeats and elevated AT content, suggesting a possible oriT. Although we were unable to detect conjugative transfer of the Ptw resident plasmid, we detected conjugal mobilization of a co-resident plasmid containing the ptw region homologous to R388, demonstrating the cloned ptw region contains an oriT. A similar plasmid lacking ptwC could not be mobilized, suggesting that the putative relaxase PtwC must act in cis on its oriT. Remarkably, we also detected mobilization of a plasmid containing the Ptw oriT by the R388 relaxase TrwC, yet we could not detect PtwC-mediated mobilization of an R388 oriT-containing plasmid. Our data unambiguously show that the Ptw plasmid harbors DNA transfer functions, and suggests the Ptw plasmid may play a dual role in horizontal DNA transfer and eukaryotic infection. PMID:27200362

  8. Li+ ion transport studies in Li2O-Li2SO4-ZnO-B2O3 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavekar, Sangeeta B.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Ayachit, N. H.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2013-06-01

    Li+ ion transport studies have been carried in Li2O-Li2SO4-ZnO-B2O3 glass system. Electrical conductivity has been measured out over a wide range of temperature (450K-500K) and frequencies (40 Hz - 10 MHz). The dc conductivities show Arrhenius behavior and show compositional dependence. The ac conductivity behavior has been analyzed using Almond-West power law using a single exponent. The exponent `s' obtained from the power law fits is found to have values ranging from 0.36 - 0.45 in these glasses and shows temperature dependence, which is attributed to high degree of modification in the glass network.

  9. Performance evaluation of object based greenhouse detection from Sentinel-2 MSI and Landsat 8 OLI data: A case study from Almería (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, Antonio; Aguilar, Manuel A.; Nemmaoui, Abderrahim; Aguilar, Fernando J.; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-10-01

    This paper shows the first comparison between data from Sentinel-2 (S2) Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) and Landsat 8 (L8) Operational Land Imager (OLI) headed up to greenhouse detection. Two closely related in time scenes, one for each sensor, were classified by using Object Based Image Analysis and Random Forest (RF). The RF input consisted of several object-based features computed from spectral bands and including mean values, spectral indices and textural features. S2 and L8 data comparisons were also extended using a common segmentation dataset extracted form VHR World-View 2 (WV2) imagery to test differences only due to their specific spectral contribution. The best band combinations to perform segmentation were found through a modified version of the Euclidian Distance 2 index. Four different RF classifications schemes were considered achieving 89.1%, 91.3%, 90.9% and 93.4% as the best overall accuracies respectively, evaluated over the whole study area.

  10. Excellence in Family Paediatricians: the FIMP-MCRN (Medicines for Children Research Network) becomes a member of ENPR-EMA (European Network of Paediatric Research at the European Medicines Agency).

    PubMed

    Napoleone, Ettore

    2011-01-19

    One of the objectives of the Paediatric Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006, is to foster high quality ethical research on medicinal products to be used in children. To achieve this objective, the EMA is responsible for developing a European paediatric network of existing national and European networks and centres with specific expertise in research and clinical trials relating to paediatric medicines. The purpose of this article is to disseminate knowledge of the structure and goals of ENPR-EMA and to highlight the cultural and organizational difficulties for its implementation.Following the publication of research quality requirements, a set of recognition criteria, which have to be fulfilled to become a member of ENPR-EMA were agreed. So far, 32 networks and centres (of 62 identified networks) submitted self-assessment reports indicating whether or not they fulfill the agreed minimum criteria. Sixteen networks (26% of 62 identified networks) fulfilled all minimum criteria and became therefore members of ENPR-EMA. The Family Paediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network (FIMP-MCRN), established with the aim of developing competence, infrastructure, networking and education for paediatric clinical trials, became member of the ENPR-EMA responding satisfactorily to all the points of the self-assessment report.

  11. Mapping paddy rice planting area in cold temperate climate region through analysis of time series Landsat 8 (OLI), Landsat 7 (ETM+) and MODIS imagery.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuting; Zhu, Zhe; Zhang, Geli; Du, Guoming; Jin, Cui; Kou, Weili; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2015-07-01

    Accurate and timely rice paddy field maps with a fine spatial resolution would greatly improve our understanding of the effects of paddy rice agriculture on greenhouse gases emissions, food and water security, and human health. Rice paddy field maps were developed using optical images with high temporal resolution and coarse spatial resolution (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) or low temporal resolution and high spatial resolution (e.g., Landsat TM/ETM+). In the past, the accuracy and efficiency for rice paddy field mapping at fine spatial resolutions were limited by the poor data availability and image-based algorithms. In this paper, time series MODIS and Landsat ETM+/OLI images, and the pixel- and phenology-based algorithm are used to map paddy rice planting area. The unique physical features of rice paddy fields during the flooding/open-canopy period are captured with the dynamics of vegetation indices, which are then used to identify rice paddy fields. The algorithm is tested in the Sanjiang Plain (path/row 114/27) in China in 2013. The overall accuracy of the resulted map of paddy rice planting area generated by both Landsat ETM+ and OLI is 97.3%, when evaluated with areas of interest (AOIs) derived from geo-referenced field photos. The paddy rice planting area map also agrees reasonably well with the official statistics at the level of state farms (R(2) = 0.94). These results demonstrate that the combination of fine spatial resolution images and the phenology-based algorithm can provide a simple, robust, and automated approach to map the distribution of paddy rice agriculture in a year.

  12. Mapping paddy rice planting area in cold temperate climate region through analysis of time series Landsat 8 (OLI), Landsat 7 (ETM+) and MODIS imagery

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuting; Zhu, Zhe; Zhang, Geli; Du, Guoming; Jin, Cui; Kou, Weili; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and timely rice paddy field maps with a fine spatial resolution would greatly improve our understanding of the effects of paddy rice agriculture on greenhouse gases emissions, food and water security, and human health. Rice paddy field maps were developed using optical images with high temporal resolution and coarse spatial resolution (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) or low temporal resolution and high spatial resolution (e.g., Landsat TM/ETM+). In the past, the accuracy and efficiency for rice paddy field mapping at fine spatial resolutions were limited by the poor data availability and image-based algorithms. In this paper, time series MODIS and Landsat ETM+/OLI images, and the pixel- and phenology-based algorithm are used to map paddy rice planting area. The unique physical features of rice paddy fields during the flooding/open-canopy period are captured with the dynamics of vegetation indices, which are then used to identify rice paddy fields. The algorithm is tested in the Sanjiang Plain (path/row 114/27) in China in 2013. The overall accuracy of the resulted map of paddy rice planting area generated by both Landsat ETM+ and OLI is 97.3%, when evaluated with areas of interest (AOIs) derived from geo-referenced field photos. The paddy rice planting area map also agrees reasonably well with the official statistics at the level of state farms (R2 = 0.94). These results demonstrate that the combination of fine spatial resolution images and the phenology-based algorithm can provide a simple, robust, and automated approach to map the distribution of paddy rice agriculture in a year. PMID:27695195

  13. Quantifying biomass consumption and carbon release from the California Rim fire by integrating airborne LiDAR and Landsat OLI data

    PubMed Central

    Saatchi, Sassan; Casas, Angeles; Koltunov, Alexander; Ustin, Susan; Ramirez, Carlos; Garcia‐Gutierrez, Jorge; Balzter, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Quantifying biomass consumption and carbon release is critical to understanding the role of fires in the carbon cycle and air quality. We present a methodology to estimate the biomass consumed and the carbon released by the California Rim fire by integrating postfire airborne LiDAR and multitemporal Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery. First, a support vector regression (SVR) model was trained to estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB) from LiDAR‐derived metrics over the unburned area. The selected model estimated AGB with an R 2 of 0.82 and RMSE of 59.98 Mg/ha. Second, LiDAR‐based biomass estimates were extrapolated to the entire area before and after the fire, using Landsat OLI reflectance bands, Normalized Difference Infrared Index, and the elevation derived from LiDAR data. The extrapolation was performed using SVR models that resulted in R 2 of 0.73 and 0.79 and RMSE of 87.18 (Mg/ha) and 75.43 (Mg/ha) for the postfire and prefire images, respectively. After removing bias from the AGB extrapolations using a linear relationship between estimated and observed values, we estimated the biomass consumption from postfire LiDAR and prefire Landsat maps to be 6.58 ± 0.03 Tg (1012 g), which translate into 12.06 ± 0.06 Tg CO2e released to the atmosphere, equivalent to the annual emissions of 2.57 million cars.

  14. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration and the Trophic State of the Barra Bonita Hydroelectric Reservoir Using OLI/Landsat-8 Images

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino; Alcântara, Enner; Rodrigues, Thanan Walesza Pequeno; Imai, Nilton Nobuhiro; Barbosa, Cláudio Clemente Faria; Rotta, Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial environments built by humans, and the impacts of these environments are not completely known. Retention time and high nutrient availability in the water increases the eutrophic level. Eutrophication is directly correlated to primary productivity by phytoplankton. These organisms have an important role in the environment. However, high concentrations of determined species can lead to public health problems. Species of cyanobacteria produce toxins that in determined concentrations can cause serious diseases in the liver and nervous system, which could lead to death. Phytoplankton has photoactive pigments that can be used to identify these toxins. Thus, remote sensing data is a viable alternative for mapping these pigments, and consequently, the trophic. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is present in all phytoplankton species. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of images of the sensor Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat-8 satellite in determining Chl-a concentrations and estimating the trophic level in a tropical reservoir. Empirical models were fitted using data from two field surveys conducted in May and October 2014 (Austral Autumn and Austral Spring, respectively). Models were applied in a temporal series of OLI images from May 2013 to October 2014. The estimated Chl-a concentration was used to classify the trophic level from a trophic state index that adopted the concentration of this pigment-like parameter. The models of Chl-a concentration showed reasonable results, but their performance was likely impaired by the atmospheric correction. Consequently, the trophic level classification also did not obtain better results. PMID:26322489

  15. EMA-qPCR to monitor the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing Legionella contamination of roof-harvested rainwater.

    PubMed

    Reyneke, B; Dobrowsky, P H; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2016-05-15

    Solar pasteurization is effective in reducing the level of indicator organisms in stored rainwater to within drinking water standards. However, Legionella spp. were detected at temperatures exceeding the recommended pasteurization temperatures using polymerase chain reaction assays. The aim of the current study was thus to apply EMA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) to determine whether the Legionella spp. detected were intact cells and therefore possibly viable at pasteurization temperatures >70°C. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay was also used to detect the presence of ATP in the tested samples, as ATP indicates the presence of metabolically active cells. Chemical analysis also indicated that all anions and cations were within the respective drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron (mean: 186.76 μg/L) and aluminium (mean: 188.13 μg/L), which were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples at levels exceeding recommended guidelines. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay indicated the presence of viable cells for all pasteurized temperatures tested, with the percentage of ATP (in the form of relative light units) decreasing with increasing temperature [70-79°C (96.7%); 80- 89°C (99.2%); 90-95°C (99.7%)]. EMA-qPCR then indicated that while solar pasteurization significantly reduced (p<0.05) the genomic copy numbers of intact Legionella cells in the pasteurized tank water (~99%), no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean copy numbers was detected with an increase in the pasteurization temperature, with 6 × 10(3) genomic copies/mL DNA sample obtained at 95°C. As intact Legionella cells were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples, quantitative microbial risk assessment studies need to be conducted to determine the potential health risk associated with using the water for domestic purposes.

  16. Reduction of [VO2(ma)2]- and [VO2(ema)2]- by ascorbic acid and glutathione: kinetic studies of pro-drugs for the enhancement of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Aebischer, Nicolas; Orvig, Chris

    2002-03-25

    To shed light on the role of V(V) complexes as pro-drugs for their V(IV) analogues, the kinetics of the reduction reactions of [VO2(ma)2]- or [VO2(ema)2]- (Hma = maltol, Hema = ethylmaltol), with ascorbic acid or glutathione, have been studied in aqueous solution by spectrophotometric and magnetic resonance methods. EPR and 51V NMR studies suggested that the vanadium(V) in each complex was reduced to vanadium(IV) during the reactions. All the reactions studied showed first-order kinetics when the concentration of ascorbic acid or glutathione was in large excess and the observed first-order rate constants have a linear relationship with the concentrations of reductant (ascorbic acid or glutathione). Potentiometric results revealed that the most important species in the neutral pH range is [VO2(L)2]- for the V(V) system where L is either ma- or ema-. An acid dependence mechanism was proposed from kinetic studies with varying pH and varying maltol concentration. The good fits of the second order rate constant versus pH or the total concentration of maltol, and the good agreement of the constants obtained between fittings, strongly supported the mechanism. Under the same conditions, the reaction rate of [VO2(ma)2]- with glutathione is about 2000 times slower than that of [VO2(ma)2]- with ascorbic acid, but an acid dependence mechanism can also be used to explain the results for the reduction with glutathione. Replacing the methyl group in maltol with an ethyl group has little influence on the reduction rate with ascorbic acid, and the kinetics are the same no matter whether [VO2(ma)2]- or [VO2(ema)2]- is reduced.

  17. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-01

    A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)ω7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was

  18. The EXOTIME Monitoring Program Discovers Substellar Companion Candidates around the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, S.; Silvotti, R.; Lutz, R.; Kim, S.-L.; Exotime Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The EXOTIME monitoring program has discovered sub-stellar companion candidates around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn using the timing method. Here we motivate our continuing search, and refer to descriptions of the photometric data collected, the data analysis and the characteristics of the O-C diagrams obtained. We also discuss our on-going efforts to consolidate the candidate discoveries with additional simulations and confirm them with independent methods.

  19. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  20. Regulatory incentives to ensure better medicines for older people: From ICH E7 to the EMA reflection paper on quality aspects.

    PubMed

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Hussain, Nasir; Sundberg, Katarina A E; Eggenschwyler, Doris; Ferris, Cristina; Robert, Jean-Louis; Cerreta, Francesca

    2016-10-30

    Ageing comes with an increased propensity in the alteration of human organ and body functions, which can e.g. result in multi-morbidity, frailty, polypharmacy, altered medication safety and/or efficacy, and problems with the practical use of medicines in a real world setting. Such problems may e.g. involve difficulties opening containers, swallowing large tablets, breaking tablets by hand, or correctly understanding the user instruction. This review aims to summarize the European regulatory activities towards better medicines for older people, with a main focus on formulation development and the overall drug product design. It addresses the ICH E7 guideline "Studies in support of special populations, geriatrics", the ICH Q8 guideline "Pharmaceutical development", the EMA good practice guide on "Risk minimisation and prevention of medication errors" and the forthcoming EMA CHMP QWP reflection paper on the "Quality aspects (pharmaceutical development) of medicines for older people". In addition, three key aspects to the practical use of medicines by older people are discussed in a wider context: multi-particulates including small tablets (also referred to as mini-tablets), ease of opening and storage conditions. Furthermore, attention is paid to work in progress e.g. incentives by the European national drug regulatory authorities, and patient centric drug product development.

  1. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.

  2. The Chandra Delta Ori Large Project: Occultation Measurements of the Shocked Gas tn the Nearest Eclipsing O-Star Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Nichols, Joy; Naze, Yael; Rauw, Gregor; Pollock, Andrew; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Evans, Nancy; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Oskinova, Lida; Hamann, W. -R.; Gull, Ted; Ignace, Rico; Hole, Tabetha; Iping, Rosina; Walborn, Nolan; Hoffman, Jennifer; Lomax, Jamie; Waldron, Wayne; Owocki, Stan; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Leutenegger, Maurice; Hole, Tabetha; Gayley, Ken; Russell, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Delta Ori is the nearest massive, single-lined eclipsing binary (O9.5 II + B0.5III). As such it serves as a fundamental calibrator of the mass-radius-luminosity relation in the upper HR diagram. It is also the only eclipsing O-type binary system which is bright enough to be observable with the CHANDRA gratings in a reasonable exposure. Studies of resolved X-ray line complexes provide tracers of wind mass loss rate and clumpiness; occultation by the X-ray dark companion of the line emitting region can provide direct spatial information on the location of the X-ray emitting gas produced by shocks embedded in the wind of the primary star. We obtained phase-resolved spectra with Chandra in order to determine the level of phase-dependent vs. secular variability in the shocked wind. Along with the Chandra observations we obtained simultaneous photometry from space with the Canadian MOST satellite to help understand the relation between X-ray and photospheric variability.

  3. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    PubMed

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed.

  4. Whakawhiti Kōrero, a Method for the Development of a Cultural Assessment Tool, Te Waka Kuaka, in Māori Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Hinemoa; Kersten, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of tools for the measurement of outcomes and needs in traumatic brain injury is well recognised. The development of tools for these injuries in indigenous communities has been limited despite the well-documented disparity of brain injury. The wairua theory of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Māori proposes that a culturally defined injury occurs in tandem with the physical injury. A cultural response is therefore indicated. This research investigates a Māori method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool designed to further examine needs associated with the culturally determined injury and in preparation for formal validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is a method used to develop better statements in the development of the assessment tool. Four wānanga (traditional fora) were held including one with whānau (extended family) with experience of traumatic brain injury. The approach was well received. A final version, Te Waka Kuaka, is now ready for validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is an indigenous method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool in Māori traumatic brain injury. This method is likely to have wider applicability, such as Mental Health and Addictions Services, to ensure robust process of outcome measure and needs assessment development. PMID:26576070

  5. The past photometric history of the FU Ori-type young eruptive star 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdana-Šepić, Rajka; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-02-01

    The known FU Ori-type young eruptive stars are exceedingly rare (a dozen or so confirmed objects) and 2MASS J06593158-0405277, with its 2014 outburst, is likely the latest addition to the family. All members have displayed just one such eruption in their recorded history, an event lasting for decades. To test the FU Ori nature of 2MASS J06593158-0405277, we have reconstructed its photometric history by measuring its brightness on Harvard photographic plates spanning the time interval 1899-1989. No previous large amplitude eruption similar to that initiated in 2014 has been found, as in bona fide FU Ori-type objects. The median value of the brightness in quiescence of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 is B = 15.5, with the time interval 1935-1950 characterized by a large variability (∼ 1 mag amplitude) that contrasts with the remarkable photometric stability displayed at later epochs. The variability during 1935-1950 can either be ascribed to some T Tau like activity of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 itself or to the also young and fainter star 2MASS J06593168-0405224 that lies 5 arcsec to the North and forms an unresolved pair at the astrometric scale of Harvard photographic plates.

  6. Adhesion of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris in co-culture to machined and anodized titanium surfaces as affected by atmosphere and pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the rising demand for osseointegrated titanium implants for replacing missing teeth, often in patients with a history of periodontitis, implant-related infections have become an issue of growing concern. Novel methods for treating and preventing implant-associated infections are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate if different pH, atmosphere and surface properties could restrict bacterial adhesion to titanium surfaces used in dental implants. Methods Titanium discs with machined or anodized (TiUnite™) surface were incubated with a co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris (early colonizers of oral surfaces) at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at aerobic or anaerobic atmosphere. The adhesion was analysed by counting colony forming (CFU) units on agar and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results The CFU analysis showed that a pH of 5.0 was found to significantly decrease the adhesion of S. mitis, and an aerobic atmosphere, the adhesion of A. oris. S. mitis was found in significantly less amounts on the anodized surface than the machined surface, while A. oris was found in equal amounts on both surfaces. The CLSM analysis confirmed the results from the CFU count and provided additional information on how the two oral commensal species adhered to the surfaces: mainly in dispersed clusters oriented with the groves of the machined surface and the pores of the anodized surface. Conclusions Bacterial adhesion by S. mitis and A. oris can be restricted by acidic pH and aerobic atmosphere. The anodized surface reduced the adhesion of S. mitis compared to the machined surface; while A. oris adhered equally well to the pores of the anodized surface and to the grooves of the machined surface. It is difficult to transfer these results directly into a clinical situation. However, it is worth further investigating these findings from an in vitro perspective, as well as clinically, to gain more knowledge of the effects acid pH and

  7. Automated Classification of Land Cover Using Landsat 8 Oli Surface Reflectance Product and Spectral Pattern Analysis Concept - Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Dinh, Duong

    2016-06-01

    Recently USGS released provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product, which allows conducting land cover mapping over large composed of number of image scenes without necessity of atmospheric correction. In this study, the authors present a new concept for automated classification of land cover. This concept is based on spectral patterns analysis of reflected bands and can be automated using predefined classification rule set constituted of spectral pattern shape, total reflected radiance index (TRRI) and ratios of spectral bands. Given a pixel vector B6 = {b1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6} where b1, b2,...,b6 denote bands 2, 3, ...,7 of OLI sensor respectively. By using the pixel vector B6 we can construct spectral reflectance curve. Each spectral curve is featured by a shape, which can be described in simplified form of an analogue pattern, which is consisted of 15 digits of 0, 1 and 2 showing mutual relative position of spectral vertices. Value of comparison between band i and j is 2 if bj > bi, 1 if bj = bi and 0 if bj < bi. Simplified spectral pattern is defined by 15 digits as m1,2m1,3m1,4m1,5m1,6m2,3m2,4m2,5m2,6m3,4m3,5m3,6m4,5m4,6m5,6 where mi,j is result of comparison of reflectance between bi and bj and has values of 0, 1 and 2. After construction of SSP for each pixel in the input image, the original image will be decomposed to component images, which contain pixels with the same SRCS pattern. The decomposition can be written analytically by equation A = Σnk=1Ck where A stands for original image with 6 spectral bands, n is number of component images decomposed from A and Ck is component image. For this study, we use Landsat 8 OLI reflectance image LC81270452013352LGN00 and LC81270452015182LGN00. For the decomposition, we use only six reflective bands. Each land cover class is defined by SSP code, threshold values for TRRI and band ratios. Automated classification of land cover was realized with 8 classes: forest, shrub, grass, water, wetland, develop land, barren

  8. Noma (cancrum oris): case report in a 4-year-old HIV-positive South African child.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Chikte, U M

    2000-12-01

    Cancrum oris (noma) is a gangrenous infection that develops in the mouth and spreads rapidly to other parts of the face. The disease occurs mostly in conditions of poverty, poor hygiene and malnutrition. In sub-Saharan Africa the frequency in several countries is estimated to be 1-7 cases per 1,000 population, and as many as 12 cases per 1,000 in the most affected communities. About 90% of these children die without receiving any care, yet the disease can, and should, be prevented. With increasing numbers of children who are malnourished and who have compromised immune systems (compounded by the HIV pandemic) the prevalence of conditions such as noma is likely to increase. Among the earliest features of noma are excessive salivation, marked fetor oris, facial oedema and a greyish-black discolouration of the skin in the affected area. This devastating gangrenous lesion may involve the cheek, the chin, the infra-orbital margin, palate, nose, antrum and virtually any part of the face. This report describes a 4-year-old HIV-positive African girl, who was abandoned, discharged from the Plastics Unit and now lives in a child care sanctuary. Little is known about her history prior to her arrival at the home a few weeks previously. The clinical examination revealed a delay in growth and physical development equivalent to that of a 2-year-old child. The left cheek had a perforating ulcer in a healing phase. The perforation, about 1 cm in diameter, was surrounded by oedematous tissues showing a mild to moderate erythema. The peripheral oedema extended to the lower palpebral, the upper labial, left labial commissural, mandibular and pre-parotid regions. Submental, submandibular and cervical lymph nodes were mildly painful upon palpation. The child was not pyretic. The intra-oral examination revealed the features of acute necrotising gingivitis (ANG). ANG was generalised and showed classic interdental crater-like ulcers covered with whitish debris. Halitosis was pronounced

  9. Use of Water Indices Derived from Landsat OLI Imagery and GIS to Estimate the Hydrologic Connectivity of Wetlands in the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Debra Sue

    This study compared two remote sensing water indices: the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Modified NDWI (MNDWI). Both indices were calculated using publically-available data from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). The research goal was to determine whether the indices are effective in locating open water and measuring surface soil moisture. To demonstrate the application of water indices, analysis was conducted for freshwater wetlands in the Tualatin River Basin in northwestern Oregon to estimate hydrologic connectivity and hydrological permanence between these wetlands and nearby water bodies. Remote sensing techniques have been used to study wetlands in recent decades; however, scientific studies have rarely addressed hydrologic connectivity and hydrologic permanence, in spite of the documented importance of these properties. Research steps were designed to be straightforward for easy repeatability: 1) locate sample sites, 2) predict wetness with water indices, 3) estimate wetness with soil samples from the field, 4) validate the index predictions against the soil samples from the field, and 5) in the demonstration step, estimate hydrologic connectivity and hydrological permanence. Results indicate that both indices predicted the presence of large, open water features with clarity; that dry conditions were predicted by MNDWI with more subtle differentiation; and that NDWI results seem more sensitive to sites with vegetation. Use of this low-cost method to discover patterns of surface moisture in the landscape could directly improve the ability to manage wetland environments.

  10. Comparison of fractional vegetation cover estimations using dimidiate pixel models and look-up table inversions of the PROSAIL model from Landsat 8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanling; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Zhenwang; Xin, Xiaoping; Zheng, Xingming; Zhao, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important variable for describing the quality and changes of vegetation in terrestrial ecosystems. Dimidiate pixel models and physical models are widely used to estimate FVC. Six dimidiate pixel models based on different vegetation indices (VI) and four look-up table (LUT) methods were compared to estimate FVC from Landsat 8 OLI data. Comparisons with in situ FVC of steppe and corn showed that the model proposed by Baret et al., which is based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), predicted FVC most accurately followed by Carlson and Ripley's method. Gutman and Ignatov's method overestimated FVC. Modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) and the mixture of NDVI and RVI showed potential to replace NDVI in Gutman and Ignatov's model, whereas the difference vegetation index (DVI) performed less well. At low vegetation cover, the LUT using reflectances to constrain the cost function performed better than LUTs using VI to constrain the cost function, whereas at high vegetation cover, the LUT based on NDVI estimated FVC most accurately. The applications of DVI and MSAVI to constrain the cost function also obtained improvement at high vegetation cover. Overall, the accuracies of LUT methods were a little lower than those of dimidiate pixel models.

  11. A comparison of two adaptive multivariate analysis methods (PLSR and ANN) for winter wheat yield forecasting using Landsat-8 OLI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengfei; Jing, Qi

    2017-02-01

    An assumption that the non-linear method is more reasonable than the linear method when canopy reflectance is used to establish the yield prediction model was proposed and tested in this study. For this purpose, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural networks (ANN), represented linear and non-linear analysis method, were applied and compared for wheat yield prediction. Multi-period Landsat-8 OLI images were collected at two different wheat growth stages, and a field campaign was conducted to obtain grain yields at selected sampling sites in 2014. The field data were divided into a calibration database and a testing database. Using calibration data, a cross-validation concept was introduced for the PLSR and ANN model construction to prevent over-fitting. All models were tested using the test data. The ANN yield-prediction model produced R2, RMSE and RMSE% values of 0.61, 979 kg ha-1, and 10.38%, respectively, in the testing phase, performing better than the PLSR yield-prediction model, which produced R2, RMSE, and RMSE% values of 0.39, 1211 kg ha-1, and 12.84%, respectively. Non-linear method was suggested as a better method for yield prediction.

  12. Analysis of heavy metal content of Pb in ballast water tank of commercial vessels in port of Tanjung Emas Semarang, Central Java province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjono, Agus; Bambang, Azis Nur; Anggoro, Sutrisno

    2017-03-01

    Commercial vessels that do not conduct ballast water exchange, in accordance with International Convention Ballast Water Management, will endager the environment of ports. This research is aimed to know the metal content in ballast water tank of commercial vessels that have not performed ballast water exchange, in accordance with regulations of International Maritime Organization (IMO). The research about the heavy metal content of ballast water of commercial vessels, both passenger or cargo vessels, berthing in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES), has been conducted by using method of AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Sample was gathered from vessels berthed in PTES, dated on December 18th 2014 to October 21st 2015. Results of the research show that the mean content of Pb in ballast water tank is 0.37192 mg/l. Based on the Decree of Minister of Environment Number 51/2004, the heavy metal content of Pb in ballast water tank has exceeded the quality standards of port waters.

  13. Fluorescence Processes in the Outer Atmospheres of the Evolved M-Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The prototypical M-giant and M-supergiant stars, Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)) and Alpha Ori (M2Iab), have been observed as part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres). "ASTRAL-Cool Stars" is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/). In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, Gamma Cru (GaCrux) and Alpha Ori (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work and newly identified in our on-going analysis of these extraordinary new “Treasury” spectra. Detailed descriptions of selected processes are given to illustrate their operation. The wide variety of fluorescence processes in operation in these outer atmospheres, both molecular and atomic, suggest that there is a mixture of warm and cool plasmas present and that H I Ly-alpha in particular is locally very strong, even though, in the case of Alpha Ori, no flux is seen at earth due to strong circumstellar absorption at that wavelength. Many new fluorescence line products and several new processes have been identified in these spectra, which are more complete and of higher S/N than previously available for these stars.

  14. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  15. An Sp1/Sp3 site in the downstream region of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription and is important for VZV replication in vitro and in human skin.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Robinson, Makeda; Sommer, Marvin; Arvin, Ann; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and orientation of origin-binding protein (OBP) sites are the main architectural contrasts between varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) origins of DNA replication (oriS). One important difference is the absence of a downstream OBP site in VZV, raising the possibility that an alternative cis element may replace its function. Our previous work established that Sp1, Sp3, and YY1 bind to specific sites within the downstream region of VZV oriS; we hypothesize that one or both of these sites may be the alternative cis element(s). Here, we show that the mutation of the Sp1/Sp3 site decreases DNA replication and transcription from the adjacent ORF62 and ORF63 promoters following superinfection with VZV. In contrast, in the absence of DNA replication or in transfection experiments with ORF62, only ORF63 transcription is affected. YY1 site mutations had no significant effect on either process. Recombinant viruses containing these mutations were then constructed. The Sp1/Sp3 site mutant exhibited a significant decrease in virus growth in MeWo cells and in human skin xenografts, while the YY1 site mutant virus grew as well as the wild type in MeWo cells, even showing a late increase in VZV replication in skin xenografts following infection. These results suggest that the Sp1/Sp3 site plays an important role in both VZV origin-dependent DNA replication and ORF62 and ORF63 transcription and that, in contrast to HSV, these events are linked during virus replication.

  16. Analysis of Relationship Between Urban Heat Island Effect and Land Use/cover Type Using Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, N.; Koc-San, D.

    2016-06-01

    The main objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperature (LST) from Landsat imageries, (ii) to determine the UHI effects from Landsat 7 ETM+ (June 5, 2001) and Landsat 8 OLI (June 17, 2014) imageries, (iii) to examine the relationship between LST and different Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) types for the years 2001 and 2014. The study is implemented in the central districts of Antalya. Initially, the brightness temperatures are retrieved and the LST values are calculated from Landsat thermal images. Then, the LU/LC maps are created from Landsat pan-sharpened images using Random Forest (RF) classifier. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and DMSP_OLS nighttime lights data are used as auxiliary data during the classification procedure. Finally, UHI effect is determined and the LST values are compared with LU/LC classes. The overall accuracies of RF classification results were computed higher than 88 % for both Landsat images. During 13-year time interval, it was observed that the urban and industrial areas were increased significantly. Maximum LST values were detected for dry agriculture, urban, and bareland classes, while minimum LST values were detected for vegetation and irrigated agriculture classes. The UHI effect was computed as 5.6 °C for 2001 and 6.8 °C for 2014. The validity of the study results were assessed using MODIS/Terra LST and Emissivity data and it was found that there are high correlation between Landsat LST and MODIS LST data (r2 = 0.7 and r2 = 0.9 for 2001 and 2014, respectively).

  17. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  18. Une nouvelle théorie de la cinétique des réactions radical-radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, N. J. B.; Rickerby, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Radical recombination reactions are of central importance in radiation chemistry. In general such reactions are slower than diffusion-controlled because of the radical spins. The rate constant is corrected by a multiplicative spin statistical factor, which represents the probability that the radicals encounter one another in a reactive state. However, this method does not account for the possibility that the reactivity of a pair may recover following an unreactive encounter, for example by spin relaxation or by a coherent evolution of the spin function. In this paper we show how the spin statistical factor can be corrected for the recovery of reactivity. The new theory covers a large range of mechanisms for the recovery of reactivity, and gives simple analytical results. Both steady-state and transient solutions are presented and the former are tested against experiment for the reaction between the hydrated electron and oxygen, and for the magnetic field effect on the rate constant of an elementary reaction. Les réactions de recombinaison entre deux radicaux libres ont une grande importance en chimie sous rayonnement. En général, du fait du spin des radicaux, de telles réactions sont moins rapides que celles qui sont contrôlées par la diffusion. Les constantes de vitesse sont corrigées par un facteur multiplicatif, le facteur statistique de spin, qui représente la probabilité pour que les radicaux se rencontrent, l'un avec l'autre, dans un état réactif. Cependant, cette méthode ne tient pas compte de la possibilité pour que la même paire se rencontre plusieurs fois en raison de rencontres non-réactives. Ensuite la réactivité de cette paire peut se rétablir par exemple par relaxation de spins, ou par évolution cohérente d'une superposition des états de spin. Dans cet article on démontre comment on peut corriger le facteur statistique de spin pour le rétablissement de la réactivité. La nouvelle théorie couvre un large domaine de m

  19. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: III. Expressions of EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63 in normal mucosa and in 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    There have no comprehensive immunohistochemical studies of primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the stomach and colorectum. The author examined the expression of nine common antigens (EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63) in the non-tumorous normal epithelium of the stomach and colorectum and in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). The normal epithelium of the stomach and colon consistently (100%) expressed EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, and Ki-67 (labeling <15%). Normal epithelium of these locations never expressed p53, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63. In the primary gastric SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 57% (17/30), CEA 100% (30/30), CA19-9 100% (30/30), CDX-2 43% (13/30), p53 83% (25/30), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 36 ± 23 %), TTF-1 0% (0/30), vimentin 0% (0/30), and p63 0% (0/30). In primary colorectal SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 25% (3/12), CEA 100% (12/12), CA19-9 100% (12/12), CDX-2 93% (28/30), p53 75% (9/12), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 47% ± 26 %), TTF-1 0% (0/12), vimentin 0% (0/12), and p63 0% (0/12). A comparative statistical analysis showed significant difference in EMA (gastric SRCC 57% vs colorectal SRCC 25%) and CDX-2 (43% vs 93%). There were no significant differences in the other seven antigens' expression between primary gastric SRCC and primary colorectal SRCC. These findings provide much knowledge of primary SRCC of the stomach and colorectum. The data indicated primary gastric SRCC frequently express EMA but not CDX-2 whereas primary colorectal SRCC frequently express CDX-2 but not EMA. These findings also suggest that EMA and CDX-2 are down-regulated during the gastric SRCC carcinogenesis. This down regulations may be associated with the malignant transformation of gastric SRCC. The data of colorectal SRCC suggest EMA is markedly down-regulated and also suggest that this EMA down-regulation may be associated with the

  20. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  1. Analysis of seasonal variation in urban heat island effect for West Mediterranean Region of Turkey using Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Nagihan; KOC-SAN, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    Technological developments are accelerating day by day in 21st century which has brought social and economic developments. Besides, the word population is increasing rapidly and the majority of population lives in city center. Large and crowded cities, industrial areas and shopping centers are being built for providing human needs and wishes. For these purposes, natural resources are destroyed and urban climate is affected. The temperatures of urban areas can be warmer than the rural areas and differences in temperature between urban and surrounding rural areas were defined as Urban Heat Island (UHI). The objectives of this study are (i) to calculate Land Surface Temperatures (LST) for urban and vegetation areas in the selected cities, (ii) to determine the UHI effects and its change between seasons, (iii) to examine the relationship between city size and UHI effect magnitude. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imageries for winter (23 December 2013), summer (17 June 2014) and autumn (7 October 2014) seasons were used. The Antalya, Burdur and Isparta provinces that are placed in West Mediterranean Region of Turkey were selected as study areas. These three provinces have different characteristics. Antalya is the fifth biggest city of Turkey and its population growth is quite high. In addition, the summer population of this city increases severely, because of its tourism potential. On the other hand, Isparta and Burdur are relatively small cities when compared to Antalya with respect to population and urban area. In this study, firstly, the brightness temperatures and LST values are calculated from Landsat 8 thermal images. Secondly, urban areas are identified by an approach that combines emissivity image, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights data and ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). In addition, the vegetation areas are defined by using emissivity image. Finally, the UHI effect is determined

  2. Analysis of heavy metal content of Cd and Zn in ballast water tank of commercial vessels in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang, Central Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjono, A.; Bambang, A. N.; Anggoro, S.

    2017-02-01

    Commercial vessels that do not conduct ballast water exchange, in accordance with International Convention Ballast Water Management, will endager the environment of ports. This research is aimed to know the metal content in ballast water tank of commercial vessels that have not performed ballast water exchange, in accordance with regulations of International Maritime Organization (IMO). The present research is focused on the heavy metal content of ballast water of commercial vessels, both passenger or cargo vessells, berthing in Port of Tanjung Emas Semarang (PTES). Water sample in ballast tank is collected by method of AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). Results of the research show that the content of Cd is about 0.001-0.46 mg l-1, and Zn is about 0.001-2.464 mg l-1. Based on the Decree of Minister of Environment Number 51/2004, the heavy metal content of Cd and Zn has exceeded quality standards of sea water for port water, which is 0.1 mg l-1 both.

  3. A Type I Signal Peptidase Is Required for Pilus Assembly in the Gram-Positive, Biofilm-Forming Bacterium Actinomyces oris

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive bacterium Actinomyces oris, a key colonizer in the development of oral biofilms, contains 18 LPXTG motif-containing proteins, including fimbrillins that constitute two fimbrial types critical for adherence, biofilm formation, and polymicrobial interactions. Export of these protein precursors, which harbor a signal peptide, is thought to be mediated by the Sec machine and require cleavage of the signal peptide by type I signal peptidases (SPases). Like many Gram-positive bacteria, A. oris expresses two SPases, named LepB1 and LepB2. The latter has been linked to suppression of lethal “glyco-stress,” caused by membrane accumulation of the LPXTG motif-containing glycoprotein GspA when the housekeeping sortase srtA is genetically disrupted. Consistent with this finding, we show here that a mutant lacking lepB2 and srtA was unable to produce high levels of glycosylated GspA and hence was viable. However, deletion of neither lepB1 nor lepB2 abrogated the signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation of GspA, indicating redundancy of SPases for GspA. In contrast, the lepB2 deletion mutant failed to assemble the wild-type levels of type 1 and 2 fimbriae, which are built by the shaft fimbrillins FimP and FimA, respectively; this phenotype was attributed to aberrant cleavage of the fimbrillin signal peptides. Furthermore, the lepB2 mutants, including the catalytically inactive S101A and K169A variants, exhibited significant defects in polymicrobial interactions and biofilm formation. Conversely, lepB1 was dispensable for the aforementioned processes. These results support the idea that LepB2 is specifically utilized for processing of fimbrial proteins, thus providing an experimental model with which to study the basis of type I SPase specificity. IMPORTANCE Sec-mediated translocation of bacterial protein precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane involves cleavage of their signal peptide by a signal peptidase (SPase). Like many Gram

  4. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  5. INFLUENCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEINS (IGFBP)-1 AND IGFBP-3 ON BONE HEALTH: RESULTS FROM THE EUROPEAN MALE AGEING STUDY (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael EJ; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick CW; O’Neill, Terence W

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3, and IGF-1 on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, oestradiol (E2) and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters, speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation [SD]=11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, centre and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E2 and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were independent determinants of bone health in middle aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

  6. Genetic variation in sex hormone genes influences heel ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly men: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Limer, Kate L; Pye, Stephen R; Thomson, Wendy; Boonen, Steven; Borghs, Herman; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Platt, Hazel; Payne, Debbie; John, Sally L; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2009-02-01

    Genes involved in sex hormone pathways are candidates for influencing bone strength. Polymorphisms in these genes were tested for association with heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men 40-79 yr of age were recruited from population registers in eight European centers for the European Male Aging Study (EMAS). Polymorphisms were genotyped in AR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP19A1, CYP17A1, SHBG, SRD5A2, LHB, and LHCGR. QUS parameters broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were measured in the heel and used to derive BMD. The relationships between QUS parameters and polymorphisms were assessed using linear regression adjusting for age and center. A total of 2693 men, with a mean age of 60.1 +/- 11.1 (SD) yr were included in the analysis. Their mean BUA was 80.0 +/- 18.9 dB/Mhz, SOS was 1550.2 +/- 34.1 m/s, and BMD was 0.542 +/- 0.141 g/cm(2). Significant associations were observed between multiple SNPs in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block within CYP19A1, peaking at the TCT indel with the deletion allele associating with reduced ultrasound BMD in heterozygotes (beta =-0.016, p = -0.005) and homozygotes (beta = -0.029, p = 0.001). The results for BUA and SOS were similar. Significant associations with QUS parameters were also observed for the CAG repeat in AR and SNPs in CYP17A1, LHCGR, and ESR1. Our data confirm evidence of association between bone QUS parameters and polymorphisms in CYP19A1, as well as modest associations with polymorphisms in CYP17A1, ESR1, LHCGR, and AR in a population sample of European men; this supports a role for genetically determined sex hormone actions in influencing male bone health.

  7. The ability of three different models of frailty to predict all-cause mortality: results from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Gielen, Evelien; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Pendleton, Neil; Finn, Joseph D; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Connell, Matthew D L; Rockwood, Kenneth; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared the ability of the most commonly used models of frailty to predict mortality among community-dwelling individuals. Here, we used a frailty index (FI), frailty phenotype (FP), and FRAIL scale (FS) to predict mortality in the EMAS. Participants were aged 40-79 years (n=2929) at baseline and 6.6% (n=193) died over a median 4.3 years of follow-up. The FI was generated from 39 deficits, including self-reported health, morbidities, functional performance and psychological assessments. The FP and FS consisted of five phenotypic criteria and both categorized individuals as robust when they had 0 criteria, prefrail as 1-2 criteria and frail as 3+ criteria. The mean FI increased linearly with age (r(2)=0.21) and in Cox regression models adjusted for age, center, smoking and partner status the hazard ratio (HR) for death for each unit increase of the FI was 1.49. Men who were prefrail or frail by either the FP or FS definitions, had a significantly increased risk of death compared to their robust counterparts. Compared to robust men, those who were FP frail at baseline had a HR for death of 3.84, while those who were FS frail had a HR of 3.87. All three frailty models significantly predicted future mortality among community-dwelling, middle-aged and older European men after adjusting for potential confounders. Our data suggest that the choice of frailty model may not be of paramount importance when predicting future risk of death, enabling flexibility in the approach used.

  8. Emended description of Actinomyces naeslundii and descriptions of Actinomyces oris sp. nov. and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov., previously identified as Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1, 2 and WVA 963.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Radford, David R; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Beighton, David

    2009-03-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates (n=115) and determined the partial gene sequences of six housekeeping genes (atpA, rpoB, pgi, metG, gltA and gyrA). These sequences identified the three genospecies and differentiated them from Actinomyces viscosus isolated from rodents. The partial sequences of atpA and metG gave best separation of the three genospecies. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 formed two distinct clusters, well separated from both genospecies WVA 963 and A. viscosus. Analysis of the same genes in other oral Actinomyces species (Actinomyces gerencseriae, A. israelii, A. meyeri, A. odontolyticus and A. georgiae) indicated that, when sequence data were obtained, these species each exhibited <90 % similarity with the A. naeslundii genospecies. Based on these data, we propose the name Actinomyces oris sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 27044(T) =CCUG 34288(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies 2 and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 49338(T) =CCUG 34287(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies WVA 963. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 should remain as A. naeslundii sensu stricto, with the type strain ATCC 12104(T) =NCTC 10301(T) =CCUG 2238(T).

  9. ORAL MYOFUNCTIONAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE ORBICULARIS ORIS AND MENTALIS MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II/1 MALOCCLUSION SUBMITTED TO FIRST PREMOLAR EXTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Denize Ramirez; Semeghini, Tatiana Adamov; Kroll, Lucio Benedito; Berzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oral myofunctional alterations before and after first premolar extraction in Class II/1 malocclusion patients that could endanger the long-term dental arch stability. Material and Methods: The study was performed by means of morphological, functional and electromyographic analyses in 17 Class II/1 malocclusion patients (group T) and 17 Class I malocclusion patients (group C -control), both groups with 12-30-year age range (mean age: 20.93 ± 4.94 years). Results: Data analyzed statistically by Student's t-test showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch perimeters after orthodontic treatment, but lip posture at rest did not present statistically significant differences after treatment (p>0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test analyzed data from lip posture (orbicularis oris muscle) at rest and during swallowing, as well as the mentalis muscle behavior during the above-mentioned function, not showing statistically significant differences (p>0.05) after treatment (groups T1 and T2). However, group T differed significantly from group C (p<0.05). Lip posture during swallowing showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for subjects submitted to orthodontic therapy when compared to data acquired before the treatment. The electromyographic analysis confirmed these data. Conclusions: Found myofunctional alterations observed after the orthodontic treatment in Class II/1 malocclusion seemed to jeopardize the long-term orthodontic stability, making recurrence possible. PMID:19089223

  10. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Māori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a cessation intervention appropriate for Indigenous people. Methods/Design A literature review was conducted to identify what cultural principles and practices could be used to increase salience, and what competition elements could have an impact on efficacy of smoking cessation. The identified elements were incorporated into the design of a cessation intervention. Discussion Cultural practices incorporated into the intervention include having a holistic family or group-centred focus, inter-group competitiveness, fundraising and ritual pledging. Competition elements included are social support, pharmacotherapy use, cash prize incentives and the use of a dedicated website and iPad application. A pre-test post-test will be combined with process evaluation to evaluate if the competition results in triggering mass-quitting, utilisation of pharmacotherapy and in increasing sustained smoking cessation and to get a comprehensive understanding of the way in which they contribute to the effect. The present study is the first to describe how knowledge about cultural practices and principles can be combined with proven cessation support into a smoking cessation contest. The findings from this study are promising and further more rigorous testing is warranted. PMID:24365329

  11. The AT-rich tract of the SV40 ori core: negative synergism and specific recognition by single stranded and duplex DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, I; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1992-01-01

    The SV40 origin of replication comprises a run of thymine and adenine residues. Integrity of this AT-rich sequence is known to be essential for replication. We set out to study whether or not these elements can work synergistically to sustain replication. Quite surprisingly, additional copies of the AT stretch linked to a functional SV40 ori core dramatically reduce its replication in Cosl cells, probably by creating some physical block. Interestingly, the same inhibiting effect can be observed with the addition in cis of the yeast ARS consensus, which is homologous to the SV40 AT stretch. This modulation is possibly due to the action of cellular factors that recognize either of the two sequences. In fact, we demonstrate the existence of factor(s) in Cosl crude nuclear extracts that in vitro can specifically bind to either of them. Moreover, we show that these sequence-specific factor(s) (MW about 50 kDa), named SOAP, recognize both single (T-rich strand) and double stranded forms of the AT tracts. Binding to single stranded AT stretches can be specifically inhibited by the corresponding duplex form, but not vice versa. Images PMID:1321411

  12. Cisplatin selects short forms of the mitochondrial DNA OriB variant (16184–16193 poly-cytosine tract), which confer resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Taku; Kamimura, Naomi; Asano, Hiromasa; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ohta, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    A number of alternations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in different types of cancers, and the role of mtDNA in cancer has been attracting increasing interest. In order to investigate the relationship between mtDNA alternations and chemosensitivity, we constructed cybrid (trans-mitochondrial hybrid) cell lines carrying a HeLa nucleus and the mtDNA of healthy individuals because of the presence of somatic alternations in the mtDNA of many cancer cells. After a treatment with 1.0 μg/mL cisplatin for 10 days, we isolated 100 cisplatin-resistant clones, 70 of which carried the shorter mtDNA OriB variant (16184–16193 poly-cytosine tract), which was located in the control region of mtDNA. Whole mtDNA sequencing of 10 clones revealed no additional alternations. Re-construction of the HeLa nucleus and mtDNA from cisplatin-resistant cells showed that cisplatin resistance was only acquired by mtDNA alternations in the control region, and not by possible alternation(s) in the nuclear genome. PMID:28393913

  13. The role of the IRE1 pathway in excessive iodide- and/or fluoride-induced apoptosis in Nthy-ori 3-1 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Linyu; Jiang, Chunyang; Wang, Zhenglun; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-01-30

    Excessive iodide and fluoride coexist in the groundwater in many regions, causing a potential risk to the human thyroid. To investigate the mechanism of iodide- and fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity, human thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI), with or without sodium fluoride (NaF). Cell morphology, viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, apoptosis, and expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were assessed. Results showed 50 mM of KI, 1 mM of NaF, and 50 mM of KI +1 mM of NaF changed cellular morphology, decreased viability, and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. Elevated expression of binding protein (BiP), IRE1, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA and protein, as well as spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) mRNA, were observed in the 1 mM NaF and 50 mM KI +1 mM NaF groups. Collectively, excessive iodide and/or fluoride is cytotoxic to the human thyroid. Although these data do not manifest iodide could induce the IRE1 pathway, the cytotoxicity followed by exposure to fluoride alone or in combination with iodide may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure to the combination of excessive iodide and fluoride may cause interactive effects on thyroid cytotoxicity.

  14. Keeping Kids Smokefree: rationale, design, and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to smoking among Māori and Pacific Island children in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; Bullen, Chris; McCool, Judith; Kira, Anette

    Despite a concerted, sustained and comprehensive tobacco control effort, smoking is prevalent among young people in New Zealand, particularly for Māori and Pacific Island teenagers. Many took up smoking in their pre-teen years. New Zealand research has shown that daily smoking by children aged 14-15 years is strongly influenced by parental smoking. The Keeping Kids Smokefree study is investigating whether changing parental smoking behavior and attitudes via a community-partnership approach with parents, schools, and local health providers can reduce smoking initiation by 11-12 year olds. It is a quasi-experimental trial involving four schools in an urban area of high social deprivation with large numbers of Māori and Pacific Islands families. Schools were allocated to intervention or control and the intervention was developed through a process of engagement with the schools, parents of children and local healthcare organizations. This article describes the rationale, context, methodology and methods involved in establishing the study. Building Māori and Pacific Islander research capacity was a secondary objective of the study.

  15. Deep etching of single- and polycrystalline silicon with high speed, high aspect ratio, high uniformity, and 3D complexity by electric bias-attenuated metal-assisted chemical etching (EMaCE).

    PubMed

    Li, Liyi; Zhao, Xueying; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-10-08

    In this work, a novel wet silicon (Si) etching method, electric bias-attenuated metal-assisted chemical etching (EMaCE), is demonstrated to be readily available for three-dimensional (3D) electronic integration, microelectromechinal systems, and a broad range of 3D electronic components with low cost. On the basis of the traditional metal-assisted chemical etching process, an electric bias was applied to the Si substrate in EMaCE. The 3D geometry of the etching profile was effectively controlled by the bias in a real-time manner. The reported method successfully fabricated an array of over 10 000 vertical holes with diameters of 28 μm on 1 cm(2) silicon chips at a rate of up to 11 μm/min. The sidewall roughness was kept below 50 nm, and a high aspect ratio of over 10:1 was achieved. The 3D geometry could be attenuated by the variable applied bias in real time. Vertical deep etching was realized on (100)-, (111)-Si, and polycrystalline Si substrates. Complex features with lateral dimensions of 0.8-500 μm were also fabricated with submicron accuracy.

  16. The Rep78 gene product of adeno-associated virus (AAV) self-associates to form a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Spano, A J; Kotin, R M

    1997-01-01

    The Rep78 and Rep68 proteins of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are replication initiator proteins that bind the viral replicative-form origin of replication, nick the origin in a site- and strand-specific fashion, and mediate vectorial unwinding of the DNA duplex via an ATP-dependent helicase activity, thus initiating a strand displacement mechanism of viral DNA replication. Genetic and biochemical studies have identified Rep mutants that demonstrate a trans-dominant negative phenotype in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possibility that multimerization of Rep is essential for certain replicative functions. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the largest of the Rep proteins, Rep78, to self-associate in vitro and in vivo. Self-association of Rep78 in vivo was demonstrated through the use of a mammalian two-hybrid system. Rep-Rep protein interaction was confirmed in vitro through coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a bacterially expressed maltose-binding protein-Rep78 fusion protein in combination with [35S]methionine-labeled Rep78 synthesized in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. Mapping studies with N- and C-terminal truncation mutant forms of Rep indicate that amino acid sequences required for maximal self-association occur between residues 164 and 484. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two essential motifs within this 321-amino-acid region: (i) a putative alpha-helix bearing a 3,4-hydrophobic heptad repeat reminiscent of those found in coiled-coil domains and (ii) a previously recognized nucleoside triphosphate-binding motif. Deletion of either of these regions from the full-length polypeptide resulted in severe impairment of Rep-Rep interaction. In addition, gel filtration chromatography and protein cross-linking experiments indicated that Rep78 forms a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences. PMID:9151837

  17. Partitioning of the Linear Chromosome during Sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Involves an oriC-Linked parAB Locus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Calcutt, Michael J.; Schmidt, Francis J.; Chater, Keith F.

    2000-01-01

    Candidate partitioning genes (parA and parB) for the linear chromosome of Streptomyces coelicolor were identified by DNA sequencing in a series of seven genes located between rnpA and trxA near the chromosomal replication origin. The most likely translation start point of parB overlapped the parA stop codon, suggestive of coregulation, and transcription analysis suggested that the two genes formed an operon. Deletion of part of parB had no effect on the growth or appearance of colonies but caused a deficiency in DNA partitioning during the multiple septation events involved in converting aerial hyphae into long chains of spores. At least 13% of spore compartments failed to inherit the normal DNA allocation. The same phenotype was obtained with a deletion removing a segment of DNA from both parA and parB. Reinforcing the idea of a special role for the par locus during sporulation, the stronger of two parAB promoters was greatly upregulated at about the time when sporulation septation was maximal in colonies. Three copies of a 14-bp inverted repeat (GTTTCACGTGAAAC) were found in or near the parAB genes, and at least 12 more identical copies were identified within 100 kb of oriC from the growing genome sequence database. Only one perfect copy of the 14-bp sequence was present in approximately 5 Mb of sequence available from the rest of the genome. The 14-bp sequence was similar to sequences identified as binding sites for Spo0J, a ParB homologue from Bacillus subtilis believed to be important for DNA partitioning (D. C.-H. Lin and A. D. Grossman, Cell 92:675–685, 1998). One of these sites encompassed the transcription start point of the stronger parA promoter. PMID:10671452

  18. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  19. Migration of the curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) at the waterfall "Cachoeira de Emas" of the Mogi-Guaçu river--São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Capeleti, A R; Petrere, M

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we counted the ascending curimbatás at the fish ladder at the Cachoeira de Emas from October, 1992 to September, 1993 in one whole day (24 h period) per month at different observation points in the dam for 5 min every hour. Most of the fish (80%) were counted not in the fish ladder itself, but in two adjacent spillways at its left, perhaps due to the comparatively increased flow as they are narrower than the ladder. The bulk of the migration occurred in September/October. We inspected the degree of injury of the fish in order to examine the hypothesis that larger fish are less injured, however no conclusion was reached. The degree of injury varied between different points and in different months of the year.

  20. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit) genes encoding immunoglobulins in the whole genome sequence assembly (OryCun2.0) and localization of the IGH locus to chromosome 20.

    PubMed

    Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G

    2013-10-01

    We report on the analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51× whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG, and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV, and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3-Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa, and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation.

  1. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (<0.05-16.3ng/g) and Σchlordanes (0.03-10.6ng/g). Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region.

  2. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  3. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  4. Hanahau'oli School: Theory Meets Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Progressive schools, by their very nature, need to respond to changing societal conditions. Within that context, learning guided by the teachings of John Dewey will not only make the progressive tradition sustainable but also make it increasingly relevant in a future that will increasingly make demands on students to possess the knowledge to…

  5. Cirrus cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals from eMAS during SEAC4RS using bi-spectral reflectance measurements within the 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. Thomas; Holz, Robert E.; Veglio, Paolo; Yorks, John; Wang, Chenxi

    2016-04-01

    Previous bi-spectral imager retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) based on the Nakajima and King (1990) approach, such as those of the operational MODIS cloud optical property retrieval product (MOD06), have typically paired a non-absorbing visible or near-infrared wavelength, sensitive to COT, with an absorbing shortwave or mid-wave infrared wavelength sensitive to CER. However, in practice it is only necessary to select two spectral channels that exhibit a strong contrast in cloud particle absorption. Here it is shown, using eMAS observations obtained during NASA's SEAC4RS field campaign, that selecting two absorbing wavelength channels within the broader 1.88 µm water vapor absorption band, namely the 1.83 and 1.93 µm channels that have sufficient differences in ice crystal single scattering albedo, can yield COT and CER retrievals for thin to moderately thick single-layer cirrus that are reasonably consistent with other solar and IR imager-based and lidar-based retrievals. A distinct advantage of this channel selection for cirrus cloud retrievals is that the below-cloud water vapor absorption minimizes the surface contribution to measured cloudy top-of-atmosphere reflectance, in particular compared to the solar window channels used in heritage retrievals such as MOD06. This reduces retrieval uncertainty resulting from errors in the surface reflectance assumption and reduces the frequency of retrieval failures for thin cirrus clouds.

  6. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas O; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol-chloroform-isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations.

  7. Effect of DNA extraction procedure, repeated extraction and ethidium monoazide (EMA)/propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment on overall DNA yield and impact on microbial fingerprints for bacteria, fungi and archaea in a reference soil

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas O.; Praeg, Nadine; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Different DNA extraction protocols were evaluated on a reference soil. A wide difference was found in the total extractable DNA as derived from different extraction protocols. Concerning the DNA yield phenol–chloroform–isomyl alcohol extraction resulted in high DNA yield but also in a remarkable co-extraction of contaminants making PCR from undiluted DNA extracts impossible. By comparison of two different extraction kits, the Macherey&Nagel SoilExtract II kit resulted in the highest DNA yields when buffer SL1 and the enhancer solution were applied. The enhancer solution not only significantly increased the DNA yield but also the amount of co-extracted contaminates, whereas additional disintegration strategies did not. Although a three times repeated DNA extraction increased the total amount of extracted DNA, microbial fingerprints were merely affected. However, with the 5th extraction this changed. A reduction of total DGGE band numbers was observed for archaea and fungi, whereas for bacteria the diversity increased. The application of ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment aiming on the selective removal of soil DNA derived from cells lacking cell wall integrity resulted in a significant reduction of total extracted DNA, however, the hypothesized effect on microbial fingerprints failed to appear indicating the need for further investigations. PMID:26339125

  8. Compilation and Analysis of a Database of Local Tsunami Bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) to the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency (HI-EMA) between September 2003 and July, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardina, V.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Walsh, D.; Becker, N. C.; McCreery, C.

    2015-12-01

    The PTWC functions not only as official international tsunami warning center (TWC) for nations with coasts around the Pacific rim, the Caribbean, and other regions of the world, but also as the local TWC for the State of Hawaii. The PTWC began sending local tsunami messages to HI-EMA only since September, 2003. As part of its routine operations, the PTWC strives to send a local tsunami message product for any Hawaii earthquake with a 4.0 magnitude or larger within five minutes of origin time. To evaluate PTWC's performance in that regard, however, we must first compile a suitable local tsunami bulletins' database. For this purpose, we scanned all the available logs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) communications' circuit between 2003 and 2015 and retrieved 104 local bulletins. We parsed these bulletins and extracted the parametric data needed to evaluate PTWC's performance in terms of essential statistics such as message delay time, epicenter offsets, and magnitude residuals as compared with more authoritative earthquake source parametrizations. To that end, we cross-validated 88 of these seismic events having magnitudes between 2.8 and 6.7 with the corresponding source parameters obtained from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the National Earthquake Information Center's (NEIC) online catalog. Analysis of events with magnitude 4.0 or larger gives a median message delay time of 3 minutes and 33 seconds, a median epicentral offset of 3.2 km, and a median magnitude residual of 0.2 unit. Several message delay outliers exist due to the fact that PTWC has sent local tsunami information statements (TIS) for felt events with magnitudes as small as 2.8 located west of the Big Island. Routine use of a synthetic Wood-Anderson magnitude since the end of 2012 appears to have brought consistency to PTWC's local magnitude estimates and a reduction in the message delays. Station site corrections, a refined attenuation model, and optimization of the peak

  9. Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose.

  10. Shear zones at the base of the lowermost known unit of the Cretan nappe pile in the Talea Ori, northern central Crete - the long-time deformation record during burial and exhumation from HP-LT metamorphic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepmann, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    The structural characteristics and microfabrics of shear zones at the base of the lowermost known level of the Cretan nappe pile, exposed at the northern central coast of the Talea Ori Mountains, are presented. There, the high pressure - low temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic sediments provide information on the long-term geological history from the pre-Alpine basement and the Alpine stages of detachment, burial to and exhumation from HP-LT conditions. Information on the unknown pre-Alpine basement of the metasedimentary unit is obtained by the components in low-strain metaconglomerates, where deformation microstructures from the source rocks are preserved or quasi-statically overprinted during the later geological history. Information on the deformation mechanisms and stress history during detachment, burial and exhumation is obtained by high-strain shear zones surrounding the low-strain metasediments. A gradual transition from the low-strain metaconglomerates and associated black shales and metacherts to shear zones characterized by a scaly foliation, shear bands and associated quartz veins is observed. Shear bands occur likewise in black shales, metaquartzites and metaconglomerates and are inclined at various angles to the sedimentary layering or the scaly foliation, respectively. They generally indicate down-faulting of the respective northern block. Associated quartz veins taper wedge-shaped at a high angle to the foliation, decorating the shear band boundaries and showing shear offsets. Microstructures in rocks from these shear bands and related vein quartz show indication of dislocation glide-controlled deformation of quartz by the presence of deformation lamellae, deformation bands, short-wavelength undulatory extinction and localized strings of recrystallized grains. The shear zones document at least two different deformation stages: A first stage of deformation is characterized mainly by dissolution precipitation creep generating the scaly cleavage and

  11. Théorie visco-élastique non-extensive V. équations de diffusion, fonctions de distribution, viscosités et coefficients de diffusion, fonctions de corrélation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, F.

    This article is an important theoretical development of the previous articles (I) and (III) in which are introduced the basic concepts of the theory. Here, diffusion equations are established and their solutions are given for the simple model with one elastic constant and isotropy of reciprocal space. The classical diffusion laws for translation (Fick law) and rotation are recovered in the limit of very long times. The concepts of microscopic and macroscopic viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient are introduced. The difference between the two concepts vanishes above the transition. It is shown that the macroscopic viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient have a very steep variation with temperature below the transition. Tensorial order parameters are defined for rotation. Formal expressions for the time correlation functions of Legendre polynomials are established. These quantities allow to calculate the main correlations functions for analysis of dielectric relaxation, light scattering, and incoherent neutron scattering. All correlation functions, translational and rotational, are fundamentally non-exponential. Cet article constitue un complément important des articles théoriques initiaux (I) et (III) dans lesquels sont introduits les concepts de base de la théorie. Ce complément concerne l'établissement des équations de diffusion, et de leurs solutions, pour le modèle simple à une constante élastique et une viscosité, et isotropie de l'espace des vecteurs d'onde. Les lois de diffusion classiques pour la translation (loi de Fick) et la rotation sont retrouvées dans la limite des temps très longs. On montre qu'il est nécessaire d'introduire les concepts de viscosité et de coefficient de diffusion microscopiques et macroscopiques. Ces deux concepts se confondent dans la phase désordonnée. Il est montré que la viscosité et le coefficient de diffusion macroscopiques varient de façon considérable avec la température en dessous de la transition

  12. Application d'une théorie alternative de la diffraction pour l'étude des profils de modulation des réseaux holographiques de volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechahougui, S.; Harthong, J.

    1992-02-01

    , the profiles gets a non-sinusoidal form for which the theoretical efficiency is better than for the sinusoidal from. We present only a theoretical analysis; for the analysis of the correlation between the exposure and the form of the resulting profile, we follow the work of Solymar and his group. Nous présentons une étude numérique de l'influence du profil de modulation de l'indice de réfraction, sur quelques paramètres tels que: l'efficacité de diffraction, la sélectivité spectrale et angulaire. Les matériaux photosensibles les plus utilisés en holographie à savoir les halogénures d'argent et la gélatine bichromatée, sont fortement non linéaires pour des expositions élevées. Nous avons choisi une série de profils correspondant à des expositions différentes. Pour ces profils nous avons fait une étude numérique complète en utilisant une théorie alternative de la diffraction dans les milieux modulés [1].

  13. Tikanga Māori (Māori Customary Practices) in Oral Health Research.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John R; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood caries is a global health issue for Indigenous populations. The study, "Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic dental disease among Indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention," is being conducted in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa/New Zealand.

  14. Osteoporosis management in patients with breast cancer: EMAS position statement.

    PubMed

    Trémollieres, Florence A; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the first-line recommended standard of care for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because they cause a profound suppression of estrogen levels, concerns regarding their potential to increase the risk of fracture were rapidly raised. There is currently a general consensus that a careful baseline evaluation is needed of the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women about to start treatment with AIs but also in all premenopausal women with early disease. Bisphosphonates have been shown in several phase III trials to prevent the bone loss induced by cancer treatment, although no fracture data are available. Even though they do not have regulatory approval for this indication, their use must be discussed with women at high risk of fracture. Accordingly, several guidelines recommend considering treatment in women with a T-score ≤-2 or those with two or more clinical risk factors. Moreover, recent data suggest that bisphosphonates, especially intravenous zoledronic acid, may have an anticancer effect, in that they reduce bone recurrence as well as extra-skeletal metastasis and breast cancer mortality in postmenopausal women. The anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab is also emerging as a new adjuvant therapeutic option to prevent AI-induced bone loss. It has been shown to extend the time to first fracture in postmenopausal women treated with AIs. Several issues still need to be addressed regarding the use of these different agents in an adjuvant setting. The purpose of this position statement is to review the literature on antifracture therapy and to discuss the current guidelines for the management of osteoporosis in women with early breast cancer.

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-31

    The committee serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. This is accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops involving DOE and major contractors. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. A FY 1994 budget summary table for each program is included. A directory and a keyword index is included at the end of this document.

  16. EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Amanda; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Women form a large part of many workforces throughout Europe. Many will be working throughout their menopausal years. Whilst the menopause may cause no significant problems for some, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. During the menopausal transition women report that fatigue and difficulties with memory and concentration can have a negative impact on their working lives. Furthermore, hot flushes can be a source of embarrassment and distress. Some consider that these symptoms can impact on their performance. Greater awareness among employers, together with sensitive and flexible management can be helpful for women at this time. Particular strategies might include: fostering a culture whereby employees feel comfortable disclosing health problems, allowing flexible working, reducing sources of work-related stress, providing easy access to cold drinking water and toilets, and reviewing workplace temperature and ventilation.

  17. Learning about Inclusion by Listening to Ma¯ori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural and learning difficulties experienced by students from minoritised cultural groups often arise because their cultural beliefs, values and preferred practices differ markedly from those of their teachers and their school. Research in New Zealand has shown that if inclusive education is to have real meaning for these students and their…

  18. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... need to protect human or animal subjects. (b) HHS resources or interests are threatened. (c) Research... public prematurely so that HHS may take appropriate steps to safeguard evidence and protect the rights...

  19. [Noma or cancrum oris: etiopathogenic and nosologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Costini, B; Larroque, G; Duboscq, J C; Montandon, D

    1995-01-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease that usually begins in the mouth and is characterized by rapid necrotizing destruction of soft tissue and underlying bone. The disease, which is associated with a strong putrid odor suggestive of mixed bacterial infection, develops only in predisposed persons, especially children whose natural defenses have been weakened by poor socio-economic living conditions. However a few atypical cases have recently been reported in adults in whom the main risk factor seemed to be immunodepression. The increasing number of wars in the Third World and the AIDS epidemic raise the likelihood that the number of cases of this disease will rise sharply particularly since the incidence has been grossly underestimated for many years. It now seems clear that a combination of local and systemic risk factors are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of noma with the common denominator being a weakened immune system. This would account for the fulminating course of the infectious process due to one or more opportunistic microbial or cytopathogenic agents or even to a still undetermined immunopathologic reaction that lead to massive tissue destruction. Poor understanding of the etiopathogenesis of noma is a major factor perpetuating the nosologic problems posed by this disease. Some authors add to the confusion by including a range of gangrenous diseases under the heading of noma. It is important that the term noma be applied only to necrotizing processes that begin in the mouth and present the characteristic features and course.

  20. A Photometric Survey of Ori OB1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Allison T.; Sherry, W.

    2011-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been suggested to describe the formation of sub-stellar mass objects (SSMOs), specifically brown dwarfs. Each proposed mechanism predicts a unique spatial distribution of the brown dwarfs relative to the O and B stars of the association. We have 9 square degrees of optical (VRI) data and 7 square degrees of NIR (JHK) data of Orion OB1b. The purpose of the survey is to obtain the photometric data that will allow us to determine the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs in this region and constrain the various formation theories. We present an overview of the survey, with an emphasis on the NIR data, as well as color-magnitude diagrams. This research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  1. Study of physical conditions in protoplanetary disks by interferometry. Theory, instrumentation and first observations. -- étude des conditions physiques dans les disques protoplanétaires par interférométrie. Théorie, instrumentation et premières observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien

    2007-10-01

    Les étoiles se forment lors de l'effondrement de nuages de gaz et de poussière. Dans l'environnement proche de l'étoile naissante la matière se concentre dans un plan équatorial que l'on appelle disque protoplanétaire. Les astronomes pensent que les planètes se forment au sein de cette masse de gaz et de poussière orbitant autour de l'étoile. Pour sonder ces disques à des échelles correspondant aux orbites des futures planètes, il convient d'observer dans l'infrarouge à très haute résolution spatiale. L'interférométrie infrarouge est donc un outil idéal pour étudier les conditions physiques des disques protoplanétaires. Dans ce mémoire, je décris les premiers pas de l'interférométrie infrarouge, depuis la mise au point des petits interféromètres PTI et IOTA jusqu'à la construction de l'instrument AMBER au foyer de l'interféromètre du VLT. Je décris aussi les résultats d'une piste de recherche technologique particulièrement attrayante dans le cas de l'interférométrie infrarouge et issue des technologies des autoroutes de l'information: l'optique intégrée appliquée à la combinaison de plusieurs faisceaux en astronomie. Je montre ensuite comment à partir des observations obtenues à partir de ces instruments, il est possible de contraindre la physique des disques autour des étoiles jeunes. Gráce à la résolution spectrale nouvellement disponible sur ces instruments, pour la première fois nous pouvons séparer des phénomènes physiques aussi différents que l'accrétion de matière sur l'étoile et l'éjection de particules par des vents dont l'origine précise est encore mal connue. Les résultats présentés dans ce mémoire ont été obtenus principalement à partir d'observations sur les systèmes jeunes FU Ori et MWC 297 effectuées par AMBER sur le VLTI, mais aussi par les petits interféromètres infrarouges PTI et IOTA. Je développe aussi les travaux de modélisation de la structure verticale des disques associ

  2. Study of land cover classes and retrieval of leaf area index using Landsat 8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit K.; Garg, P. K.; Hari Prasad, K. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    Timely and accurate information about land cover is an important and extensively used application of remote sensing data. After successful launch of Landsat 8 is providing a new data source for monitoring land cover, which has the potential to improve the earth surface features characterization. Mapping of Leaf area Index (LAI) in larger area may be impossible when we rely on field measurements. Remote sensing data have been continuing efforts to develop different methods to estimate LAI. In this present study, an attempt has been made to discriminate various land cover features and empirical equation is used for retrieve biophysical parameter (LAI) for satellite NDVI data. Support vector machine classification was performed for Muzaffarnagar district using LANDSAT 8 operational land imager data to separate out major land cover classes (water, fallow, built up, sugarcane, orchard, dense vegetation and other crops). Ground truth data was collected using JUNO GPS which was used in developing the spectral signatures for each classes. The LAI-NDVI existing empirical equation is used to prepare LAI map. It is found that the LAI values in village foloda region maximum LAI pixels in the range 3.10 and above and minimum in the range 1.0 to 1.20. It is also concluded that the LAI values between 1.70 and 3.10 is having most of the sugarcane crop pixels at maximum vegetative growth stage. It shows that the sugarcane crop condition in the study area was very good.

  3. Vitamin D status of Māori and non-Māori octogenarians in New Zealand: a Cohort Study (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Bacon, Catherine J; Kerse, Ngaire; Hayman, Karen J; Moyes, Simon A; Teh, Ruth O; Kepa, Mere; Pillai, Avinesh; Dyall, Lorna

    2016-12-01

    背景与目的:本研究评估了队列研究中生活在新西兰湾和湖泊区域的八旬老人 的维生素D 状况及其决定因素。方法与研究设计:测量209 名毛利人(80-90 岁)和357 名非毛利人(85 岁)的血清25-羟维生素D(25(OH)D)的浓度, 同时收集研究对象的体格测量指标、生活方式、补充剂的应用和其它健康资 料。结果:平均25(OH)D 浓度为69(95% CI:67-72)nmol/L,其中15%的研 究对象>100 nmol/L,6 个研究对象>150 nmol/L。毛利人的25(OH)D 浓度(59 nmol/L,95% CI: 55-62 nmol/L)低于非毛利人(75 nmol/L,95% CI:72-78 nmol/L,p<0.001),校正测量日期后,差异仍然存在。98 名(占18%)研究 对象报告补充了维生素D,女性中补充者所占的比例(24%)高于男性 (11%,p<0.001),非毛利人中补充者所占的比例高于毛利人。补充维生素 D 的人中,49%的人摄入高剂量(每天>=25 μg 或相当剂量),5 个研究对象每 天摄入维生素D>=50 μg。维生素D 补充剂的应用能够强而独立地预测季节校正 的25(OH)D 浓度,并且使用者比不用者高28 nmol/L。其它预测指标包括毛利 族(比非毛利族低10 nmol/L)和女性性别(比男性低11 nmol/L)。结论:新 西兰八旬老人维生素D 浓度高于以前的报告,尤其是非毛利人。这个人群中 处方和非处方口服维生素D 补充剂普遍存在,并且是维生素状态的强预测指 标。.

  4. Compliance to Cell Phone-Based EMA Among Latino Youth in Outpatient Treatment.

    PubMed

    Comulada, W Scott; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Grella, Christine; Wu, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Outpatient treatment practices for adolescent substance users utilize retrospective self-report to monitor drug use. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) overcomes retrospective self-report biases and can enhance outpatient treatment, particularly among Latino adolescents, who have been understudied with regard to CEMA. This study explores compliance to text message-based CEMA with youth (n = 28; 93% Latino) in outpatient treatment. Participants were rotated through daily, random, and event-based CEMA strategies for 1-month periods. Overall compliance was high (>80%). Compliance decreased slightly over the study period and was less during random versus daily strategies and on days when alcohol use was retrospectively reported. Findings suggest that CEMA is a viable monitoring tool for Latino youth in outpatient treatment, but further study is needed to determine optimal CEMA strategies, monitoring time periods, and the appropriateness of CEMA for differing levels of substance use.

  5. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-07-31

    The FY 1998 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on pages 7 and 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 9. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 1998 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 1998 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  6. Electron Microscope Study of the Microstructure of BIS 812 EMA Submarine Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    molybdenum , and is also microalloyed with titanium , niobium and vanadium . It is used in the quenched att tempered condition, rather than being control-rolled...substitutional hardenability elements nickel, chromium and molybdenum , and is also microalloyed with titanium , niobium and vanadium . It is used in the...microstructure. Emphasis was given to the distribution and form of the titanium , niobium and vanadium microalloying

  7. Development of an orthodontic elastic material using EMA-based resin combined with 1-butanol.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takehiro; Miyazawa, Ken; Ueda, Naoya; Hata, Yuki; Kawai, Tatsushi; Goto, Shigemi

    2011-01-01

    For the development of new orthodontic elastic material, 1-butanol was added to PEMA-TA/HX resin. In the present study, basic experiments to reveal the mechanical properties of the materials were conducted. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that addition of 1-butanol did not cause any chemical changes to the PEMA-TA/HX resin. After addition of 1-butanol to PEMA-TA/HX resin, the modulus of elasticity, instantaneous modulus elasticity, retarded elasticity and viscosity were lowered in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the elastic strain was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, on the application of heat a shape-memory effect was observed. These results suggest that the modulus of elasticity of this material can be adjusted. Additionally, this material has the ability to restore force as a function of its shape-memory effect in cases of plastic deformation at the insertion of appliances. This new orthodontic elastic material has the potential to be clinically effective in orthodontic treatment.

  8. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-01

    The FY 1995 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities is presented on pages 6-8. Following the budget summary table is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 1995 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department A mission statement a budget summary table listing the project titles and FY 1995 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project as appropriate.

  9. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1986, Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1987-05-01

    The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. They are for the Offices of Conservation and Renewable Energy, Energy Research, Nuclear Energy, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and Fossil Energy. Each of these are numbered for purposes of reference in the Keyword Index. The FY 1986 Budget Summary for materials activities in each of the 29 programs within the DOE are also included.

  10. Design of a ZVS PWM inverter for a brushless DC motor in an EMA application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. Brett; Nelms, R. M.; Shepherd, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    The Component Development Division of the Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is currently investigating the use of electromechanical actuators for use in space transportation applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC). These high power servomechanisms will require rugged, reliable, and compact power electronic modules capable of modulating several hundred amperes of current at up to 270 Vdc. This paper will discuss the design and implementation of a zero-voltage-switched PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) inverter which operates from a 270 Vdc source at currents up to 100 A.

  11. Characterization of some Indian Himalayan Capsicums through floral morphology and EMA-based chromosome analysis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Timir Baran; Saha, Partha Sarathi

    2017-03-01

    The North Eastern Himalayan (NEH) regions of India are considered as one of the major repositories of the "Capsicum annuum complex" which comprises of three cultivated species namely C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. The interspecific delimitation within this large complex is ill-defined due to poorly developed crossing barriers and lack of discontinuous morphological characters. The present study elucidates the relationship among nine different cultivars of three Capsicum species on the basis of floral morphology and karyological parameters for the first time. Different floral characteristics such as margins and constrictions of calyx, type of pedicel, flower size, and color were found to have paramount importance in the species delimitation within the studied members of "C. annuum complex." The present karyomorphometric study explicitly revealed differences between the observed chromosomal data such as karyotype formulae, ordering of satellite bearing chromosome pairs and total diploid chromatin length which aid in resolving interspecific relationship among the studied cultivars of Capsicum. The present analyses unambiguously distinguished all cultivars of C. annuum from the members of C. frutescens and C. chinense and also proposed that among the five cultivars of C. annuum, Ghee lanka was comparatively distant from the other four cultivars on the basis of their karyomorphological characteristics. For the first time karyotype of hottest Indian chili is included in this paper. Comprehensive knowledge on floral morphology and karyotypes of some Himalayan Capsicums not only help to conserve genetic diversity but also help capsicum breeders for their basic and applied research.

  12. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  13. Pathogenicity of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Actinomyces oris Isolated from an Apical Abscess Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    are predominant members of human oral commensal microbiota and are known as initial colonizers on tooth surfaces (Nyvad & Kilian 1987, Kolenbrander et...naesulundii geno- species 2) together with Streptococcus oralis, Streptococ- cus mitis and Streptococcus intermedius form the bulk of the microbiota ...aeruginosa. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 425–31. Paddick JS, Brailsford SR, Kidd EAM, Beighton D (2005) Phenotypic and genotypic selection of microbiota

  14. Evidences for a large hot spot on the disk of Betelgeuse (α Ori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Le Bouquin, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Massive evolved stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. When they die as supernova but also through their mass loss during the several thousands of years of their red supergiant (RSG) phase. Unfortunately the mass loss mechanism remains poorly understood. Detailed study of the CSE and photosphere of nearby RSGs is required to constrain this scenario. Betelgeuse is the closest RSG (197 pc) and therefore has a large apparent diameter (~ 42 mas) which makes it a very interesting target. For several years, our team has lead a multi-wavelength and multi-scale observing program to characterize its mass loss. We will review here our recent results in near-infrared interferometry.

  15. [Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?].

    PubMed

    Casper, U; Seiffert, K; Dippel, E; Zouboulis, C C

    1998-11-01

    Lesions of the oral mucosa are frequently described in association with psoriasis, particularly in the pustular type. Controversy surrounds the question whether mucosal lesions can be considered as oral manifestation of psoriasis. Two patients presented with concurrent pustular psoriasis and mucosal lesions with the characteristic picture of geographic tongue. Histopathology of the mucosa showed typical features of psoriasis such as marked acanthosis, clubbing of the rete ridges, focal parakeratosis and neutrophilic infiltrates. There was parallel improvement of the skin and the mucosal lesions with systemic retinoid treatment. On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis.

  16. The 11 year history of starspots on V1149 Ori = HD 37824

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Barksdale, William S.

    1991-01-01

    All available radial-velocity measures, published and unpublished, yield an improved period and a new (assumed circular) solution. The period is 53.58 d +/- 0.02 d, and conjunction (K1 giant in front) was at 2 444 325.93 +/- 0.12 d. Eleven years of V-band photometry, published and unpublished, between 1978-1979 and 1989-1990 are analyzed. Eighteen data groups are fit with a two-spot light-curve-modeling technique. Six spots existing sometime during the 11 years are identified, and the 4-percent range of their rotation periods is used to estimate a differential rotation coefficient of k = 0.08 +/- 0.02. Observed lifetimes of those six spots are consistent with times calculated on the assumption that large spots are disrupted by the shear of differential rotation. The two best observed spots each lasted about five years.

  17. Developmental Changes in the Variability of Tongue and Lip Movements during Speech from Childhood to Adulthood: An EMA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cheng, Hei-Yan; Goozee, Justine V.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental variability of lip and tongue movement in 48 children and adults. Motion of the tongue-tip, tongue-body and lower lip was recorded using electromagnetic articulography during productions of sentences containing /t/, /s/, /l/, /k/ and /p/. Four groups of speakers participated in the study: (1) aged 6-7…

  18. Integrated Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Field Oriented Control of Permanent Magnet (PM) Motor for High Performance EMA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO COPY © 2010 SAE International AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY...PROPULSION DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7251 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Mechanical Energy Conversion Branch (AFRL/RZPG) Energy/Power/Thermal Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion

  19. Design and process of the EMA Cohort Study: the value of antenatal education in childbirth and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Pascual, Carmen; Pinedo, Isabel Artieta; Grandes, Gonzalo; de Gamboa, Gurutze Remiro Fernandez; Hermosilla, Itziar Odriozola; de la Hera, Amaia Bacigalupe; Gordon, Janire Payo; Garcia, Guadalupe Manzano; de Pedro, Magdalena Ureta

    2008-01-01

    Background Antenatal education (AE) started more than 30 years ago with the purpose of decreasing pain during childbirth. Epidural anaesthesia has achieved this objective, and the value of AE is therefore currently questioned. This article describes the protocol and process of a study designed to assess AE results today. Methods/Design A prospective study was designed in which a cohort of 616 nulliparous pregnant women attending midwife offices of the Basque Health Service were followed for 13 months. Three exposure groups were considered based on the number of AE sessions attended: (a) women attending no session, (b) women attending 1 to 4, and (c) women attending 5 or more sessions. Sociodemographic, personality, and outcome variables related to childbirth and breastfeeding were measured. It was expected 40% of pregnant women not to have participated in any AE session. However, 93% had attended at least one session. This low exposure variability decreased statistical power of the study as compared to the initially planned power. Despite this, there was a greater than 80% power for detecting as significant differences between exposure groups of, for instance, 10% in continuation of breastfeeding at one and a half months and in visits for false labour. Women attending more sessions were seen to have a mean higher age and educational level, and to belong to a higher socioeconomic group (p < 0.01). Follow-up was completed in 99% of participants. Discussion Adequate prior estimation of variability in the exposure under study is essential for designing cohort studies. Sociodemographic characteristics may play a confounding role in studies assessing AE and should be controlled in design and analyses. Quality control during the study process and continued collaboration from both public system midwives and eligible pregnant women resulted in a negligible loss rate. PMID:18435856

  20. 75 FR 9019 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2009 AL Spaw EMA Mobile Stage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...: installation of conforming rear reflex reflectors, license plate lamps, rear side marker lamps, front side marker lamps, intermediate side markers lamps, rear side reflex reflectors, front side reflex reflectors, intermediate side reflex reflectors, rear identification lamps and rear clearance lamps, to achieve...

  1. An EMA/EPG Study of Vowel-to-Vowel Articulation across Velars in Southern British English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have attested that the extent of transconsonantal vowel-to-vowel coarticulation is at least partly dependent on degree of prosodic accentuation, in languages like English. A further important factor is the mutual compatibility of consonant and vowel gestures associated with the segments in question. In this study two speakers of…

  2. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  3. Interview with Philippe Ory of the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne) Career Centre. Interviewed by Debora Keller.

    PubMed

    Ory, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    EPFL's Career Centre was created in 2007 with the mission to be a bridge between EPFL's young graduates and industry, in order to facilitate the transition to active scientific life. Through courses, workshops and personalised advice, they help graduates to set up their application documents (CV, motivation letter), prepare for job interviews and manage their careers. The Centre also offers its services to companies by organising on-campus recruitment days, actively searching for fitting profiles or posting or mailing job adverts to the EPFL graduate community. The Career Centre's goal is to be the platform for the EPFL graduates to build their careers.

  4. Workshop on Critical ORI Issues Held in Bordeaux, France on OCtober 27 - 29, 1992. Program and Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-29

    and complex multi-screen displays). Of course, humans eventually adapt very well to most man-machine interfaces. Driving a car is an example here...combat units in the field. E. TRANSPORTATION (9) REMOTE CONVOY "TRAINING WHEELS" - A leader/follower system where a number of driverless vehicles follow a

  5. A Biomechanical Modeling Study of the Effects of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle and Jaw Posture on Lip Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavness, Ian; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Demolin, Didier; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' general aim is to use biomechanical models of speech articulators to explore how possible variations in anatomical structure contribute to differences in articulatory strategies and phone systems across human populations. Specifically, they investigated 2 issues: (a) the link between lip muscle anatomy and variability in…

  6. Structure de l'univers - quand l'observation guide la théorie... ou pas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the building of science is much more complex, with back-and-forth motions between theories and observations, with some intervention of technology and randomness. This complex process is not always correctly understood and assimilated, even amongst scientists. The hero cult, mixed with some revisionism, still exists despite in-depth historical studies. In this context, it may be useful to comparatively examine the reaction to crucial observations, their interpretation and their impact on the contemporaneous theory development. Four examples are presented here, all linked to the question of the 'construction of the heavens' but at different epochs.

  7. Allier théorie et pratique dans la lutte contre la pandémie du Sida

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Le premier cas d'infection par le VIH a été notifié en 1986 au Burkina Faso. L'ignorance qui entourait cette infection et l'absence de traitement curatif a amplifié ses conséquences sociales et économiques. La mise en œuvre des interventions communautaire est un enjeu majeur actuel qui recommande la compréhension des logiques sociales endogènes qui influencent les comportements individuels et collectifs. C'est en cela que l'implication des sciences sociales dans la lutte contre les maladies, en particulier le Sida constitue un enjeu, en termes de définition et d'identification de leur contribution. Dans notre propos, nous pouvons mettre en évidence trois niveaux de contribution des sciences sociales, notamment la sociologie, l'anthropologie, la psychologie et dans une certaine mesure le droit et l’économie, à la prévention du Sida et la prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH. Il faut noter que ces disciplines contribuent à la lutte contre le VIH d'une part, par des réflexions et des éléments d'analyses constructives, et d'autre part, l'aptitude des porteurs de ces disciplines est parfois sollicitée pour l'efficacité de la mise en œuvre des actions et l'organisation des systèmes de soins. PMID:25722761

  8. Mapping paddy rice planting area in wheat-rice double-cropped areas through integration of Landsat-8 OLI, MODIS, and PALSAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao

    2015-05-01

    As farmland systems vary over space and time (season and year), accurate and updated maps of paddy rice are needed for studies of food security and environmental problems. We selected a wheat-rice double-cropped area from fragmented landscapes along the rural-urban complex (Jiangsu Province, China) and explored the potential utility of integrating time series optical images (Landsat-8, MODIS) and radar images (PALSAR) in mapping paddy rice planting areas. We first identified several main types of non-cropland land cover and then identified paddy rice fields by selecting pixels that were inundated only during paddy rice flooding periods. These key temporal windows were determined based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature and vegetation indices. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated using regions of interest (ROIs) drawn from multiple high-resolution images, Google Earth, and in-situ cropland photos. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 89.8% and 0.79, respectively. In comparison with the National Land Cover Data (China) from 2010, the resultant map better detected changes in the paddy rice fields and revealed more details about their distribution. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using images from multiple sources to generate paddy rice maps for two-crop rotation systems.

  9. Mapping paddy rice planting area in wheat-rice double-cropped areas through integration of Landsat-8 OLI, MODIS, and PALSAR images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    As farmland systems vary over space and time (season and year), accurate and updated maps of paddy rice are needed for studies of food security and environmental problems. We selected a wheat-rice double-cropped area from fragmented landscapes along the rural–urban complex (Jiangsu Province, China) and explored the potential utility of integrating time series optical images (Landsat-8, MODIS) and radar images (PALSAR) in mapping paddy rice planting areas. We first identified several main types of non-cropland land cover and then identified paddy rice fields by selecting pixels that were inundated only during paddy rice flooding periods. These key temporal windows were determined based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature and vegetation indices. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated using regions of interest (ROIs) drawn from multiple high-resolution images, Google Earth, and in-situ cropland photos. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 89.8% and 0.79, respectively. In comparison with the National Land Cover Data (China) from 2010, the resultant map better detected changes in the paddy rice fields and revealed more details about their distribution. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using images from multiple sources to generate paddy rice maps for two-crop rotation systems. PMID:25965027

  10. Image enhancements of Landsat 8 (OLI) and SAR data for preliminary landslide identification and mapping applied to the central region of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaniki, M. W.; Kuria, D. N.; Boitt, M. K.; Ngigi, T. G.

    2017-04-01

    Image enhancements lead to improved performance and increased accuracy of feature extraction, recognition, identification, classification and hence change detection. This increases the utility of remote sensing to suit environmental applications and aid disaster monitoring of geohazards involving large areas. The main aim of this study was to compare the effect of image enhancement applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and Landsat 8 imagery in landslide identification and mapping. The methodology involved pre-processing Landsat 8 imagery, image co-registration, despeckling of the SAR data, after which Landsat 8 imagery was enhanced by Principal and Independent Component Analysis (PCA and ICA), a spectral index involving bands 7 and 4, and using a False Colour Composite (FCC) with the components bearing the most geologic information. The SAR data were processed using textural and edge filters, and computation of SAR incoherence. The enhanced spatial, textural and edge information from the SAR data was incorporated to the spectral information from Landsat 8 imagery during the knowledge based classification. The methodology was tested in the central highlands of Kenya, characterized by rugged terrain and frequent rainfall induced landslides. The results showed that the SAR data complemented Landsat 8 data which had enriched spectral information afforded by the FCC with enhanced geologic information. The SAR classification depicted landslides along the ridges and lineaments, important information lacking in the Landsat 8 image classification. The success of landslide identification and classification was attributed to the enhanced geologic features by spectral, textural and roughness properties.

  11. Optical Properties of K2O-Li2O-WO3-B2O3 Glasses: Evidence of Mixed Alkali Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edukondalu, Avula; Sripathi, T.; Kareem Ahmmad, Shaik; Rahman, Syed; Sivakumar, K.

    2017-02-01

    Glass with compositions xK2O-(30 - x)Li2O-10WO3-60B2O3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol.% have been prepared using the normal melt quenching technique. The optical reflection and absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the absorption edge studies, the values of the optical band gap ( E opt) and Urbach energy (Δ E) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and Δ E vary non-linearly with composition parameter, showing the mixed alkali effect. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple Di-Domenico model.

  12. A note on the temporary misregistration of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI) imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Roy, David P.; Masek, Jeffrey; Gascon, Ferran; Dwyer, John L.; Choate, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 sensors provide multi-spectral image data with similar spectral and spatial characteristics that together provide improved temporal coverage globally. Both systems are designed to register Level 1 products to a reference image framework, however, the Landsat-8 framework, based upon the Global Land Survey images, contains residual geolocation errors leading to an expected sensor-to-sensor misregistration of 38 m (2σ). These misalignments vary geographically but should be stable for a given area. The Landsat framework will be readjusted for consistency with the Sentinel-2 Global Reference Image, with completion expected in 2018. In the interim, users can measure Landsat-to-Sentinel tie points to quantify the misalignment in their area of interest and if appropriate to reproject the data to better alignment.

  13. Overview of Honeywell electromechanical actuation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyllie, C.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electromechanical actuation programs (EMA) are presented. The development history is outlined. Space shuttle flight control systems and the advantages of EMAS, and EMA technology status and development requirements are outlined.

  14. Software Package on Integrated Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Field Oriented Control (FOC) of Permanent Magnet (PM) Motor for High Performance Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    current [A] iqN = zeros(1,Nt); % Quadrature current [A] phiN = zeros(1,Nt); % Torque angle [rad] LdN = zeros(1,Nt); LdN (1...A] iqN(nt) = iq; % [A] % Store inductances. LdN (nt) = Ld; % [H] LqN(nt) = Lq; % [H] % Store voltages

  15. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from transitional, compared with cities from non-transitional countries. These regional differences in increased prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm were more pronounced in men aged 60-79 years than in those aged 40-59 years. Overall there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index  ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) over 4.3 years (between 5.3 and 6.1 %) with no significant regional differences at any age. Mid-upper arm muscle area declined during follow-up with the greatest decline among men from North-East European cities. In conclusion, increasing waist circumference is dissociated from change in body mass index and most rapid among men living in cities from transitional North-East European countries, presumably driven by economic and socio-political changes. Information on women would also be of value and it would be of interest to relate the changes in adiposity to dietary and other behavioural habits.

  16. FDA and EMA end points: which outcome end points should we use in clinical trials in patients with irritable bowel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Corsetti, M; Tack, J

    2013-06-01

    Trial design and endpoints for the evaluation of drug efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) underwent major changes over the last two decades. A systematic review in the early 1990s concluded that there were few well-designed and well-executed treatment trials in IBS. Over the next decade, the so-called binary endpoints were used in several clinical trials in IBS in the US, Europe and other parts of the world. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a general guidance for the evaluation of symptom benefit in clinical trials based on patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, which had a major impact on trial design in IBS. In May 2012, the FDA recommended to use as provisional endpoint the quantification of two major IBS aspects, abdominal pain and disordered defecation, to assess the efficacy of pharmacological treatments in IBS. In the present issue of Neurogastroenterology & Motility, the performance of the FDA Responder Endpoint for clinical trials in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation was evaluated using data from two large Phase III clinical trials of linaclotide. The FDA interim endpoints are clinically relevant as they are also able to capture the smallest patient-reported difference in the domain of Abdominal Pain intensity and Abnormal Defecation with good diagnostic accuracy. The FDA responder definition and the European Medicines Agency responder definitions generate similar response rates, while binary endpoints generate higher responder rates. The implications for optimalization and harmonisation are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of crack arrest fracture toughness of parent plate, weld metal and heat affected zone of BIS 812 EMA ship plate steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, I. A.

    1993-10-01

    The steel chosen for the pressure hull of the Collins class submarine has undergone evaluation to compare the crack arrest fracture toughness, K(Ia), of the parent plate with that of weld metal and heat affected zone. The tests were conducted over a range of subzero temperatures on specimens slightly outside the ASTM standard test method specimen configuration. Shallow face grooved specimens were used to vary the propagating crack velocity from that of non face grooved specimens and determine if K(Ia), is sensitive to changes in crack velocity. The weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ), and parent plate were assessed to determine if the welding process had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel. Tests on each of these regions revealed that, for the combination of parent plate, welding procedure and consumables, no adverse effect on crack arrest properties was encountered. Crack arrest fracture toughness of the weld metal and HAZ was superior to that of the parent plate at comparable temperatures.

  18. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  19. oriGNAI3: a narrow zone of preferential replication initiation in mammalian cells identified by 2D gel and competitive PCR replicon mapping techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, F; Baron, B; Fernandez, M A; Lachagès, A M; Mayau, V; Buttin, G; Debatisse, M

    1998-01-01

    The nature of mammalian origins of DNA replication remains controversial and this is primarily because two-dimensional gel replicon mapping techniques have identified broad zones of replication initiation whereas several other techniques, such as quantitative PCR, have disclosed more discrete sites of initiation at the same chromosomal loci. In this report we analyze the replication of an amplified genomic region encompassing the 3'-end of the GNAI3 gene, the entire GNAT2 gene and the intergenic region between them in exponentially growing Chinese hamster fibroblasts. These cells express GNAI3 but not GNAT2 . The replication pattern was first analyzed by two-dimensional neutral-alkaline gel electrophoresis. Surprisingly, the results revealed a small preferential zone of replication initiation, of at most 1.7 kb, located in a limited part of the GNAI3 - GNAT2 intergenic region. Mapping of this initiation zone was then confirmed by quantitative PCR. The agreement between the two techniques exploited here strengthens the hypothesis that preferred sites of replication initiation do exist in mammalian genomes. PMID:9580680

  20. Identification of the srtC1 Transcription Start Site and Catalytically Essential Residues Required for Actinomyces oris T14V SrtC1 Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-27

    al., 1999, 2002; Frankel et al., 2007), Cys 193 in SrtC1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae (Manzano et al., 2008) and Cys 219 in SrtC1 from Group B...Sortase mediated pilus fiber biogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae . Structure 16: 1838 1848. Manzano C, Izore T, Job V, Di Guilmi AM & Dessen A... Streptococcus (Cozzi et al., 2011) are critical for each of their corresponding sortase activities. When two other residues (Leu263 and Thr265) in this

  1. Identification of the Genes Involved in the Biofilm-like Structures on Actinomyces oris K20, a Clinical Isolate from an Apical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    abscess, root canal infection, dental implant –related infection (14–20), and non-oral infections in the human body (21). Kalfes et al (18) isolated...in initial dental biofilm formation. Microbiology 2009;155:2116–26. 12. Li J, Helmerhorst EJ, Leone CW, et al. Identification of early microbial...colonizers in human dental biofilm . J Appl Microbiol 2004;97:1311–8. 13. Zijnge V, van Leeuwen MB, Degener JE, et al. Oral biofilm architecture on natural

  2. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of oridonin nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Lou, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Lei; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Juying; Wei, Xinbing; Yu, Zongqin; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang

    2009-09-08

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of an oridonin (ORI) nanosuspension relative to ORI solution both in vitro and in vivo. ORI nanosuspension with a particle size of 897.2+/-14.2 nm was prepared by the high pressure homogenization method (HPH). MTT assay showed that ORI nanosuspension could significantly enhance the in vitro cytotoxicity against K562 cells compared to the ORI solution, the IC(50) value at 36 h was reduced from 12.85 micromol/L for ORI solution to 8.11 micromol/L for ORI nanosuspension. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the ORI nanosuspension also induced a higher apoptotic rate in K562 cells compared to ORI solution. In vivo studies in a mouse model of sarcoma-180 solid tumors demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with ORI nanosuspension than ORI solution at the same dosage. The mice injected with ORI nanosuspension showed a higher reduction in tumor volume and tumor weight at the dose of 20mg/kg compared to the ORI solution (P<0.01), with the tumor inhibition rate increased from 42.49% for ORI solution to 60.23% for the ORI nanosuspension. Taken together, these results suggest that the delivery of ORI in nanosuspension is a promising approach for the treatment of the tumor.

  3. Galactosylated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for parenteral delivery of oridonin: tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyun; Zhang, Dianrui; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hejian; Li, Tingting; Hao, Leilei; Zheng, Dandan; Liu, Guangpu; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle is a promising drug carrier system. Oridonin (ORI)-loaded galactosylated BSA nanoparticle (ORI-GB-NP) was prepared for liver targeting delivery of ORI. This work was designed to investigate the in vitro release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ORI-GB-NP. ORI-GB-NP was prepared by the desolvation method. The particle size of ORI-GB-NP was 172.0 ± 8.3 nm with narrow size distribution. The in vitro release of ORI-GB-NP exhibited biphasic drug release pattern with an initial burst release and consequently sustained release. Pharmacokinetic analysis displayed that ORI-GB-NP and ORI-loaded BSA nanoparticle (ORI-BSA-NP) could enhance the drug plasma level and prolong the circulation time in contrast with ORI solution. Meanwhile, compared with ORI-BSA-NP, ORI-GB-NP could deliver more ORI to liver and simultaneously reduce the toxicity of ORI to heart, lung and kidney. In conclusion, ORI-GB-NP could be a promising drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy.

  4. Electromechanical actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigham, J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for electric flight systems are presented. Technology issues are identified, and major steps relative to EMA development, NASA's role, and a technology procurement plan are outlined.

  5. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  6. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  7. Estimating the Reliability of Aggregated and Within-Person Centered Scores in Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Weng, Li-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A procedure for estimating the reliability of test scores in the context of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was proposed to take into account the characteristics of EMA measures. Two commonly used test scores in EMA were considered: the aggregated score (AGGS) and the within-person centered score (WPCS). Conceptually, AGGS and WPCS represent…

  8. Modèle d'aide à la gestion des eaux souterraines (MAGES). 1. Théorie du modèle numérique de transport des contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Frédérick; Banton, Olivier; Porel, Gilles

    1998-08-01

    MAGES is software for forecasting pollution hazards of groundwater which is in the process of development at INRS-Eau (Canada). The main distinctive feature of the model is the use of stationary truncated temporal moment equations instead of the classical time dependent advection-dispersion equation to solve the transport of contaminants. The aim of this work is to describe the theory of truncated temporal moment equations and to show how the curves of the concentration versus time can be calculated from temporal moments. The discrete method used to solve the equations and its stability is also discussed.

  9. Paul Langevin's 1908 paper ``On the Theory of Brownian Motion'' [``Sur la théorie du mouvement brownien,'' C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 146, 530-533 (1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemons, Don S.; Gythiel, Anthony

    1997-11-01

    We present a translation of Paul Langevin's landmark paper. In it Langevin successfully applied Newtonian dynamics to a Brownian particle and so invented an analytical approach to random processes which has remained useful to this day.

  10. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique V(z) d'une couche mince par la théorie de la résonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdani, Abderrafi; Augereau, Franck; Despaux, Gilles

    1996-05-01

    Experimental acoustic signatures measured on thin films are perturbated by an interference process between the different Lamb waves generated at various incident angular values. This disables the correct determination of the layer's acoustic parameters and for this reason, it is helpful to develop a powerful method to study the influence of each layer parameter on these modes. For this purpose, a technique based on the calculation of the half-height width on resonance peaks of the reflectance power has been elaborated. From these simulations, we may determine which modes will be more efficiently extracted from acoustic signatures for steel and glass films. This result has been confirmed experimentally using ultrasonic frequencies optimized versus the sample thicknesses for glass and steel plates. Indeed, from experimental acoustic signatures, we have next been able to retrieve the acoustic parameters of these samples. Les relevés expérimentaux des signatures acoustiques sur des couches minces sont difficiles à interpréter car tous les modes de Lamb générés à differents angles d'incidence vont interférer, ce qui rend impossible toute détermination des paramètres acoustiques de la couche. Il est alors nécessaire de mettre en oeuvre une méthode d'analyse rapide afin d'étudier l'influence de chacun des paramètres de la couche sur ces modes afin de déterminer les conditions optimales de mesure. La méthode d'analyse basée sur la détermination de la largeur à mi-hauteur des pics de résonance du pouvoir réflecteur est un moyen original de résolution du problème direct, qui permet de montrer que certains modes sont plus efficaces que d'autres, et donc plus faciles à détecter sur les signatures expérimentales. Grâce aux résulats théoriques obtenus, les fréquences d'observation ont pu être optimisées pour des épaisseurs de plaques d'acier et de verre utilisées dans la partie expérimentale de ce travail. De ces mesures et en utilisant notre modèle de simulation de la signature acoustique, nous avons résolu le problème inverse et ainsi avons pu déterminer les paramètres acoustiques de ces couches.

  11. Coordination of cell proliferation and cell expansion mediated by ribosome-related processes in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Ushio; Horiguchi, Gorou; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    Co-ordination of cell proliferation and cell expansion is a key regulatory process in leaf-size determination, but its molecular details are unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in a positive regulator of cell proliferation often trigger excessive cell enlargement post-mitotically in leaves. This phenomenon, called compensation syndrome, is seen in the mutant angustifolia3 (an3), which is defective in a transcription co-activator. Such compensation, however, does not occur in response to a decrease in cell number in oligocellula (oli). oli2, oli5 and oli7 did not exhibit compensation and the reduction in cell number in these mutants was moderate. However, when an oli mutation was combined with a different oli mutation to create a double mutant, cell number was further reduced and compensation was induced. Similarly, weak suppression of AN3 expression reduced cell number moderately but did not induce compensation compared with an an3 null mutant. Furthermore, double mutants of either oli2, oli5 or oli7 and an3 showed markedly enhanced compensation. These results suggest that compensation is triggered when cell proliferation regulated by OLI2/OLI5/OLI7 and AN3 is compromised in a threshold-dependent manner. OLI2 encodes a Nop2 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is involved in ribosome biogenesis, whereas OLI5 and OLI7 encode ribosome proteins RPL5A and RPL5B, respectively. This suggests that a factor involved in the induction of compensation may be under the dual control of AN3 and a ribosome-related process.

  12. 42 CFR 93.500 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including debarment or suspension, arising... to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS administrative actions under this part,...

  13. 42 CFR 93.500 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including debarment or suspension, arising... to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS administrative actions under this part,...

  14. Indigenizing mental health services: New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Durie, Mason

    2011-04-01

    Mental health services in New Zealand have been significantly altered by Māori cultural values. Since 1980, a monocultural approach has given way to the incorporation of Māori language, Māori health perspectives, and Māori psychological frameworks in the assessment, treatment, and care of patients. Māori provider organizations, an expanded Māori health workforce, and Māori leadership have been crucial catalysts for the transformation. The shifts have paralleled similar changes in other sectors, reflecting a broader societal movement within which indigeneity has received greater acknowledgement. The author's bicultural background, psychiatric training, and inclusion in Māori networks were important for promoting the transformation.

  15. Olive: a key gene required for chlorophyll biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus.

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, A; Carpenter, R; Doyle, S; Coen, E S

    1993-01-01

    Olive (oli) is a recessive nuclear mutation of Antirrhinum majus which reduces the level of chlorophyll pigmentation and affects the ultrastructure of chloroplasts. The oli-605 allele carries a Tam3 transposon insertion which has allowed the locus to be isolated. The oli gene encodes a large putative protein of 153 kDa which shows homology to the products of two bacterial genes necessary for tetrapyrrole-metal chelation during the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll or cobyrinic acid. We therefore propose that the product of the oli gene is necessary for a key step of chlorophyll synthesis: the chelation of magnesium by protoporphyrin IX. Somatic reversion of the oli-605 allele produces chimeric plants which indicate that the oli gene functions cell-autonomously. Expression of oli is restricted to photosynthetic cells and repressed by light, suggesting that it may be involved in regulating the rate of chlorophyll synthesis in green tissues. Images PMID:8404842

  16. Identification of a High-Efficiency Baculovirus DNA Replication Origin That Functions in Insect and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Carol-P; Huang, Yu-Hui; Huang, Sheng-Ping; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Lin, Pi-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p143 gene from Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been found to increase the expression of luciferase, which is driven by the polyhedrin gene promoter, in a plasmid with virus coinfection. Further study indicated that this is due to the presence of a replication origin (ori) in the coding region of this gene. Transient DNA replication assays showed that a specific fragment of the p143 coding sequence, p143-3, underwent virus-dependent DNA replication in Spodoptera frugiperda IPLB-Sf-21 (Sf-21) cells. Deletion analysis of the p143-3 fragment showed that subfragment p143-3.2a contained the essential sequence of this putative ori. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a unique distribution of imperfect palindromes with high AT contents. No sequence homology or similarity between p143-3.2a and any other known ori was detected, suggesting that it is a novel baculovirus ori. Further study showed that the p143-3.2a ori can replicate more efficiently in infected Sf-21 cells than baculovirus homologous regions (hrs), the major baculovirus ori, or non-hr oris during virus replication. Previously, hr on its own was unable to replicate in mammalian cells, and for mammalian viral oris, viral proteins are generally required for their proper replication in host cells. However, the p143-3.2a ori was, surprisingly, found to function as an efficient ori in mammalian cells without the need for any viral proteins. We conclude that p143 contains a unique sequence that can function as an ori to enhance gene expression in not only insect cells but also mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Baculovirus DNA replication relies on both hr and non-hr oris; however, so far very little is known about the latter oris. Here we have identified a new non-hr ori, the p143 ori, which resides in the coding region of p143. By developing a novel DNA replication-enhanced reporter system, we have identified and located the core region required for the p143

  17. Antiendomysial antibodies in Berger's disease.

    PubMed

    Pierucci, Alessandro; Fofi, Claudia; Bartoli, Benedetta; Simonetti, Bianca Maria; Pecci, Gabriella; Sabbatella, Luigi; Di Tola, Marco; Greco, Rosita; Anania, Maria Cristina; Picarelli, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The finding of increased levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) against food antigens in patients with IgA nephropathy prompted the hypothesis of an association between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease (CD). Attention was initially directed to antigliadin antibodies, then to IgA antiendomysial antibodies (IgA-EMA). IgG1-EMA have been found in patients with CD with IgA-EMA-negative results. The presence of IgA- and IgG1-EMA was investigated in 36 patients with IgA nephropathy, 15 patients with other primary glomerulonephritis, and 15 patients with lupus nephritis. IgA-EMA and IgG1-EMA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. At the time of renal biopsy, the following factors were evaluated: history of macroscopic hematuria, serum creatinine level, urinalysis, 24-hour proteinuria, blood pressure, and histological classification of IgA nephropathy. Sixteen of 36 patients with IgA nephropathy (44.4%) showed EMA positivity. Among patients with positive EMA, 12 patients (75%) were IgG1-EMA positive, 2 patients (12.5%) were IgA-EMA positive, and 2 patients (12.5%) were positive for both isotypes. No significant differences were observed between the two groups (EMA positive versus EMA negative) concerning age, serum creatinine level, macroscopic hematuria, blood pressure, 24-hour proteinuria, or degree of renal histological involvement. IgA- and IgG1-EMA were not detected in patients with other primary nephropathies or lupus nephritis. These results, based on the finding of IgG1-EMA, suggest a common pathogenetic pathway for CD and IgA nephropathy. On this basis, the presence of IgG1-EMA and/or IgA-EMA should be investigated in patients with IgA nephropathy. Furthermore, the role of a gluten-free diet in the natural history of IgA nephropathy, at least in EMA-positive patients, needs to be ascertained.

  18. Detection of Legionella species in environmental water by the quantitative PCR method in combination with ethidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Takama, Tomoko; Yoshizaki, Miwa; Agata, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    We detected Legionella species in 111 bath water samples and 95 cooling tower water samples by using a combination of conventional plate culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR combined with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-qPCR) methods. In the case of bath water samples, Legionella spp. were detected in 30 samples by plate culture, in 85 samples by qPCR, and in 49 samples by EMA-qPCR. Of 81 samples determined to be Legionella-negative by plate culture, 56 and 23 samples were positive by qPCR and EMA-qPCR, respectively. Therefore, EMA treatment decreased the number of Legionella-positive bath water samples detected by qPCR. In contrast, EMA treatment had no effect on cooling tower water samples. We therefore expect that EMA-qPCR is a useful method for the rapid detection of viable Legionella spp. from bath water samples.

  19. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4"-Oxo-Avermectin: Characterization of Biocatalytically Active Bacterial Strains and of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Enzymes and Their Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, Volker; Molnár, István; Hammer, Philip E.; Hill, D. Steven; Zirkle, Ross; Buckel, Thomas G.; Buckel, Dagmar; Ligon, James M.; Pachlatko, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    4"-Oxo-avermectin is a key intermediate in the manufacture of the agriculturally important insecticide emamectin benzoate from the natural product avermectin. Seventeen biocatalytically active Streptomyces strains with the ability to oxidize avermectin to 4"-oxo-avermectin in a regioselective manner have been discovered in a screen of 3,334 microorganisms. The enzymes responsible for this oxidation reaction in these biocatalytically active strains were found to be cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and were termed Ema1 to Ema17. The genes for Ema1 to Ema17 have been cloned, sequenced, and compared to reveal a new subfamily of CYPs. Ema1 to Ema16 have been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified as His-tagged recombinant proteins, and their basic enzyme kinetic parameters have been determined. PMID:16269732

  20. Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population.

  1. Wireless Emergency Alerts: Trust Model Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    service, for- merly known as the Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS). Alert originators (AOs) working at emergency management agencies ( EMAs ...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the EMAs , and the AOs must all strive to maximize and maintain trust in the WEA ser- vice if it is to be an effective...Alert Service (CMAS), enhances public safety by providing authorized emergency management agen- cies ( EMAs ) with the capability to issue alerts and

  2. Maximizing Trust in the Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    CMAS). Alert originators (AOs) at emer- gency management agencies ( EMAs ) must trust WEA to deliver alerts to the public in an accurate and timely...that they receive before they will act on them. Clearly, the AOs, the EMAs , and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must all strive to...some factors, such as security, FEMA has requirements that an EMA and its contractors must satisfy. System reliability is a shared responsibility as it

  3. Multiple Origins and Replication Proteins Influence Biological Properties of β-Lactamase-Producing Plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Pagotto, Franco; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2001-01-01

    The β-lactamase-producing Asia-type plasmid pJD4 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a 7.4-kb, broad-host-range plasmid. It is part of a family of plasmids which are structurally related yet vary in size, found in both N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Branch-point analysis by electron microscopy indicates that pJD4 carries three clustered but distinguishable origins of replication, which we named ori1, ori2, and ori3. Although pJD4 belongs to incompatibility (Inc) group W, it also carries a silent IncFII determinant which is expressed when ori2 and ori3 are absent. The Africa-type plasmid pJD5, a naturally occurring deletion derivative of pJD4, carries only ori1, belongs to the IncFII group, and, in contrast to pJD4, requires DNA polymerase I (Pol I) for replication. Plasmids constructed from pJD4 which lack ori1 but carry ori2 and ori3 do not require Pol I and are incompatible with IncW plasmids, suggesting that the ori2 or ori3 region contains the IncW determinant. We have cloned a replication initiation protein (RepB) that is necessary for ori2 and ori3 to function. This Rep protein is distinct from RepA, which is necessary for ori1. Thus, pJD4 is unique because it is the smallest plasmid characterized containing three origins of replication and two unique Rep proteins. PMID:11544207

  4. Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Functional Brain Imaging Methods: New Avenues for Studying and Treating Tobacco Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and related methods typically entail repeatedly and intensively sampling behavior as it occurs over time and under naturalistic conditions. Although the methodological features of EMA make it a highly valuable research technique in its own right, EMA can also be a potent counterpart to other approaches. One methodological partnership with substantial yet largely untapped potential for the study of tobacco dependence is the pairing of EMA with functional brain imaging. Methods: The goal of this review is to outline the promise of this approach, with a focus on the combined use of EMA and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Due to the unique and complementary strengths of each method, the merger of EMA and fMRI methods has the potential to advance the understanding of tobacco dependence in ways difficult or impossible to achieve through the use of either method in isolation. Results: In addition to describing a conceptual basis for combining EMA with fMRI, we provide a preliminary empirical illustration of this integrative approach using data from an ongoing study. Conclusions: EMA and fMRI have independently yielded important findings regarding the nature and treatment of tobacco dependence. The integration of these powerful research methods, however, holds even greater potential for the field of tobacco research. Additionally, recent advances are paving the way for the synergistic use of fMRI and EMA-based methods to develop innovative approaches to tobacco cessation. PMID:24132411

  5. 44 CFR 302.4 - Merit personnel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS CIVIL DEFENSE-STATE AND LOCAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EMA... maintained in public agencies administering or supervising the administration of the civil defense program...

  6. The biological properties of a novel ethyl methacrylate resin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Jinno, S; Hattori, N; Okeya, H; Ishikawa, A; Deguchi, M; Ohno, Y; Kawai, T; Noguchi, T

    2006-01-01

    A novel ethyl methacrylate (EMA) resin was developed to overcome the tissue, organ and systemic damage associated with the residual monomer of conventional methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin bone cement. EMA resin is a chemical/ photopolymerizable material and is easy to handle during clinical procedures. The biocompatibility of EMA was evaluated in accordance with ISO10993-6. No inflammatory response was observed 1 and 9 weeks after implantation in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of ddY mice. EMA resin also demonstrated better biocompatibility when compared with conventional bone cements. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was used as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and added to the EMA slurry. The EMA-PLLA composite membrane was sticky and BMP readily adhered to its surface. The EMA-PLLA-BMP composite membrane induced new bone formation, the new bone growing in the shape of the EMA in the thigh muscle pouch of ddY mice. This novel EMA resin has many potential clinical applications.

  7. Symposium on Electromagnetic Launcher Technology, 5th, Sandestin, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Clarence E.

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on electromagnetic accelerators (EMAs) and railguns (RGs) discusses active-current management for four-rail RGs, the design of a compulsator-drive 60-caliber RG, EMA studies with augmented rails, muzzle-shunt augmentation of conventional RGs, effect of in-bore gas on RG performance, the distributed-energy store RG, plasma diagnostics for high power ignitron development, a review of EMA armature research, RG hybrid armatures, a new solid-armature design concept, and the electrodynamics of RG plasma armatures. Also discussed is RG modeling at speed using three-dimensional finite elements, power supply technology for EMAs, rotating machine power supplies for next-generation EMAs, advanced EMA power supplies with magnetic-flux compression, metal-to-metal switches for large currents, lightweight high-effiency energy-storage transformers, hypervelocity projectile development for EMAs, structural design issues for EMA projectiles, stiff RGs, a reinforced Al conductor for cryogenic applications, mass-stabilized projectile designs for EMA launch, indictively-commutated coilguns, an actively switched pulsed induction accelerator, a plasma gun-augmented electrothermal accelerator, a symmetrical rail accelerator, and a travelling-wave synchronous coil gun.

  8. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals’ current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Objective Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. Methods The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study’s infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. Results The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system’s functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants’ response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of

  10. On the relationship between the postmidnight thermospheric equatorial mass anomaly and equatorial ionization anomaly under geomagnetic quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Biqiang; Lei, Jiuhou; Wan, Weixing

    2011-12-01

    The equatorial mass anomaly (EMA) in the thermosphere and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the ionosphere are two interesting phenomena in low-equatorial latitude regions. Previous studies have shown that the EMA appears between 1000 and 2000 local time (LT) and its location of trough is aligned with dip equator, indicating the plausible role of the EIA structure in the development of EMA. In this report, we conducted a statistical study of the occurrence of postmidnight EMA and EIA on the basis of the CHAMP in situ measurements during 2002-2008. Our results revealed that clear EMA and EIA structures are sometimes visible in the postmidnight sector (0100-0600 LT) during geomagnetic quiet periods (Kp < 3). The postmidnight EMA is not necessarily accompanied by the EIA signature in both case study and statistics sense being distinct from the daytime situation. In addition, the occurrence rates of postmidnight EMA and EIA display contrasting behavior with respect to their local time, longitudinal and solar activity dependences. The highest occurrence rate for EMA is 8% at around 0300 LT, while the occurrence rate of the EIA decreases gradually from about 30% at around 2300 LT to ˜5% at 0600 LT. Longitudinal occurrence of postmidnight EIA presents a wave-like pattern; however, no salient feature appears for the longitudinal occurrence of EMA. Postmidnight EMA is more likely to occur at lower solar activity, whereas an opposite trend presents in the EIA. On the basis of above results, our findings imply that a simple EIA-EMA cause-effect relationship does not hold in the postmidnight sector.

  11. Identification of two replicons in phage-plasmid P4.

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, A; Serina, S; Terzano, S; Dehò, G; Ghisotti, D

    1998-06-05

    DNA replication of phage-plasmid P4 proceeds bidirectionally from the ori1 site (previously named ori), but requires a second cis-acting region, crr. Replication depends on the product of the P4 alpha gene, a protein with primase and helicase activity, that binds both ori1 and crr. A negative regulator of P4 DNA replication, the Cnr protein, is required for copy number control of plasmid P4. Using a plasmid complementation test for replication, we found that two replicons, both dependent on the alpha gene product, coexist in P4. The first replicon is made by the cnr and alpha genes and the ori1 and crr sites. The second is limited to the alpha and crr region. Thus, in the absence of the ori1 region, replication can initiate at a different site. By deletion mapping, a cis-acting region, ori2, essential for replication of the alpha-crr replicon was mapped within a 270-bp fragment in the first half of the alpha gene. The ori2 site was found to be dispensable in a replicon that contains ori1. A construct that besides crr and alpha carries also the cnr gene was unable to replicate, suggesting that Cnr not only controls replication from ori1, but also silences ori2.

  12. Genome-scale analysis of metazoan replication origins reveals their organization in specific but flexible sites defined by conserved features

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Vigneron, Alice; Stanojcic, Slavica; Ganier, Olivier; Peiffer, Isabelle; Rivals, Eric; Puy, Aurore; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Desprat, Romain; Méchali, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although methylation is nearly absent in Drosophila, indicating that this epigenetic mark is not crucial for defining the activated origin. Initiation of DNA synthesis starts at the borders of CGI, resulting in a striking bimodal distribution of NS, suggestive of a dual initiation event. Oris contain a unique nucleotide skew around NS peaks, characterized by G/T and C/A overrepresentation at the 5′ and 3′ of Ori sites, respectively. Repeated GC-rich elements were detected, which are good predictors of Oris, suggesting that common sequence features are part of metazoan Oris. In the heterochromatic chromosome 4 of Drosophila, Oris correlated with HP1 binding sites. At the chromosome level, regions rich in Oris are early replicating, whereas Ori-poor regions are late replicating. The genome-wide analysis was coupled with a DNA combing analysis to unravel the organization of Oris. The results indicate that Oris are in a large excess, but their activation does not occur at random. They are organized in groups of site-specific but flexible origins that define replicons, where a single origin is activated in each replicon. This organization provides both site specificity and Ori firing flexibility in each replicon, allowing possible adaptation to environmental cues and cell fates. PMID:21750104

  13. An algorithm for computing moments-based flood quantile estimates when historical flood information is available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, T. A.; Lane, W. L.; Baier, W. G.

    This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record; information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters, of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.

  14. Brain and Muscle Redox Imbalance Elicited by Acute Ethylmalonic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2’,7’-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  15. Conceptualizing and Estimating Process Speed in Studies Employing Ecological Momentary Assessment Designs: A Multilevel Variance Decomposition Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyko, Mariya P.; Ram, Nilam

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have been making use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and other study designs that sample feelings and behaviors in real time and in naturalistic settings to study temporal dynamics and contextual factors of a wide variety of psychological, physiological, and behavioral processes. As EMA designs become more widespread,…

  16. Feasibility and Acceptability of Smartphone Assessment in Older Adults with Cognitive and Emotional Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Alex T.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Depp, Colin; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has several advantages in clinical research yet little is known about the feasibility of collecting EMA data with mobile technologies in older adults, particularly those with emotional or cognitive difficulties. The aim of this feasibility study was to assess perceived acceptability, adherence rates, and reasons for non-adherence to smartphone-based EMA. Method At two sites, participants (n=103) aged 65 years or older with a DSM-IV-defined anxiety or depressive disorder and cognitive concerns responded three times daily to smartphone-based EMA questions assessing clinical outcomes for two 10-day periods. Quantitative and qualitative measures assessed acceptability, adherence, and reasons for non-adherence following both 10-day EMA periods. Results Participants were moderately satisfied with and comfortable using smartphone-based EMA. Overall, 76% of participants completed surveys on ≥10 of the 20 assessment days, and 70% of participants completed at least 30% of the total surveys. Reasons for non-adherence included technical (malfunction), logistical (competing demands), physiological (hearing difficulties), and cognitive (forgetting) issues. Discussion Smartphone-based EMA is feasible in older adults with cognitive and emotional difficulties. EMA tools should be responsive to the needs and preferences of participants to ensure adequate acceptability and adherence in this population. Our findings can inform the design, development, and implementation of mobile technologies in older adults in research and clinical contexts. PMID:27683018

  17. Trait anxiety and trait anger measured by ecological momentary assessment and their correspondence with traditional trait questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Chaplin, William F.; Burg, Matthew M.; Stone, Arthur A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of anxiety and anger/hostility were obtained every 25–30 minutes over two 24-hour periods, separated by a median of 6 months, from 165 employees at a university in the Northeast. We used a multilevel trait-state-error structural equation model to estimate: (1) the proportion of variance in EMA anxiety and anger/hostility attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; (2) the correspondence between these trait-like components of EMA anxiety and anger/hostility and traditional questionnaire measures of each construct; and (3) the test-retest correlation between two 24-hour averages obtained several months apart. After adjustment for measurement error, more than half the total variance in EMA reports of anxiety and anger/hostility is attributable to stable trait-like individual differences; however, the trait-like component of each construct is only modestly correlated with questionnaire measures of that construct. The 6-month “test-retest” correlations of latent variables representing the true 24-hour EMA average anxiety and average anger are quite high (r ≥ 0.83). This study represents the longest follow-up period over which EMA-based estimates of traits have been examined. The results suggest that although the trait component (individual differences) of EMA momentary ratings of anxiety and anger is larger than the state component, traditional self-report questionnaires of trait anxiety and anger correspond only weakly with EMA-defined traits. PMID:24198441

  18. The Analysis of a Construct That Does Not Exist: Misunderstanding the Multidimensional Nature of Trait Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Norman S.; Parker, James D. A.

    1990-01-01

    C. Davis and M. Cowles (1989) analyzed a total trait anxiety score on the Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales (EMAS)--a unidimensional construct that this multidimensional measure does not assess. Data are reanalyzed using the appropriate scoring procedure for the EMAS. Subjects included 145 undergraduates in 1 of 4 testing conditions. (SLD)

  19. Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Mood Disorders and Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we discuss ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies on mood disorders and mood dysregulation, illustrating 6 major benefits of the EMA approach to clinical assessment: (a) Real-time assessments increase accuracy and minimize retrospective bias; (b) repeated assessments can reveal dynamic processes; (c) multimodal assessments…

  1. Leaving School: A Question of Money?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a study to determine the effect of educational maintenance allowances (EMA) on a student's staying in school. A substantial proportion of school-leavers indicated that they may have remained in school had an EMA been available. (KC)

  2. Brain and muscle redox imbalance elicited by acute ethylmalonic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

  3. Allocating Spare Parts In Complicated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.; Lorden, G.; Kajikawa, Fredric; Maiocco, F.; Gunn, Jodie; Kameyama, Ethel

    1987-01-01

    Assortments analyzed for cost effectiveness and effects on system functionality. Eisenberger-Maiocco algorithm (EMA) is efficient Markov algorithm to aid in provision of spare parts. Two calculations performed: forecasting availability of system with given pool of spare parts and determining most cost-effective assortment of spares. EMA written in interpreter PC-BASIC.

  4. Hereditary spherocytosis diagnosed with the eosin-5'-maleimide binding test.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toru; Ono, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Iwao; Ishigaki, Hidetoshi; Hakamata, Akio; Shirai, Masami; Endoh, Akira; Hongo, Teruaki

    2014-06-01

    We describe three cases of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) diagnosed using the eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test and discuss the relevance of the EMA binding test. In Japan, this test is not widely used because the prevalence of HS is low. This test is a valuable screening test for the diagnosis of HS.

  5. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bos, Fionneke M; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-11-01

    Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) offer insight into daily life experiences, including symptoms of mental disorders. The application of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology can be a valuable addition to more traditional measures such as retrospective self-report questionnaires because they may help reveal the impact of psychotropic medication on patients' actual experiences. In this paper we systematically review the existing literature on the use of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology research. To this end, we searched the PsycInfo and Medline databases for all available ESM/EMA studies on the use of psychotropic medication in patients with DSM-III-R and DSM-IV disorders. Dissertations were excluded. We included 18 studies that applied ESM/EMA to study the effects of medication on patients with major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychotic disorder, and anxiety disorder. We found that ESM/EMA may allow researchers and clinicians to track patients during different phases of treatment: before treatment to predict outcome, during treatment to examine the effects of treatment on symptoms and different aspects of daily life experience, and after treatment to detect vulnerability for relapse. Moreover, ESM/EMA can potentially help determine how long and in what contexts medications are effective. Thus, ESM/EMA may benefit both researchers and clinicians and might prove to be an effective tool for improving the treatment of psychiatric patients.

  6. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay combined with ethidium monoazide treatment for RNA viruses and its application to detect viral RNA after heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, K; Katayama, H; Kitajima, M; Tohya, Y; Ohgaki, S

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for discriminating damaged viruses or naked viral RNA from intact viruses by ethidium monoazide (EMA) treatment before RT-PCR. The applied EMA treatment consisted of three steps: (1) EMA dose, (2) exposure to light, and (3) additional purification by spin-column gel filtration. Approximately 4-log reduction in viral RNA concentration was observed by adding a dose of 10 μg/mL-EMA with 300 s of light irradiation. Although residual EMA can be an inhibitor of RT-PCR, its effect was reduced by spin-column gel filtration or a QIAamp® Viral RNA Mini Kit. EMA-RT-PCR was applied to the thermally treated PV1. Results of EMA-RT-PCR were similar to the plaque assay when PV1 was thermally inactivated. Although this is a preliminary study investigating applicability of the EMA-RT-PCR method for RNA viruses, the results suggest that the method is potentially applicable for the selective detection of epidemiologically important enteric viruses in water such as enteroviruses and noroviruses.

  7. Kinematic Analysis of Lingual Movements during Consonant Productions in Dysarthric Speakers with Friedreich's Ataxia: A Case-by-Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folker, Joanne E.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Cahill, Louise M.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Corben, Louise A.; Vogel, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    Articulatory kinematics were investigated using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) in four dysarthric speakers with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Specifically, tongue-tip and tongue-back movements were recorded by the AG-200 EMA system during production of the consonants t and k as produced within a sentence utterance and during a rapid syllable…

  8. Safety of Electromagnetic Articulography in Patients with Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglar, Jose A.; Nguyen, Carol; Garst, Diane M.; Katz, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: "Electromagnetic articulography (EMA)" uses a helmet to create alternating magnetic fields for tracking speech articulator movement. An important safety consideration is whether EMA magnetic fields interfere with the operation of speakers' pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). In this investigation,…

  9. Properties of Ultra-Violet Cured Poly(diemthylsiloxane)-Urea Acrylates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    polycaprolactone) and polyol molecular weight on physical properties were evaluated. TDI/ hydroxyethyl methacrylate ( HEMA ) based samples were also...diluents. The reactive diluents or crosslinkers I. chosen were: ethyl methacrylate (EMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate ( HEMA ), butyl acrylate (BA...butylacrylate (BA), acrylic acid (AA), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), B- hydroxyethyl ’metthacrylate ( HEMA ), m~ethyl trethacrylate (MMA), and 4-vinylpyridine (4

  10. An algorithm for computing moments-based flood quantile estimates when historical flood information is available

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Baier, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record: information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.

  11. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  12. Tracking Cholesterol/Sphingomyelin-Rich Membrane Domains with the Ostreolysin A-mCherry Protein

    PubMed Central

    Skočaj, Matej; Resnik, Nataša; Grundner, Maja; Ota, Katja; Rojko, Nejc; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Sobota, Andrzej; Maček, Peter; Veranič, Peter; Sepčić, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Ostreolysin A (OlyA) is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry) labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II–Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1–positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell. PMID:24664106

  13. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by oridonin nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Dian-Rui; Tian, Ke-Li; Lou, Hai-Yan; Qi, Xiao-Li; Wang, Yan-Cai; Duan, Cun-Xian; Jia, Le-Jiao; Wang, Fei-Hu; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanism for anti-tumor activity of oridonin (ORI) nanosuspension, prepared by the high pressure homogenization method, was studied using MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells in vitro. MTT assay, observation of morphologic changes, flow cytometric analysis, and western blot analysis indicated that ORI nanosuspension could significantly intensify the in vitro anti-tumor activity to MCF-7 cells, as compared with ORI solution. Furthermore, ORI nanosuspension induced G₂/M stage proliferation arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells depending on its concentration. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that the pro-caspase-3 protein was not cleaved into the activated form and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein decreased, on the contrary, the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein increased in a dose-dependent manner in ORI nanosuspension-treated cells. These observations indicated that the anti-tumor activity of ORI nanosuspension was intensified by cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

  14. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  15. Turning points in the progression of obsessive relational intrusion and stalking.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Sai Sato; Cupach, William R

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the critical events defining the temporal progression of unwanted relationship pursuit. Retrospective interviews elicited the experiences of 42 victims of obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) and its extreme manifestation, stalking. Participants described turning points within their ORI experiences, and constructed graphs representing the progression of turning points over time in terms of changes in perceived severity. Inductive data analysis revealed 17 distinct turning point types. Some turning point types were associated with increases in ORI severity and others were associated with decreases. Five temporal trajectories of ORI progression also were identified. Results indicate that ORI does not necessarily progress along linear and continuous paths. Some findings support coping advice commonly given to victims of ORI and stalking.

  16. Antigliadin and antiendomysium antibody determination for coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bürgin-Wolff, A; Gaze, H; Hadziselimovic, F; Huber, H; Lentze, M J; Nusslé, D; Reymond-Berthet, C

    1991-01-01

    The value of IgG and IgA gliadin antibodies (AGA) was compared with that of IgA endomysium antibodies (EMA) for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Three hundred and six of 340 (90%) children with untreated coeliac disease (flat mucosa) had EMA and 338/340 (99.4%) had IgG AGA and/or IgA AGA. Only 1/340 (a 7 year old boy with selective IgA deficiency) had neither AGA nor EMA. Absence of EMA is more frequent in coeliac patients younger than 2 years than in older patients (32/277 compared with 1/62). EMA were present in 4/211 (2%) of comparison subjects (normal mucosa), IgA AGA in 12/211 (6%), and IgG AGA in 74/211 (35%). The specificity of AGA cannot be calculated from these figures as they are biased. The combined determination of AGA and EMA, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of AGA and the high specificity of EMA, gives an excellent prediction of the condition of the mucosa: 247/248 patients (99.6%) with positive EMA and positive IgG AGA and IgA AGA had a flat mucosa, whereas 136/137 patients (99.3%) with neither AGA nor EMA had a normal mucosa. During a gluten free diet EMA and AGA disappear. Their presence or absence is therefore an indicator of dietary compliance. After reintroduction of gluten into the diet 110/134 (82%) of the patients who had a flat mucosa at diagnosis relapsed, but 24/134 still had a normal mucosa after 2-15 years of challenge. All these patients without a morphological relapse were less than 2 years old at diagnosis so we conclude that patients who are young at diagnosis should be challenged. AGA often reappear earlier than EMA. After one month of challenge 93% of patients are AGA and 69% EMA positive. After more than three years of gluten intake the percentage of AGA positive patients decreased to about 50% whereas the percentage of EMA positive sera was then highest (93%). Therefore EMA are more sensitive for the detection of 'silent' relapse after prolonged periods of gluten intake. PMID:1819255

  17. Mobile Phone-Based Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment of Day-to-Day Mood: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Ejdys, Michal; Schrader, Niels; Sijbrandij, Marit; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a useful method to tap the dynamics of psychological and behavioral phenomena in real-world contexts. However, the response burden of (self-report) EMA limits its clinical utility. Objective The aim was to explore mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA, in which mobile phone usage logs are considered as proxy measures of clinically relevant user states and contexts. Methods This was an uncontrolled explorative pilot study. Our study consisted of 6 weeks of EMA/unobtrusive EMA data collection in a Dutch student population (N=33), followed by a regression modeling analysis. Participants self-monitored their mood on their mobile phone (EMA) with a one-dimensional mood measure (1 to 10) and a two-dimensional circumplex measure (arousal/valence, –2 to 2). Meanwhile, with participants’ consent, a mobile phone app unobtrusively collected (meta) data from six smartphone sensor logs (unobtrusive EMA: calls/short message service (SMS) text messages, screen time, application usage, accelerometer, and phone camera events). Through forward stepwise regression (FSR), we built personalized regression models from the unobtrusive EMA variables to predict day-to-day variation in EMA mood ratings. The predictive performance of these models (ie, cross-validated mean squared error and percentage of correct predictions) was compared to naive benchmark regression models (the mean model and a lag-2 history model). Results A total of 27 participants (81%) provided a mean 35.5 days (SD 3.8) of valid EMA/unobtrusive EMA data. The FSR models accurately predicted 55% to 76% of EMA mood scores. However, the predictive performance of these models was significantly inferior to that of naive benchmark models. Conclusions Mobile phone-based unobtrusive EMA is a technically feasible and potentially powerful EMA variant. The method is young and positive findings may not replicate. At present, we do not recommend the application of FSR-based mood

  18. Fitting-determined formulation of effective medium approximation for 3D trench structures in model-based infrared reflectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong

    2011-02-01

    The success of the model-based infrared reflectrometry (MBIR) technique relies heavily on accurate modeling and fast calculation of the infrared metrology process, which continues to be a challenge, especially for three-dimensional (3D) trench structures. In this paper, we present a simplified formulation for effective medium approximation (EMA), determined by a fitting-based method for the modeling of 3D trench structures. Intensive investigations have been performed with an emphasis on the generality of the fitting-determined (FD)-EMA formulation in terms of trench depth, trench pitch, and incidence angle so that its application is not limited to a particular configuration. Simulations conducted on a taper trench structure have further verified the proposed FD-EMA and demonstrated that the MBIR metrology with the FD-EMA-based model achieves an accuracy one order higher than that of the conventional zeroth-order EMA-based model.

  19. 'I Got it off my Chest': An Examination of how Research Participation Improved the Mental Health of Women Engaging in Transactional Sex.

    PubMed

    Felsher, Marisa; Wiehe, Sarah E; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Roth, Alexis M

    2017-02-02

    Ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) is a form of close-ended diary writing. While it has been shown that participating in a study that incorporates EMA improves mental health of participants, no study to date has examined the pathways through which benefits may occur. For 4-weeks, twice-daily EMAs and weekly interviews captured mood, daily activities and HIV risk behavior of 25 women who engage in transactional sex. Qualitative analysis of exit interviews was performed to examine how participation impacted women's mental health. The majority of participants felt that EMAs heightened awareness of emotions and behavior. Most reported experiencing catharsis from the interviews; specifically, from having a non-judgmental, trusting listener. Participants felt responsible for completing tasks, a sense of accomplishment for completing the study, and altruism. This study demonstrates there are direct benefits associated with participation in an EMA and interview study.

  20. Replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I in Escherichia coli: dependence on dam methylation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Birgit; Ma, Xiaofang; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2010-08-01

    We successfully substituted Escherichia coli's origin of replication oriC with the origin region of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I (oriCI(Vc)). Replication from oriCI(Vc) initiated at a similar or slightly reduced cell mass compared to that of normal E. coli oriC. With respect to sequestration-dependent synchrony of initiation and stimulation of initiation by the loss of Hda activity, replication initiation from oriC and oriCI(Vc) were similar. Since Hda is involved in the conversion of DnaA(ATP) (DnaA bound to ATP) to DnaA(ADP) (DnaA bound to ADP), this indicates that DnaA associated with ATP is limiting for V. cholerae chromosome I replication, which similar to what is observed for E. coli. No hda homologue has been identified in V. cholerae yet. In V. cholerae, dam is essential for viability, whereas in E. coli, dam mutants are viable. Replacement of E. coli oriC with oriCI(Vc) allowed us to specifically address the role of the Dam methyltransferase and SeqA in replication initiation from oriCI(Vc). We show that when E. coli's origin of replication is substituted by oriCI(Vc), dam, but not seqA, becomes important for growth, arguing that Dam methylation exerts a critical function at the origin of replication itself. We propose that Dam methylation promotes DnaA-assisted successful duplex opening and replisome assembly at oriCI(Vc) in E. coli. In this model, methylation at oriCI(Vc) would ease DNA melting. This is supported by the fact that the requirement for dam can be alleviated by increasing negative supercoiling of the chromosome through oversupply of the DNA gyrase or loss of SeqA activity.

  1. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  2. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  3. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  4. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  5. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  6. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  7. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  8. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  9. Unique and Universal Features of Epsilonproteobacterial Origins of Chromosome Replication and DnaA-DnaA Box Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Pawel; Donczew, Rafal; Mielke, Thorsten; Thiel, Marcel; Oldziej, Stanislaw; Weigel, Christoph; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, chromosome replication is initiated by the interaction of the initiator protein DnaA with a defined region of a chromosome at which DNA replication starts (oriC). While DnaA proteins share significant homology regardless of phylogeny, oriC regions exhibit more variable structures. The general architecture of oriCs is universal, i.e., they are composed of a cluster of DnaA binding sites, a DNA-unwinding element, and sequences that bind regulatory proteins. However, detailed structures of oriCs are shared by related species while being significantly different in unrelated bacteria. In this work, we characterized Epsilonproteobacterial oriC regions. Helicobacter pylori was the only species of the class for which oriC was characterized. A few unique features were found such as bipartite oriC structure, not encountered in any other Gram-negative species, and topology-sensitive DnaA-DNA interactions, which have not been found in any other bacterium. These unusual H. pylori oriC features raised questions of whether oriC structure and DnaA-DNA interactions are unique to this bacterium or whether they are common to related species. By in silico and in vitro analyses we identified putative oriCs in three Epsilonproteobacterial species: pathogenic Arcobacter butzleri, symbiotic Wolinella succinogenes, and free-living Sulfurimonas denitrificans. We propose that oriCs typically co-localize with ruvC-dnaA-dnaN in Epsilonproteobacteria, with the exception of Helicobacteriaceae species. The clusters of DnaA boxes localize upstream (oriC1) and downstream (oriC2) of dnaA, and they likely constitute bipartite origins. In all cases, DNA unwinding was shown to occur in oriC2. Unlike the DnaA box pattern, which is not conserved in Epsilonproteobacterial oriCs, the consensus DnaA box sequences and the mode of DnaA-DnaA box interactions are common to the class. We propose that the typical Epsilonproteobacterial DnaA box consists of the core nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCAC-3

  10. The Mira Variable S Orionis: Relationships Between the Photosphere, Molecular Layer, Dust Shell, and SiO Maser Shell at 4 Epochs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the stellar minimum, and the later epochs shortly after the following stellar maximum. 2. Lightcurve and characteristics of S Ori S Ori is a Mira...453 190 days. Figure 1 shows the visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stellar phase based on these values. Also indicated are...phase MIDI observations VLBA observations Epoch A B C D AAVSO AFOEV b. Fig. 1. Visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stel- lar cycle

  11. Differential Fee: From Conceptualisation to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Todd C. Y.; Wong, Andrew L. S.

    A differential fee policy was adopted at the Open Learning Institute (OLI) of Hong Kong after a process of conceptualization, planning, proposal, approval and implementation. Under the differential fee policy different tuition rates were charged for different courses. The differential fee policy was conceptualized at OLI based on economics,…

  12. From School-Culture-to-Family-Culture: Reflections on Four Generations of a Deweyan Education in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makaiau, Amber Strong

    2015-01-01

    In 1918, the author's great great aunt, Sophie Judd Cooke founded a small progressive school in Honolulu. Her brother Henry named it Hanahau'oli School, which means joyful work school. In this essay the author's mother, Linda Summers Strong and the author reflect on the impact of Hanahau'oli School's Deweyan approach to education on the…

  13. Regulation of locomotion and motoneuron trajectory selection and targeting by the Drosophila homolog of Olig family transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Oyallon, Justine; Apitz, Holger; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Timofeev, Katarina; Ferreira, Lauren; Salecker, Iris

    2012-01-01

    During the development of locomotion circuits it is essential that motoneurons with distinct subtype identities select the correct trajectories and target muscles. In vertebrates, the generation of motoneurons and myelinating glia depends on Olig2, one of the five Olig family bHLH transcription factors. We investigated the so far unknown function of the single Drosophila homolog Oli. Combining behavioral and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that oli is not required for gliogenesis, but plays pivotal roles in regulating larval and adult locomotion, and axon pathfinding and targeting of embryonic motoneurons. In the embryonic nervous system, Oli is primarily expressed in postmitotic progeny, and in particular, in distinct ventral motoneuron subtypes. oli mediates axonal trajectory selection of these motoneurons within the ventral nerve cord and targeting to specific muscles. Genetic interaction assays suggest that oli acts as part of a conserved transcription factor ensemble including Lim3, Islet and Hb9. Moreover, oli is expressed in postembryonic leg-innervating motoneuron lineages and required in glutamatergic neurons for walking. Finally, over-expression of vertebrate Olig2 partially rescues the walking defects of oli-deficient flies. Thus, our findings reveal a remarkably conserved role of Drosophila Oli and vertebrate family members in regulating motoneuron development, while the steps that require their function differ in detail. PMID:22796650

  14. Evaluating Radiometric Sensitivity of LandSat 8 Over Coastal-Inland Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Wei, Jian-Wei; Shaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8 was launched in February 2013 to continue the Landsat's mission of monitoring earth resources at relatively high spatial resolution. Compared to Landsat heritage sensors, OLI has an additional 443-nm band (termed coastal/aerosol (CA) band), which extends its potential for mapping/monitoring water quality in coastal/inland waters. In addition, OLI's pushbroom design allows for longer integration time and, as a result, higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a series of radiative transfer simulations, we provide insights into the radiometric sensitivity of OLI when studying coastal/inland waters. This will address how the changes in water constituents manifest at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and whether the changes are resolvable at TOA (focal plane) relative to OLI's overall noise.

  15. Feasibility and Performance Test of a Real-Time Sensor-Informed Context-Sensitive Ecological Momentary Assessment to Capture Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dzubur, Eldin; Intille, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Objective physical activity monitors (eg, accelerometers) have high rates of nonwear and do not provide contextual information about behavior. Objective This study tested performance and value of a mobile phone app that combined objective and real-time self-report methods to measure physical activity using sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA). Methods The app was programmed to prompt CS-EMA surveys immediately after 3 types of events detected by the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor: (1) Activity (ie, mobile phone movement), (2) No-Activity (ie, mobile phone nonmovement), and (3) No-Data (ie, mobile phone or app powered off). In addition, the app triggered random (ie, signal-contingent) ecological momentary assessment (R-EMA) prompts (up to 7 per day). A sample of 39 ethnically diverse high school students in the United States (aged 14-18, 54% female) tested the app over 14 continuous days during nonschool time. Both CS-EMA and R-EMA prompts assessed activity type (eg, reading or doing homework, eating or drinking, sports or exercising) and contextual characteristics of the activity (eg, location, social company, purpose). Activity was also measured with a waist-worn Actigraph accelerometer. Results The average CS-EMA + R-EMA prompt compliance and survey completion rates were 80.5% and 98.5%, respectively. More moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was recorded by the waist-worn accelerometer in the 30 minutes before CS-EMA activity prompts (M=5.84 minutes) than CS-EMA No-Activity (M=1.11 minutes) and CS-EMA No-Data (M=0.76 minute) prompts (P’s<.001). Participants were almost 5 times as likely to report going somewhere (ie, active or motorized transit) in the 30 minutes before CS-EMA Activity than R-EMA prompts (odds ratio=4.91, 95% confidence interval=2.16-11.12). Conclusions Mobile phone apps using motion sensor–informed CS-EMA are acceptable among high school students and may be used to

  16. Specific detection of viable Legionella cells by combined use of photoactivated ethidium monoazide and PCR/real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Sugiyama, Kanji; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Legionella organisms are prevalent in manmade water systems and cause legionellosis in humans. A rapid detection method for viable Legionella cells combining ethidium monoazide (EMA) and PCR/real-time PCR was assessed. EMA could specifically intercalate and cleave the genomic DNA of heat- and chlorine-treated dead Legionella cells. The EMA-PCR assay clearly showed an amplified fragment specific for Legionella DNA from viable cells, but it could not do so for DNA from dead cells. The number of EMA-treated dead Legionella cells estimated by real-time PCR exhibited a 10(4)- to 10(5)-fold decrease compared to the number of dead Legionella cells without EMA treatment. Conversely, no significant difference in the numbers of EMA-treated and untreated viable Legionella cells was detected by the real-time PCR assay. The combined assay was also confirmed to be useful for specific detection of culturable Legionella cells from water samples obtained from spas. Therefore, the combined use of EMA and PCR/real-time PCR detects viable Legionella cells rapidly and specifically and may be useful in environmental surveillance for Legionella.

  17. Microwave ablation versus laser ablation in occluding lateral veins in goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-hong; Wang, Xiao-ping; Su, Wen-juan; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Increasing number of endovenous techniques are available for the treatment of saphenous vein reflux and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a frequently used method. A newly developed alternative, based on thermal therapy, is endovenous microwave ablation (EMA). This study evaluated the effect of the two procedures, in terms of coagulation and histological changes, in occluding lateral veins in goats. Twelve animals were randomized into two group, with 6 treated with EMA (EMA group), and the rest 6 with EVLA (EVLA group). Results of coagulation, including coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation, were assessed at three or four different time points: before, immediately after, 24 h (and 48 h) after ablation. The diameter change, a measure of efficacy, was ultrasonographically measured before and 1 month after the ablation. Histological changes were grossly and microscopically evaluated immediately, 1 and 3 month(s) after the ablation. The length of the ablated vein and preoperative average diameter were comparable between the two groups. In both EMA and EVLA groups, several coagulation parameters, fibrinolysis and platelet activation parameters only underwent slight changes. Ultrasound imaging displayed that the diameter reduction of the veins treated by EMA was significantly larger than by EVLA, in consistent with the results of macroscopic examination. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis and thickening of the vein wall, and occlusion of the lumen within 3 months after ablation in both EMA and EVLA groups. It is concluded that EMA is a minimally invasive therapy, which appears to be safe and effective for treatment of lateral veins in goats.

  18. Effects of engineered application of Eichhornia crassipes on the benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in Lake Dianchi, an ultra-eutrophic lake in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Junqian; Guo, Junyao; Li, Enhua; Wang, Xuelei; Liu, Haiqin; Yan, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    An ecological engineering project with confined growth of 1.5 km(2) of Eichhornia crassipes was implemented to remove pollutants in Lake Dianchi. To assess the ecological effects of this project on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, a 1-year investigation at the areas inside and outside E. crassipes mats was conducted from May 2013 to May 2014. All the 10 sampling sites in the areas were grouped into two statistically significant clusters mainly corresponding to inside and outside E. crassipes mat areas (EMAs), by clustering analysis. E. crassipes reduced the densities of pollution indicator taxa (e.g., Oligochaeta and Chironomidae larvae); thus, the total densities of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs (mean 328.2 ind./m(2)) were slightly lower than that at the area outside EMAs (mean 505.6 ind./m(2)). Four functional feeding groups including 38 species of benthic macroinvertebrates were collected at the area inside EMAs, while only three functional feeding groups containing 17 species were collected at the area outside EMAs. The biodiversity indices (Shannon-Weiner, Margalef, Simpson, and Peilou indices) and K-dominance curves also showed higher diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates at the area inside EMAs than at the area outside EMAs. These results suggested that a certain scale of engineering application of E. crassipes was beneficial to benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the ultra-eutrophic Lake Dianchi and it could be used as a pioneer species in ultra-eutrophic lake for pollutant removal.

  19. Detection of tumor cells in body cavity fluids by flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Awtar; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Jorda, Merce; Hamelik, Ronald M; Reis, Isildinha M; Nadji, Mehrdad

    2006-08-01

    Measurement of electronic volume versus DNA content of nuclei can be used to discriminate between normal and malignant cells. Epithelial membrane antigen immunocytochemistry (EMA-ICC), a helpful ancillary test in body cavity fluids, is not universally accurate for detecting malignancy in effusions. The current study was undertaken to determine if multiparametric flow cytometry (based on simultaneous analysis of light scatter, nuclear volume, DNA, and nuclear protein content) in combination with (EMA-ICC) could be used for the detection of malignant cells in peritoneal and pleural fluids. We studied 130 body cavity fluids (68 peritoneal and 62 pleural fluids) by conventional cytology and multiparametric laser flow cytometry. EMA-ICC was performed using EMA antibodies and L-SAB detection system (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA). EMA-ICC had significantly higher sensitivity than conventional cytology (79% versus 59%, P = 0.016) and ploidy (79% versus 38%, P = 0.001). Cytology had significantly higher specificity than ploidy (97% versus 82%, P = 0.012). The differences in specificity between EMA-ICC and ploidy (87% versus 82%, P= 0.607) or EMA-ICC and cytology (87% versus 97%, P = 0.109) were not statistically significant. However, assuming serial testing, sensitivity increased significantly for the combinations of cytology and EMA-ICC (79.4%, P = 0.016) and cytology and ploidy (73.5%, P = 0.004) as compared to cytology alone (58.8%). Also, the combination of cytology and ploidy had a higher sensitivity than ploidy alone (73% versus 38%, P < 0.0001). However, the sensitivity associated with the three tests used in serial (85.3%) was not significantly different from the sensitivities corresponding to the combination of cytology and EMA-ICC (79%) or cytology and ploidy (73%). Multiparametric flow cytometry utilizing high resolution DNA, nuclear volume, protein measurement, and ICC, in combina